NEWS
author haftmann
Fri Jun 19 07:53:35 2015 +0200 (2015-06-19)
changeset 60517 f16e4fb20652
parent 60516 0826b7025d07
child 60525 278b65d9339c
permissions -rw-r--r--
separate class for notions specific for integral (semi)domains, in contrast to fields where these are trivial
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** Isar ***
    11 
    12 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
    13 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
    14 
    15 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
    16 parameter scope for of each clause.
    17 
    18 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
    19 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
    20 
    21 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured
    22 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
    23 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' and 'for'. For example:
    24 
    25   have result: "C x y"
    26     if "A x" and "B y"
    27     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
    28     <proof>
    29 
    30 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
    31 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
    32 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
    33 
    34   {
    35     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
    36     assume that: "A x" "B y"
    37     have "C x y" <proof>
    38   }
    39   note result = this
    40 
    41 * New command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
    42 ('apply' scripts).
    43 
    44 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
    45 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
    46 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
    47 of the local context elements yet.
    48 
    49 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
    50 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
    51 
    52   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
    53   then have something
    54   proof cases
    55     case a
    56     then show ?thesis <proof>
    57   next
    58     case b
    59     then show ?thesis <proof>
    60   next
    61     case c
    62     then show ?thesis <proof>
    63   qed
    64 
    65 
    66 *** Pure ***
    67 
    68 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
    69 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
    70 
    71 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
    72 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    73 
    74 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint.
    75 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour
    76 has been exploited previously.
    77 
    78 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
    79 operations behave more similar to abbreviations.  Potential
    80 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
    81 
    82 
    83 *** HOL ***
    84 
    85 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    86 
    87 * Sledgehammer:
    88   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
    89     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
    90   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
    91 
    92 * Nitpick:
    93   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
    94 
    95 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors.  Slight
    96 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    97 
    98 * Class algebraic_semidom introduced common algebraic notions of
    99 integral (semi)domains like units and associated elements.  Although
   100 logically subsumed by fields, is is not a super class of these
   101 in order not to burden fields with notions that are trivial there.
   102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _)
   105 are logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class
   106 Rings.divide, with infix syntax (_ div _).  Infix syntax (_ / _)
   107 for field division is added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse.
   108 INCOMPATIBILITY,  instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather
   109 than the former separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually
   110 not available during instantiation.
   111 
   112 * Library/Multiset:
   113   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
   114       < ~> <#
   115       \<subset> ~> \<subset>#
   116       <= ~> <=#
   117       \<le> ~> \<le>#
   118       \<subseteq> ~> \<subseteq>#
   119     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   120   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
   121     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
   122     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
   123     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
   124     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
   125     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
   126     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   127   - Renamed conversions:
   128       multiset_of ~> mset
   129       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
   130       set_of ~> set_mset
   131     INCOMPATIBILITY
   132   - Renamed lemmas:
   133       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
   134       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
   135       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
   136     INCOMPATIBILITY
   137   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
   138     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp less_eq_multiset.transfer
   139     less_eq_multiset_def
   140     INCOMPATIBILITY
   141 
   142 
   143 
   144 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
   145 ------------------------------
   146 
   147 *** General ***
   148 
   149 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
   150 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
   151 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
   152 
   153   context
   154   begin
   155 
   156   private definition ...
   157   private lemma ...
   158 
   159   qualified definition ...
   160   qualified lemma ...
   161 
   162   lemma ...
   163   theorem ...
   164 
   165   end
   166 
   167 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
   168 naming policy.
   169 
   170 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
   171 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
   172 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
   173 
   174 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
   175 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
   176 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
   177 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
   178 
   179 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
   180 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
   181 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
   182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
   185 theory context.
   186 
   187 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
   188 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
   189 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
   190 
   191 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
   192 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
   193 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
   194 sources.
   195 
   196 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
   197 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
   198 
   199 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
   200 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
   201 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
   202 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
   203 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
   204 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
   205 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
   206 
   207 
   208 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   209 
   210 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
   211 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
   212 
   213 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
   214 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
   215 in the buffer.
   216 
   217 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
   218 marker, SideKick parser.
   219 
   220 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
   221 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
   222 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
   223 
   224 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
   225 Options / Text Area).
   226 
   227 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
   228 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
   229 
   230 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   231 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   232 
   233 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   234 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   235 
   236 
   237 *** Document preparation ***
   238 
   239 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   240 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   241 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   242 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   243 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   244 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   245 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   246 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   249 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   250 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   251 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   252 
   253 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   254 style.
   255 
   256 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   257 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   258 
   259 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   260 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   261 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   262 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   263 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   264 
   265 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   266 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   267 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   268 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   269 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   270 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   271 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
   274 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
   275 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
   276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 
   279 *** Pure ***
   280 
   281 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   282 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   283 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   284 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   285 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   286 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   287 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   288 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   289 
   290 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   291 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   292 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   293 
   294 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   295 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   296 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   297 different index.
   298 
   299 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   300 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   301 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   302 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   303 
   304 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   305 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   306 token category instead.
   307 
   308 
   309 *** HOL ***
   310 
   311 * New (co)datatype package:
   312   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   313     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   314     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   315     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   316     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317   - Renamed theorems:
   318       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   319       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   320       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   321       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   322       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   323       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   324       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   325       sel_map ~> map_sel
   326       sel_set ~> set_sel
   327       sel_split ~> split_sel
   328       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   329       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   330       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   331     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   332   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   333     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   336     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   337     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   339     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   340     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   341     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   342     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   343     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   344     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345   - Renamed theories:
   346       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   347       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   348       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   349       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   350       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   351       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   352     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   354     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   355     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   356     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   357     rel_sum (using inductive).
   358     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   359     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   360     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   361     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   362   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
   363     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
   364     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
   365     rules.
   366 
   367 * Old datatype package:
   368   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   369     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   370     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   371     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   372     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   373   - Renamed theorems:
   374       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   375     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376   - Renamed theory:
   377       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   378     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * Nitpick:
   381   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   382     operations.
   383 
   384 * Sledgehammer:
   385   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   386     default.
   387   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   388     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   389   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   390     Removed sub-command:
   391       min
   392   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   393     dramatically improved.
   394   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   395 
   396 * Old and new SMT modules:
   397   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   398     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   399     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   400     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   401     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   402     point to it.
   403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   405     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   407     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   408   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   409     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   410 
   411 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
   412 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
   413 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
   414 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
   415 
   416 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   417 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   418 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   421 
   422 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   423 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   424 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   425 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   428 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   432 
   433 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   434 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   435 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   438 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
   441 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
   442 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
   443 
   444 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   445 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   446 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   447 needed.
   448 
   449 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   450 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   451 
   452 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   453 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   454 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   455 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   456 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   457 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   458 
   459 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   460 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   461 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   462 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   463 
   464 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   465 type class hierarchy:
   466   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   467   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   468   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   469   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   470 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   471 
   472 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   473   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   474   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   475 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   476 
   477 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   478 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   479 
   480 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   481   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   482   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   483   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   484 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   487 and part of theory Main.
   488   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   495 Fact rename:
   496     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   498 
   499 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   500 
   501 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   502 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   503 
   504 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   505 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   506 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   507 
   508 * Library/Multiset:
   509   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   510   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   511     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   512   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   513       <# ~> #<#
   514       <=# ~> #<=#
   515       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   516       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   517     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   518   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   519       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   520       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   521     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   522   - Renamed
   523       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   524       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   525       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   526     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   528   - Added attributes:
   529       image_mset.id [simp]
   530       image_mset_id [simp]
   531       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   532       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   533       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   534       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   535       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   536       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   537     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   540 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   541 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   542 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   543 
   544 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   545 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   546 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   547 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   548 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   549 examples.
   550 
   551 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   552   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   553   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   554   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   555     projection
   556 
   557 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   558 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   559 
   560 
   561 *** ML ***
   562 
   563 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   564 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   565 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   566 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   567 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   568 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   569 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   570 
   571 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
   572 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
   573 
   574 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   575 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   576 
   577 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   579 
   580 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   581 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   582 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   583 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   585 nested.
   586 
   587 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   588 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   591 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   592 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   594 
   595 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   596 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   597 Thm.term_of etc.
   598 
   599 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   600 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   601 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   604 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   605 
   606 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   607 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   608 
   609 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   610 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   611 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   614 Input.source (with formal position information).
   615 
   616 
   617 *** System ***
   618 
   619 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   620 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   621 
   622 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
   623 
   624 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   625 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   626 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   627 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   631 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   632 
   633 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   634 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   635 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   636 
   637 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   638 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   639 
   640 
   641 
   642 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   643 ---------------------------------
   644 
   645 *** General ***
   646 
   647 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   648 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   649 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   650 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   651 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   652 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   653 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   654 some examples.
   655 
   656 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   657 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   658 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   659 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   660 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   661 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   662 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   663 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   664 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   665 
   666 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   667 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   668 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   669 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   670 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   671 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   672 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   673 proof tools.
   674 
   675 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   676 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   677 supports input via ` (backquote).
   678 
   679 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   680 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   681 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   682 
   683 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   684 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   685 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   686 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   689 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   690 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   694 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   695 
   696 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   697 not check existence within the file-system.
   698 
   699 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   700 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   701 
   702 
   703 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   704 
   705 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   706 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   707 buffer.
   708 
   709 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   710 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   711 
   712 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   713 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   714 
   715 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   716 auxiliary ML files.
   717 
   718 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   719 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   720 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   721 
   722 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   723 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   724 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   725 
   726 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   727 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   728 
   729 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   730 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   731 caret".
   732 
   733 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   734 completion popup and context-menu.
   735 
   736 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   737 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   738 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   739 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   740 
   741 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   742 to highlight text via regular expression.
   743 
   744 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   745 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   746 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   747 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   748 
   749 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   750 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   751 
   752 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   753 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   754 
   755 * Improved monitor panel.
   756 
   757 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   758 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   759 
   760 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   761 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   762 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   763 
   764 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   765 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   766 within the context.
   767 
   768 
   769 *** Pure ***
   770 
   771 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   772 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   773 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   774 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   775 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   776 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   777 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   778 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   779 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   780 
   781 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   782 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   783 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   784 renaming needs to be applied:
   785 
   786   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   787   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   788   all            ~>  Pure.all
   789   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   790   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   791 
   792 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   793 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   794 old constants:
   795 
   796 setup {*
   797   fn thy => thy
   798     |> Sign.root_path
   799     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   800     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   801     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   802     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   803 *}
   804 
   805 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   806 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   807 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   808 
   809 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   810 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   811 instantiated theorem.
   812 
   813 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   814 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   815 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   816 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   817 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   818 
   819   attribute_setup standard =
   820     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   821 
   822 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   823 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   824 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   825 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   826 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   827 
   828 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   829 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   830 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   831 
   832 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   833 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   834 
   835 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   836 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   837 
   838 
   839 *** HOL ***
   840 
   841 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   842 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   851 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   857 with the given constants.
   858 
   859 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   860 operations on records.
   861 
   862 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   863 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   868 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   869 
   870 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   871 
   872 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   873 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   874 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   875 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   876 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   879 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   882   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   883   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   884   part of theory "Main".
   885 
   886   Theory renamings:
   887     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   888     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   889     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   890     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   891     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   892     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   893     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   894     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   895     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   896     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   897     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   898     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   899     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   900     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   901     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   902     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   903     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   904     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   905     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   906     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   907     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   908     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   909 
   910   New theories:
   911     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   912     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   913     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   914     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   915     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   916 
   917   Discontinued theories:
   918     BNF/BNF.thy
   919     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   920 
   921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   922 
   923 * New (co)datatype package:
   924   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   925   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   926     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   927   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   928     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   929   - Renamed commands:
   930       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   931       primrec_new ~> primrec
   932       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   933     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   935     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   936     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   937   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   938     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   939     using "prim(co)rec".
   940     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   942     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   943     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   945     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   946     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   947     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948 
   949 * Old datatype package:
   950   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   951     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   952     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   954     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   955     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   958   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   959   BNF-based datatype package.
   960 
   961   Renamed constants:
   962     Option.set ~> set_option
   963     Option.map ~> map_option
   964     option_rel ~> rel_option
   965 
   966   Renamed theorems:
   967     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   968     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   969     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   970     option.recs ~> option.rec
   971     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   972     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   973     map.simps ~> list.map
   974     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   975     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   976     the.simps ~> option.sel
   977 
   978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   981     sum_map ~> map_sum
   982     map_pair ~> map_prod
   983     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   984     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   985     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   986     set_rel ~> rel_set
   987     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   988     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   989     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   990     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   991 
   992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Lifting and Transfer:
   995   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   996   - stronger reflexivity prover
   997   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   998   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   999     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  1000     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  1001       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  1002       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  1003       automatically
  1004     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  1005     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  1006       automatically for datatypes
  1007   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  1008     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  1009       more
  1010       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  1012       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  1013       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  1015       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  1016       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1017   - registration of code equations is more robust
  1018     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  1020     form
  1021     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  1023     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1024   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  1025     Code_Numeral.natural
  1026     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  1028     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1029 
  1030 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  1031 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  1032 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  1033 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  1034 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  1035 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  1036 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  1039 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  1040 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  1041 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  1042 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  1043 
  1044 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  1045 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  1046 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  1047 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  1048 
  1049 * Sledgehammer:
  1050   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  1051   - MaSh overhaul:
  1052     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  1053       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  1054     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  1055       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  1056       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  1057       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  1058   - New option:
  1059       smt_proofs
  1060   - Renamed options:
  1061       isar_compress ~> compress
  1062       isar_try0 ~> try0
  1063 
  1064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1065 
  1066 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  1067 
  1068 * Nitpick:
  1069   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  1070     take infinite values.
  1071   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  1072     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  1073   - Removed "std" option.
  1074   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  1075     "hide_types".
  1076 
  1077 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  1078 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079 
  1080 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  1081 
  1082 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  1083   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  1084   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  1085     SUP instead uniformly.
  1086   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  1087     or SUP and Sup.
  1088   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  1089   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  1090   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  1091     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  1092     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  1093 
  1094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  1097 
  1098 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  1099 
  1100   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1101   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1102   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1103   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1104 
  1105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  1108 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  1109 
  1110 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  1111 
  1112     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  1113     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  1114     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  1115     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  1116     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  1117     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  1118     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  1119     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  1120     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  1121     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  1122     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  1123     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  1124     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  1125     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  1126     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1127     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1128     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  1129     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  1130     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  1131     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  1132     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  1133     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  1134     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  1135     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  1136     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  1137     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  1138     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  1139     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  1140     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  1141     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  1142     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  1143     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  1144     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1145     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1146     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1147     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1148     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1149     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1150     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1151     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1152     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1153     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1154     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1155     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1156     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1157     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1158     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1159     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1160     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1161     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1162     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1163     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1164     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1165     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1166     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1167     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1168     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1169     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1170     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1171 
  1172   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1173   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1174   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1175     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1176 
  1177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1178 
  1179 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1180 
  1181   Fact consolidations:
  1182     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1183     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1184     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1185     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1186     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1187     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1188     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1189     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1190     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1191     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1192     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1193     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1194     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1195     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1196     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1197     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1198     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1199     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1200     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1201     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1202     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1203     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1204     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1205     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1206     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1207     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1208     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1209     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1210     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1211     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1212     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1213     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1214     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1215     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1216     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1217     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1218     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1219     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1220     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1221     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1222 
  1223 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1224 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1225 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1226 
  1227 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1228 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1229 
  1230 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1231 
  1232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1233 
  1234 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1235 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1236 
  1237 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1241     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1242 
  1243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1244 
  1245 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1246   consolidation:
  1247     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1248     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1249 
  1250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1253   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1254   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1255   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1256     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1257   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1258     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1259   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1260 
  1261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1264 
  1265     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1266     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1267     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1268     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1269     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1270     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1271     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1272     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1273     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1274     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1275     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1276     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1277     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1278 
  1279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1282 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1283 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1284 
  1285 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1286     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1287     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1288     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1289     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1290 
  1291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 * Fact name consolidation:
  1294     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1295     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1296     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1297     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1298     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1299 
  1300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1303 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1304 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1305 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1306 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1307 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1308 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1310 
  1311 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1312 
  1313 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1314 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1315 
  1316 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1317 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1318 
  1319 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1320 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1321 or the brute way with
  1322 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1323 
  1324 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1325 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1326 stating boundedness of sets.
  1327 
  1328 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1329 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1330 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1333   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1334   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1335   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1336   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1337   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1338   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1339   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1340   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1341   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1342   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1343   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1344 
  1345   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1346 
  1347   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1348 
  1349     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1350     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1351     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1352     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1353     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1354 
  1355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1358   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1359 
  1360   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1361 
  1362   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1363 
  1364   - removed constant isDiff
  1365 
  1366   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1367     input syntax.
  1368 
  1369   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1370 
  1371   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1372 
  1373   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1374 
  1375   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1376 
  1377   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1378     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1379     has_vector_derivative.
  1380 
  1381   - Other renamings:
  1382     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1383     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1384     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1385     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1386     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1387     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1388     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1389 
  1390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1391 
  1392 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1393 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1394 in continuous_intros.
  1395 
  1396 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1397 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1398 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1399 
  1400 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1401 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1402 especially removes
  1403 
  1404     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1405 
  1406 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1407     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1408 
  1409 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1410 
  1411   Renamings:
  1412     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1413     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1414     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1415     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1416     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1417     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1418     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1419     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1420     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1421     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1422     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1423     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1424 
  1425     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1426     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1427     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1428 
  1429   Removed theorems:
  1430     complex_zero_def
  1431     complex_add_def
  1432     complex_minus_def
  1433     complex_diff_def
  1434     complex_one_def
  1435     complex_mult_def
  1436     complex_inverse_def
  1437     complex_scaleR_def
  1438 
  1439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1442 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1445 
  1446 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1447 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1448 
  1449 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1450 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1451 
  1452 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1453 
  1454 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * HOL-Word:
  1458   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1459     of "word_arith_wis".
  1460   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1461     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1462     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1463 
  1464 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1465   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1466   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1467   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1468     (except the AFP)
  1469 
  1470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1471 
  1472 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1473   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1474   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1475     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1476   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1477     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1478     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1479     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1480     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1481     intervals.
  1482   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1483     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1484     - renamed theorems:
  1485         interval ~> box
  1486         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1487         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1488         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1489         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1490         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1491         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1492         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1493         open_interval ~> open_box
  1494         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1495         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1496         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1497         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1498         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1499         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1500         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1501         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1502         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1503         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1504         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1505         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1506         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1507         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1508         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1509         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1510         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1511         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1512         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1513         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1514         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1515         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1516         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1517         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1518 
  1519     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1520         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1521         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1522         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1523         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1524         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1525         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1526         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1527         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1528         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1529         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1530         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1531         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1532         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1533         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1534         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1535         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1536         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1537 
  1538   - renamed theorems:
  1539     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1540     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1541     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1542 
  1543 * HOL-Probability:
  1544   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1545 
  1546     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1547       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1548 
  1549     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1550 
  1551   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1552     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1553 
  1554     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1555     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1556     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1557     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1558     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1559     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1560     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1561     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1562     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1563     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1564     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1565     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1566     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1567     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1568     integral_indicator          ~>
  1569          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1570     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1571     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1572     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1573 
  1574     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1575          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1576 
  1577     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1578          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1579 
  1580     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1581          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1582 
  1583     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1584          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1585          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1586 
  1587     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1588          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1589 
  1590     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1591          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1592 
  1593     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1594          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1595          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1596 
  1597     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1598          nn_integral_real_affine
  1599 
  1600     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1601          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1602 
  1603     The following theorems where removed:
  1604 
  1605     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1606     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1607     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1608     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1609     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1610     integral_cmul_indicator
  1611     integral_real
  1612 
  1613   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1614     distributed random variables.
  1615 
  1616 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1617 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 
  1621 *** Scala ***
  1622 
  1623 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1624 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1625 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1626 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1627 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1630 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 
  1633 *** ML ***
  1634 
  1635 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1636 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1637 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1638 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1639 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1640 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1641 
  1642 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1643 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1644 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1645 actually belongs to it).
  1646 
  1647 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1648 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1649 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1650 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1651 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1652 of schematic variables.
  1653 
  1654 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1655 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1658 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1659 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1660 
  1661 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1663 
  1664 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1665 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1666 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1668 
  1669 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1670 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1672 formal context.
  1673 
  1674 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1675 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1678 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1679 
  1680 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1681 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1682 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1683 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1684 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1685 
  1686 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1687 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1688 purposes.
  1689 
  1690 
  1691 *** System ***
  1692 
  1693 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1694 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1695 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1696 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1697 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1698 
  1699 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1700 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1701 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1702 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1703 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1704 settings variable.
  1705 
  1706 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1707 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1708 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1709 
  1710 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1711 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1712 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1713 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1714 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1715 
  1716 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1717 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1718 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1719 
  1720 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1721 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1722 
  1723 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1724 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1725 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1726 
  1727 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1728 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1729 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1730 processing is started.
  1731 
  1732 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1733 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1734 
  1735 
  1736 
  1737 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1738 -------------------------------------
  1739 
  1740 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1741 
  1742 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1743 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1744 
  1745 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1746 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1747 
  1748 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1749 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1750 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1751 
  1752 
  1753 *** System ***
  1754 
  1755 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1756 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1757 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1758 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1759 
  1760 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1761 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1762 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1763 
  1764 
  1765 
  1766 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1767 -------------------------------------
  1768 
  1769 *** General ***
  1770 
  1771 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1772 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1773 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1776 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1779 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1780 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1781 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1782 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1783 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1784 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1785 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1786 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1787 syntax.
  1788 
  1789 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1790 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1791 
  1792 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1793 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1794 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1795 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1796 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1797 
  1798 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1802 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1803 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1804 
  1805 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1806 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1807 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1808 
  1809 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1810 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1811 
  1812 
  1813 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1814 
  1815 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1816 Documentation panel.
  1817 
  1818 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1819 documentation.
  1820 
  1821 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1822 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1823 
  1824 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1825 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1826 normal editing and checking process.
  1827 
  1828 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1829 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1830 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1831 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1832 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1833 
  1834 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1835 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1836 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1837 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1838 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1839 
  1840 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1841 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1842 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1843 
  1844 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1845 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1846 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1847 to resolve conflict.
  1848 
  1849 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1850 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1851 
  1852 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1853 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1854 such command executions while editing.
  1855 
  1856 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1857 document content.
  1858 
  1859 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1860 toplevel theorem statements.
  1861 
  1862 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1863 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1864 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1865 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1866 
  1867 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1868 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1869 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1870 
  1871 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1872 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1873 
  1874 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1875 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1876 
  1877 
  1878 *** Pure ***
  1879 
  1880 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1881 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1882 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1883 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1884 details.
  1885 
  1886 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1887 
  1888 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1889 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1890 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1891 
  1892 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1896 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1897 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1898 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1901 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1902 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1905 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1906 
  1907 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1908 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1909 situations.
  1910 
  1911 
  1912 *** HOL ***
  1913 
  1914 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1915 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1919 
  1920 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1921 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1922 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1923 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1924 
  1925   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1926 
  1927 * Code generator:
  1928   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1929     'code_instance'.
  1930   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1931     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1932 
  1933 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1934 examples.
  1935 
  1936 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1937 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1938 to distinguish both when desired.
  1939 
  1940 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1941 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1942 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1943 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1946 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1947 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1948 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1949 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1950 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1951 
  1952 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1953 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1954 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1955 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1956 
  1957 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1958 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1959 
  1960 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1961 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1962 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1963 
  1964 * Lifting:
  1965   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1966     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1967       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1968       transfer rules
  1969     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1970       correspondence relation can be generated
  1971     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1972       parametricity
  1973     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1974   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1975   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1976     copies
  1977   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1978     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1979     anonymous context)
  1980   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1981     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1982   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1983     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1984   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1985     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1986 
  1987 * Transfer:
  1988   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1989     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1990   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1991   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1992     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1993   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1994 
  1995 * Reification and reflection:
  1996   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1997     "Reification".
  1998   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1999   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  2000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  2003   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  2004     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2005     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  2006   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  2007     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  2008   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  2009     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  2010     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  2011     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  2012     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  2013     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  2014     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  2015     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  2016   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  2017     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  2018   - Fact renames:
  2019       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  2020       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  2021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  2024 
  2025 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  2026 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  2027 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  2028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  2031 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  2032 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  2033 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  2034 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  2035 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  2036 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  2037 lemmas.
  2038 
  2039 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  2040 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  2041 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  2044 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2045 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  2046 
  2047 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  2048 top and bottom elements.
  2049 
  2050 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  2051 
  2052 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  2053 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  2054 
  2055  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  2056    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  2057    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  2058 
  2059  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  2060    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  2061    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  2062 
  2063    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  2064    arbitrary filter.
  2065 
  2066  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  2067    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  2068    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  2069    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  2070    on a compact set.
  2071 
  2072  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  2073    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  2074    linear_continuum_topology).
  2075 
  2076  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  2077    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  2078    on all sequences converging to x.
  2079 
  2080  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  2081    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  2082    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  2083    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  2084    left or right.
  2085 
  2086  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  2087 
  2088      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  2089 
  2090  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  2091    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  2092 
  2093  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  2094    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  2095    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  2096    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  2097    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  2098    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  2099 
  2100  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  2101 
  2102    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  2103 
  2104    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  2105      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  2106 
  2107    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  2108 
  2109    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  2110      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  2111 
  2112    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  2113 
  2114    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  2115 
  2116  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  2117 
  2118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2119 
  2120 * Nitpick:
  2121   - Added option "spy".
  2122   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  2123 
  2124 * Sledgehammer:
  2125   - Renamed option:
  2126       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  2127     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  2129   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  2130   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  2131 
  2132 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  2133 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  2134 
  2135 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  2136   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  2137   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  2138     generated code.
  2139   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  2140   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  2141   - Fact renames:
  2142     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  2143     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  2144     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2145 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2148 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2149 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2150 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2151 
  2152 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2153 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2154 
  2155 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2156 
  2157 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2158 
  2159     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2160     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2161 
  2162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2163 
  2164 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2165 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2166 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2167 
  2168 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2169 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2170 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2171 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * HOL-BNF:
  2174   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2175     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2176     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2177     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2178   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2179     coinduct).
  2180   - Renamed keywords:
  2181     data ~> datatype_new
  2182     codata ~> codatatype
  2183     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2184   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2185     discs ~> disc
  2186     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2187     map_id' ~> map_id
  2188     sels ~> sel
  2189     set_map' ~> set_map
  2190     sets ~> set
  2191 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 
  2194 *** ML ***
  2195 
  2196 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2197 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2198 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2199 Examples.thy in particular.
  2200 
  2201 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2202 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2203 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2204 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2205 
  2206 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2207 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2208 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2209 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2213 
  2214     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2215     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2216 
  2217 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2220 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2221 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2222 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2223 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2224 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2225 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2226 
  2227 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2228 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2229 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2230 clasets separately from the context.
  2231 
  2232 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2233 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2234 
  2235 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2236 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2237 
  2238 
  2239 *** System ***
  2240 
  2241 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2242 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2245 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2248 settings variable.
  2249 
  2250 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2251 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2252 always pdf.
  2253 
  2254 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2255 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2256 
  2257 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2258 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2259 
  2260 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2261 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2262 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2263 
  2264 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2265 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2266 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2267 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2268 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2269 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2270 
  2271 
  2272 
  2273 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2274 -----------------------------------
  2275 
  2276 *** General ***
  2277 
  2278 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2279 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2280 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2281 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2282 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2283 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2284 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2285 
  2286 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2287 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2288 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2289 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2290 
  2291 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2292 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2293 
  2294 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2295 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2296 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2297 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2298 dependencies properly.
  2299 
  2300 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2301 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2302 
  2303 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2304 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2305 
  2306 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2307 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2308 and "class ... context ...".
  2309 
  2310 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2311 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2312 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2313 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2314 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2315 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2316 
  2317 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2318 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2319 
  2320 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2321 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2322 
  2323 
  2324 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2325 
  2326 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2327 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2328 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2329 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2330 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2331 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2332 
  2333 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2334 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2335 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2336 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2337 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2338 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2339 
  2340 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2341 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2342 browser on demand.
  2343 
  2344 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2345 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2346 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2347 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2348 
  2349 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2350 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2351 
  2352 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2353 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2354 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2355 potentially infinite message streams.
  2356 
  2357 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2358 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2359 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2360 schemes.
  2361 
  2362 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2363 symbols.
  2364 
  2365 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2366 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2367 
  2368 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2369 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2370 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2371 
  2372 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2373 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2374 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2375 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2376 
  2377 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2378 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2379 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2380 
  2381 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2382 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2383 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2384 Isabelle distribution.
  2385 
  2386 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2387 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2388 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2389 
  2390 
  2391 *** Pure ***
  2392 
  2393 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2394 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2395 
  2396 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2397 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2398 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2401 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2402 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2403 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2404 with some care where this is really required.
  2405 
  2406 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2407 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2408 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2409 
  2410   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2411 
  2412 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2413 a Hasse diagram.
  2414 
  2415 
  2416 *** HOL ***
  2417 
  2418 * Sledgehammer:
  2419 
  2420   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2421     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2422   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2423   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2424   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2425   - Renamed options:
  2426       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2427       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2428       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2429       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2430 
  2431 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2432 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2433 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2434 
  2435 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Lifting:
  2439   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2440   - quot_del attribute
  2441   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2442 
  2443 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2444 expressions.
  2445 
  2446 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2447 pointfree expressions.
  2448 
  2449 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2450 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2451 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2452 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2456 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2457 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2458 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2459 accordingly.
  2460 
  2461 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2462 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2465 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2470 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2471 
  2472 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2473 
  2474 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2475 
  2476   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2477   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2478 
  2479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2482 
  2483   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2484   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2485 
  2486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2489 
  2490   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2491     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2492     output f x converges to G.
  2493 
  2494   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2495     infinity (at_bot).
  2496 
  2497   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2498     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2499 
  2500   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2501     at_top".
  2502 
  2503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2504 
  2505 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2506 lattice type classes.
  2507 
  2508 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2509 
  2510     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2511     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2512 
  2513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2514 
  2515 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2516 changes as follows.
  2517 
  2518   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2519 
  2520       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2521       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2522 
  2523   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2524     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2525     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2526     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2527 
  2528   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2529     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2530     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2531 
  2532   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2533     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2534     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2535     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2536 
  2537   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2538     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2539 
  2540       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2541       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2542       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2543       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2544       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2545       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2546       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2547       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2548       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2549       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2550       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2551       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2552       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2553       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2554       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2555       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2556 
  2557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2560 
  2561 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2562 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2563 
  2564 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2565 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2566 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2567 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2568 
  2569   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2570   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2571   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2572   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2573   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2574   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2575   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2576   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2577   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2578   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2579 
  2580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2581 
  2582 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2583 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2584 Data").
  2585 
  2586 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2587 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2588 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2589 code.
  2590 
  2591 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2592 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2593 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2597 
  2598 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2599 
  2600 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2601 
  2602   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2603   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2604 
  2605 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2606 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2607 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2608 
  2609   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2610 
  2611     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2612     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2613     cart_base i  removed
  2614     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2615 
  2616   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2617 
  2618   Renamed lemmas:
  2619 
  2620     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2621     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2622     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2623     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2624     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2625     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2626     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2627     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2628     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2629     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2630 
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * HOL/Probability:
  2634 
  2635   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2636 
  2637   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2638     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2639     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2640 
  2641   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2642     projective family).
  2643 
  2644 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2645 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2646 
  2647 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2648 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2649 datatypes.
  2650 
  2651 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2652 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2653 
  2654 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2655 trees for the code generator.
  2656 
  2657 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2658 Lifting/Transfer.
  2659 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2660 
  2661 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 
  2665 *** Document preparation ***
  2666 
  2667 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2668 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2669 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2670 
  2671 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2672 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2673 
  2674 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2675 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2676 document/root.tex.
  2677 
  2678 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2679 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 
  2682 *** ML ***
  2683 
  2684 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2685 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2686 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2687 
  2688 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2689 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2690 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2691 
  2692 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2693 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2694 necessarily printing visible text.
  2695 
  2696 
  2697 *** System ***
  2698 
  2699 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2700 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2701 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2702 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2703 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2704 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2705 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2706 
  2707 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2708 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2709 
  2710   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2711 
  2712 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2713 
  2714 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2715 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2716 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2717 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2718 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2719 
  2720 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2721 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2722 
  2723 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2724 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2725 
  2726 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2730 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2731 version of Isabelle.
  2732 
  2733 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2734 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2735 
  2736 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2737 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2738 for home-made settings.
  2739 
  2740 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2741 
  2742 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2743 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2744 configuration.
  2745 
  2746 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2747 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2748 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2749 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2750 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2751 
  2752 
  2753 
  2754 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2755 ------------------------------
  2756 
  2757 *** General ***
  2758 
  2759 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2760 
  2761   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2762     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2763   - markup for bound variables
  2764   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2765   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2766   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2767     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2768 
  2769 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2770 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2771 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2772 
  2773 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2774 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2775 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2776 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2777 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2778 
  2779   context
  2780     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2781     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2782   begin
  2783 
  2784   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2785 
  2786   end
  2787 
  2788   thm my_trans
  2789 
  2790 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2791 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2792 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2793 
  2794 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2795 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2796 
  2797 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2798 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2799 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2800 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2801 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2802 
  2803 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2804 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2805 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2806 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2807 indices of schematic variables.
  2808 
  2809 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2810 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2811 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2812 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2813 etc. was exploited.
  2814 
  2815 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2816 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2817 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2818 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2819 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2820 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2821 
  2822 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2823 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2824 manual.
  2825 
  2826 
  2827 *** Pure ***
  2828 
  2829 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2830 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2831 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2832 
  2833 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2834 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2835 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2836 undocumented feature.)
  2837 
  2838 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2839 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2840 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2841 
  2842   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2843 
  2844   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2845     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2846 
  2847 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2848 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2849 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2850 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2851 
  2852 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2853 
  2854     num ~> num_token
  2855     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2856     xstr ~> str_token
  2857 
  2858 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2859 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2860 position information via constraints).
  2861 
  2862 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2863 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2864 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865 
  2866 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2867 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2868 
  2869 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2870 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2871 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2874 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2877 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2878 
  2879   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2880 
  2881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2884 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2887 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2888 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2889 
  2890 
  2891 *** HOL ***
  2892 
  2893 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2894 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2895 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2896 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2897 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2898 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2899 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2900 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2901 possible.
  2902 
  2903 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2904 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2905 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2906 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2907 
  2908 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2909 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2912 
  2913 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2914 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2915 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2916 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2917 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2918 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2919 
  2920   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2921     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2922 
  2923   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2924     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2925     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2926 
  2927   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2928     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2929 
  2930   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2931     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2932     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2933 
  2934   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2935     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2936 
  2937 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2938 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2939 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2940 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2941 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2942 
  2943   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2944     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2945     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2946     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2947     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2948 
  2949     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2950     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2951 
  2952   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2953     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2954     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2955     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2956     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2957     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2958     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2959     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2960 
  2961   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2962     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2963     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2964     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2965 
  2966   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2967     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2968     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2969     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2970 
  2971   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2972     from type nat to type int.
  2973 
  2974 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2975 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2976 
  2977   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2978     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2979     type.  Example syntax:
  2980 
  2981     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2982       is List.insert
  2983 
  2984     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2985     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2986     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2987     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2988     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2989     by the package.
  2990 
  2991   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2992     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2993     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2994     code generation for each constant.
  2995 
  2996   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2997     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2998     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2999     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  3000     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  3001 
  3002   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  3003     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  3004     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  3005 
  3006 * Quotient package:
  3007 
  3008   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  3009     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  3010 
  3011   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  3012     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  3013 
  3014   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  3015     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  3016     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  3019     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  3022 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  3023 
  3024 * Quickcheck:
  3025 
  3026   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  3027     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  3028     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  3029     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  3030     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  3031 
  3032     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  3033     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  3034     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  3035 
  3036     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  3037     continues searching for genuine ones.
  3038 
  3039     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  3040     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  3041     show genuine counterexamples.
  3042 
  3043   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  3044     value generators for a given type and operations.
  3045 
  3046     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  3047     constructors of that type.
  3048 
  3049   - Support for multisets.
  3050 
  3051   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  3052 
  3053   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  3054     conjectures in a locale context.
  3055 
  3056 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  3057 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  3058 
  3059 * Sledgehammer:
  3060   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  3061     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  3062   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  3063   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  3064     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  3065   - Sped up the minimizer.
  3066   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  3067   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  3068   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  3069 
  3070 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  3071 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  3072 
  3073 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  3074 
  3075 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  3078 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  3079 
  3080   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  3081 
  3082 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  3083 a list and a nat.
  3084 
  3085 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  3086 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  3087 
  3088 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  3089 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  3090 default.
  3091 
  3092 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  3093 
  3094   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  3095 
  3096 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  3097 
  3098 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  3099 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  3100 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  3101 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  3102 one_case.
  3103 
  3104 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  3105 the result of the fact expression.
  3106 
  3107 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  3108 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  3109 of some relation theorems:
  3110 
  3111   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  3112   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3113   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  3114   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  3115   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  3116   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  3117 
  3118 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  3119 
  3120 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  3121 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  3122 
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  3126 to match the constant's name:
  3127 
  3128   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  3129   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  3130   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  3131   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  3132   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  3133   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  3134   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  3135   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  3136   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  3137   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  3138   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  3139   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  3140   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  3141   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  3142   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  3143   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  3144   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3145   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3146   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3147   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3148   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3149   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3150   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3151   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3152 
  3153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3156 and corresponding theorem names:
  3157 
  3158   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3159 
  3160   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3161 
  3162   - Renamed theorems:
  3163 
  3164     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3165     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3166     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3167     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3168     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3169     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3170     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3171     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3172     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3173     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3174     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3175     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3176     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3177     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3178     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3179     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3180     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3181     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3182     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3183     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3184     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3185     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3186     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3187 
  3188     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3189 
  3190     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3191 
  3192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3195 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3196 
  3197   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3198   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3199   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3200   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3201   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3202   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3203   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3204   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3205   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3206   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3207   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3208   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3209   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3210   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3211   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3212   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3213   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3214   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3215   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3216   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3217   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3218 
  3219 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3220 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 
  3222 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223 
  3224 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3225 
  3226   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3227   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3228   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3229   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3230   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3231   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3232   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3233   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3234   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3235   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3236   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3237   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3238   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3239   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3240   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3241   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3242   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3243   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3244 
  3245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3248 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3249 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3250 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3251 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3252 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3253 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3254 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3255 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3256 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3257 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3258 
  3259 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3260 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3261 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3262 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3263 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3264 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3265 
  3266 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3267 through option types.
  3268 
  3269 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3270 relations.
  3271 
  3272 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3275 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3276 
  3277   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3278   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3279   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3280   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3281   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3282   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3283   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3284   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3285   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3286   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3287   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3288   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3289   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3290   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3291   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3292   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3293   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3294   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3295   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3296   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3297   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3298   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3299   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3300   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3301   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3302   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3303   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3304   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3305   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3306   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3307   zless_le ~> less_le
  3308   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3309   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3310   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3311 
  3312 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3313 
  3314   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3315 
  3316 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3317 
  3318 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3319 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3320 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3321 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323 
  3324 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3325 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3326 
  3327 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3328 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3329 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3330 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3331 follows:
  3332 
  3333   Operations:
  3334   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3335   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3336   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3337   del -> rbt_del
  3338   delete -> rbt_delete
  3339   ins -> rbt_ins
  3340   insert -> rbt_insert
  3341   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3342   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3343   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3344   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3345   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3346   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3347   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3348   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3349   union -> rbt_union
  3350   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3351   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3352 
  3353   Lemmas:
  3354   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3355   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3356   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3357   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3358   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3359   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3360   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3361   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3362   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3363   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3364   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3365   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3366   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3367   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3368   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3369   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3370   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3371   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3372   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3373   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3374   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3375   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3376   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3377   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3378   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3379   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3380   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3381   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3382   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3383   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3384   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3385   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3386   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3387   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3388   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3389   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3390   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3391   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3392   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3393   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3394   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3395   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3396   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3397   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3398   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3399   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3400   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3401   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3402   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3403   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3404   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3405   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3406   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3407   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3408   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3409   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3410   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3411   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3412   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3413   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3414   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3415   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3416   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3417   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3418   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3419   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3420   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3421   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3422   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3423   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3424   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3425   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3426   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3427   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3428   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3429   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3430   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3431   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3432   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3433   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3434   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3435   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3436   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3437 
  3438 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3439 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3440 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442   Changed Operations:
  3443   float_abs -> abs
  3444   float_nprt -> nprt
  3445   float_pprt -> pprt
  3446   pow2 -> use powr
  3447   round_down -> float_round_down
  3448   round_up -> float_round_up
  3449   scale -> exponent
  3450 
  3451   Removed Operations:
  3452   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3453 
  3454   Renamed Lemmas:
  3455   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3456   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3457   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3458   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3459   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3460   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3461   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3462   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3463   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3464   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3465   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3466   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3467   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3468   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3469   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3470   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3471   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3472   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3473   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3474   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3475   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3476   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3477   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3478   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3479   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3480   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3481   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3482   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3483   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3484   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3485   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3486   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3487   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3488   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3489   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3490   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3491 
  3492   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3493   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3494   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3495   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3496   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3497   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3498   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3499   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3500   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3501   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3502 
  3503 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3504 association lists with distinct keys.
  3505 
  3506 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3507 annotated commands.
  3508 
  3509 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3510 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3511 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3512 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3515 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3516 instead.
  3517 
  3518   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3519   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3520   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3521   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3522   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3523   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3524   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3525   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3526   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3527   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3528   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3529   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3530   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3531   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3532   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3533   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3534   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3535   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3536   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3537   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3538   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3539   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3540   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3541   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3542   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3543   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3544   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3545   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3546   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3547   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3548   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3549   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3550   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3551   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3552   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3553   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3554   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3555   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3556   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3557   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3558   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3559 
  3560 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3561 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3562 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3563 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3564 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3565 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3566 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3567 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3568 
  3569 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3570 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3571 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3572 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3573 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3574 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3575 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3576 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3577 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3578 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3579 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3580 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3581 
  3582   Renamed constants:
  3583   measure -> emeasure
  3584   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3585   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3586   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3587   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3588 
  3589   Removed locales:
  3590   completeable_measure_space
  3591   finite_measure_space
  3592   finite_prob_space
  3593   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3594   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3595   finite_sigma_algebra
  3596   measure_space
  3597   pair_finite_prob_space
  3598   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3599   pair_finite_space
  3600   pair_sigma_algebra
  3601   product_sigma_algebra
  3602 
  3603   Removed constants:
  3604   conditional_space
  3605   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3606   image_space
  3607   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3608   pair_measure_generator
  3609   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3610   subvimage
  3611 
  3612   Replacement theorems:
  3613   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3614   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3615   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3616   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3617   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3618   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3619   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3620   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3621   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3622   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3623   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3624   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3625   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3626   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3627   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3628   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3629   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3630   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3631   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3632   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3633   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3634   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3635   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3636   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3637   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3638   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3639   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3640   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3641   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3642   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3643   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3644   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3645   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3646   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3647   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3648   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3649   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3650   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3651   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3652   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3653   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3654   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3655   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3656   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3657   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3658   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3659   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3660   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3661   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3662   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3663   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3664   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3665   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3666   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3667   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3668   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3669   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3670   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3671   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3672   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3673   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3674   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3675   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3676   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3677   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3678   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3679   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3680   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3681   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3682   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3683   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3684   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3685   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3686   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3687   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3688   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3689   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3690   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3691   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3692   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3693   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3694   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3695   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3696   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3697   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3698   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3699   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3700   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3701   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3702   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3703   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3704   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3705   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3706   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3707   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3708   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3709   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3710   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3711   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3712   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3713   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3714   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3715   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3716   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3717   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3718   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3719   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3720   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3721   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3722   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3723   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3724   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3725   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3726   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3727   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3728   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3729   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3730   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3731   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3732   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3733   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3734   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3735   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3736   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3737   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3738   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3739   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3740   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3741 
  3742 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3743 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3744 
  3745 
  3746 *** FOL ***
  3747 
  3748 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3749 
  3750 
  3751 *** ZF ***
  3752 
  3753 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3754 analysis.
  3755 
  3756 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3757 
  3758 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 
  3761 *** ML ***
  3762 
  3763 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3764 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3765 
  3766 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3767 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3768 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3769 
  3770 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3771 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3772 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3773 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3774 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3775 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3776 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3777 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3778 
  3779 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3780 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3781 
  3782 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3783 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3784 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3785 
  3786 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3787 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3790 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3791 context as well.
  3792 
  3793 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3794 
  3795   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3796   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3797   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3798   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3799   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3800   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3801   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3802   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3803   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3804   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3805   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3806   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3807 
  3808 
  3809 *** System ***
  3810 
  3811 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3812 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3813 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3814 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3815 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3816 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3817 the generic user home was intended.
  3818 
  3819 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3820 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3821 
  3822 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3823 (not just JRE).
  3824 
  3825 
  3826 
  3827 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3828 ------------------------------------
  3829 
  3830 *** General ***
  3831 
  3832 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3833 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3834 
  3835   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3836     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3837     files for checking).
  3838 
  3839   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3840     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3841     positions.
  3842 
  3843   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3844     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3845     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3846 
  3847   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3848     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3849     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3850 
  3851   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3852     cores.
  3853 
  3854   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3855     versions (garbage collection).
  3856 
  3857 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3858 including some remaining limitations.
  3859 
  3860 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3861 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3862 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3863 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3864 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3868 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3869 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3870 
  3871 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3872 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3873 usedir option -Q.
  3874 
  3875 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3876 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3877 
  3878   long_names   ~> names_long
  3879   short_names  ~> names_short
  3880   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3881 
  3882 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3883 
  3884   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3885 
  3886 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3887 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3888 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3889 
  3890 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3891 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3892 
  3893 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3894   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3895   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3896   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3897     "Classical Reasoner".
  3898 
  3899 
  3900 *** HOL ***
  3901 
  3902 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3903 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3906 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3907 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3908 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3909 class complete_linorder.
  3910 
  3911 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3912 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3913 
  3914 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3915 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3916 
  3917   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3918   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3919   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3920   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3921   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3922   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3923   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3924   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3925   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3926   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3927   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3928 
  3929 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3930 
  3931   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3932   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3933   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3934   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3935   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3936   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3937   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3938   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3939   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3940   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3941   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3942   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3943   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3944   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3945   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3946   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3947 
  3948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952 
  3953 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3954 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3955 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3956 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3959 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3960 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3964 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3965 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3966 
  3967 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3968 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3969 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3972 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3973 
  3974 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3975 
  3976     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3977     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3978 
  3979 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3980 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3983 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3986 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3987 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3988 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3991   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3992   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3993   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3994   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3995   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3996   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3997 
  3998 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3999 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  4002   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  4003   real_less_def ~> less_le
  4004   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  4005   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  4006   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4007   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4008   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4009   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4010   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4011   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  4012   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  4013   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  4014   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4015   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  4016   real_le_linear ~> linear
  4017   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  4018   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  4019   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  4020   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  4021   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  4022   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  4023   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  4024   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  4025   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  4026   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  4027   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  4028   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  4029   expi_add ~> exp_add
  4030   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  4031   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  4032   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  4033   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  4034   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4035   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  4036   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4037   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  4038   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4039   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4040   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4041   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4042   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4043   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  4044   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  4045   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  4046   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  4047   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4048   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4049   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4050   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  4051   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4052   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4053   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  4054   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  4055   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  4056   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  4057   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  4058   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4059   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4060   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4061   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  4062   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  4063   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4064   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4065   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  4066   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  4067   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4068   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  4069   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4070   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4071   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  4072   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  4073   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4074   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  4075   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  4076   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4077   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  4078   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4079   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  4080   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  4081   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  4082   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  4083 
  4084 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  4085 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  4086 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  4087 
  4088 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  4089 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  4090 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  4091 
  4092 * Code generation:
  4093 
  4094   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  4095     characters in the target language.
  4096 
  4097   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  4098     instead.
  4099 
  4100   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  4101 
  4102   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  4103     reactivated by the following theory command:
  4104 
  4105       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  4106 
  4107 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  4110 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  4111 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  4112 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  4113 syntax.
  4114 
  4115 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  4116 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  4117 
  4118 * Nitpick:
  4119   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  4120   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  4121   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  4122     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124 * Sledgehammer:
  4125   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  4126   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  4127     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  4128   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  4129     this can be done within reasonable time.
  4130   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  4131     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4132   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  4133     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  4134   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  4135     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * Metis:
  4138   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  4140     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * Command 'try':
  4143   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  4144     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4146     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4147 
  4148 * Quickcheck:
  4149   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4150     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4151   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4152     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4153   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4154     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4155     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4156     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4157   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4158     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4159 
  4160 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4161 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4162 
  4163 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4164 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4165 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4166 
  4167 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4168 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4172 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4173 
  4174 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4175 arithmetic.
  4176 
  4177 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4178 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4179 and lattice type classes.
  4180 
  4181 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4182 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4183 
  4184 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4185 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4186 
  4187 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4188 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4189 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4192   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4193   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4194   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4195 
  4196 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4197 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4198 constants:
  4199 
  4200   type inat   ~> type enat
  4201   Fin         ~> enat
  4202   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4203   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4204   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4205 
  4206 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4207 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4210 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4211 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4212 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4213 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4214 
  4215 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4216 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4217 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4218 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4219 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4220 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4221 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4222 
  4223   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4224   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4225   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4226   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4227 
  4228 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4229 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4230 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4233   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4234   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4235   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4236   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4237   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4238   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4239   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4240   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4241   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4242   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4243   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4244   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4245   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4246   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4247   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4248   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4249   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4250   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4251   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4252   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4253   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4254   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4255   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4256   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4257   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4258   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4259   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4260   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4261   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4262   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4263   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4264   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4265   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4266   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4267   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4268   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4269   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4270   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4271   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4272   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4273   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4274   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4275   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4276   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4277   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4278   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4279   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4280   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4281   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4282   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4283 
  4284 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4285   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4286   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4287   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4288   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4289     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4294   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4295   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4296   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4297   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4298   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4299   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4300   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4301   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4302   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4303   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4304   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4305   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4306   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4307   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4308   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4309   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4310   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4311   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4312   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4313   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4314   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4315   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4316   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4317   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4318 
  4319 
  4320 *** Document preparation ***
  4321 
  4322 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4323 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4324 same.
  4325 
  4326 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4327 result.
  4328 
  4329 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4330 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4331 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4332 
  4333 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4334 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4335 
  4336 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4337 like this:
  4338 
  4339   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4340   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4341 
  4342 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4343 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4344 layouts.
  4345 
  4346 
  4347 *** ML ***
  4348 
  4349 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4350 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4351 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4352 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4353 under external program control.
  4354 
  4355 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4356 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4357 
  4358 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4359 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4360 (better known as Proof General).
  4361 
  4362 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4363 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4364 
  4365 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4366 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4367 
  4368 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4369 (including quotes etc.).
  4370 
  4371 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4372 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4373 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4374 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4375 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4376 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4377 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4378 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4379 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4380 
  4381 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4382 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4383 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4384 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4385 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4386 
  4387 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4388 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4389 
  4390 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4391 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4392 
  4393 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4394 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4395 
  4396 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4397 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4398 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4399 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4400 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4401 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4402 proper Proof.context.
  4403 
  4404 
  4405 *** System ***
  4406 
  4407 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4408 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4409 
  4410 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4411 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4412 
  4413 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4414 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4415 
  4416   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4417   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4418   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4419   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4420   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4421 
  4422 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4423 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424 
  4425 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4426 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4427 example:
  4428 
  4429   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4430 
  4431 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4432 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4433 
  4434 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4435 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4436 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4437 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4438 
  4439 
  4440 
  4441 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4442 ----------------------------------
  4443 
  4444 *** General ***
  4445 
  4446 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4447 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4448 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4449 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4450 like this:
  4451 
  4452   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4453 
  4454 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4455 
  4456 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4457 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4458 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4459 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4460 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4461 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4462 
  4463 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4464 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4465 the following package declarations:
  4466 
  4467   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4468   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4469 
  4470 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4471 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4472 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4473 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4474 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4475 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4476 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4477 
  4478 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4479 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4480 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4481 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4482 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4483 
  4484 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4485 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4486 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4487 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4488 
  4489 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4490 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4491 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4492 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4493 
  4494   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4495 
  4496   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4497   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4498   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4499   show_types                    show_types
  4500   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4501   show_consts                   show_consts
  4502   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4503 
  4504   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4505   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4506   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4507 
  4508   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4509   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4510 
  4511   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4512 
  4513   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4514   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4515   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4516   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4517   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4518 
  4519 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4520 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4521 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4522 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4523 
  4524 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4528   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4529 
  4530 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4531 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4532 float_token.
  4533 
  4534 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4535 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4537 
  4538 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4539 DejaVu Sans.
  4540 
  4541 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4542 
  4543 
  4544 *** Pure ***
  4545 
  4546 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4547 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4548 time.
  4549 
  4550 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4551 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4554 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 
  4556 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4557 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4558 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4559 command already provided this functionality.
  4560 
  4561 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4562 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4563 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4564 without interpretations.
  4565 
  4566 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4567 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4568 
  4569 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4570 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4571 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4572 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4573 
  4574 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4575 'definition' instead.
  4576 
  4577 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4578 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4579 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4580 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4581 
  4582 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4583 constructors.
  4584 
  4585 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4586 the local file system.
  4587 
  4588 
  4589 *** HOL ***
  4590 
  4591 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4592 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4593 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4594 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4595 
  4596   declare [[coercion f]]
  4597 
  4598 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4599 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4600 
  4601   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4602 
  4603 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4604 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4605 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4606 other theories like this:
  4607 
  4608   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4609 
  4610 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4611 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4612 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4613 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4614 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4615 for examples.
  4616 
  4617 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4618 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4621 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4622 
  4623 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4624 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4625 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4626 
  4627 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4628 functorial structure of types.
  4629 
  4630 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4631 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4632 
  4633 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4634 languages.
  4635 
  4636 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4637 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4639 
  4640 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4641 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4644 combinators any longer.
  4645 
  4646 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4647 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4648 
  4649 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4650 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4651 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4652 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4653 
  4654   record 'a foo = ...
  4655   ...
  4656   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4657 
  4658 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4659 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4663 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4664 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4665 
  4666 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4667 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4668 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4669 
  4670 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4671 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4672 
  4673 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4674 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4675 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4676 independently.
  4677 
  4678 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4679 counter example search.
  4680 
  4681 * Sledgehammer:
  4682   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4683     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4684     sledgehammer").
  4685   - Renamed commands:
  4686     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4687     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4688     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4689     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4690   - Renamed options:
  4691     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4692     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4693     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4694     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4695     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Nitpick:
  4698   - Renamed options:
  4699     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4700     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4701     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4702   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4703   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4704   - Added "whack" option.
  4705   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4706   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4707   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4708   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4709     higher cardinalities.
  4710   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4711 
  4712 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4713 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4714 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4715 
  4716     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4717 
  4718 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4719 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4720 
  4721 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4722 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4723 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4724 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4725 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4726 "smt_solver".
  4727 
  4728 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4729 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4730 
  4731 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4732 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4733 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4734 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4735 
  4736 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4737   - Renamed:
  4738     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4739     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4740     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741   - Added:
  4742     smt_verbose
  4743     smt_random_seed
  4744     smt_datatypes
  4745     smt_infer_triggers
  4746     smt_monomorph_limit
  4747     cvc3_options
  4748     remote_cvc3_options
  4749     remote_z3_options
  4750     yices_options
  4751 
  4752 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4753 header.
  4754 
  4755 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4756 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4757 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4758 
  4759   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4760 
  4761 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4762 
  4763 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4764 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4769 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4772 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4773 
  4774 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4775 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4778 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4779 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4785 
  4786 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4787 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4790 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4791 for congruent(2)).
  4792 
  4793 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4794 
  4795   types
  4796     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4797     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4798 
  4799   constants
  4800     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4801     True ~> HOL.True
  4802     False ~> HOL.False
  4803     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4804     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4805     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4806     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4807     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4808     The ~> HOL.The
  4809     All ~> HOL.All
  4810     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4811     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4812     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4813     If ~> HOL.If
  4814     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4815     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4816     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4817     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4818     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4819     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4820     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4821     op : ~> Set.member
  4822     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4823 
  4824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4827 
  4828     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4829     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4830     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4831     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4832     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4833     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4834     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4835     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4836 
  4837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * More stylized fact names:
  4840 
  4841   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4842   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4843   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4844   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4845 
  4846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4849 
  4850   constants
  4851     null ~> List.null
  4852 
  4853   facts
  4854     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4855     null_empty ~> null_def
  4856 
  4857 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4858 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4859 generation.
  4860 
  4861 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4862 Haskell code.
  4863 
  4864 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4865 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4866 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4867 
  4868 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4869 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4872 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4873 
  4874 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4875 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4876 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4879 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4880 
  4881 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4885 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4886 referred to by its qualified name.
  4887 
  4888   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4889   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4890   product ~>  Enum.product
  4891 
  4892 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4893 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4897 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4898 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4902 sort_key.
  4903 
  4904 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4908 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4909 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4910 
  4911   types
  4912     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4913               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4914               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4915         (depends on your needs)
  4916 
  4917   constants
  4918      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4919      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4920      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4921 
  4922 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4923 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4924 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4925 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4926 
  4927 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4928 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4929 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4930 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4931 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4935 
  4936 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4937 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4938 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4939 
  4940 
  4941 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4942 
  4943 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4944 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4945 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4946 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4947 compatibility.
  4948 
  4949 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4950 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4951 
  4952 
  4953 *** HOLCF ***
  4954 
  4955 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4956 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4957 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4959 
  4960 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4961 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4962 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963 
  4964   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4965   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4966   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4967 
  4968 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4969 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4970 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4973 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4974 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4975 domain definition now works:
  4976 
  4977   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4978 
  4979 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4980 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4981 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4982 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4983 
  4984   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4985     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4986 
  4987   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4988 
  4989 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4990 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4991 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4992 
  4993 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4994 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4995 
  4996 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4997 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4998 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4999 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  5000 
  5001 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  5002 
  5003 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  5008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  5011 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  5012 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  5013 
  5014 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  5015 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  5016 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 
  5018 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  5019 still supported as an input translation.
  5020 
  5021 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  5022 
  5023   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  5024   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  5025   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  5026   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  5027   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  5028   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  5029   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  5030 
  5031 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  5032 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5033 
  5034   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  5035   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  5036   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  5037   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  5038   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  5039   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  5040 
  5041 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  5042 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5043 
  5044 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  5045 
  5046   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  5047   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  5048   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  5049   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  5050 
  5051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  5054 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  5057 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  5060   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  5061   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  5062   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  5063   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  5064   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  5065   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  5066   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  5067   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  5068   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  5069   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  5070   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  5071   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  5072   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  5073   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  5074   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  5075   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  5076   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  5077   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  5078   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  5079 
  5080 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5081 
  5082   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  5083   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  5084   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  5085   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  5086   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  5087   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  5088   box_less             ~> box_below
  5089   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  5090   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  5091   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  5092   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  5093   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  5094   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  5095   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  5096   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  5097   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  5098   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  5099   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  5100   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  5101   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  5102   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  5103   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  5104   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  5105   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  5106   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  5107   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  5108   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  5109   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  5110   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  5111   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  5112   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  5113   up_less              ~> up_below
  5114   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  5115   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  5116   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  5117   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  5118   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  5119   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  5120   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  5121   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  5122   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  5123   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  5124   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  5125   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  5126   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  5127 
  5128 
  5129 *** FOL and ZF ***
  5130 
  5131 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  5132 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 
  5135 *** ML ***
  5136 
  5137 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  5138 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  5139 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  5140 
  5141 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  5142 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  5143 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  5144 
  5145 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5146 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5147 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5148 
  5149 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5150 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5151 
  5152 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5153 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5154 
  5155 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5156 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5157 
  5158 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5159 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5160 
  5161 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5162 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5163 almost all situations.
  5164 
  5165 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5166 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5167 Isabelle/ML.
  5168 
  5169 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5170 meaning.
  5171 
  5172 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5173 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5174 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5175 
  5176 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5177 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5178 
  5179 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5180 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5181 
  5182 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5183 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5184 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5185 
  5186 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5187 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5188 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5189 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5190 configuration options.
  5191 
  5192 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5193 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5194 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5195 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5196 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5197 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5198 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5199 
  5200 
  5201 
  5202 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5203 ---------------------------------
  5204 
  5205 *** General ***
  5206 
  5207 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5208 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5209 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5210 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5211 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5212 their full internal name.
  5213 
  5214 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5215 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5216 Some hints on upgrading:
  5217 
  5218   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5219     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5220     which are independent of this issue.
  5221 
  5222   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5223     provides the following special forms:
  5224 
  5225       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5226       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5227       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5228 
  5229     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5230     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5231     extra variables".
  5232 
  5233     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5234     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5235     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5236     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5237     "logic".
  5238 
  5239   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5240     antiquotations:
  5241 
  5242       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5243       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5244       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5245       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5246 
  5247   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5248     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5249     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5250     antiquotations.
  5251 
  5252 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5253 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5254 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5255 diagnose syntax problems.
  5256 
  5257 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5258 
  5259 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5260 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5261 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5262 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5263 
  5264 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5265 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5266 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5267 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5268 
  5269 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5270 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5271 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5272 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5273 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5274 
  5275 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5276 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5277 
  5278 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5279 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5280 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5281 
  5282   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5283 
  5284 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5285 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5286 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5287 
  5288 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5289 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5291 
  5292 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5293 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5294 
  5295 
  5296 *** Pure ***
  5297 
  5298 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5299 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5300 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5301 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5302 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5303 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5304 inspect proof terms.
  5305 
  5306 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5307 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5308 are added internally.  For example:
  5309 
  5310   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5311 
  5312 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5313 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5318 'class' instead.
  5319 
  5320 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5321 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5323 
  5324 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5325 invariants.
  5326 
  5327 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5328 user space functionality any longer.
  5329 
  5330 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5331 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5335 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5336 
  5337 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5338 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5339 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5340 
  5341 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5342 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5343 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5344 
  5345 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5346 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5347 
  5348 
  5349 *** HOL ***
  5350 
  5351 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5352 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5353 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5354 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5355 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5356 
  5357 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5358 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5359 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5360 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5361 
  5362   fun
  5363     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5364   where
  5365     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5366 
  5367   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5368     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5369 
  5370   quotient_definition
  5371     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5372 
  5373 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5374 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5375 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5376 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5377 
  5378 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5379 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5380 
  5381 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5382 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5383 
  5384 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5386 
  5387 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5388 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5389 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5390 
  5391 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5392 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5393 
  5394 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5396 
  5397 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5399 
  5400 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5401 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5402 
  5403 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5404 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5405 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5408   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5409   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5410   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5411   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5412   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5413   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5414   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5415   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5416   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5417   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5418   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5419   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5420   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5421   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5422   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5423   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5424   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5425   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5426   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5427   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5428   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5429   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5430   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5431   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5432   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5433   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5434   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5435   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5436   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5437 
  5438 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5439 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5440 
  5441 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5442 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5443 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5444 
  5445 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5446 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5447 
  5448 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5449 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5450 
  5451 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5452 
  5453 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5454 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5455 
  5456 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5457 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5458 
  5459 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5462 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5463 
  5464 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5465 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5466 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5467 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5468 
  5469 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5470   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5471   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5472   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5474 
  5475 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5476 lattices):
  5477 
  5478     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5479     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5480 
  5481     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5482 
  5483     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5484     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5485     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5486     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5487     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5488     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5489     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5490     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5491     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5492     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5493     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5494     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5495     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5496 
  5497     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5498     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5499     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5500     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5501     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5502     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5503     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5504     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5505     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5506     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5507     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5508     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5509     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5510     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5511     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5512     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5513     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5514     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5515 
  5516   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5517   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5518 
  5519     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5520     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5521     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5522     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5523     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5524 
  5525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5526 
  5527 * Refined field classes:
  5528   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5529     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5530     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5531   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5535   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5536   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5537   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5538     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5539   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5540     equal_neg_zero.
  5541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5542 
  5543 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5544 sets to lattices:
  5545 
  5546   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5547   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5548   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5549   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5550   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5551   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5552   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5553   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5554   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5555   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5556 
  5557 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5558 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5559 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5560 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5561 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5562 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5565 multiset order:
  5566 
  5567   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5568     <= and <;
  5569   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5570     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5571     multiset_order;
  5572   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5573     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5574     generation;
  5575   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5576     if needed.
  5577 
  5578 Renamed:
  5579 
  5580   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5581   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5582   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5583 
  5584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5587 
  5588 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5589 
  5590 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5591 
  5592 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5593 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5594 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5595 
  5596   Constants:
  5597   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5598   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5599   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5600   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5601   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5602   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5603   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5604   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5605   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5606   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5607   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5608   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5609   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5610 
  5611   Lemmas:
  5612   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5613   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5614   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5615   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5616   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5617   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5618   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5619   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5620   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5621   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5622   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5623   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5624   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5625 
  5626 * Sledgehammer:
  5627   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5628     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5629     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5630     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5631     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5632     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5633     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5634   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5635   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5636     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5637   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5638     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5639     is still experimental.)
  5640   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5641     full-typed mode.
  5642   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5643 
  5644 * Nitpick:
  5645   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5646   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5647   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5648     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5649   - Added support for quotient types.
  5650   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5651     constructs.
  5652   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5653     "termination" proofs).
  5654   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5655   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5656   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5657   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5658     record getters.
  5659   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5660   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5661   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5662   - Added "atoms" option.
  5663   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5664     problems.
  5665   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5666     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5667     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5668   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5669     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5671 
  5672 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5673   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5674   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5675   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5676   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5677   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5678   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5679   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5680   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5681   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5682 
  5683 
  5684 *** HOLCF ***
  5685 
  5686 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5687 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5688 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5689 
  5690 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5691 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5692 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5693 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5694 
  5695 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5696 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5697 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5698 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5699 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5700 
  5701 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5702 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5703 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5704 
  5705 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5706 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5707 
  5708   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5709   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5710 
  5711 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5712 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5715   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5716   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5717   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5718   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5719 
  5720 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5721 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5722 
  5723   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5724   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5725   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5726 
  5727 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5728 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5732 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5735 
  5736 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5737 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5738 
  5739 
  5740 *** ML ***
  5741 
  5742 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5743 
  5744     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5745     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5746 
  5747     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5748     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5749     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5750     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5751 
  5752     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5753     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5754     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5755 
  5756 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5757 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5758 
  5759 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5760 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5761 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5762 
  5763 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5764 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5765 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5766 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5767 
  5768 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5769 the context or even global references.
  5770 
  5771 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5772 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5773 
  5774 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5775 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5776 
  5777   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5778   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5779   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5780   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5781   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5782   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5783   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5784   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5785   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5786   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5787 
  5788 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5789 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5790 
  5791 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5792 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5793 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5794 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5795 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5796 
  5797 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5798 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5799 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5800 Theory_Data version.
  5801 
  5802 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5803 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5804 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5805 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5806 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5807 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5808 explicitly in rare situations.
  5809 
  5810 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5811 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5815 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5816 
  5817 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5818 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5819 quite rare).
  5820 
  5821 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5822 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5825 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5826 terms.
  5827 
  5828 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5829 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5830 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5831 
  5832 
  5833 *** System ***
  5834 
  5835 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5836 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5837 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5838 
  5839 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5840 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5841 respectively.
  5842 
  5843 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5844 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5845 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5846 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5847 
  5848   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5849 
  5850 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5851 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5852 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5853 component.
  5854 
  5855 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5856 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5857 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5858 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5859 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5860 the user for manual installation.
  5861 
  5862 
  5863 
  5864 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5865 -------------------------------------
  5866 
  5867 *** General ***
  5868 
  5869 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5870 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5871 
  5872 
  5873 *** Pure ***
  5874 
  5875 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5876 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5877 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5878 
  5879 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5880 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5881 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5882 
  5883 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5884 interpretation.
  5885 
  5886 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5887 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5888 
  5889 
  5890 *** Document preparation ***
  5891 
  5892 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5893 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5894 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5895 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5896 
  5897 
  5898 *** HOL ***
  5899 
  5900 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5901 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5902 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5903 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5904 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5905 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5906 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5907 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5908 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5909 
  5910 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5911 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5912 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5913 
  5914 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5915 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5916 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5917 
  5918 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5919 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5920 
  5921 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5922 
  5923 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5924 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5925 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5926 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5927 
  5928 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5929 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5930 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5931 "mirabelle" utility.
  5932 
  5933 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5934 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5935 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5936 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5937 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5938 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5939 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5940 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5941 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5942 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5943 
  5944 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5945 procedure only.
  5946 
  5947 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5948 
  5949 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5950 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5951 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5952 that fail later.
  5953 
  5954 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5955 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5956 
  5957 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5958 the same method as the approximation method.
  5959 
  5960 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5961 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5962 series expansion.
  5963 
  5964 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5965 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5966 
  5967 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5968 reals.
  5969 
  5970 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5971 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5972 
  5973 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5974 fixpoint theorem.
  5975 
  5976 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5977   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5978     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5979   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5980     accordingly
  5981   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5982     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5983   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5984     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5985 
  5986 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5987 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5988 lattice.
  5989 
  5990 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5991 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5992 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5993 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5994 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5995 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5997 
  5998 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5999   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  6000     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  6001   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  6002     le_inf_iff
  6003   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  6004     sup_aci)
  6005   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  6006   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  6007   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  6008     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  6009     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  6010     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  6011     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  6012     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  6013     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  6014     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  6015     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  6016     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  6017     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  6018   - authentic syntax for
  6019     Set.Pow
  6020     Set.image
  6021   - mere abbreviations:
  6022     Set.empty               (for bot)
  6023     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  6024     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  6025     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  6026     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  6027     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  6028     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  6029     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  6030   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  6031 
  6032 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  6033 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  6034 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  6035 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  6036 
  6037 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  6038 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  6039 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6040 
  6041 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  6042 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6043 
  6044 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  6045 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  6046 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  6047 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6048 
  6049 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  6050 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6051 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  6052 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  6053 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  6054 
  6055 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  6056 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  6057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  6060 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  6063 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  6064 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  6065 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  6066 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  6067 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  6068 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  6069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  6072     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  6073     code_post       replaces    code post
  6074     etc.
  6075   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6076 
  6077 * Renamed methods:
  6078     sizechange -> size_change
  6079     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  6080   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  6083 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  6084 
  6085 * Renamed theorems:
  6086     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  6087     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  6088     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  6089     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  6090     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  6091   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6092 
  6093 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  6094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6095 
  6096 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  6097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6098 
  6099 
  6100 *** HOLCF ***
  6101 
  6102 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  6103 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  6104 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  6105 
  6106 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  6107 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  6108 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  6109 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  6110 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  6111 
  6112 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  6113 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  6114 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  6115 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  6116 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  6117 
  6118 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  6119 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  6120 constructor are pre-configured.
  6121 
  6122 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  6123 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  6124 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  6125 
  6126 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  6127 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  6128 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  6129 as well.)
  6130 
  6131 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  6132 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  6133 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  6134 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6135 examples.
  6136 
  6137 
  6138 *** ML ***
  6139 
  6140 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  6141 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  6142 
  6143 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  6144 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  6145 position, logical grouping etc.
  6146 
  6147 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  6148 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  6149 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  6150 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  6151 
  6152 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  6153 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  6154 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  6155 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  6156 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  6157 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  6158 
  6159 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  6160 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  6161 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  6162 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  6163 experiments with references.
  6164 
  6165 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  6166 parallel tactical reasoning.
  6167 
  6168 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  6169 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  6170 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  6171 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  6172 
  6173 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  6174 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  6175 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  6176 
  6177 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  6178 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6179 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6180 
  6181 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6182 
  6183 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6185 
  6186 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6187 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6188 
  6189 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6190 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6191 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6192 
  6193 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6194 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6195 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6196 
  6197 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6198 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6199 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6201 
  6202 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6203 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6204 instead of global theory.
  6205 
  6206 
  6207 *** System ***
  6208 
  6209 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6210 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6211 usedir option -q.
  6212 
  6213 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6214 also the system manual.
  6215 
  6216 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6217 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6218 
  6219 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6220 this is always enabled.
  6221 
  6222 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6223 
  6224 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6225 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6226 currently supported on Linux only.
  6227 
  6228 
  6229 
  6230 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6231 --------------------------------
  6232 
  6233 *** General ***
  6234 
  6235 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6236 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6237 
  6238   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6239     "isatool."
  6240 
  6241   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6242     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6243 
  6244   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6245     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6246 
  6247 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6248 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6249 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6250 
  6251 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6252 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6253 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6254 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6255 via "isabelle emacs".
  6256 
  6257 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6258 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6259 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6260 
  6261 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6262 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6263 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6264 
  6265 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6266 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6267 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6268 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6269 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6270 
  6271 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6272 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6273 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6274 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6275 
  6276 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref",