NEWS
author blanchet
Thu Mar 06 14:57:14 2014 +0100 (2014-03-06)
changeset 55938 f20d1db5aa3c
parent 55934 800e155d051a
child 55939 682fc100dbff
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed 'set_rel' to 'rel_set'
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    44 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    45 
    46 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    47 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    48 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    49 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    50 
    51 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    52 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    53 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    54 
    55 
    56 *** Pure ***
    57 
    58 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    59 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    60 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    61 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    62 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    63 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    64 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    66 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    67 
    68 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    69 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    70 instantiated theorem.
    71 
    72 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    73 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    74 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    75 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    76 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    77 
    78   attribute_setup standard =
    79     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    80 
    81 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    82 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    83 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    84 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    85 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    86 
    87 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    88 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    89 differently).
    90 
    91 
    92 *** HOL ***
    93 
    94 * HOL-Word:
    95   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
    96   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
    97   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
    98   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
    99   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   100 
   101 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   108 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   111 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   114   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   115   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   116   Theory renamings:
   117     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   118     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   119     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   120     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   121     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   122     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   123     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   124     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   125     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   126     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   127     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   128     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   129     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   130     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   131     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   132     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   133     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   134     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   135     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   136     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   137     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   138     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   139   New theories:
   140     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   141     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   142     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   143     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   144     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   145   Discontinued theories:
   146     BNF/BNF.thy
   147     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   148   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * New datatype package:
   151   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   152   * Renamed commands:
   153       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   154       primrec_new ~> primrec
   155       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   156     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   158     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   159     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   161     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   162     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Old datatype package:
   165   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   166     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   167     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   169     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   170     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   173   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   174   datatype package.
   175   Renamed constants:
   176     Option.set ~> set_option
   177     Option.map ~> map_option
   178     option_rel ~> rel_option
   179     option_rec ~> case_option
   180   Renamed theorems:
   181     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   182     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   183     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   184     option.recs ~> option.case
   185     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   186     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   187     map.simps ~> list.map
   188     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   189     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   190     the.simps ~> option.sel
   191   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   194     map_sum ~> sum_map
   195     map_pair ~> prod_map
   196     fset_rel ~> rel_fset
   197     cset_rel ~> rel_cset
   198     set_rel ~> rel_set
   199 
   200 * New theory:
   201     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   202 
   203 * Theory reorganizations:
   204   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   205 
   206 * Sledgehammer:
   207   - New option:
   208       smt_proofs
   209   - Renamed options:
   210       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   211       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   212     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Metis:
   215   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   216     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   219 
   220 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   223 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   224 
   225 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   226 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   227 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   228 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   229 
   230 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   234 with the given constants.
   235 
   236 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   237 
   238 Fact consolidations:
   239     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   240     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   241     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   242     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   243     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   244     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   245     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   246     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   247     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   248     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   249     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   250     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   251     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   252     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   253     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   254     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   255     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   256     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   257     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   258     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   259     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   260     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   261     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   262     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   263     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   264     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   265     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   266     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   267     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   268     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   269     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   270     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   271     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   272     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   273     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   274     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   275     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   276     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   277     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   278     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   279 
   280 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   281 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   282 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   283 
   284 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   285 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   286 
   287 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   288 
   289 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   290 
   291 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   293 
   294 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   298 operations on records.
   299 
   300 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   304     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   308     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   309     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311 
   312 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   313   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   314   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   315   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   316     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   317   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   318     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   319   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   320 INCOMPATBILITY.
   321 
   322 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   323     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   324     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   325     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   326     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Fact name consolidation:
   330     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   331     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   332     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   333     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   334     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   338 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   339 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   340 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   341 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   342 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   343 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   344 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345 
   346 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   347 
   348 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   349 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   350 
   351 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   352 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   353 
   354 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   355 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   356 or the brute way with
   357 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   358 
   359 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   360 
   361 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   362 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   365 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   366 
   367 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   368 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   369 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   370 INCOMPATIBILITY
   371 
   372 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   373 
   374 * Nitpick:
   375   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   376     infinite values.
   377   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   378     "Rep_Integ".
   379   - Removed "std" option.
   380   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   381     "hide_types".
   382 
   383 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   384   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   385   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   386     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   387     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   388     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   389     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   390     intervals.
   391 
   392 
   393 *** Scala ***
   394 
   395 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   396 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   397 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   398 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   399 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   400 
   401 
   402 *** ML ***
   403 
   404 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   405 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   406 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   407 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   408 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   409 of schematic variables.
   410 
   411 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   412 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   414 formal context.
   415 
   416 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   417 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   418 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   419 actually belongs to it).
   420 
   421 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   422 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   423 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   424 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   425 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   426 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   427 
   428 
   429 *** System ***
   430 
   431 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   432 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   433 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   434 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   435 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   436 
   437 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   438 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   439 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   440 
   441 
   442 
   443 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   444 -------------------------------------
   445 
   446 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   447 
   448 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   449 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   450 
   451 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   452 after edits surrounding the command location.
   453 
   454 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   455 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   456 e.g. out-of-memory).
   457 
   458 
   459 *** System ***
   460 
   461 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   462 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   463 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   464 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   465 
   466 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   467 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   468 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   469 
   470 
   471 
   472 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   473 -------------------------------------
   474 
   475 *** General ***
   476 
   477 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   478 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   479 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   482 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   485 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   486 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   487 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   488 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   489 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   490 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   491 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   492 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   493 syntax.
   494 
   495 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   496 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   499 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   500 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   502 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   503 
   504 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   508 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   509 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   510 
   511 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   512 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   513 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   514 
   515 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   516 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   517 
   518 
   519 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   520 
   521 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   522 Documentation panel.
   523 
   524 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   525 documentation.
   526 
   527 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   528 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   529 
   530 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   531 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   532 normal editing and checking process.
   533 
   534 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   535 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   536 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   537 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   538 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   539 
   540 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   541 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   542 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   543 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   544 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   545 
   546 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   547 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   548 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   549 
   550 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   551 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   552 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   553 to resolve conflict.
   554 
   555 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   556 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   557 
   558 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   559 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   560 such command executions while editing.
   561 
   562 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   563 document content.
   564 
   565 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   566 toplevel theorem statements.
   567 
   568 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   569 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   570 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   571 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   572 
   573 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   574 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   575 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   576 
   577 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   578 / Global Options / Appearance".
   579 
   580 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   581 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   582 
   583 
   584 *** Pure ***
   585 
   586 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   587 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   588 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   589 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   590 details.
   591 
   592 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   593 
   594 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   595 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   596 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   597 
   598 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   600 
   601 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   602 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   603 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   604 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   607 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   608 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   609 
   610 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   611 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   612 
   613 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   614 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   615 situations.
   616 
   617 
   618 *** HOL ***
   619 
   620 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   621 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   625 
   626 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   627 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   628 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   629 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   630 
   631   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   632 
   633 * Code generator:
   634   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   635     'code_instance'.
   636   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   637     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   638 
   639 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   640 examples.
   641 
   642 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   643 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   644 to distinguish both when desired.
   645 
   646 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   647 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   648 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   649 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   652 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   653 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   654 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   655 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   656 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   659 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   660 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   661 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   662 
   663 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   664 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   665 
   666 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   667 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   668 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   669 
   670 * Lifting:
   671   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   672     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   673       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   674       transfer rules
   675     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   676       correspondence relation can be generated
   677     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   678       parametricity
   679     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   680   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   681   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   682     copies
   683   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   684     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   685     anonymous context)
   686   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   687     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   688   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   689     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   690   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   691     INCOMPATIBILITY
   692 
   693 * Transfer:
   694   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   695     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   696   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   697   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   698     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   699   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   700 
   701 * Reification and reflection:
   702   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   703     "Reification".
   704   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   705   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   709   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   710     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   711     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   712   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   713     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   714   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   715     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   716     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   717     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   718     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   719     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   720     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   721     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   722   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   723     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   724   - Fact renames:
   725       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   726       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   730 
   731 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   732 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   733 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   737 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   738 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   739 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   740 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   741 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   742 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   743 lemmas.
   744 
   745 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   746 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   747 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   750 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   751 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   752 
   753 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   754 top and bottom elements.
   755 
   756 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   757 
   758 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   759 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   760 
   761  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   762    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   763    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   764 
   765  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   766    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   767    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   768 
   769    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   770    arbitrary filter.
   771 
   772  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   773    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   774    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   775    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   776    on a compact set.
   777 
   778  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   779    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   780    linear_continuum_topology).
   781 
   782  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   783    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   784    on all sequences converging to x.
   785 
   786  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   787    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   788    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   789    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   790    left or right.
   791 
   792  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   793 
   794      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   795 
   796  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   797    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   798 
   799  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   800    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   801    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   802    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   803    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   804    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   805 
   806  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   807 
   808    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   809 
   810    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   811      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   812 
   813    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   814 
   815    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   816      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   817 
   818    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   819 
   820    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   821 
   822  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   823 
   824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   825 
   826 * Nitpick:
   827   - Added option "spy".
   828   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   829 
   830 * Sledgehammer:
   831   - Renamed option:
   832       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   833     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   834   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   835   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   836   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   837 
   838 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   839 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   840 
   841 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   842   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   843   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   844     generated code.
   845   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   846   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   847   - Fact renames:
   848     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   849     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   850     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   851 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   854 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   855 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   856 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   857 
   858 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   859 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   860 
   861 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   864 
   865     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   866     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   867 
   868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   871 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   872 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   873 
   874 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   875 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   876 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   877 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * HOL-BNF:
   880   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   881     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   882     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   883     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   884   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   885     coinduct).
   886   - Renamed keywords:
   887     data ~> datatype_new
   888     codata ~> codatatype
   889     bnf_def ~> bnf
   890   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   891     discs ~> disc
   892     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   893     map_id' ~> map_id
   894     sels ~> sel
   895     set_map' ~> set_map
   896     sets ~> set
   897 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 
   900 *** ML ***
   901 
   902 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   903 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   904 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   905 Examples.thy in particular.
   906 
   907 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   908 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   909 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   910 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   911 
   912 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   913 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   914 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   915 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   919 
   920     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   921     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   922 
   923 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   926 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   927 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   928 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   929 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   930 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   931 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   932 
   933 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   934 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   935 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   936 clasets separately from the context.
   937 
   938 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   940 
   941 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   942 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   943 
   944 
   945 *** System ***
   946 
   947 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   948 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   951 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952 
   953 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   954 settings variable.
   955 
   956 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   957 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   958 always pdf.
   959 
   960 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   961 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   962 
   963 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   964 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   965 
   966 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   967 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   968 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   969 
   970 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   971 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   972 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   973 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   974 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   975 for HTML presentation of theories.
   976 
   977 
   978 
   979 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   980 -----------------------------------
   981 
   982 *** General ***
   983 
   984 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   985 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   986 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   987 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   988 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   989 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   990 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   991 
   992 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   993 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   994 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   995 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   996 
   997 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   998 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   999 
  1000 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1001 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1002 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1003 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1004 dependencies properly.
  1005 
  1006 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1007 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1008 
  1009 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1010 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1011 
  1012 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1013 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1014 and "class ... context ...".
  1015 
  1016 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1017 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1018 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1019 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1020 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1021 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1022 
  1023 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1024 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1025 
  1026 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1027 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1028 
  1029 
  1030 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1031 
  1032 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1033 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1034 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1035 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1036 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1037 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1038 
  1039 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1040 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1041 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1042 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1043 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1044 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1045 
  1046 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1047 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1048 browser on demand.
  1049 
  1050 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1051 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1052 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1053 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1054 
  1055 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1056 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1057 
  1058 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1059 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1060 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1061 potentially infinite message streams.
  1062 
  1063 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1064 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1065 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1066 schemes.
  1067 
  1068 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1069 symbols.
  1070 
  1071 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1072 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1073 
  1074 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1075 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1076 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1077 
  1078 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1079 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1080 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1081 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1082 
  1083 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1084 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1085 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1086 
  1087 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1088 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1089 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1090 Isabelle distribution.
  1091 
  1092 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1093 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1094 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1095 
  1096 
  1097 *** Pure ***
  1098 
  1099 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1100 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1101 
  1102 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1103 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1104 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1107 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1108 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1109 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1110 with some care where this is really required.
  1111 
  1112 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1113 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1114 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1115 
  1116   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1117 
  1118 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1119 a Hasse diagram.
  1120 
  1121 
  1122 *** HOL ***
  1123 
  1124 * Sledgehammer:
  1125 
  1126   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1127     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1128   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1129   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1130   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1131   - Renamed options:
  1132       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1133       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1134       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1135       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1136 
  1137 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1138 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1139 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1140 
  1141 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144 * Lifting:
  1145   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1146   - quot_del attribute
  1147   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1148 
  1149 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1150 expressions.
  1151 
  1152 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1153 pointfree expressions.
  1154 
  1155 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1156 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1157 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1158 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1160 
  1161 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1162 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1163 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1164 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1165 accordingly.
  1166 
  1167 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1168 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1171 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1176 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1177 
  1178 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1179 
  1180 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1181 
  1182   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1183   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1184 
  1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1188 
  1189   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1190   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1191 
  1192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1195 
  1196   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1197     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1198     output f x converges to G.
  1199 
  1200   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1201     infinity (at_bot).
  1202 
  1203   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1204     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1205 
  1206   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1207     at_top".
  1208 
  1209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1212 lattice type classes.
  1213 
  1214 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1215 
  1216     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1217     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1218 
  1219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1222 changes as follows.
  1223 
  1224   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1225 
  1226       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1227       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1228 
  1229   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1230     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1231     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1232     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1233 
  1234   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1235     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1236     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1237 
  1238   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1239     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1240     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1241     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1242 
  1243   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1244     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1245 
  1246       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1247       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1248       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1249       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1250       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1251       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1252       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1253       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1254       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1255       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1256       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1257       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1258       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1259       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1260       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1261       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1262 
  1263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1266 
  1267 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1268 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1269 
  1270 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1271 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1272 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1273 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1274 
  1275   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1276   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1277   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1278   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1279   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1280   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1281   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1282   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1283   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1284   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1285 
  1286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1287 
  1288 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1289 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1290 Data").
  1291 
  1292 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1293 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1294 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1295 code.
  1296 
  1297 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1298 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1299 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1303 
  1304 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1305 
  1306 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1307 
  1308   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1309   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1310 
  1311 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1312 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1313 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1314 
  1315   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1316 
  1317     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1318     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1319     cart_base i  removed
  1320     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1321 
  1322   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1323 
  1324   Renamed lemmas:
  1325 
  1326     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1327     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1328     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1329     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1330     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1331     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1332     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1333     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1334     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1335     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1336 
  1337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338 
  1339 * HOL/Probability:
  1340 
  1341   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1342 
  1343   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1344     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1345     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1346 
  1347   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1348     projective family).
  1349 
  1350 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1351 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1352 
  1353 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1354 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1355 datatypes.
  1356 
  1357 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1358 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1359 
  1360 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1361 trees for the code generator.
  1362 
  1363 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1364 Lifting/Transfer.
  1365 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1369 
  1370 
  1371 *** Document preparation ***
  1372 
  1373 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1374 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1375 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1376 
  1377 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1378 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1379 
  1380 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1381 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1382 document/root.tex.
  1383 
  1384 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1385 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1386 
  1387 
  1388 *** ML ***
  1389 
  1390 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1391 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1392 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1393 
  1394 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1395 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1396 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1397 
  1398 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1399 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1400 necessarily printing visible text.
  1401 
  1402 
  1403 *** System ***
  1404 
  1405 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1406 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1407 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1408 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1409 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1410 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1411 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1412 
  1413 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1414 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1415 
  1416   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1417 
  1418 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1419 
  1420 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1421 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1422 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1423 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1424 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1425 
  1426 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1427 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1428 
  1429 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1430 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1431 
  1432 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1436 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1437 version of Isabelle.
  1438 
  1439 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1440 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1441 
  1442 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1443 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1444 for home-made settings.
  1445 
  1446 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1447 
  1448 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1449 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1450 configuration.
  1451 
  1452 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1453 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1454 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1455 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1456 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1457 
  1458 
  1459 
  1460 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1461 ------------------------------
  1462 
  1463 *** General ***
  1464 
  1465 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1466 
  1467   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1468     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1469   - markup for bound variables
  1470   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1471   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1472   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1473     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1474 
  1475 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1476 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1477 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1478 
  1479 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1480 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1481 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1482 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1483 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1484 
  1485   context
  1486     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1487     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1488   begin
  1489 
  1490   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1491 
  1492   end
  1493 
  1494   thm my_trans
  1495 
  1496 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1497 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1498 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1499 
  1500 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1501 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1502 
  1503 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1504 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1505 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1506 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1507 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1508 
  1509 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1510 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1511 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1512 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1513 indices of schematic variables.
  1514 
  1515 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1516 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1517 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1518 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1519 etc. was exploited.
  1520 
  1521 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1522 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1523 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1524 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1525 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1526 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1527 
  1528 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1529 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1530 manual.
  1531 
  1532 
  1533 *** Pure ***
  1534 
  1535 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1536 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1537 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1538 
  1539 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1540 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1541 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1542 undocumented feature.)
  1543 
  1544 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1545 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1546 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1547 
  1548   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1549 
  1550   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1551     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1552 
  1553 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1554 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1555 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1556 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1557 
  1558 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1559 
  1560     num ~> num_token
  1561     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1562     xstr ~> str_token
  1563 
  1564 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1565 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1566 position information via constraints).
  1567 
  1568 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1569 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1570 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1573 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1574 
  1575 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1576 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1577 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1580 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581 
  1582 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1583 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1584 
  1585   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1586 
  1587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588 
  1589 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1590 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1593 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1594 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1595 
  1596 
  1597 *** HOL ***
  1598 
  1599 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1600 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1601 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1602 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1603 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1604 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1605 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1606 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1607 possible.
  1608 
  1609 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1610 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1611 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1612 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1613 
  1614 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1615 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1618 
  1619 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1620 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1621 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1622 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1623 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1624 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1625 
  1626   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1627     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1628 
  1629   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1630     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1631     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1632 
  1633   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1634     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1635 
  1636   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1637     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1638     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1639 
  1640   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1641     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1642 
  1643 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1644 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1645 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1646 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1647 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1648 
  1649   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1650     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1651     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1652     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1653     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1654 
  1655     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1656     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1657 
  1658   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1659     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1660     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1661     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1662     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1663     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1664     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1665     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1666 
  1667   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1668     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1669     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1670     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1671 
  1672   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1673     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1674     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1675     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1676 
  1677   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1678     from type nat to type int.
  1679 
  1680 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1681 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1682 
  1683   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1684     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1685     type.  Example syntax:
  1686 
  1687     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1688       is List.insert
  1689 
  1690     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1691     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1692     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1693     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1694     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1695     by the package.
  1696 
  1697   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1698     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1699     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1700     code generation for each constant.
  1701 
  1702   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1703     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1704     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1705     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1706     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1707 
  1708   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1709     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1710     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1711 
  1712 * Quotient package:
  1713 
  1714   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1715     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1716 
  1717   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1718     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1719 
  1720   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1721     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1722     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1723 
  1724   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1725     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1728 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1729 
  1730 * Quickcheck:
  1731 
  1732   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1733     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1734     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1735     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1736     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1737 
  1738     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1739     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1740     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1741 
  1742     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1743     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1744 
  1745     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1746     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1747     show genuine counterexamples.
  1748 
  1749   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1750     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1751 
  1752     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1753     constructors of that type.
  1754 
  1755   - Support for multisets.
  1756 
  1757   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1758 
  1759   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1760     conjectures in a locale context.
  1761 
  1762 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1763 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1764 
  1765 * Sledgehammer:
  1766   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1767     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1768   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1769   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1770     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1771   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1772   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1773   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1774   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1775 
  1776 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1777 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1778 
  1779 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1780 
  1781 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1784 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1785 
  1786   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1787 
  1788 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1789 a list and a nat.
  1790 
  1791 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1792 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1793 
  1794 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1795 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1796 default.
  1797 
  1798 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1799 
  1800   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1801 
  1802 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1803 
  1804 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1805 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1806 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1807 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1808 one_case.
  1809 
  1810 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1811 the result of the fact expression.
  1812 
  1813 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1814 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1815 of some relation theorems:
  1816 
  1817   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1818   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1819   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1820   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1821   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1822   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1823 
  1824 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1825 
  1826 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1827 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1828 
  1829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1832 to match the constant's name:
  1833 
  1834   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1835   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1836   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1837   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1838   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1839   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1840   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1841   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1842   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1843   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1844   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1845   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1846   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1847   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1848   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1849   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1850   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1851   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1852   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1853   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1854   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1855   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1856   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1857   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1858 
  1859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1860 
  1861 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1862 and corresponding theorem names:
  1863 
  1864   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1865 
  1866   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1867 
  1868   - Renamed theorems:
  1869 
  1870     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1871     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1872     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1873     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1874     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1875     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1876     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1877     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1878     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1879     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1880     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1881     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1882     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1883     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1884     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1885     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1886     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1887     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1888     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1889     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1890     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1891     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1892     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1893 
  1894     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1895 
  1896     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1897 
  1898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1901 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1902 
  1903   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1904   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1905   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1906   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1907   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1908   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1909   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1910   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1911   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1912   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1913   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1914   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1915   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1916   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1917   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1918   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1919   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1920   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1921   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1922   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1923   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1924 
  1925 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1926 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1927 
  1928 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1931 
  1932   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1933   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1934   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1935   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1936   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1937   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1938   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1939   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1940   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1941   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1942   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1943   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1944   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1945   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1946   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1947   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1948   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1949   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1950 
  1951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1952 
  1953 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1954 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1955 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1956 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1957 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1958 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1959 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1960 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1961 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1962 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1963 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1964 
  1965 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1966 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1967 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1968 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1969 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1970 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1971 
  1972 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1973 through option types.
  1974 
  1975 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1976 relations.
  1977 
  1978 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1981 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1982 
  1983   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1984   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1985   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1986   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1987   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1988   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1989   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1990   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1991   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1992   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1993   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1994   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1995   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1996   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1997   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1998   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1999   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2000   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2001   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2002   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2003   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2004   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2005   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2006   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2007   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2008   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2009   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2010   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2011   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2012   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2013   zless_le ~> less_le
  2014   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2015   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2016   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2017 
  2018 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2019 
  2020   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2021 
  2022 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2023 
  2024 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2025 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2026 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2027 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2031 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2032 
  2033 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2034 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2035 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2036 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2037 follows:
  2038 
  2039   Operations:
  2040   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2041   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2042   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2043   del -> rbt_del
  2044   delete -> rbt_delete
  2045   ins -> rbt_ins
  2046   insert -> rbt_insert
  2047   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2048   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2049   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2050   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2051   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2052   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2053   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2054   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2055   union -> rbt_union
  2056   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2057   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2058 
  2059   Lemmas:
  2060   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2061   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2062   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2063   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2064   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2065   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2066   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2067   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2068   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2069   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2070   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2071   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2072   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2073   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2074   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2075   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2076   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2077   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2078   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2079   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2080   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2081   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2082   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2083   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2084   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2085   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2086   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2087   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2088   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2089   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2090   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2091   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2092   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2093   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2094   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2095   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2096   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2097   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2098   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2099   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2100   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2101   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2102   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2103   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2104   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2105   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2106   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2107   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2108   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2109   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2110   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2111   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2112   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2113   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2114   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2115   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2116   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2117   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2118   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2119   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2120   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2121   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2122   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2123   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2124   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2125   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2126   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2127   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2128   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2129   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2130   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2131   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2132   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2133   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2134   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2135   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2136   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2137   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2138   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2139   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2140   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2141   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2142   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2143 
  2144 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2145 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2146 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2147 
  2148   Changed Operations:
  2149   float_abs -> abs
  2150   float_nprt -> nprt
  2151   float_pprt -> pprt
  2152   pow2 -> use powr
  2153   round_down -> float_round_down
  2154   round_up -> float_round_up
  2155   scale -> exponent
  2156 
  2157   Removed Operations:
  2158   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2159 
  2160   Renamed Lemmas:
  2161   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2162   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2163   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2164   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2165   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2166   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2167   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2168   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2169   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2170   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2171   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2172   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2173   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2174   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2175   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2176   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2177   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2178   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2179   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2180   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2181   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2182   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2183   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2184   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2185   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2186   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2187   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2188   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2189   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2190   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2191   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2192   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2193   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2194   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2195   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2196   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2197 
  2198   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2199   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2200   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2201   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2202   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2203   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2204   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2205   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2206   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2207   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2208 
  2209 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2210 association lists with distinct keys.
  2211 
  2212 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2213 annotated commands.
  2214 
  2215 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2216 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2217 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2218 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2221 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2222 instead.
  2223 
  2224   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2225   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2226   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2227   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2228   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2229   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2230   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2231   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2232   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2233   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2234   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2235   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2236   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2237   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2238   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2239   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2240   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2241   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2242   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2243   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2244   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2245   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2246   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2247   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2248   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2249   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2250   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2251   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2252   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2253   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2254   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2255   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2256   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2257   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2258   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2259   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2260   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2261   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2262   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2263   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2264   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2265 
  2266 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2267 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2268 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2269 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2270 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2271 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2272 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2273 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2274 
  2275 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2276 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2277 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2278 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2279 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2280 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2281 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2282 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2283 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2284 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2285 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2286 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287 
  2288   Renamed constants:
  2289   measure -> emeasure
  2290   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2291   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2292   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2293   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2294 
  2295   Removed locales:
  2296   completeable_measure_space
  2297   finite_measure_space
  2298   finite_prob_space
  2299   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2300   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2301   finite_sigma_algebra
  2302   measure_space
  2303   pair_finite_prob_space
  2304   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2305   pair_finite_space
  2306   pair_sigma_algebra
  2307   product_sigma_algebra
  2308 
  2309   Removed constants:
  2310   conditional_space
  2311   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2312   image_space
  2313   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2314   pair_measure_generator
  2315   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2316   subvimage
  2317 
  2318   Replacement theorems:
  2319   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2320   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2321   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2322   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2323   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2324   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2325   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2326   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2327   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2328   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2329   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2330   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2331   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2332   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2333   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2334   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2335   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2336   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2337   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2338   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2339   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2340   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2341   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2342   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2343   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2344   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2345   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2346   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2347   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2348   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2349   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2350   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2351   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2352   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2353   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2354   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2355   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2356   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2357   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2358   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2359   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2360   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2361   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2362   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2363   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2364   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2365   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2366   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2367   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2368   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2369   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2370   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2371   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2372   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2373   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2374   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2375   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2376   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2377   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2378   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2379   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2380   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2381   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2382   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2383   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2384   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2385   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2386   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2387   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2388   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2389   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2390   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2391   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2392   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2393   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2394   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2395   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2396   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2397   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2398   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2399   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2400   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2401   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2402   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2403   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2404   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2405   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2406   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2407   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2408   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2409   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2410   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2411   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2412   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2413   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2414   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2415   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2416   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2417   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2418   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2419   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2420   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2421   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2422   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2423   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2424   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2425   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2426   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2427   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2428   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2429   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2430   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2431   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2432   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2433   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2434   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2435   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2436   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2437   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2438   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2439   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2440   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2441   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2442   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2443   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2444   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2445   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2446   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2447 
  2448 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2449 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2450 
  2451 
  2452 *** FOL ***
  2453 
  2454 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2455 
  2456 
  2457 *** ZF ***
  2458 
  2459 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2460 analysis.
  2461 
  2462 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2463 
  2464 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466 
  2467 *** ML ***
  2468 
  2469 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2470 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2471 
  2472 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2473 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2474 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2475 
  2476 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2477 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2478 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2479 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2480 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2481 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2482 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2483 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2484 
  2485 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2486 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2487 
  2488 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2489 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2490 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2491 
  2492 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2493 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2496 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2497 context as well.
  2498 
  2499 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2500 
  2501   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2502   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2503   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2504   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2505   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2506   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2507   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2508   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2509   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2510   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2511   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2512   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2513 
  2514 
  2515 *** System ***
  2516 
  2517 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2518 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2519 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2520 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2521 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2522 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2523 the generic user home was intended.
  2524 
  2525 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2526 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2527 
  2528 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2529 (not just JRE).
  2530 
  2531 
  2532 
  2533 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2534 ------------------------------------
  2535 
  2536 *** General ***
  2537 
  2538 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2539 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2540 
  2541   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2542     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2543     files for checking).
  2544 
  2545   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2546     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2547     positions.
  2548 
  2549   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2550     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2551     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2552 
  2553   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2554     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2555     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2556 
  2557   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2558     cores.
  2559 
  2560   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2561     versions (garbage collection).
  2562 
  2563 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2564 including some remaining limitations.
  2565 
  2566 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2567 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2568 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2569 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2570 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2574 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2575 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2576 
  2577 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2578 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2579 usedir option -Q.
  2580 
  2581 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2582 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2583 
  2584   long_names   ~> names_long
  2585   short_names  ~> names_short
  2586   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2587 
  2588 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2589 
  2590   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2591 
  2592 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2593 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2594 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2595 
  2596 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2597 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2598 
  2599 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2600   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2601   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2602   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2603     "Classical Reasoner".
  2604 
  2605 
  2606 *** HOL ***
  2607 
  2608 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2609 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2612 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2613 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2614 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2615 class complete_linorder.
  2616 
  2617 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2618 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2619 
  2620 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2621 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2622 
  2623   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2624   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2625   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2626   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2627   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2628   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2629   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2630   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2631   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2632   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2633   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2634 
  2635 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2636 
  2637   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2638   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2639   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2640   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2641   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2642   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2643   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2644   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2645   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2646   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2647   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2648   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2649   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2650   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2651   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2652   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2653 
  2654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2660 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2661 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2662 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2665 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2666 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2670 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2671 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2672 
  2673 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2674 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2675 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2678 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2679 
  2680 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2681 
  2682     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2683     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2684 
  2685 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2686 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2689 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2690 
  2691 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2692 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2693 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2694 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2697   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2698   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2699   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2700   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2701   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2702   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2703 
  2704 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2705 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2708   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2709   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2710   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2711   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2712   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2713   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2714   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2715   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2716   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2717   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2718   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2719   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2720   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2721   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2722   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2723   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2724   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2725   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2726   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2727   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2728   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2729   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2730   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2731   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2732   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2733   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2734   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2735   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2736   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2737   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2738   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2739   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2740   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2741   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2742   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2743   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2744   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2745   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2746   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2747   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2748   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2749   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2750   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2751   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2752   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2753   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2754   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2755   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2756   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2757   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2758   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2759   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2760   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2761   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2762   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2763   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2764   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2765   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2766   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2767   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2768   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2769   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2770   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2771   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2772   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2773   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2774   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2775   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2776   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2777   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2778   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2779   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2780   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2781   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2782   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2783   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2784   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2785   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2786   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2787   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2788   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2789 
  2790 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2791 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2792 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2793 
  2794 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2795 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2796 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2797 
  2798 * Code generation:
  2799 
  2800   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2801     characters in the target language.
  2802 
  2803   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2804     instead.
  2805 
  2806   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2807 
  2808   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2809     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2810 
  2811       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2812 
  2813 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2814 
  2815 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2816 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2817 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2818 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2819 syntax.
  2820 
  2821 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2822 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2823 
  2824 * Nitpick:
  2825   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2826   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2827   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2828     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Sledgehammer:
  2831   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2832   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2833     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2834   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2835     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2836   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2837     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2839     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2840   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2841     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * Metis:
  2844   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2846     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848 * Command 'try':
  2849   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2850     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2852     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2853 
  2854 * Quickcheck:
  2855   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2856     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2857   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2858     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2859   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2860     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2861     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2862     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2863   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2864     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2865 
  2866 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2867 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2868 
  2869 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2870 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2871 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2872 
  2873 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2874 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2878 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2879 
  2880 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2881 arithmetic.
  2882 
  2883 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2884 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2885 and lattice type classes.
  2886 
  2887 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2888 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2889 
  2890 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2891 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2892 
  2893 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2894 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2895 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2898   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2899   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2900   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2901 
  2902 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2903 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2904 constants:
  2905 
  2906   type inat   ~> type enat
  2907   Fin         ~> enat
  2908   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2909   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2910   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2911 
  2912 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2913 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914 
  2915 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2916 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2917 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2918 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2919 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2920 
  2921 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2922 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2923 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2924 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2925 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2926 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2927 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2928 
  2929   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2930   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2931   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2932   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2933 
  2934 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2935 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2936 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2939   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2940   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2941   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2942   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2943   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2944   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2945   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2946   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2947   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2948   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2949   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2950   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2951   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2952   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2953   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2954   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2955   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2956   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2957   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2958   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2959   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2960   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2961   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2962   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2963   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2964   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2965   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2966   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2967   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2968   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2969   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2970   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2971   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2972   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2973   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2974   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2975   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2976   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2977   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2978   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2979   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2980   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2981   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2982   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2983   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2984   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2985   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2986   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2987   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2988   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2989 
  2990 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2991   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2992   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2993   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2994   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2995     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3000   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3001   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3002   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3003   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3004   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3005   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3006   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3007   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3008   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3009   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3010   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3011   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3012   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3013   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3014   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3015   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3016   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3017   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3018   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3019   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3020   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3021   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3022   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3023   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3024 
  3025 
  3026 *** Document preparation ***
  3027 
  3028 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3029 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3030 same.
  3031 
  3032 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3033 result.
  3034 
  3035 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3036 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3037 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3038 
  3039 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3040 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3041 
  3042 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3043 like this:
  3044 
  3045   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3046   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3047 
  3048 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3049 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3050 layouts.
  3051 
  3052 
  3053 *** ML ***
  3054 
  3055 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3056 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3057 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3058 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3059 under external program control.
  3060 
  3061 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3062 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3063 
  3064 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3065 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3066 (better known as Proof General).
  3067 
  3068 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3069 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3070 
  3071 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3072 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3073 
  3074 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3075 (including quotes etc.).
  3076 
  3077 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3078 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3079 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3080 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3081 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3082 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3083 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3084 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3085 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3086 
  3087 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3088 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3089 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3090 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3091 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3092 
  3093 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3094 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3095 
  3096 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3097 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3098 
  3099 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3100 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3101 
  3102 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3103 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3104 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3105 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3106 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3107 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3108 proper Proof.context.
  3109 
  3110 
  3111 *** System ***
  3112 
  3113 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3114 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3115 
  3116 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3117 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3118 
  3119 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3120 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3121 
  3122   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3123   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3124   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3125   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3126   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3127 
  3128 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3129 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3130 
  3131 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3132 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3133 example:
  3134 
  3135   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3136 
  3137 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3138 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3139 
  3140 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3141 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3142 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3143 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3144 
  3145 
  3146 
  3147 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3148 ----------------------------------
  3149 
  3150 *** General ***
  3151 
  3152 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3153 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3154 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3155 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3156 like this:
  3157 
  3158   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3159 
  3160 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3161 
  3162 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3163 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3164 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3165 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3166 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3167 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3168 
  3169 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3170 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3171 the following package declarations:
  3172 
  3173   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3174   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3175 
  3176 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3177 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3178 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3179 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3180 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3181 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3182 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3183 
  3184 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3185 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3186 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3187 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3188 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3189 
  3190 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3191 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3192 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3193 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3194 
  3195 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3196 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3197 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3198 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3199 
  3200   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3201 
  3202   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3203   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3204   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3205   show_types                    show_types
  3206   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3207   show_consts                   show_consts
  3208   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3209 
  3210   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3211   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3212   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3213 
  3214   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3215   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3216 
  3217   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3218 
  3219   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3220   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3221   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3222   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3223   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3224 
  3225 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3226 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3227 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3228 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3229 
  3230 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3234   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3235 
  3236 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3237 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3238 float_token.
  3239 
  3240 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3241 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3245 DejaVu Sans.
  3246 
  3247 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3248 
  3249 
  3250 *** Pure ***
  3251 
  3252 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3253 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3254 time.
  3255 
  3256 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3257 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3260 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3263 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3264 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3265 command already provided this functionality.
  3266 
  3267 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3268 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3269 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3270 without interpretations.
  3271 
  3272 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3273 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3274 
  3275 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3276 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3277 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3278 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3279 
  3280 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3281 'definition' instead.
  3282 
  3283 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3284 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3285 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3286 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3287 
  3288 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3289 constructors.
  3290 
  3291 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3292 the local file system.
  3293 
  3294 
  3295 *** HOL ***
  3296 
  3297 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3298 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3299 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3300 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3301 
  3302   declare [[coercion f]]
  3303 
  3304 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3305 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3306 
  3307   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3308 
  3309 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3310 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3311 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3312 other theories like this:
  3313 
  3314   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3315 
  3316 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3317 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3318 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3319 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3320 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3321 for examples.
  3322 
  3323 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3324 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3327 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3328 
  3329 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3330 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3331 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3332 
  3333 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3334 functorial structure of types.
  3335 
  3336 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3337 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3338 
  3339 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3340 languages.
  3341 
  3342 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3343 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3347 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3350 combinators any longer.
  3351 
  3352 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3353 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3354 
  3355 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3356 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3357 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3358 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3359 
  3360   record 'a foo = ...
  3361   ...
  3362   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3363 
  3364 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3365 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3369 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3370 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3371 
  3372 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3373 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3374 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3375 
  3376 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3377 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3380 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3381 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3382 independently.
  3383 
  3384 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3385 counter example search.
  3386 
  3387 * Sledgehammer:
  3388   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3389     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3390     sledgehammer").
  3391   - Renamed commands:
  3392     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3393     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3394     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3395     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396   - Renamed options:
  3397     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3398     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3399     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3400     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3401     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * Nitpick:
  3404   - Renamed options:
  3405     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3406     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3407     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3409   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3410   - Added "whack" option.
  3411   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3412   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3413   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3414   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3415     higher cardinalities.
  3416   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3417 
  3418 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3419 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3420 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3421 
  3422     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3423 
  3424 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3425 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3426 
  3427 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3428 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3429 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3430 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3431 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3432 "smt_solver".
  3433 
  3434 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3435 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3436 
  3437 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3438 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3439 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3440 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3443   - Renamed:
  3444     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3445     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3446     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447   - Added:
  3448     smt_verbose
  3449     smt_random_seed
  3450     smt_datatypes
  3451     smt_infer_triggers
  3452     smt_monomorph_limit
  3453     cvc3_options
  3454     remote_cvc3_options
  3455     remote_z3_options
  3456     yices_options
  3457 
  3458 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3459 header.
  3460 
  3461 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3462 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3463 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3464 
  3465   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3466 
  3467 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3470 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473 
  3474 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3475 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476 
  3477 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3478 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3479 
  3480 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3481 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3484 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3485 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3493 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3496 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3497 for congruent(2)).
  3498 
  3499 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3500 
  3501   types
  3502     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3503     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3504 
  3505   constants
  3506     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3507     True ~> HOL.True
  3508     False ~> HOL.False
  3509     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3510     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3511     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3512     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3513     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3514     The ~> HOL.The
  3515     All ~> HOL.All
  3516     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3517     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3518     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3519     If ~> HOL.If
  3520     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3521     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3522     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3523     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3524     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3525     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3526     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3527     op : ~> Set.member
  3528     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3529 
  3530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3533 
  3534     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3535     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3536     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3537     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3538     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3539     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3540     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3541     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3542 
  3543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3544 
  3545 * More stylized fact names:
  3546 
  3547   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3548   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3549   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3550   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3551 
  3552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3555 
  3556   constants
  3557     null ~> List.null
  3558 
  3559   facts
  3560     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3561     null_empty ~> null_def
  3562 
  3563 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3564 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3565 generation.
  3566 
  3567 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3568 Haskell code.
  3569 
  3570 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3571 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3572 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3575 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3578 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3579 
  3580 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3581 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3582 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3585 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3586 
  3587 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3589 
  3590 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3591 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3592 referred to by its qualified name.
  3593 
  3594   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3595   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3596   product ~>  Enum.product
  3597 
  3598 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3599 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3603 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3604 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3606 
  3607 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3608 sort_key.
  3609 
  3610 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3614 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3615 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3616 
  3617   types
  3618     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3619               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3620               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3621         (depends on your needs)
  3622 
  3623   constants
  3624      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3625      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3626      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3627 
  3628 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3629 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3630 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3631 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3634 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3635 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3636 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3637 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3643 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3644 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3645 
  3646 
  3647 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3648 
  3649 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3650 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3651 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3652 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3653 compatibility.
  3654 
  3655 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3656 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3657 
  3658 
  3659 *** HOLCF ***
  3660 
  3661 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3662 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3663 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3667 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3668 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3669 
  3670   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3671   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3672   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3673 
  3674 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3675 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3676 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3679 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3680 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3681 domain definition now works:
  3682 
  3683   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3684 
  3685 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3686 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3687 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3688 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3689 
  3690   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3691     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3692 
  3693   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3694 
  3695 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3696 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3697 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3700 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3703 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3704 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3705 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3706 
  3707 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3708 
  3709 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3717 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3718 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3719 
  3720 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3721 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3722 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3725 still supported as an input translation.
  3726 
  3727 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3728 
  3729   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3730   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3731   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3732   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3733   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3734   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3735   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3736 
  3737 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3738 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3741   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3742   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3743   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3744   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3745   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3746 
  3747 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3748 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3751 
  3752   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3753   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3754   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3755   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3756 
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3760 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3763 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3766   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3767   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3768   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3769   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3770   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3771   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3772   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3773   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3774   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3775   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3776   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3777   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3778   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3779   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3780   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3781   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3782   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3783   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3784   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3785 
  3786 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3789   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3790   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3791   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3792   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3793   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3794   box_less             ~> box_below
  3795   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3796   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3797   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3798   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3799   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3800   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3801   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3802   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3803   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3804   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3805   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3806   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3807   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3808   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3809   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3810   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3811   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3812   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3813   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3814   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3815   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3816   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3817   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3818   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3819   up_less              ~> up_below
  3820   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3821   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3822   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3823   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3824   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3825   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3826   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3827   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3828   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3829   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3830   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3831   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3832   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3833 
  3834 
  3835 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3836 
  3837 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3838 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 
  3841 *** ML ***
  3842 
  3843 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3844 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3845 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3846 
  3847 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3848 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3849 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3850 
  3851 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3852 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3853 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3854 
  3855 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3856 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3857 
  3858 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3859 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3860 
  3861 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3862 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3863 
  3864 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3865 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3866 
  3867 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3868 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3869 almost all situations.
  3870 
  3871 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3872 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3873 Isabelle/ML.
  3874 
  3875 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3876 meaning.
  3877 
  3878 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3879 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3880 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3881 
  3882 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3883 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3884 
  3885 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3886 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3887 
  3888 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3889 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3890 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3891 
  3892 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3893 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3894 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3895 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3896 configuration options.
  3897 
  3898 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3899 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3900 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3901 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3902 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3903 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3904 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3905 
  3906 
  3907 
  3908 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3909 ---------------------------------
  3910 
  3911 *** General ***
  3912 
  3913 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3914 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3915 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3916 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3917 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3918 their full internal name.
  3919 
  3920 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3921 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3922 Some hints on upgrading:
  3923 
  3924   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3925     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3926     which are independent of this issue.
  3927 
  3928   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3929     provides the following special forms:
  3930 
  3931       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3932       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3933       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3934 
  3935     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3936     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3937     extra variables".
  3938 
  3939     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3940     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3941     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3942     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3943     "logic".
  3944 
  3945   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3946     antiquotations:
  3947 
  3948       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3949       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3950       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3951       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3952 
  3953   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3954     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3955     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3956     antiquotations.
  3957 
  3958 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3959 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3960 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3961 diagnose syntax problems.
  3962 
  3963 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3964 
  3965 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3966 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3967 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3968 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3969 
  3970 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3971 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3972 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3973 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3976 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3977 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3978 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3979 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3982 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3983 
  3984 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3985 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3986 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3987 
  3988   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3989 
  3990 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3991 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3992 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3993 
  3994 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3995 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3999 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4000 
  4001 
  4002 *** Pure ***
  4003 
  4004 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4005 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4006 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4007 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4008 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4009 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4010 inspect proof terms.
  4011 
  4012 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4013 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4014 are added internally.  For example:
  4015 
  4016   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4017 
  4018 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4019 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4024 'class' instead.
  4025 
  4026 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4027 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4031 invariants.
  4032 
  4033 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4034 user space functionality any longer.
  4035 
  4036 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4037 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4039 
  4040 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4041 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4042 
  4043 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4044 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4045 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4046 
  4047 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4048 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4049 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4050 
  4051 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4052 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054 
  4055 *** HOL ***
  4056 
  4057 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4058 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4059 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4060 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4061 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4062 
  4063 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4064 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4065 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4066 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4067 
  4068   fun
  4069     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4070   where
  4071     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4072 
  4073   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4074     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4075 
  4076   quotient_definition
  4077     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4078 
  4079 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4080 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4081 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4082 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4083 
  4084 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4085 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4086 
  4087 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4088 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4089 
  4090 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4094 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4095 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4096 
  4097 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4098 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4107 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4110 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4111 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4114   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4115   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4116   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4117   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4118   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4119   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4120   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4121   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4122   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4123   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4124   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4125   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4126   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4127   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4128   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4129   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4130   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4131   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4132   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4133   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4134   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4135   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4136   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4137   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4138   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4139   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4140   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4141   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4142   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4143 
  4144 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4145 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4146 
  4147 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4148 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4149 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4150 
  4151 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4152 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4153 
  4154 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4155 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4158 
  4159 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4160 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4161 
  4162 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4163 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4166 
  4167 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4168 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4169 
  4170 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4171 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4172 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4173 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4176   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4177   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4178   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4180 
  4181 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4182 lattices):
  4183 
  4184     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4185     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4186 
  4187     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4188 
  4189     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4190     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4191     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4192     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4193     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4194     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4195     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4196     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4197     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4198     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4199     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4200     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4201     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4202 
  4203     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4204     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4205     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4206     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4207     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4208     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4209     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4210     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4211     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4212     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4213     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4214     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4215     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4216     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4217     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4218     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4219     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4220     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4221 
  4222   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4223   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4224 
  4225     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4226     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4227     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4228     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4229     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4230 
  4231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4232 
  4233 * Refined field classes:
  4234   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4235     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4236     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4237   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4241   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4242   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4243   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4244     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4245   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4246     equal_neg_zero.
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4250 sets to lattices:
  4251 
  4252   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4253   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4254   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4255   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4256   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4257   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4258   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4259   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4260   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4261   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4262 
  4263 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4264 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4265 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4266 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4267 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4268 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4269 
  4270 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4271 multiset order:
  4272 
  4273   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4274     <= and <;
  4275   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4276     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4277     multiset_order;
  4278   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4279     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4280     generation;
  4281   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4282     if needed.
  4283 
  4284 Renamed:
  4285 
  4286   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4287   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4288   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4289 
  4290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4291 
  4292 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4293 
  4294 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4295 
  4296 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4297 
  4298 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4299 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4300 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302   Constants:
  4303   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4304   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4305   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4306   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4307   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4308   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4309   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4310   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4311   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4312   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4313   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4314   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4315   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4316 
  4317   Lemmas:
  4318   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4319   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4320   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4321   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4322   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4323   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4324   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4325   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4326   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4327   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4328   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4329   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4330   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4331 
  4332 * Sledgehammer:
  4333   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4334     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4335     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4336     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4337     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4338     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4339     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4341   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4342     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4343   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4344     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4345     is still experimental.)
  4346   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4347     full-typed mode.
  4348   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4349 
  4350 * Nitpick:
  4351   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4352   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4353   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4354     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4355   - Added support for quotient types.
  4356   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4357     constructs.
  4358   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4359     "termination" proofs).
  4360   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4361   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4362   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4363   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4364     record getters.
  4365   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4366   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4367   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4368   - Added "atoms" option.
  4369   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4370     problems.
  4371   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4372     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4373     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4375     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4379   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4380   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4381   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4382   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4383   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4384   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4385   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4386   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4387   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4388 
  4389 
  4390 *** HOLCF ***
  4391 
  4392 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4393 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4394 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4397 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4398 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4399 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4402 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4403 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4404 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4405 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4408 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4409 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4412 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4415   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4416 
  4417 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4418 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4419 
  4420   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4421   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4422   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4423   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4424   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4425 
  4426 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4427 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4428 
  4429   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4430   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4431   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4432 
  4433 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4434 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4438 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4439 
  4440 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4443 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4444 
  4445 
  4446 *** ML ***
  4447 
  4448 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4449 
  4450     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4451     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4452 
  4453     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4454     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4455     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4456     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4457 
  4458     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4459     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4460     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4461 
  4462 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4463 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4464 
  4465 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4466 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4467 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4468 
  4469 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4470 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4471 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4472 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4473 
  4474 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4475 the context or even global references.
  4476 
  4477 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4478 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4479 
  4480 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4481 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4482 
  4483   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4484   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4485   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4486   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4487   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4488   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4489   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4490   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4491   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4492   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4493 
  4494 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4495 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4496 
  4497 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4498 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4499 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4500 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4501 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4502 
  4503 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4504 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4505 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4506 Theory_Data version.
  4507 
  4508 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4509 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4510 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4511 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4512 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4513 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4514 explicitly in rare situations.
  4515 
  4516 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4517 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4519 
  4520 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4521 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4524 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4525 quite rare).
  4526 
  4527 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4528 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4529 
  4530 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4531 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4532 terms.
  4533 
  4534 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4535 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4536 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4537 
  4538 
  4539 *** System ***
  4540 
  4541 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4542 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4543 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4544 
  4545 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4546 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4547 respectively.
  4548 
  4549 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4550 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4551 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4552 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4553 
  4554   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4555 
  4556 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4557 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4558 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4559 component.
  4560 
  4561 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4562 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4563 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4564 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4565 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4566 the user for manual installation.
  4567 
  4568 
  4569 
  4570 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4571 -------------------------------------
  4572 
  4573 *** General ***
  4574 
  4575 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4576 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4577 
  4578 
  4579 *** Pure ***
  4580 
  4581 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4582 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4583 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4584 
  4585 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4586 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4587 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4588 
  4589 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4590 interpretation.
  4591 
  4592 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4593 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 
  4596 *** Document preparation ***
  4597 
  4598 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4599 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4600 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4601 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4602 
  4603 
  4604 *** HOL ***
  4605 
  4606 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4607 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4608 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4609 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4610 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4611 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4612 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4613 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4614 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4615 
  4616 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4617 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4618 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4619 
  4620 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4621 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4622 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4623 
  4624 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4625 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4626 
  4627 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4628 
  4629 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4630 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4631 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4632 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4633 
  4634 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4635 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4636 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4637 "mirabelle" utility.
  4638 
  4639 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4640 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4641 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4642 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4643 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4644 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4645 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4646 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4647 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4648 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4649 
  4650 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4651 procedure only.
  4652 
  4653 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4654 
  4655 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4656 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4657 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4658 that fail later.
  4659 
  4660 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4661 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4662 
  4663 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4664 the same method as the approximation method.
  4665 
  4666 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4667 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4668 series expansion.
  4669 
  4670 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4671 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4672 
  4673 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4674 reals.
  4675 
  4676 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4677 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4678 
  4679 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4680 fixpoint theorem.
  4681 
  4682 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4683   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4684     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4685   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4686     accordingly
  4687   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4688     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4689   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4690     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4691 
  4692 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4693 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4694 lattice.
  4695 
  4696 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4697 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4698 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4699 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4700 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4701 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4705   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4706     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4707   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4708     le_inf_iff
  4709   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4710     sup_aci)
  4711   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4712   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4713   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4714     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4715     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4716     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4717     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4718     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4719     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4720     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4721     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4722     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4723     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4724   - authentic syntax for
  4725     Set.Pow
  4726     Set.image
  4727   - mere abbreviations:
  4728     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4729     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4730     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4731     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4732     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4733     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4734     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4735     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4736   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4737 
  4738 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4739 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4740 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4741 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4742 
  4743 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4744 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4745 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4748 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4749 
  4750 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4751 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4752 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4753 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4756 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4757 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4758 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4759 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4760 
  4761 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4762 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4766 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4769 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4770 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4771 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4772 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4773 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4774 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4778     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4779     code_post       replaces    code post
  4780     etc.
  4781   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Renamed methods:
  4784     sizechange -> size_change
  4785     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4786   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4789 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4790 
  4791 * Renamed theorems:
  4792     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4793     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4794     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4795     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4796     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4797   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4801 
  4802 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 
  4806 *** HOLCF ***
  4807 
  4808 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4809 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4810 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4811 
  4812 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4813 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4814 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4815 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4816 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4817 
  4818 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4819 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4820 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4821 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4822 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4823 
  4824 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4825 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4826 constructor are pre-configured.
  4827 
  4828 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4829 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4830 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4831 
  4832 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4833 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4834 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4835 as well.)
  4836 
  4837 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4838 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4839 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4840 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4841 examples.
  4842 
  4843 
  4844 *** ML ***
  4845 
  4846 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4847 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4848 
  4849 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4850 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4851 position, logical grouping etc.
  4852 
  4853 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4854 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4855 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4856 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4857 
  4858 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4859 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4860 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4861 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4862 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4863 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4864 
  4865 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4866 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4867 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4868 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4869 experiments with references.
  4870 
  4871 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4872 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4873 
  4874 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4875 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4876 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4877 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4878 
  4879 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4880 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4881 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4882 
  4883 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4884 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4885 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4886 
  4887 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4891 
  4892 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4893 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4894 
  4895 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4896 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4897 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4898 
  4899 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4900 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4901 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4902 
  4903 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4904 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4905 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4907 
  4908 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4909 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4910 instead of global theory.
  4911 
  4912 
  4913 *** System ***
  4914 
  4915 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4916 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4917 usedir option -q.
  4918 
  4919 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4920 also the system manual.
  4921 
  4922 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4923 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4924 
  4925 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4926 this is always enabled.
  4927 
  4928 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4929 
  4930 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4931 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4932 currently supported on Linux only.
  4933 
  4934 
  4935 
  4936 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4937 --------------------------------
  4938 
  4939 *** General ***
  4940 
  4941 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4942 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4943 
  4944   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4945     "isatool."
  4946 
  4947   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4948     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4949 
  4950   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4951     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4952 
  4953 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4954 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4955 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4956 
  4957 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4958 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4959 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4960 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4961 via "isabelle emacs".
  4962 
  4963 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4964 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4965 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4966 
  4967 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4968 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4969 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4970 
  4971 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4972 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4973 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4974 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4975 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4976 
  4977 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4978 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4979 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4980 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4981 
  4982 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4983 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4984 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4985 
  4986 
  4987 *** Pure ***
  4988 
  4989 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4990 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4991 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4992 
  4993 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4994 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4995 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4996 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4997 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4998 
  4999 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5000 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5001 useful in locale declarations.
  5002 
  5003 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5004 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5005 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5006 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5007 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5008 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5009 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5010 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5011 no longer generated.
  5012 
  5013 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5014 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5015 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5016 
  5017 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5018 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5019 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5020 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5021 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5022 
  5023 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5025 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5026 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5027 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5028 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5029 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5030 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5031 
  5032 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5033 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5034 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5035 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5036 
  5037 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5040 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5041 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5042 
  5043 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5044 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5045 
  5046 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5047 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5048 in HOL, write
  5049 
  5050     class foo = ...
  5051 
  5052 instead of
  5053 
  5054     class foo = type + ...
  5055 
  5056 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5057 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5060 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5061 
  5062 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5063 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5064 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5065 
  5066 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5067 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5068 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5069 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5070 directly in regular applications.
  5071 
  5072 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5073 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5074 
  5075 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5076 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5077 
  5078 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5079 theory context.
  5080 
  5081 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5082 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5083 
  5084 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5085 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5086 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5087 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5088 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5089 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5090 
  5091   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5092 
  5093 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5094 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5095 normalization.
  5096 
  5097 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5098 addressing etc.
  5099 
  5100 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5101 
  5102   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5103   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5104 
  5105 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5106 
  5107   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5108      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5109      parts of the code generator framework).
  5110 
  5111   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5112      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5113      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5114 
  5115 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5118 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5121 patterns, e.g.
  5122 
  5123     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5124 
  5125 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5126 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5127 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5128 hyphen:
  5129 
  5130     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5131 
  5132 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5133 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5134 
  5135 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5136 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5137 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5138 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5139 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5140 higher-order unification.
  5141 
  5142 
  5143 *** Document preparation ***
  5144 
  5145 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5146 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5147 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5148 
  5149 
  5150 *** HOL ***
  5151 
  5152 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5153 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5154 
  5155 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5156 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5157 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5158 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5159 Main, as before.
  5160 
  5161 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5162 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5163 
  5164 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5165 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5166 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5167 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5168 
  5169 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5170 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5171 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5172 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5173 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5174 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5175 
  5176 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5177 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5178 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5179 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5180 
  5181 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5182 menu.
  5183 
  5184 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5185 (contains the empty clause).
  5186 
  5187 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5188 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5189 
  5190 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5191 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5192 
  5193 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5194 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5195 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5196 
  5197 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5198 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5199 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5200 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5201 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5202 
  5203 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5204 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5205 
  5206 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5207 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5208 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5209 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5210 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5211 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5212 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5213 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5214 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5215 
  5216 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5217 
  5218 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5219 
  5220 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5221 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5222 
  5223 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5224 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5225 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5226 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5227 
  5228 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5229 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5230 
  5231     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5232     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5233     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5234     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5235     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5236     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5237     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5238     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5239 
  5240 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5241 theory Set.
  5242 
  5243 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5244 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5245 
  5246 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5247 
  5248 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5249 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5252 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5253 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5254 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5255 allowed. For examples see
  5256 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5257 
  5258 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5259 
  5260 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5262 
  5263 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5264 structure:
  5265 
  5266     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5267     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5268     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5269     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5270     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5271     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5272     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5273     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5274     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5275     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5276     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5277     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5278     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5279     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5280     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5281     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5282     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5283     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5284     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5285     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5286     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5287     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5288     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5289     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5290     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5291     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5292     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5293     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5294     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5295     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5296     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5297     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5298     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5299 
  5300     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5301     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5302     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5303     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5304     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5305     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5306     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5307     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5308     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5309     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5310 
  5311     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5312     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5313     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5314     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5315     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5316     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5317 
  5318 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5319 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5320 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5321 
  5322 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5323 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5324 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5325 
  5326 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5327 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5330 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5331 
  5332 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5333 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5334 proofs, e.g.
  5335 
  5336   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5337 
  5338 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5339 
  5340 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5341 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5342 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5343 
  5344 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5345 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5347 
  5348 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5349 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5350 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5354 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5355 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5356 preorder_class.*.
  5357 
  5358 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5359 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5360 
  5361 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5362 
  5363   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5364 
  5365 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5366 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5367 fold_image.
  5368 
  5369 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5370 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5371 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5372 the former will disappear at some point.
  5373 
  5374 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5375 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5376 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5377 
  5378 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5379 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5380 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5381 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5382 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5383 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5384 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5385 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5386 
  5387 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5388 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5389 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5390 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5391 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5392 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5393 
  5394     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5395     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5396     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5397     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5398     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5399     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5400     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5401 
  5402 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5403 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5404 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5405 
  5406 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5407 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5408 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5409 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5410 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5411 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5412 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5413 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5414 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5415 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5416 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5417 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5418 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5419 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5420 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5421 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5422 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5423 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5424 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5425 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5426 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5427 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5428 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5429 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5430 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5431 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5432 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5433 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5434 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5435 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5436 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5437 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5438 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5439 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5440 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5441 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5442 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5443 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5444 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5445 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5446 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5447 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5448 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5449 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5450 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5451 
  5452 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5453 
  5454 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5455 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5456 
  5457 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5458 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5459 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5460 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5461 
  5462 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5463 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5464 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5465 theory RealVector.
  5466 
  5467 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5468 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5469 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5470 and inner products are included.
  5471 
  5472 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5473 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5474 supported.
  5475 
  5476 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5477 first diagonalization argument.
  5478 
  5479 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5480 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5481 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5482 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5483 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5484 
  5485     hide (open) const gcd
  5486     abbreviation gcd where
  5487       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5488     notation (output)
  5489       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5490 
  5491 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5492 
  5493 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5494 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5495 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5496 
  5497 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5498 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5499 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5500 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5501 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5502 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5503 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5504 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5505 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5506 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5507 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5508 cases.
  5509 
  5510 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5511 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5512 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5513 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5514 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5515 
  5516     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5517     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5518     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5519     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5520     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5521 
  5522 
  5523 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5524 
  5525 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5526 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5527 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5528 
  5529 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5530 
  5531 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5532 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5533 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5534 
  5535 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5536 
  5537 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5538 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5539 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5540 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5541 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5542 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5543 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5544 
  5545 
  5546 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5547 
  5548 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5549 
  5550 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5551 theory targets.
  5552 
  5553 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5554 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5555 'inductive' etc.
  5556 
  5557 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5558 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5559 
  5560 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5561 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5562 
  5563 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5564 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5565 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5566 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5567 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5568 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5569 the algorithm W:
  5570 
  5571  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5572  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5573          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5574 
  5575 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5576 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5577 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5578 
  5579 
  5580 *** HOLCF ***
  5581 
  5582 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5583 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5584 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5585 
  5586 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5587 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5588 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5589 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5590 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5593 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5594 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5595 
  5596 
  5597 *** ZF ***
  5598 
  5599 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5600 
  5601 
  5602 *** ML ***
  5603 
  5604 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5605 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5606 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5607 5.2.1!
  5608 
  5609 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5610 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5611 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5612 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5613 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5614 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5615 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5616 
  5617 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5618 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5619 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5620 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5621 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5622 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5623 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5624 
  5625 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5626 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5627 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5628 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5629 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5630 
  5631 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5632 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5633 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5634 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5635 Method.add_method.
  5636 
  5637 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5638 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5639 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5640 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5641 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5642 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5643 
  5644 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5645 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5646 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5647 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5648 examples.
  5649 
  5650 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5651 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5652 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5653 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5654 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5655 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5656 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5657 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5658 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5659 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5660 
  5661 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5662 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5663 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5664 
  5665 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5666 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5667 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5668 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5669 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5670 resort for legacy applications.
  5671 
  5672 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5673 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5674 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5675 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5676 explicit runtime argument.
  5677 
  5678 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5679 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5680 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5681 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5682 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5683 
  5684 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5685 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5686 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5687 theory state.
  5688 
  5689 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5690 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5691 
  5692   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5693   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5694   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5695   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5696   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5697   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5698   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5699   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5700   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5701   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5702 
  5703 
  5704 *** System ***
  5705 
  5706 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5707 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5708 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5709 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5710 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5711 
  5712 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5713 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5714 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5715 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5716 
  5717 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5718 
  5719 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5720 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5721 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5722 prover operations.
  5723 
  5724 
  5725 
  5726 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5727 -------------------------------
  5728 
  5729 *** General ***
  5730 
  5731 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5732 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5733 
  5734 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5735 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5736 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5737 provides a proper context already.
  5738 
  5739 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5740 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5741 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5742 
  5743 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5744 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5745 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5746 swap theory imports.
  5747 
  5748 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5749 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5750 
  5751 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5752 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5753 white space without escapes.
  5754 
  5755 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5756 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5757 "foo_bar".
  5758 
  5759 
  5760 *** Pure ***
  5761 
  5762 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5763 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5764 
  5765 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5766 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5767 
  5768 (1) unused_thms
  5769      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5770 
  5771 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5772      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5773      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5774 
  5775 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5776      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5777      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5778      their ancestors.
  5779 
  5780 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5781 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5782 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5783 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5784 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5785 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5786 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5787 
  5788 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5789 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5790 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5791 
  5792 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5793 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5794 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5795 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5796 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5797 
  5798 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5799 
  5800 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5801 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5802 update of theories within ML code.
  5803 
  5804 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5805 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5806 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5807 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5808 
  5809 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5810 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5811 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5815 
  5816 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5817 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5818 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5819 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5820 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5821 
  5822 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5823 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5824 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5825 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5826 situations.
  5827 
  5828 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5829 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5830 proof text.
  5831 
  5832 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5833 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5834 
  5835 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5836 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5837 predicates.
  5838 
  5839 
  5840 *** Document preparation ***
  5841 
  5842 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5843 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5844 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5845 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5846 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5847 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5848 
  5849 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5850 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5851 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5852 
  5853 
  5854 *** HOL ***
  5855 
  5856 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5857 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5858 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5859 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5860 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5861 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5862 
  5863 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5864 with multithreading.
  5865 
  5866 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5867 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5868 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5869 
  5870 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5871 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5872 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5873 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5876 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5877 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5878 and makes them available separately.  See
  5879 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5880 
  5881 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5882 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5883 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5884 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5885 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5886 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5887 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5888 the declared rules.
  5889 
  5890 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5891 
  5892   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5893 
  5894 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5895 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5896 
  5897 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5898 
  5899   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5900 
  5901   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5902     definitions on => and bool.
  5903 
  5904   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5905     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5906     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5907 
  5908       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5909       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5910       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5911       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5912       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5913       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5914       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5915       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5916 
  5917   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5918     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5919     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5920 
  5921   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5922     The proof pattern
  5923 
  5924       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5925       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5926 
  5927     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5928     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5929 
  5930       have "EX S. P S"
  5931       proof
  5932         show "P S" <...>
  5933       qed
  5934 
  5935   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5936     The proof pattern
  5937 
  5938       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5939       also have "S = T" <...>
  5940       finally have "P T" .
  5941 
  5942     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5943     must be replaced by something like
  5944 
  5945       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5946       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5947       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5948 
  5949   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5950     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5951 
  5952       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5953 
  5954     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5955     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5956     type of the form
  5957 
  5958       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5959 
  5960     rather than
  5961 
  5962       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5963 
  5964 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5965 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5966 
  5967 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5970 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5972 
  5973 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5974 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5975 
  5976 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5977 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5978 
  5979 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5980 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5981 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5982 
  5983 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5984 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5985 
  5986   less_trans
  5987   less_linear
  5988   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5989   le_less_trans
  5990   less_le_trans
  5991   less_not_sym
  5992   less_asym
  5993 
  5994 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5995 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5996 and different variable names.
  5997 
  5998 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5999 
  6000 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6001 finite maps.
  6002 
  6003 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6004 
  6005 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6006 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6007 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6008 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6009 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6010 accordingly.
  6011 
  6012 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6013 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6014 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6015 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6016 
  6017 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6018 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6019 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6020 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6021 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6025 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6028 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6029 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6030 
  6031 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6033 
  6034 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6035 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6036 
  6037 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6038 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6039 
  6040 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6041 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6042 
  6043 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6044 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6046 
  6047 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6048 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6049 
  6050 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6051 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6052 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6053 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6054 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6055 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6058 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6059 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6060 
  6061 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6062 
  6063 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6064 
  6065 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6066 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6067 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6068 
  6069 
  6070 *** ZF ***
  6071 
  6072 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6073 same session:
  6074 
  6075   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6076   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6077   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6078   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6079   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6080   List      -> List_ZF
  6081   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6082 
  6083 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6084 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6085 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6086 
  6087 
  6088 *** ML ***
  6089 
  6090 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6091 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6092 
  6093 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6094 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6095 
  6096 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6097 
  6098 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6099 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6100 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6101 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6102 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6103 
  6104 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6105 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6106 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6107 
  6108 
  6109 *** System ***
  6110 
  6111 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6112 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6113 
  6114 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6115 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6116 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6117 
  6118 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6119 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6120 
  6121 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6122 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6123 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6124 
  6125 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6126 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6127 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6128 
  6129 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6130 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6131 
  6132 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6133 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6134 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6135 script.
  6136 
  6137 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6138 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6139 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6140 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6141 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6142 
  6143 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6144 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6145 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6146 
  6147 
  6148 
  6149 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6150 -----------------------------------
  6151 
  6152 *** General ***
  6153 
  6154 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6155 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6156 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6157 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6158 
  6159 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6160 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6161 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6162 
  6163 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6164 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6165 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6166 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6167 
  6168 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6169 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6170 quotes.
  6171 
  6172 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6173 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6174 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6175 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6176 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6177 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6178 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6179 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6180 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6181 
  6182 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6183 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6184 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6185 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6186 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6187 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6188 
  6189 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6190 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6191 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6192 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6193 
  6194 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6195 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6196 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6197 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6198 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6199 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6200 
  6201 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6202 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6203 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6204 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6205 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6206 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6207 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6208 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6209 
  6210 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6211 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6212 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6213 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6214 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6215 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6216 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6217 
  6218 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6219 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6220 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6221 
  6222 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6223 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6224 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6225 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6226 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6227 limit is imposed.
  6228 
  6229 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6230 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6231 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6232 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6233 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6234 and scalability.
  6235 
  6236 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6237 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6238 
  6239 
  6240 *** Document preparation ***
  6241 
  6242 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6243 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6244 current context.
  6245 
  6246 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6247 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6248 
  6249 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6250 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6251 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6252 
  6253 
  6254 *** Pure ***
  6255 
  6256 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6257 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6258 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6259 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6260 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6261 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6262 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6263 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6264 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6265 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6266 
  6267 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6268 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage