NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Apr 15 00:07:07 2014 +0200 (2014-04-15)
changeset 56580 f253c4948a97
parent 56554 7bef3cd6a69c
child 56591 1a59587f46ec
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    29 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    30 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    31 
    32 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    33 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    34 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    35 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    36 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    37 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    38 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    39 proof tools.
    40 
    41 * Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  See also
    45 ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for some basic examples.
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    51 
    52   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    53     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    54     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    55 
    56   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    57     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    58     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    59     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    60     antiquotations.
    61 
    62   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    63     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    64     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    65     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    66     completion after some delay.
    67 
    68   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    69     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    70     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    71     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    72     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    73     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    74 
    75   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    76     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    77     document update to arrive, the default for option
    78     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    79     user experience.
    80 
    81   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    82     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    83     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    84     completion.
    85 
    86   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    87     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    88     antiquotation.
    89 
    90   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    91     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    92     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    93 
    94   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
    95     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    96 
    97 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
    98 completion popup and context-menu.
    99 
   100 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   101 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   102 
   103 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   104 auxiliary ML files.
   105 
   106 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   107 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   108 
   109 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   110 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   111 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   112 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   113 
   114 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   115 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   116 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   117 
   118 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   119 
   120 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   121 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   122 
   123 
   124 *** Pure ***
   125 
   126 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   127 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   128 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   129 renaming needs to be applied:
   130 
   131   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   132   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   133   all            ~>  Pure.all
   134   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   135   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   136 
   137 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   138 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   139 old constants:
   140 
   141 setup {*
   142   fn thy => thy
   143     |> Sign.root_path
   144     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   145     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   146     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   147     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   148 *}
   149 
   150 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   151 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   152 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   153 
   154 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   155 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   156 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   157 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   158 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   159 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   160 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   161 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   162 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   163 
   164 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   165 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   166 instantiated theorem.
   167 
   168 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   169 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   170 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   171 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   172 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   173 
   174   attribute_setup standard =
   175     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   176 
   177 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   178 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   179 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   180 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   181 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   182 
   183 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   184 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   185 differently).
   186 
   187 
   188 *** HOL ***
   189 
   190 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   194 with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalized and replace
   195 former INT_cong, SUP_cong.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196 
   197 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   198 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   201 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   207   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   208   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   209   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   210   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   211   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   212 
   213 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   214   can now deal with conjunctions.
   215   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   216   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   217   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   218 
   219 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * HOL-Word:
   222   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   223   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   224   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   225   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   226   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   227 
   228 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   230 
   231 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   232 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   235 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   238 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   241   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   242   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   243   Theory renamings:
   244     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   245     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   246     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   247     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   248     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   249     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   250     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   251     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   252     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   253     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   254     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   255     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   256     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   257     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   258     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   259     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   260     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   261     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   262     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   263     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   264     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   265     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   266   New theories:
   267     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   268     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   269     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   270     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   271     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   272   Discontinued theories:
   273     BNF/BNF.thy
   274     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   275   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * New (co)datatype package:
   278   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   279   * Renamed commands:
   280       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   281       primrec_new ~> primrec
   282       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   283     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   284   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   285     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   286     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   288     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   289     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   290 
   291 * Old datatype package:
   292   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   293     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   296     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   300   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   301   datatype package.
   302   Renamed constants:
   303     Option.set ~> set_option
   304     Option.map ~> map_option
   305     option_rel ~> rel_option
   306     option_rec ~> case_option
   307   Renamed theorems:
   308     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   309     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   310     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   311     option.recs ~> option.case
   312     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   313     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   314     map.simps ~> list.map
   315     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   316     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   317     the.simps ~> option.sel
   318   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   321     sum_map ~> map_sum
   322     map_pair ~> map_prod
   323     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   324     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   325     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   326     set_rel ~> rel_set
   327     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   328     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   329     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   330     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   331 
   332 * New theory:
   333     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   334 
   335 * Theory reorganizations:
   336   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   337 
   338 * SMT module:
   339   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   340     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   341     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   342     elsewhere.
   343 
   344 * Sledgehammer:
   345   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   346   - New option:
   347       smt_proofs
   348   - Renamed options:
   349       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   350       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   351     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352 
   353 * Metis:
   354   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   355     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   358 
   359 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   362 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   363 
   364 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   365 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   366 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   367 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   368 
   369 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   373 with the given constants.
   374 
   375 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   376 
   377 Fact consolidations:
   378     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   379     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   380     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   381     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   382     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   383     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   384     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   385     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   386     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   387     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   388     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   389     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   390     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   391     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   392     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   393     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   394     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   395     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   396     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   397     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   398     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   399     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   400     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   401     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   402     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   403     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   404     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   405     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   406     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   407     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   408     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   409     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   410     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   411     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   412     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   413     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   414     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   415     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   416     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   417     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   418 
   419 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   420 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   421 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   422 
   423 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   424 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   425 
   426 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   427 
   428 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   429 
   430 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   432 
   433 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   437 operations on records.
   438 
   439 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441 
   442 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   443     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   447     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   448     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450 
   451 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   452   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   453   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   454   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   455     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   456   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   457     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   458   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   459 INCOMPATBILITY.
   460 
   461 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   462     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   463     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   464     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   465     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * Fact name consolidation:
   469     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   470     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   471     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   472     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   473     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   475 
   476 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   477 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   478 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   479 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   480 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   481 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   482 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   483 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   486 
   487 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   488 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   489 
   490 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   491 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   492 
   493 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   494 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   495 or the brute way with
   496 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   497 
   498 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   499 
   500 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   501 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   504 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   505 
   506 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   507 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   508 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   509 INCOMPATIBILITY
   510 
   511 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   512   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   513   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   514   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   515   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   516   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   517   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   518   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   519   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   520   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   521   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   522   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   523 
   524   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   525 
   526   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   527     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   528     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   529     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   530     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   534   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   535 
   536   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   537 
   538   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   539 
   540   - removed constant isDiff
   541 
   542   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   543     syntax.
   544 
   545   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   546 
   547   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   548 
   549   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   550 
   551   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   552 
   553   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   554     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   555 
   556   - Other renamings:
   557     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   558     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   559     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   560     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   561     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   562     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   563     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   565 
   566 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   567   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   568 
   569 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   570 
   571 * Nitpick:
   572   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   573     infinite values.
   574   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   575     "Rep_Integ".
   576   - Removed "std" option.
   577   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   578     "hide_types".
   579 
   580 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   581   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   582   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   583     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   584     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   585     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   586     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   587     intervals.
   588 
   589   - renamed theorems:
   590     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   591     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   592     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   593 
   594 
   595 *** Scala ***
   596 
   597 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   598 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   599 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   600 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   601 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 
   604 *** ML ***
   605 
   606 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   607 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   608 
   609 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   610 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   611 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   617 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   618 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   622 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   623 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   624 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   625 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   626 of schematic variables.
   627 
   628 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   629 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   631 formal context.
   632 
   633 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   634 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   635 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   636 actually belongs to it).
   637 
   638 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   639 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   640 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   641 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   642 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   643 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   644 
   645 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   646 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   649 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   650 
   651 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   652 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   653 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   654 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   655 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   656 
   657 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   658 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   659 purposes.
   660 
   661 
   662 *** System ***
   663 
   664 * Session ROOT specifications support explicit 'document_files' for
   665 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   666 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   667 processing is started.
   668 
   669 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   670 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   671 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   672 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   673 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   674 
   675 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   676 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   677 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   678 
   679 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   680 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   681 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   682 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   683 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   684 settings variable yet.
   685 
   686 
   687 
   688 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   689 -------------------------------------
   690 
   691 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   692 
   693 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   694 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   695 
   696 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   697 after edits surrounding the command location.
   698 
   699 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   700 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   701 e.g. out-of-memory).
   702 
   703 
   704 *** System ***
   705 
   706 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   707 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   708 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   709 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   710 
   711 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   712 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   713 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   714 
   715 
   716 
   717 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   718 -------------------------------------
   719 
   720 *** General ***
   721 
   722 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   723 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   724 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   725 
   726 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   727 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   730 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   731 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   732 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   733 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   734 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   735 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   736 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   737 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   738 syntax.
   739 
   740 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   741 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   744 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   745 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   747 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   748 
   749 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   753 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   754 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   755 
   756 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   757 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   758 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   759 
   760 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   761 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   762 
   763 
   764 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   765 
   766 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   767 Documentation panel.
   768 
   769 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   770 documentation.
   771 
   772 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   773 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   774 
   775 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   776 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   777 normal editing and checking process.
   778 
   779 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   780 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   781 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   782 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   783 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   784 
   785 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   786 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   787 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   788 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   789 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   790 
   791 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   792 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   793 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   794 
   795 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   796 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   797 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   798 to resolve conflict.
   799 
   800 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   801 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   802 
   803 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   804 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   805 such command executions while editing.
   806 
   807 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   808 document content.
   809 
   810 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   811 toplevel theorem statements.
   812 
   813 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   814 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   815 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   816 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   817 
   818 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   819 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   820 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   821 
   822 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   823 / Global Options / Appearance".
   824 
   825 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   826 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   827 
   828 
   829 *** Pure ***
   830 
   831 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   832 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   833 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   834 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   835 details.
   836 
   837 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   838 
   839 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   840 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   841 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   842 
   843 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   847 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   848 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   849 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   852 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   853 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   856 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   857 
   858 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   859 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   860 situations.
   861 
   862 
   863 *** HOL ***
   864 
   865 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   866 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   870 
   871 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   872 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   873 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   874 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   875 
   876   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   877 
   878 * Code generator:
   879   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   880     'code_instance'.
   881   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   882     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   883 
   884 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   885 examples.
   886 
   887 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   888 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   889 to distinguish both when desired.
   890 
   891 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   892 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   893 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   894 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   897 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   898 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   899 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   900 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   901 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902 
   903 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   904 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   905 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   906 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   907 
   908 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   909 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   910 
   911 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   912 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   913 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   914 
   915 * Lifting:
   916   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   917     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   918       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   919       transfer rules
   920     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   921       correspondence relation can be generated
   922     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   923       parametricity
   924     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   925   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   926   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   927     copies
   928   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   929     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   930     anonymous context)
   931   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   932     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   933   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   934     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   935   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   936     INCOMPATIBILITY
   937 
   938 * Transfer:
   939   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   940     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   941   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   942   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   943     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   944   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   945 
   946 * Reification and reflection:
   947   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   948     "Reification".
   949   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   950   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952 
   953 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   954   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   955     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   956     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   957   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   958     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   959   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   960     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   961     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   962     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   963     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   964     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   965     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   966     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   967   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   968     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   969   - Fact renames:
   970       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   971       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   973 
   974 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   975 
   976 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   977 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   978 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980 
   981 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   982 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   983 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   984 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   985 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   986 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   987 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   988 lemmas.
   989 
   990 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   991 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   992 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   995 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   996 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   997 
   998 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   999 top and bottom elements.
  1000 
  1001 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1002 
  1003 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1004 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1005 
  1006  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1007    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1008    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1009 
  1010  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1011    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1012    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1013 
  1014    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1015    arbitrary filter.
  1016 
  1017  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1018    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1019    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1020    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1021    on a compact set.
  1022 
  1023  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1024    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1025    linear_continuum_topology).
  1026 
  1027  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1028    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1029    on all sequences converging to x.
  1030 
  1031  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1032    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1033    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1034    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1035    left or right.
  1036 
  1037  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1038 
  1039      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1040 
  1041  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1042    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1043 
  1044  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1045    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1046    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1047    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1048    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1049    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1050 
  1051  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1052 
  1053    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1054 
  1055    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1056      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1057 
  1058    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1059 
  1060    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1061      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1062 
  1063    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1064 
  1065    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1066 
  1067  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1068 
  1069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * Nitpick:
  1072   - Added option "spy".
  1073   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1074 
  1075 * Sledgehammer:
  1076   - Renamed option:
  1077       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1078     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1080   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1081   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1082 
  1083 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1084 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1085 
  1086 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1087   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1088   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1089     generated code.
  1090   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1091   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1092   - Fact renames:
  1093     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1094     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1095     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1096 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1099 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1100 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1101 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1102 
  1103 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1104 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1105 
  1106 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1107 
  1108 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1109 
  1110     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1111     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1112 
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1116 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1117 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1118 
  1119 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1120 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1121 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1122 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * HOL-BNF:
  1125   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1126     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1127     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1128     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1129   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1130     coinduct).
  1131   - Renamed keywords:
  1132     data ~> datatype_new
  1133     codata ~> codatatype
  1134     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1135   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1136     discs ~> disc
  1137     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1138     map_id' ~> map_id
  1139     sels ~> sel
  1140     set_map' ~> set_map
  1141     sets ~> set
  1142 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144 
  1145 *** ML ***
  1146 
  1147 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1148 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1149 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1150 Examples.thy in particular.
  1151 
  1152 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1153 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1154 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1155 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1156 
  1157 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1158 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1159 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1160 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1164 
  1165     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1166     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1167 
  1168 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1171 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1172 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1173 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1174 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1175 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1176 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1177 
  1178 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1179 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1180 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1181 clasets separately from the context.
  1182 
  1183 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1184 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1185 
  1186 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1187 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1188 
  1189 
  1190 *** System ***
  1191 
  1192 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1193 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1196 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1199 settings variable.
  1200 
  1201 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1202 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1203 always pdf.
  1204 
  1205 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1206 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1207 
  1208 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1209 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1210 
  1211 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1212 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1213 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1214 
  1215 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1216 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1217 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1218 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1219 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1220 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1221 
  1222 
  1223 
  1224 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1225 -----------------------------------
  1226 
  1227 *** General ***
  1228 
  1229 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1230 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1231 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1232 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1233 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1234 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1235 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1236 
  1237 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1238 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1239 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1240 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1241 
  1242 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1243 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1244 
  1245 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1246 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1247 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1248 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1249 dependencies properly.
  1250 
  1251 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1252 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1253 
  1254 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1255 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1256 
  1257 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1258 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1259 and "class ... context ...".
  1260 
  1261 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1262 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1263 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1264 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1265 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1266 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1267 
  1268 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1269 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1270 
  1271 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1272 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1273 
  1274 
  1275 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1276 
  1277 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1278 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1279 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1280 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1281 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1282 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1283 
  1284 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1285 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1286 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1287 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1288 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1289 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1290 
  1291 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1292 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1293 browser on demand.
  1294 
  1295 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1296 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1297 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1298 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1299 
  1300 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1301 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1302 
  1303 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1304 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1305 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1306 potentially infinite message streams.
  1307 
  1308 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1309 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1310 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1311 schemes.
  1312 
  1313 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1314 symbols.
  1315 
  1316 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1317 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1318 
  1319 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1320 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1321 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1322 
  1323 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1324 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1325 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1326 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1327 
  1328 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1329 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1330 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1331 
  1332 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1333 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1334 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1335 Isabelle distribution.
  1336 
  1337 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1338 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1339 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1340 
  1341 
  1342 *** Pure ***
  1343 
  1344 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1345 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1346 
  1347 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1348 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1349 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1350 
  1351 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1352 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1353 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1354 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1355 with some care where this is really required.
  1356 
  1357 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1358 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1359 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1360 
  1361   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1362 
  1363 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1364 a Hasse diagram.
  1365 
  1366 
  1367 *** HOL ***
  1368 
  1369 * Sledgehammer:
  1370 
  1371   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1372     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1373   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1374   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1375   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1376   - Renamed options:
  1377       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1378       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1379       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1380       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1381 
  1382 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1383 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1384 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1385 
  1386 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 * Lifting:
  1390   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1391   - quot_del attribute
  1392   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1393 
  1394 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1395 expressions.
  1396 
  1397 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1398 pointfree expressions.
  1399 
  1400 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1401 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1402 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1403 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1405 
  1406 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1407 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1408 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1409 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1410 accordingly.
  1411 
  1412 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1413 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1414 
  1415 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1416 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417 
  1418 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1419 
  1420 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1421 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1422 
  1423 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1424 
  1425 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1426 
  1427   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1428   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1429 
  1430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1433 
  1434   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1435   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1436 
  1437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1440 
  1441   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1442     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1443     output f x converges to G.
  1444 
  1445   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1446     infinity (at_bot).
  1447 
  1448   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1449     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1450 
  1451   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1452     at_top".
  1453 
  1454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1457 lattice type classes.
  1458 
  1459 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1460 
  1461     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1462     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1463 
  1464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1467 changes as follows.
  1468 
  1469   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1470 
  1471       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1472       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1473 
  1474   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1475     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1476     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1477     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1478 
  1479   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1480     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1481     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1482 
  1483   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1484     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1485     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1486     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1487 
  1488   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1489     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1490 
  1491       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1492       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1493       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1494       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1495       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1496       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1497       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1498       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1499       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1500       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1501       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1502       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1503       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1504       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1505       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1506       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1507 
  1508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1511 
  1512 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1513 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1514 
  1515 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1516 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1517 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1518 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1519 
  1520   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1521   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1522   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1523   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1524   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1525   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1526   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1527   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1528   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1529   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1530 
  1531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1532 
  1533 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1534 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1535 Data").
  1536 
  1537 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1538 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1539 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1540 code.
  1541 
  1542 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1543 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1544 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1548 
  1549 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1550 
  1551 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1552 
  1553   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1554   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1555 
  1556 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1557 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1558 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1559 
  1560   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1561 
  1562     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1563     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1564     cart_base i  removed
  1565     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1566 
  1567   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1568 
  1569   Renamed lemmas:
  1570 
  1571     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1572     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1573     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1574     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1575     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1576     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1577     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1578     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1579     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1580     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1581 
  1582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584 * HOL/Probability:
  1585 
  1586   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1587 
  1588   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1589     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1590     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1591 
  1592   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1593     projective family).
  1594 
  1595 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1596 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1597 
  1598 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1599 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1600 datatypes.
  1601 
  1602 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1603 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1604 
  1605 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1606 trees for the code generator.
  1607 
  1608 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1609 Lifting/Transfer.
  1610 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1611 
  1612 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 
  1616 *** Document preparation ***
  1617 
  1618 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1619 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1620 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1621 
  1622 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1623 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1624 
  1625 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1626 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1627 document/root.tex.
  1628 
  1629 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1630 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 
  1633 *** ML ***
  1634 
  1635 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1636 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1637 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1638 
  1639 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1640 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1641 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1642 
  1643 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1644 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1645 necessarily printing visible text.
  1646 
  1647 
  1648 *** System ***
  1649 
  1650 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1651 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1652 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1653 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1654 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1655 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1656 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1657 
  1658 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1659 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1660 
  1661   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1662 
  1663 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1664 
  1665 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1666 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1667 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1668 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1669 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1670 
  1671 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1672 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1673 
  1674 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1675 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1676 
  1677 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1681 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1682 version of Isabelle.
  1683 
  1684 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1685 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1686 
  1687 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1688 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1689 for home-made settings.
  1690 
  1691 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1692 
  1693 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1694 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1695 configuration.
  1696 
  1697 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1698 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1699 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1700 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1701 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1702 
  1703 
  1704 
  1705 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1706 ------------------------------
  1707 
  1708 *** General ***
  1709 
  1710 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1711 
  1712   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1713     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1714   - markup for bound variables
  1715   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1716   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1717   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1718     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1719 
  1720 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1721 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1722 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1723 
  1724 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1725 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1726 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1727 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1728 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1729 
  1730   context
  1731     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1732     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1733   begin
  1734 
  1735   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1736 
  1737   end
  1738 
  1739   thm my_trans
  1740 
  1741 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1742 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1743 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1744 
  1745 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1746 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1747 
  1748 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1749 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1750 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1751 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1752 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1753 
  1754 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1755 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1756 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1757 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1758 indices of schematic variables.
  1759 
  1760 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1761 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1762 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1763 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1764 etc. was exploited.
  1765 
  1766 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1767 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1768 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1769 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1770 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1771 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1772 
  1773 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1774 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1775 manual.
  1776 
  1777 
  1778 *** Pure ***
  1779 
  1780 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1781 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1782 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1783 
  1784 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1785 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1786 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1787 undocumented feature.)
  1788 
  1789 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1790 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1791 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1792 
  1793   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1794 
  1795   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1796     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1797 
  1798 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1799 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1800 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1801 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1802 
  1803 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1804 
  1805     num ~> num_token
  1806     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1807     xstr ~> str_token
  1808 
  1809 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1810 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1811 position information via constraints).
  1812 
  1813 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1814 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1815 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1816 
  1817 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1818 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1819 
  1820 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1821 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1822 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1825 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1826 
  1827 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1828 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1829 
  1830   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1831 
  1832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1835 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1838 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1839 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1840 
  1841 
  1842 *** HOL ***
  1843 
  1844 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1845 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1846 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1847 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1848 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1849 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1850 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1851 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1852 possible.
  1853 
  1854 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1855 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1856 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1857 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1858 
  1859 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1860 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1863 
  1864 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1865 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1866 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1867 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1868 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1869 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1870 
  1871   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1872     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1873 
  1874   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1875     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1876     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1877 
  1878   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1879     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1880 
  1881   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1882     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1883     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1884 
  1885   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1886     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1887 
  1888 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1889 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1890 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1891 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1892 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1893 
  1894   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1895     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1896     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1897     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1898     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1899 
  1900     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1901     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1902 
  1903   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1904     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1905     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1906     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1907     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1908     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1909     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1910     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1911 
  1912   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1913     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1914     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1915     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1916 
  1917   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1918     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1919     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1920     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1921 
  1922   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1923     from type nat to type int.
  1924 
  1925 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1926 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1927 
  1928   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1929     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1930     type.  Example syntax:
  1931 
  1932     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1933       is List.insert
  1934 
  1935     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1936     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1937     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1938     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1939     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1940     by the package.
  1941 
  1942   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1943     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1944     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1945     code generation for each constant.
  1946 
  1947   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1948     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1949     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1950     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1951     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1952 
  1953   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1954     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1955     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1956 
  1957 * Quotient package:
  1958 
  1959   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1960     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1961 
  1962   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1963     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1964 
  1965   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1966     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1967     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1970     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1971 
  1972 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1973 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1974 
  1975 * Quickcheck:
  1976 
  1977   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1978     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1979     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1980     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1981     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1982 
  1983     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1984     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1985     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1986 
  1987     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1988     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1989 
  1990     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1991     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1992     show genuine counterexamples.
  1993 
  1994   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1995     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1996 
  1997     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1998     constructors of that type.
  1999 
  2000   - Support for multisets.
  2001 
  2002   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2003 
  2004   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2005     conjectures in a locale context.
  2006 
  2007 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2008 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2009 
  2010 * Sledgehammer:
  2011   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2012     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2013   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2014   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2015     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2016   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2017   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2018   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2019   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2020 
  2021 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2022 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2023 
  2024 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2025 
  2026 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2029 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2030 
  2031   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2032 
  2033 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2034 a list and a nat.
  2035 
  2036 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2037 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2038 
  2039 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2040 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2041 default.
  2042 
  2043 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2044 
  2045   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2046 
  2047 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2048 
  2049 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2050 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2051 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2052 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2053 one_case.
  2054 
  2055 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2056 the result of the fact expression.
  2057 
  2058 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2059 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2060 of some relation theorems:
  2061 
  2062   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2063   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2064   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2065   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2066   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2067   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2068 
  2069 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2070 
  2071 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2072 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2073 
  2074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2077 to match the constant's name:
  2078 
  2079   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2080   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2081   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2082   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2083   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2084   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2085   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2086   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2087   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2088   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2089   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2090   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2091   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2092   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2093   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2094   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2095   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2096   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2097   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2098   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2099   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2100   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2101   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2102   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2103 
  2104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2105 
  2106 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2107 and corresponding theorem names:
  2108 
  2109   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2110 
  2111   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2112 
  2113   - Renamed theorems:
  2114 
  2115     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2116     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2117     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2118     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2119     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2120     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2121     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2122     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2123     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2124     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2125     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2126     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2127     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2128     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2129     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2130     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2131     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2132     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2133     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2134     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2135     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2136     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2137     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2138 
  2139     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2140 
  2141     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2142 
  2143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2144 
  2145 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2146 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2147 
  2148   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2149   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2150   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2151   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2152   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2153   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2154   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2155   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2156   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2157   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2158   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2159   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2160   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2161   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2162   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2163   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2164   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2165   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2166   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2167   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2168   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2169 
  2170 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2171 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2176 
  2177   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2178   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2179   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2180   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2181   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2182   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2183   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2184   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2185   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2186   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2187   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2188   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2189   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2190   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2191   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2192   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2193   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2194   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2195 
  2196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2199 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2200 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2201 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2202 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2203 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2204 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2205 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2206 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2207 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2208 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2209 
  2210 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2211 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2212 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2213 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2214 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2215 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2216 
  2217 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2218 through option types.
  2219 
  2220 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2221 relations.
  2222 
  2223 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2226 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2227 
  2228   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2229   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2230   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2231   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2232   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2233   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2234   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2235   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2236   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2237   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2238   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2239   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2240   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2241   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2242   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2243   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2244   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2245   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2246   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2247   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2248   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2249   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2250   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2251   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2252   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2253   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2254   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2255   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2256   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2257   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2258   zless_le ~> less_le
  2259   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2260   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2261   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2262 
  2263 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2264 
  2265   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2266 
  2267 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2268 
  2269 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2270 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2271 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2272 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2276 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2277 
  2278 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2279 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2280 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2281 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2282 follows:
  2283 
  2284   Operations:
  2285   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2286   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2287   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2288   del -> rbt_del
  2289   delete -> rbt_delete
  2290   ins -> rbt_ins
  2291   insert -> rbt_insert
  2292   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2293   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2294   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2295   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2296   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2297   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2298   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2299   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2300   union -> rbt_union
  2301   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2302   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2303 
  2304   Lemmas:
  2305   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2306   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2307   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2308   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2309   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2310   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2311   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2312   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2313   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2314   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2315   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2316   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2317   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2318   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2319   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2320   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2321   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2322   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2323   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2324   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2325   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2326   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2327   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2328   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2329   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2330   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2331   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2332   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2333   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2334   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2335   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2336   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2337   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2338   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2339   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2340   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2341   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2342   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2343   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2344   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2345   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2346   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2347   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2348   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2349   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2350   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2351   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2352   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2353   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2354   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2355   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2356   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2357   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2358   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2359   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2360   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2361   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2362   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2363   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2364   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2365   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2366   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2367   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2368   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2369   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2370   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2371   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2372   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2373   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2374   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2375   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2376   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2377   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2378   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2379   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2380   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2381   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2382   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2383   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2384   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2385   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2386   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2387   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2388 
  2389 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2390 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2391 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393   Changed Operations:
  2394   float_abs -> abs
  2395   float_nprt -> nprt
  2396   float_pprt -> pprt
  2397   pow2 -> use powr
  2398   round_down -> float_round_down
  2399   round_up -> float_round_up
  2400   scale -> exponent
  2401 
  2402   Removed Operations:
  2403   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2404 
  2405   Renamed Lemmas:
  2406   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2407   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2408   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2409   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2410   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2411   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2412   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2413   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2414   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2415   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2416   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2417   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2418   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2419   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2420   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2421   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2422   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2423   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2424   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2425   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2426   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2427   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2428   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2429   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2430   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2431   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2432   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2433   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2434   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2435   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2436   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2437   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2438   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2439   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2440   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2441   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2442 
  2443   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2444   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2445   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2446   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2447   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2448   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2449   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2450   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2451   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2452   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2453 
  2454 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2455 association lists with distinct keys.
  2456 
  2457 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2458 annotated commands.
  2459 
  2460 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2461 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2462 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2463 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2464 
  2465 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2466 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2467 instead.
  2468 
  2469   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2470   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2471   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2472   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2473   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2474   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2475   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2476   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2477   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2478   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2479   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2480   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2481   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2482   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2483   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2484   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2485   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2486   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2487   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2488   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2489   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2490   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2491   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2492   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2493   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2494   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2495   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2496   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2497   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2498   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2499   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2500   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2501   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2502   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2503   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2504   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2505   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2506   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2507   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2508   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2509   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2510 
  2511 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2512 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2513 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2514 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2515 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2516 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2517 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2518 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2519 
  2520 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2521 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2522 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2523 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2524 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2525 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2526 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2527 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2528 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2529 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2530 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2531 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2532 
  2533   Renamed constants:
  2534   measure -> emeasure
  2535   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2536   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2537   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2538   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2539 
  2540   Removed locales:
  2541   completeable_measure_space
  2542   finite_measure_space
  2543   finite_prob_space
  2544   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2545   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2546   finite_sigma_algebra
  2547   measure_space
  2548   pair_finite_prob_space
  2549   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2550   pair_finite_space
  2551   pair_sigma_algebra
  2552   product_sigma_algebra
  2553 
  2554   Removed constants:
  2555   conditional_space
  2556   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2557   image_space
  2558   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2559   pair_measure_generator
  2560   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2561   subvimage
  2562 
  2563   Replacement theorems:
  2564   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2565   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2566   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2567   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2568   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2569   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2570   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2571   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2572   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2573   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2574   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2575   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2576   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2577   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2578   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2579   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2580   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2581   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2582   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2583   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2584   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2585   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2586   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2587   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2588   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2589   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2590   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2591   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2592   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2593   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2594   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2595   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2596   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2597   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2598   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2599   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2600   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2601   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2602   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2603   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2604   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2605   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2606   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2607   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2608   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2609   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2610   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2611   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2612   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2613   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2614   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2615   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2616   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2617   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2618   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2619   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2620   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2621   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2622   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2623   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2624   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2625   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2626   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2627   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2628   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2629   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2630   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2631   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2632   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2633   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2634   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2635   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2636   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2637   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2638   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2639   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2640   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2641   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2642   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2643   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2644   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2645   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2646   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2647   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2648   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2649   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2650   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2651   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2652   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2653   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2654   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2655   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2656   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2657   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2658   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2659   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2660   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2661   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2662   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2663   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2664   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2665   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2666   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2667   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2668   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2669   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2670   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2671   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2672   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2673   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2674   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2675   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2676   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2677   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2678   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2679   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2680   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2681   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2682   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2683   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2684   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2685   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2686   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2687   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2688   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2689   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2690   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2691   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2692 
  2693 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2694 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2695 
  2696 
  2697 *** FOL ***
  2698 
  2699 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2700 
  2701 
  2702 *** ZF ***
  2703 
  2704 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2705 analysis.
  2706 
  2707 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2708 
  2709 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2710 
  2711 
  2712 *** ML ***
  2713 
  2714 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2715 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2716 
  2717 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2718 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2719 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2720 
  2721 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2722 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2723 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2724 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2725 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2726 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2727 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2728 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2729 
  2730 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2731 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2732 
  2733 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2734 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2735 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2736 
  2737 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2738 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2739 
  2740 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2741 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2742 context as well.
  2743 
  2744 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2745 
  2746   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2747   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2748   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2749   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2750   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2751   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2752   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2753   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2754   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2755   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2756   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2757   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2758 
  2759 
  2760 *** System ***
  2761 
  2762 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2763 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2764 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2765 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2766 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2767 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2768 the generic user home was intended.
  2769 
  2770 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2771 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2772 
  2773 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2774 (not just JRE).
  2775 
  2776 
  2777 
  2778 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2779 ------------------------------------
  2780 
  2781 *** General ***
  2782 
  2783 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2784 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2785 
  2786   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2787     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2788     files for checking).
  2789 
  2790   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2791     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2792     positions.
  2793 
  2794   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2795     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2796     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2797 
  2798   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2799     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2800     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2801 
  2802   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2803     cores.
  2804 
  2805   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2806     versions (garbage collection).
  2807 
  2808 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2809 including some remaining limitations.
  2810 
  2811 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2812 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2813 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2814 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2815 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2817 
  2818 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2819 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2820 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2821 
  2822 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2823 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2824 usedir option -Q.
  2825 
  2826 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2827 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2828 
  2829   long_names   ~> names_long
  2830   short_names  ~> names_short
  2831   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2832 
  2833 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2834 
  2835   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2836 
  2837 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2838 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2839 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2840 
  2841 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2842 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2843 
  2844 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2845   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2846   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2847   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2848     "Classical Reasoner".
  2849 
  2850 
  2851 *** HOL ***
  2852 
  2853 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2854 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2857 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2858 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2859 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2860 class complete_linorder.
  2861 
  2862 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2863 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2864 
  2865 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2866 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2867 
  2868   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2869   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2870   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2871   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2872   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2873   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2874   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2875   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2876   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2877   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2878   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2879 
  2880 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2881 
  2882   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2883   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2884   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2885   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2886   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2887   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2888   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2889   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2890   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2891   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2892   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2893   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2894   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2895   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2896   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2897   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2898 
  2899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2905 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2906 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2907 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2910 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2911 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2913 
  2914 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2915 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2916 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2917 
  2918 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2919 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2920 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2923 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2924 
  2925 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2926 
  2927     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2928     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2929 
  2930 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2931 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2934 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2935 
  2936 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2937 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2938 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2939 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2942   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2943   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2944   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2945   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2946   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2947   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2948 
  2949 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2950 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2953   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2954   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2955   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2956   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2957   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2958   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2959   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2960   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2961   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2962   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2963   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2964   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2965   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2966   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2967   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2968   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2969   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2970   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2971   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2972   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2973   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2974   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2975   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2976   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2977   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2978   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2979   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2980   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2981   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2982   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2983   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2984   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2985   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2986   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2987   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2988   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2989   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2990   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2991   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2992   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2993   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2994   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2995   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2996   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2997   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2998   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2999   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3000   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3001   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3002   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3003   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3004   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3005   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3006   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3007   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3008   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3009   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3010   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3011   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3012   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3013   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3014   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3015   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3016   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3017   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3018   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3019   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3020   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3021   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3022   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3023   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3024   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3025   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3026   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3027   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3028   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3029   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3030   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3031   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3032   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3033   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3034 
  3035 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3036 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3037 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3038 
  3039 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3040 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3041 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3042 
  3043 * Code generation:
  3044 
  3045   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3046     characters in the target language.
  3047 
  3048   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3049     instead.
  3050 
  3051   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3052 
  3053   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3054     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3055 
  3056       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3057 
  3058 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3061 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3062 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3063 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3064 syntax.
  3065 
  3066 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3067 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3068 
  3069 * Nitpick:
  3070   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3071   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3072   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3073     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Sledgehammer:
  3076   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3077   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3078     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3079   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3080     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3081   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3082     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3084     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3085   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3086     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * Metis:
  3089   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3091     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Command 'try':
  3094   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3095     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3097     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3098 
  3099 * Quickcheck:
  3100   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3101     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3102   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3103     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3104   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3105     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3106     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3107     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3108   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3109     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3110 
  3111 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3112 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3113 
  3114 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3115 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3116 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3117 
  3118 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3119 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3123 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3126 arithmetic.
  3127 
  3128 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3129 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3130 and lattice type classes.
  3131 
  3132 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3133 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3134 
  3135 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3136 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3137 
  3138 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3139 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3140 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3143   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3144   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3145   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3146 
  3147 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3148 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3149 constants:
  3150 
  3151   type inat   ~> type enat
  3152   Fin         ~> enat
  3153   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3154   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3155   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3156 
  3157 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3158 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3161 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3162 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3163 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3164 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3165 
  3166 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3167 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3168 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3169 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3170 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3171 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3172 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3173 
  3174   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3175   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3176   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3177   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3178 
  3179 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3180 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3181 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3184   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3185   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3186   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3187   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3188   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3189   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3190   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3191   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3192   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3193   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3194   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3195   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3196   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3197   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3198   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3199   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3200   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3201   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3202   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3203   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3204   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3205   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3206   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3207   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3208   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3209   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3210   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3211   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3212   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3213   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3214   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3215   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3216   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3217   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3218   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3219   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3220   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3221   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3222   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3223   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3224   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3225   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3226   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3227   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3228   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3229   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3230   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3231   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3232   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3233   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3234 
  3235 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3236   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3237   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3238   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3239   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3240     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3245   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3246   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3247   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3248   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3249   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3250   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3251   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3252   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3253   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3254   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3255   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3256   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3257   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3258   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3259   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3260   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3261   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3262   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3263   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3264   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3265   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3266   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3267   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3268   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3269 
  3270 
  3271 *** Document preparation ***
  3272 
  3273 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3274 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3275 same.
  3276 
  3277 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3278 result.
  3279 
  3280 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3281 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3282 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3283 
  3284 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3285 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3286 
  3287 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3288 like this:
  3289 
  3290   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3291   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3292 
  3293 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3294 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3295 layouts.
  3296 
  3297 
  3298 *** ML ***
  3299 
  3300 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3301 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3302 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3303 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3304 under external program control.
  3305 
  3306 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3307 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3308 
  3309 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3310 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3311 (better known as Proof General).
  3312 
  3313 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3314 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3315 
  3316 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3317 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3318 
  3319 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3320 (including quotes etc.).
  3321 
  3322 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3323 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3324 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3325 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3326 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3327 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3328 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3329 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3330 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3331 
  3332 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3333 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3334 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3335 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3336 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3337 
  3338 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3339 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3340 
  3341 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3342 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3343 
  3344 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3345 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3346 
  3347 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3348 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3349 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3350 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3351 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3352 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3353 proper Proof.context.
  3354 
  3355 
  3356 *** System ***
  3357 
  3358 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3359 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3360 
  3361 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3362 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3363 
  3364 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3365 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3366 
  3367   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3368   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3369   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3370   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3371   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3372 
  3373 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3374 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3377 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3378 example:
  3379 
  3380   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3381 
  3382 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3383 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3384 
  3385 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3386 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3387 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3388 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3389 
  3390 
  3391 
  3392 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3393 ----------------------------------
  3394 
  3395 *** General ***
  3396 
  3397 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3398 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3399 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3400 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3401 like this:
  3402 
  3403   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3404 
  3405 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3406 
  3407 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3408 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3409 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3410 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3411 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3412 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3413 
  3414 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3415 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3416 the following package declarations:
  3417 
  3418   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3419   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3420 
  3421 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3422 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3423 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3424 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3425 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3426 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3427 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3428 
  3429 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3430 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3431 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3432 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3433 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3434 
  3435 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3436 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3437 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3438 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3439 
  3440 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3441 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3442 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3443 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3444 
  3445   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3446 
  3447   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3448   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3449   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3450   show_types                    show_types
  3451   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3452   show_consts                   show_consts
  3453   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3454 
  3455   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3456   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3457   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3458 
  3459   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3460   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3461 
  3462   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3463 
  3464   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3465   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3466   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3467   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3468   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3469 
  3470 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3471 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3472 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3473 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3474 
  3475 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3479   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3480 
  3481 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3482 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3483 float_token.
  3484 
  3485 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3486 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3490 DejaVu Sans.
  3491 
  3492 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3493 
  3494 
  3495 *** Pure ***
  3496 
  3497 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3498 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3499 time.
  3500 
  3501 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3502 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3505 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3508 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3509 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3510 command already provided this functionality.
  3511 
  3512 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3513 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3514 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3515 without interpretations.
  3516 
  3517 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3518 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3519 
  3520 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3521 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3522 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3523 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3524 
  3525 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3526 'definition' instead.
  3527 
  3528 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3529 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3530 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3531 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3532 
  3533 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3534 constructors.
  3535 
  3536 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3537 the local file system.
  3538 
  3539 
  3540 *** HOL ***
  3541 
  3542 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3543 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3544 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3545 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3546 
  3547   declare [[coercion f]]
  3548 
  3549 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3550 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3551 
  3552   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3553 
  3554 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3555 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3556 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3557 other theories like this:
  3558 
  3559   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3560 
  3561 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3562 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3563 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3564 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3565 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3566 for examples.
  3567 
  3568 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3569 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3572 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3573 
  3574 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3575 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3576 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3577 
  3578 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3579 functorial structure of types.
  3580 
  3581 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3582 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3583 
  3584 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3585 languages.
  3586 
  3587 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3588 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3592 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3595 combinators any longer.
  3596 
  3597 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3598 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3599 
  3600 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3601 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3602 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3603 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3604 
  3605   record 'a foo = ...
  3606   ...
  3607   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3608 
  3609 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3610 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3614 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3615 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3616 
  3617 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3618 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3619 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3620 
  3621 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3622 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3625 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3626 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3627 independently.
  3628 
  3629 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3630 counter example search.
  3631 
  3632 * Sledgehammer:
  3633   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3634     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3635     sledgehammer").
  3636   - Renamed commands:
  3637     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3638     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3639     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3640     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641   - Renamed options:
  3642     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3643     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3644     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3645     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3646     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3647 
  3648 * Nitpick:
  3649   - Renamed options:
  3650     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3651     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3652     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3654   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3655   - Added "whack" option.
  3656   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3657   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3658   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3659   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3660     higher cardinalities.
  3661   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3662 
  3663 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3664 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3665 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3666 
  3667     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3668 
  3669 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3670 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3671 
  3672 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3673 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3674 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3675 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3676 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3677 "smt_solver".
  3678 
  3679 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3680 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3681 
  3682 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3683 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3684 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3685 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3688   - Renamed:
  3689     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3690     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3691     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692   - Added:
  3693     smt_verbose
  3694     smt_random_seed
  3695     smt_datatypes
  3696     smt_infer_triggers
  3697     smt_monomorph_limit
  3698     cvc3_options
  3699     remote_cvc3_options
  3700     remote_z3_options
  3701     yices_options
  3702 
  3703 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3704 header.
  3705 
  3706 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3707 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3708 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3709 
  3710   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3711 
  3712 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3713 
  3714 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3715 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3716 
  3717 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3720 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3723 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3724 
  3725 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3726 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3729 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3730 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3738 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3741 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3742 for congruent(2)).
  3743 
  3744 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3745 
  3746   types
  3747     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3748     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3749 
  3750   constants
  3751     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3752     True ~> HOL.True
  3753     False ~> HOL.False
  3754     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3755     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3756     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3757     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3758     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3759     The ~> HOL.The
  3760     All ~> HOL.All
  3761     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3762     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3763     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3764     If ~> HOL.If
  3765     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3766     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3767     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3768     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3769     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3770     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3771     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3772     op : ~> Set.member
  3773     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3774 
  3775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3778 
  3779     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3780     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3781     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3782     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3783     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3784     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3785     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3786     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3787 
  3788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * More stylized fact names:
  3791 
  3792   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3793   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3794   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3795   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3796 
  3797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3800 
  3801   constants
  3802     null ~> List.null
  3803 
  3804   facts
  3805     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3806     null_empty ~> null_def
  3807 
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3809 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3810 generation.
  3811 
  3812 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3813 Haskell code.
  3814 
  3815 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3816 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3817 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3820 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3823 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3824 
  3825 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3826 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3827 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3830 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834 
  3835 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3836 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3837 referred to by its qualified name.
  3838 
  3839   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3840   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3841   product ~>  Enum.product
  3842 
  3843 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3844 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3848 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3849 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3853 sort_key.
  3854 
  3855 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3859 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3860 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3861 
  3862   types
  3863     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3864               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3865               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3866         (depends on your needs)
  3867 
  3868   constants
  3869      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3870      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3871      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3872 
  3873 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3874 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3875 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3876 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3879 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3880 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3881 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3882 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3888 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3889 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3890 
  3891 
  3892 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3893 
  3894 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3895 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3896 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3897 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3898 compatibility.
  3899 
  3900 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3901 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 *** HOLCF ***
  3905 
  3906 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3907 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3908 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3912 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3913 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3916   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3917   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3918 
  3919 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3920 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3921 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3924 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3925 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3926 domain definition now works:
  3927 
  3928   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3929 
  3930 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3931 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3932 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3933 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3934 
  3935   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3936     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3937 
  3938   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3939 
  3940 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3941 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3942 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3945 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3948 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3949 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3950 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3951 
  3952 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3953 
  3954 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3962 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3963 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3964 
  3965 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3966 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3967 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3968 
  3969 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3970 still supported as an input translation.
  3971 
  3972 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3973 
  3974   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3975   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3976   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3977   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3978   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3979   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3980   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3981 
  3982 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3983 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3986   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3987   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3988   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3989   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3990   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3991 
  3992 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3993 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3996 
  3997   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3998   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3999   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4000   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4001 
  4002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4005 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4008 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4011   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4012   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4013   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4014   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4015   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4016   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4017   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4018   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4019   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4020   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4021   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4022   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4023   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4024   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4025   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4026   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4027   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4028   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4029   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4030 
  4031 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4034   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4035   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4036   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4037   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4038   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4039   box_less             ~> box_below
  4040   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4041   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4042   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4043   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4044   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4045   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4046   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4047   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4048   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4049   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4050   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4051   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4052   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4053   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4054   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4055   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4056   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4057   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4058   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4059   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4060   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4061   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4062   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4063   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4064   up_less              ~> up_below
  4065   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4066   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4067   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4068   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4069   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4070   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4071   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4072   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4073   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4074   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4075   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4076   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4077   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4078 
  4079 
  4080 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4081 
  4082 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4083 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 
  4086 *** ML ***
  4087 
  4088 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4089 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4090 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4091 
  4092 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4093 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4094 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4095 
  4096 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4097 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4098 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4099 
  4100 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4101 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4102 
  4103 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4104 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4105 
  4106 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4107 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4108 
  4109 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4110 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4111 
  4112 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4113 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4114 almost all situations.
  4115 
  4116 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4117 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4118 Isabelle/ML.
  4119 
  4120 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4121 meaning.
  4122 
  4123 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4124 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4125 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4126 
  4127 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4128 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4129 
  4130 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4131 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4132 
  4133 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4134 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4135 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4136 
  4137 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4138 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4139 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4140 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4141 configuration options.
  4142 
  4143 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4144 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4145 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4146 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4147 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4148 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4149 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4150 
  4151 
  4152 
  4153 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4154 ---------------------------------
  4155 
  4156 *** General ***
  4157 
  4158 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4159 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4160 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4161 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4162 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4163 their full internal name.
  4164 
  4165 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4166 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4167 Some hints on upgrading:
  4168 
  4169   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4170     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4171     which are independent of this issue.
  4172 
  4173   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4174     provides the following special forms:
  4175 
  4176       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4177       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4178       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4179 
  4180     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4181     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4182     extra variables".
  4183 
  4184     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4185     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4186     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4187     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4188     "logic".
  4189 
  4190   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4191     antiquotations:
  4192 
  4193       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4194       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4195       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4196       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4197 
  4198   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4199     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4200     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4201     antiquotations.
  4202 
  4203 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4204 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4205 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4206 diagnose syntax problems.
  4207 
  4208 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4209 
  4210 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4211 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4212 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4213 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4214 
  4215 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4216 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4217 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4218 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4221 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4222 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4223 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4224 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4227 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4228 
  4229 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4230 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4231 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4232 
  4233   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4234 
  4235 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4236 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4237 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4238 
  4239 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4240 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4244 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4245 
  4246 
  4247 *** Pure ***
  4248 
  4249 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4250 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4251 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4252 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4253 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4254 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4255 inspect proof terms.
  4256 
  4257 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4258 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4259 are added internally.  For example:
  4260 
  4261   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4262 
  4263 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4264 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4267 
  4268 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4269 'class' instead.
  4270 
  4271 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4272 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4276 invariants.
  4277 
  4278 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4279 user space functionality any longer.
  4280 
  4281 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4282 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4286 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4287 
  4288 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4289 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4290 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4291 
  4292 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4293 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4294 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4295 
  4296 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4297 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 
  4300 *** HOL ***
  4301 
  4302 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4303 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4304 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4305 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4306 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4307 
  4308 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4309 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4310 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4311 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4312 
  4313   fun
  4314     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4315   where
  4316     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4317 
  4318   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4319     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4320 
  4321   quotient_definition
  4322     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4323 
  4324 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4325 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4326 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4327 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4328 
  4329 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4330 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4331 
  4332 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4333 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4334 
  4335 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4337 
  4338 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4339 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4340 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4341 
  4342 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4343 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4352 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4353 
  4354 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4355 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4356 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4359   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4360   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4361   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4362   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4363   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4364   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4365   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4366   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4367   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4368   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4369   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4370   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4371   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4372   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4373   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4374   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4375   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4376   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4377   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4378   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4379   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4380   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4381   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4382   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4383   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4384   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4385   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4386   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4387   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4388 
  4389 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4390 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4391 
  4392 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4393 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4394 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4395 
  4396 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4397 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4398 
  4399 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4400 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4403 
  4404 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4405 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4408 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4413 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4414 
  4415 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4416 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4417 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4418 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4419 
  4420 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4421   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4422   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4423   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4427 lattices):
  4428 
  4429     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4430     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4431 
  4432     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4433 
  4434     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4435     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4436     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4437     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4438     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4439     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4440     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4441     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4442     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4443     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4444     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4445     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4446     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4447 
  4448     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4449     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4450     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4451     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4452     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4453     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4454     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4455     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4456     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4457     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4458     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4459     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4460     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4461     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4462     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4463     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4464     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4465     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4466 
  4467   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4468   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4469 
  4470     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4471     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4472     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4473     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4474     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4475 
  4476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4477 
  4478 * Refined field classes:
  4479   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4480     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4481     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4482   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4486   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4487   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4488   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4489     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4490   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4491     equal_neg_zero.
  4492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4495 sets to lattices:
  4496 
  4497   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4498   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4499   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4500   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4501   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4502   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4503   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4504   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4505   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4506   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4507 
  4508 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4509 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4510 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4511 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4512 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4513 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4516 multiset order:
  4517 
  4518   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4519     <= and <;
  4520   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4521     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4522     multiset_order;
  4523   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4524     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4525     generation;
  4526   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4527     if needed.
  4528 
  4529 Renamed:
  4530 
  4531   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4532   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4533   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4534 
  4535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4536 
  4537 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4538 
  4539 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4540 
  4541 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4542 
  4543 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4544 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4545 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4546 
  4547   Constants:
  4548   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4549   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4550   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4551   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4552   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4553   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4554   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4555   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4556   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4557   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4558   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4559   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4560   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4561 
  4562   Lemmas:
  4563   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4564   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4565   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4566   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4567   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4568   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4569   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4570   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4571   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4572   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4573   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4574   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4575   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4576 
  4577 * Sledgehammer:
  4578   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4579     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4580     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4581     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4582     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4583     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4584     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4586   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4587     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4588   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4589     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4590     is still experimental.)
  4591   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4592     full-typed mode.
  4593   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4594 
  4595 * Nitpick:
  4596   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4597   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4598   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4599     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4600   - Added support for quotient types.
  4601   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4602     constructs.
  4603   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4604     "termination" proofs).
  4605   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4606   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4607   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4608   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4609     record getters.
  4610   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4611   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4612   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4613   - Added "atoms" option.
  4614   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4615     problems.
  4616   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4617     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4618     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4620     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4622 
  4623 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4624   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4625   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4626   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4627   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4628   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4629   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4630   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4631   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4632   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633 
  4634 
  4635 *** HOLCF ***
  4636 
  4637 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4638 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4639 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4642 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4643 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4644 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4645 
  4646 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4647 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4648 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4649 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4650 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4653 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4654 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4657 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4660   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4661 
  4662 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4663 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4666   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4667   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4668   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4669   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4670 
  4671 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4672 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4673 
  4674   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4675   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4676   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4677 
  4678 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4679 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4683 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4688 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 
  4691 *** ML ***
  4692 
  4693 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4694 
  4695     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4696     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4697 
  4698     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4699     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4700     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4701     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4702 
  4703     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4704     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4705     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4706 
  4707 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4708 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4709 
  4710 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4711 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4712 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4713 
  4714 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4715 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4716 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4717 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4718 
  4719 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4720 the context or even global references.
  4721 
  4722 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4723 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4724 
  4725 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4726 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4727 
  4728   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4729   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4730   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4731   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4732   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4733   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4734   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4735   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4736   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4737   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4738 
  4739 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4740 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4741 
  4742 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4743 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4744 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4745 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4746 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4747 
  4748 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4749 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4750 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4751 Theory_Data version.
  4752 
  4753 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4754 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4755 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4756 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4757 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4758 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4759 explicitly in rare situations.
  4760 
  4761 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4762 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4766 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4769 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4770 quite rare).
  4771 
  4772 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4773 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774 
  4775 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4776 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4777 terms.
  4778 
  4779 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4780 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4781 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4782 
  4783 
  4784 *** System ***
  4785 
  4786 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4787 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4788 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4789 
  4790 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4791 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4792 respectively.
  4793 
  4794 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4795 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4796 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4797 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4798 
  4799   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4800 
  4801 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4802 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4803 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4804 component.
  4805 
  4806 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4807 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4808 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4809 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4810 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4811 the user for manual installation.
  4812 
  4813 
  4814 
  4815 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4816 -------------------------------------
  4817 
  4818 *** General ***
  4819 
  4820 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4821 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4822 
  4823 
  4824 *** Pure ***
  4825 
  4826 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4827 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4828 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4829 
  4830 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4831 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4832 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4833 
  4834 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4835 interpretation.
  4836 
  4837 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4838 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 *** Document preparation ***
  4842 
  4843 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4844 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4845 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4846 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4847 
  4848 
  4849 *** HOL ***
  4850 
  4851 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4852 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4853 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4854 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4855 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4856 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4857 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4858 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4859 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4860 
  4861 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4862 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4863 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4864 
  4865 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4866 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4867 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4868 
  4869 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4870 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4871 
  4872 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4873 
  4874 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4875 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4876 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4877 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4878 
  4879 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4880 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4881 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4882 "mirabelle" utility.
  4883 
  4884 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4885 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4886 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4887 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4888 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4889 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4890 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4891 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4892 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4893 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4894 
  4895 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4896 procedure only.
  4897 
  4898 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4899 
  4900 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4901 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4902 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4903 that fail later.
  4904 
  4905 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4906 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4907 
  4908 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4909 the same method as the approximation method.
  4910 
  4911 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4912 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4913 series expansion.
  4914 
  4915 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4916 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4917 
  4918 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4919 reals.
  4920 
  4921 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4922 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4923 
  4924 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4925 fixpoint theorem.
  4926 
  4927 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4928   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4929     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4930   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4931     accordingly
  4932   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4933     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4934   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4935     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4936 
  4937 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4938 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4939 lattice.
  4940 
  4941 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4942 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4943 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4944 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4945 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4946 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948 
  4949 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4950   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4951     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4952   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4953     le_inf_iff
  4954   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4955     sup_aci)
  4956   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4957   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4958   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4959     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4960     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4961     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4962     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4963     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4964     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4965     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4966     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4967     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4968     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4969   - authentic syntax for
  4970     Set.Pow
  4971     Set.image
  4972   - mere abbreviations:
  4973     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4974     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4975     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4976     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4977     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4978     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4979     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4980     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4981   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4982 
  4983 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4984 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4985 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4986 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4987 
  4988 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4989 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4990 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4991 
  4992 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4993 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4994 
  4995 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4996 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4997 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4998 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4999 
  5000 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5001 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5002 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5003 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5004 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5005 
  5006 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5007 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5011 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5014 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5015 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5016 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5017 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5018 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5019 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5023     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5024     code_post       replaces    code post
  5025     etc.
  5026   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * Renamed methods:
  5029     sizechange -> size_change
  5030     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5031   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5032 
  5033 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5034 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5035 
  5036 * Renamed theorems:
  5037     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5038     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5039     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5040     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5041     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5042   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5043 
  5044 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 
  5051 *** HOLCF ***
  5052 
  5053 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5054 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5055 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5056 
  5057 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5058 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5059 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5060 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5061 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5062 
  5063 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5064 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5065 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5066 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5067 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5068 
  5069 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5070 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5071 constructor are pre-configured.
  5072 
  5073 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5074 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5075 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5076 
  5077 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5078 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5079 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5080 as well.)
  5081 
  5082 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5083 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5084 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5085 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5086 examples.
  5087 
  5088 
  5089 *** ML ***
  5090 
  5091 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5092 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5093 
  5094 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5095 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5096 position, logical grouping etc.
  5097 
  5098 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5099 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5100 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5101 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5102 
  5103 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5104 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5105 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5106 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5107 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5108 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5109 
  5110 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5111 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5112 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5113 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5114 experiments with references.
  5115 
  5116 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5117 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5118 
  5119 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5120 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5121 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5122 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5123 
  5124 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5125 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5126 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5127 
  5128 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5129 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5130 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5131 
  5132 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5138 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5139 
  5140 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5141 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5142 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5143 
  5144 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5145 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5146 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5147 
  5148 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5149 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5150 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5152 
  5153 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5154 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5155 instead of global theory.
  5156 
  5157 
  5158 *** System ***
  5159 
  5160 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5161 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5162 usedir option -q.
  5163 
  5164 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5165 also the system manual.
  5166 
  5167 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5168 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5169 
  5170 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5171 this is always enabled.
  5172 
  5173 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5174 
  5175 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5176 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5177 currently supported on Linux only.
  5178 
  5179 
  5180 
  5181 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5182 --------------------------------
  5183 
  5184 *** General ***
  5185 
  5186 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5187 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5188 
  5189   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5190     "isatool."
  5191 
  5192   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5193     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5194 
  5195   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5196     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5197 
  5198 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5199 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5200 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5201 
  5202 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5203 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5204 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5205 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5206 via "isabelle emacs".
  5207 
  5208 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5209 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5210 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5211 
  5212 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5213 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5214 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5215 
  5216 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5217 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5218 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5219 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5220 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5221 
  5222 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5223 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5224 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5225 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5226 
  5227 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5228 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5229 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5230 
  5231 
  5232 *** Pure ***
  5233 
  5234 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5235 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5236 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5237 
  5238 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5239 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5240 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5241 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5242 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5243 
  5244 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5245 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5246 useful in locale declarations.
  5247 
  5248 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5249 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5250 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5251 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5252 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5253 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5254 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5255 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5256 no longer generated.
  5257 
  5258 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5259 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5260 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5261 
  5262 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5263 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5264 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5265 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5266 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5267 
  5268 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5269 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5270 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5271 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5272 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5273 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5274 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5275 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5276 
  5277 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5278 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5279 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5280 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5281 
  5282 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5283 
  5284 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5285 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5286 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5287 
  5288 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5289 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5290 
  5291 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5292 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5293 in HOL, write
  5294 
  5295     class foo = ...
  5296 
  5297 instead of
  5298 
  5299     class foo = type + ...
  5300 
  5301 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5302 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5305 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5306 
  5307 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5308 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5309 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5310 
  5311 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5312 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5313 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5314 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5315 directly in regular applications.
  5316 
  5317 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5318 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5319 
  5320 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5321 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5322 
  5323 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5324 theory context.
  5325 
  5326 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5327 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5330 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5331 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5332 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5333 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5334 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5335 
  5336   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5337 
  5338 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5339 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5340 normalization.
  5341 
  5342 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5343 addressing etc.
  5344 
  5345 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5346 
  5347   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5348   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5349 
  5350 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5351 
  5352   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5353      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5354      parts of the code generator framework).
  5355 
  5356   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5357      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5358      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5359 
  5360 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5361 
  5362 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5363 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5364 
  5365 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5366 patterns, e.g.
  5367 
  5368     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5369 
  5370 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5371 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5372 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5373 hyphen:
  5374 
  5375     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5376 
  5377 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5378 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5379 
  5380 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5381 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5382 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5383 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5384 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5385 higher-order unification.
  5386 
  5387 
  5388 *** Document preparation ***
  5389 
  5390 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5391 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5392 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5393 
  5394 
  5395 *** HOL ***
  5396 
  5397 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5398 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5399 
  5400 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5401 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5402 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5403 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5404 Main, as before.
  5405 
  5406 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5407 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5408 
  5409 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5410 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5411 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5412 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5413 
  5414 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5415 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5416 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5417 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5418 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5419 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5420 
  5421 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5422 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5423 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5424 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5425 
  5426 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5427 menu.
  5428 
  5429 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5430 (contains the empty clause).
  5431 
  5432 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5433 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5434 
  5435 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5436 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5437 
  5438 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5439 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5440 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5441 
  5442 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5443 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5444 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5445 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5446 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5447 
  5448 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5449 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5450 
  5451 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5452 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5453 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5454 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5455 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5456 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5457 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5458 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5459 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5460 
  5461 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5462 
  5463 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5464 
  5465 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5466 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5469 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5470 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5471 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5472 
  5473 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5474 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5475 
  5476     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5477     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5478     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5479     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5480     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5481     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5482     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5483     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5484 
  5485 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5486 theory Set.
  5487 
  5488 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5489 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5490 
  5491 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5492 
  5493 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5494 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5495 
  5496 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5497 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5498 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5499 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5500 allowed. For examples see
  5501 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5502 
  5503 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5504 
  5505 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5509 structure:
  5510 
  5511     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5512     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5513     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5514     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5515     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5516     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5517     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5518     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5519     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5520     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5521     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5522     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5523     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5524     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5525     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5526     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5527     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5528     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5529     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5530     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5531     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5532     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5533     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5534     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5535     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5536     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5537     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5538     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5539     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5540     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5541     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5542     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5543     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5544 
  5545     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5546     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5547     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5548     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5549     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5550     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5551     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5552     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5553     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5554     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5555 
  5556     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5557     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5558     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5559     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5560     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5561     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5562 
  5563 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5564 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5565 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5566 
  5567 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5568 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5569 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5570 
  5571 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5572 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5573 
  5574 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5575 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5576 
  5577 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5578 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5579 proofs, e.g.
  5580 
  5581   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5582 
  5583 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5584 
  5585 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5586 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5587 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5590 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5592 
  5593 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5594 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5595 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5597 
  5598 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5599 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5600 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5601 preorder_class.*.
  5602 
  5603 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5604 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5605 
  5606 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5607 
  5608   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5609 
  5610 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5611 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5612 fold_image.
  5613 
  5614 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5615 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5616 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5617 the former will disappear at some point.
  5618 
  5619 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5620 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5621 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5622 
  5623 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5624 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5625 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5626 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5627 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5628 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5629 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5630 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5631 
  5632 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5633 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5634 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5635 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5636 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5637 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5638 
  5639     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5640     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5641     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5642     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5643     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5644     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5645     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5646 
  5647 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5648 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5649 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5650 
  5651 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5652 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5653 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5654 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5655 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5656 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5657 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5658 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5659 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5660 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5661 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5662 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5663 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5664 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5665 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5666 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5667 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5668 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5669 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5670 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5671 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5672 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5673 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5674 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5675 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5676 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5677 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5678 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5679 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5680 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5681 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5682 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5683 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5684 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5685 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5686 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5687 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5688 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5689 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5690 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5691 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5692 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5693 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5694 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5695 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5696 
  5697 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5698 
  5699 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5700 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5701 
  5702 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5703 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5704 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5705 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5706 
  5707 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5708 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5709 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5710 theory RealVector.
  5711 
  5712 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5713 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5714 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5715 and inner products are included.
  5716 
  5717 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5718 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5719 supported.
  5720 
  5721 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5722 first diagonalization argument.
  5723 
  5724 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5725 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5726 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5727 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5728 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5729 
  5730     hide (open) const gcd
  5731     abbreviation gcd where
  5732       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5733     notation (output)
  5734       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5735 
  5736 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5737 
  5738 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5739 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5740 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5743 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5744 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5745 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5746 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5747 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5748 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5749 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5750 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5751 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5752 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5753 cases.
  5754 
  5755 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5756 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5757 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5758 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5759 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5760 
  5761     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5762     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5763     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5764     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5765     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5766 
  5767 
  5768 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5769 
  5770 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5771 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5772 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5773 
  5774 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5775 
  5776 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5777 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5778 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5779 
  5780 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5781 
  5782 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5783 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5784 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5785 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5786 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5787 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5788 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5789 
  5790 
  5791 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5792 
  5793 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5794 
  5795 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5796 theory targets.
  5797 
  5798 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5799 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5800 'inductive' etc.
  5801 
  5802 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5803 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5804 
  5805 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5806 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5807 
  5808 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5809 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5810 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5811 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5812 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5813 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5814 the algorithm W:
  5815 
  5816  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5817  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5818          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5819 
  5820 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5821 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5822 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5823 
  5824 
  5825 *** HOLCF ***
  5826 
  5827 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5828 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5829 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5830 
  5831 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5832 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5833 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5834 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5835 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5836 
  5837 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5838 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5839 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 
  5842 *** ZF ***
  5843 
  5844 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5845 
  5846 
  5847 *** ML ***
  5848 
  5849 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5850 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5851 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5852 5.2.1!
  5853 
  5854 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5855 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5856 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5857 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5858 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5859 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5860 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5861 
  5862 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5863 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5864 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5865 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5866 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5867 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5868 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5869 
  5870 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5871 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5872 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5873 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5874 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5875 
  5876 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5877 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5878 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5879 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5880 Method.add_method.
  5881 
  5882 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5883 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5884 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5885 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5886 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5887 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5888 
  5889 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5890 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5891 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5892 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5893 examples.
  5894 
  5895 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5896 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5897 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5898 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5899 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5900 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5901 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5902 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5903 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5904 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5905 
  5906 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5907 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5908 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5909 
  5910 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5911 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5912 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5913 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5914 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5915 resort for legacy applications.
  5916 
  5917 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5918 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5919 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5920 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5921 explicit runtime argument.
  5922 
  5923 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5924 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5925 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5926 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5927 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5930 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5931 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5932 theory state.
  5933 
  5934 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5935 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5936 
  5937   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5938   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5939   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5940   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5941   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5942   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5943   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5944   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5945   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5946   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5947 
  5948 
  5949 *** System ***
  5950 
  5951 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5952 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5953 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5954 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5955 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5956 
  5957 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5958 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5959 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5960 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5961 
  5962 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5963 
  5964 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5965 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5966 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5967 prover operations.
  5968 
  5969 
  5970 
  5971 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5972 -------------------------------
  5973 
  5974 *** General ***
  5975 
  5976 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5977 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5978 
  5979 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5980 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5981 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5982 provides a proper context already.
  5983 
  5984 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5985 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5986 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5987 
  5988 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5989 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5990 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5991 swap theory imports.
  5992 
  5993 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5994 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5995 
  5996 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5997 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5998 white space without escapes.
  5999 
  6000 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6001 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6002 "foo_bar".
  6003 
  6004 
  6005 *** Pure ***
  6006 
  6007 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6008 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6009 
  6010 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6011 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6012 
  6013 (1) unused_thms
  6014      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6015 
  6016 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6017      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6018      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6019 
  6020 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6021      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6022      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6023      their ancestors.
  6024 
  6025 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6026 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6027 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6028 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6029 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6030 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6031 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6032 
  6033 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6034 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6035 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6036 
  6037 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6038 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6039 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6040 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6041 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6042 
  6043 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6044 
  6045 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6046 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6047 update of theories within ML code.
  6048 
  6049 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6050 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6051 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6052 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6053 
  6054 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6055 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6056 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6060 
  6061 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6062 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6063 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6064 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6065 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6066 
  6067 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6068 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6069 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6070 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6071 situations.
  6072 
  6073 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6074 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6075 proof text.
  6076 
  6077 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6078 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6079 
  6080 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6081 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6082 predicates.
  6083 
  6084 
  6085 *** Document preparation ***
  6086 
  6087 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6088 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6089 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6090 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6091 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6092 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6093 
  6094 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6095 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6096 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6097 
  6098 
  6099 *** HOL ***
  6100 
  6101 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6102 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6103 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6104 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6105 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6106 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6107 
  6108 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6109 with multithreading.
  6110 
  6111 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6112 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6113 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6114 
  6115 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6116 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6117 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6118 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6119 
  6120 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6121 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6122 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6123 and makes them available separately.  See
  6124 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6125 
  6126 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6127 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6128 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6129 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6130 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6131 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6132 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6133 the declared rules.
  6134 
  6135 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6136 
  6137   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6138 
  6139 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6140 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6141 
  6142 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6143 
  6144   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6145 
  6146   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6147     definitions on => and bool.
  6148 
  6149   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6150     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6151     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6152 
  6153       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6154       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6155       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6156       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6157       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6158       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6159       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6160       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6161 
  6162   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6163     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6164     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6165 
  6166   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6167     The proof pattern
  6168 
  6169       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6170       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6171 
  6172     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6173     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6174 
  6175       have "EX S. P S"
  6176       proof
  6177         show "P S" <...>
  6178       qed
  6179 
  6180   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6181     The proof pattern
  6182 
  6183       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6184       also have "S = T" <...>
  6185       finally have "P T" .
  6186 
  6187     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6188     must be replaced by something like
  6189 
  6190       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6191       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6192       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6193 
  6194   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6195     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6196 
  6197       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6198 
  6199     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6200     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6201     type of the form
  6202 
  6203       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6204 
  6205     rather than
  6206 
  6207       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6208 
  6209 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6210 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6211 
  6212 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6213 
  6214 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6215 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6217 
  6218 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6219 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6220 
  6221 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6222 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6223 
  6224 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6225 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6226 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6227 
  6228 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6229 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6230 
  6231   less_trans
  6232   less_linear
  6233   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6234   le_less_trans
  6235   less_le_trans
  6236   less_not_sym
  6237   less_asym
  6238 
  6239 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6240 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6241 and different variable names.
  6242 
  6243 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6244 
  6245 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6246 finite maps.
  6247 
  6248 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6249 
  6250 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6251 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6252 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6253 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6254 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6255 accordingly.
  6256 
  6257 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6258 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6259 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6260 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6261 
  6262 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6263 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6264 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6265 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6266 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6268