NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Jan 12 18:40:49 2014 +0100 (2014-01-12)
changeset 55001 f26a7f06266d
parent 54893 4061ec8adb1c
child 55006 ea9fc64327cb
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    21 
    22 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    23 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    24 
    25 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    26 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    27 
    28 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    29 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    30 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    31 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    32 
    33 
    34 *** Pure ***
    35 
    36 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    37 attributed fact expressions: background theory, declared hyps,
    38 declared variable names.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to
    39 observe standard context discipline.
    40 
    41 
    42 *** HOL ***
    43 
    44 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
    45 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    46 
    47 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
    48 with the given constants.
    49 
    50 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
    51 
    52 Fact consolidations:
    53     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
    54     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
    55     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
    56     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
    57     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
    58     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
    59     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
    60     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
    61     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
    62     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
    63     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
    64     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
    65     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
    66     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
    67     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
    68     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
    69     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
    70     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
    71     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
    72     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
    73     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
    74     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
    75     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
    76     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
    77     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
    78     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
    79     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
    80     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
    81     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
    82     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
    83     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
    84     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
    85     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
    86     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
    87     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
    88     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
    89     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
    90     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
    91     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
    92     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
    93 
    94 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
    95 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
    96 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
    97 
    98 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
    99 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   100 
   101 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   102 
   103 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   104 
   105 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   110 
   111 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   112 operations on records.
   113 
   114 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   118     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   120 
   121 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   122     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   123     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   127   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   128   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   129   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   130     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   131   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   132     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   133   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   134 INCOMPATBILITY.
   135 
   136 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   137     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   138     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   139     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   140     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * Fact name consolidation:
   144     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   145     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   146     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   147     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   148     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   152 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   153 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   154 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   155 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   156 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   157 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   158 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   161 
   162 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   163 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   164 
   165 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   166 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   167 
   168 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   169 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   170 or the brute way with
   171 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   172 
   173 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   174 
   175 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   176 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   179 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   180 
   181 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   182 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   183 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   184 INCOMPATIBILITY
   185 
   186 * Nitpick:
   187   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   188     infinite values.
   189 
   190 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   191   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   192   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   193     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   194     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   195     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   196     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   197     intervals.
   198 
   199 
   200 *** ML ***
   201 
   202 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   203 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   205 formal context.
   206 
   207 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   208 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   209 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   210 actually belongs to it).
   211 
   212 
   213 *** System ***
   214 
   215 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   216 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   217 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   218 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   219 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   220 
   221 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   222 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   223 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   224 
   225 
   226 
   227 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   228 -------------------------------------
   229 
   230 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   231 
   232 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   233 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   234 
   235 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   236 after edits surrounding the command location.
   237 
   238 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   239 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   240 e.g. out-of-memory).
   241 
   242 
   243 *** System ***
   244 
   245 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   246 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   247 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   248 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   249 
   250 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   251 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   252 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   253 
   254 
   255 
   256 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   257 -------------------------------------
   258 
   259 *** General ***
   260 
   261 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   262 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   263 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   266 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   269 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   270 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   271 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   272 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   273 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   274 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   275 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   276 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   277 syntax.
   278 
   279 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   280 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281 
   282 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   283 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   284 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   285 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   286 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   287 
   288 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   290 
   291 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   292 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   293 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   294 
   295 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   296 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   297 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   298 
   299 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   300 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   301 
   302 
   303 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   304 
   305 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   306 Documentation panel.
   307 
   308 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   309 documentation.
   310 
   311 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   312 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   313 
   314 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   315 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   316 normal editing and checking process.
   317 
   318 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   319 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   320 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   321 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   322 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   323 
   324 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   325 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   326 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   327 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   328 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   329 
   330 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   331 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   332 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   333 
   334 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   335 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   336 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   337 to resolve conflict.
   338 
   339 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   340 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   341 
   342 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   343 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   344 such command executions while editing.
   345 
   346 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   347 document content.
   348 
   349 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   350 toplevel theorem statements.
   351 
   352 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   353 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   354 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   355 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   356 
   357 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   358 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   359 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   360 
   361 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   362 / Global Options / Appearance".
   363 
   364 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   365 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   366 
   367 
   368 *** Pure ***
   369 
   370 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   371 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   372 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   373 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   374 details.
   375 
   376 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   377 
   378 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   379 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   380 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   381 
   382 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   384 
   385 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   386 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   387 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   388 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   391 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   392 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   395 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   396 
   397 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   398 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   399 situations.
   400 
   401 
   402 *** HOL ***
   403 
   404 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   405 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   407 
   408 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   409 
   410 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   411 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   412 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   413 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   414 
   415   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   416 
   417 * Code generator:
   418   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   419     'code_instance'.
   420   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   421     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   422 
   423 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   424 examples.
   425 
   426 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   427 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   428 to distinguish both when desired.
   429 
   430 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   431 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   432 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   433 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   436 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   437 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   438 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   439 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   440 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441 
   442 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   443 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   444 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   445 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   446 
   447 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   448 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   449 
   450 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   451 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   452 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   453 
   454 * Lifting:
   455   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   456     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   457       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   458       transfer rules
   459     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   460       correspondence relation can be generated
   461     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   462       parametricity
   463     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   464   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   465   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   466     copies
   467   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   468     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   469     anonymous context)
   470   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   471     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   472   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   473     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   474   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   475     INCOMPATIBILITY
   476 
   477 * Transfer:
   478   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   479     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   480   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   481   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   482     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   483   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   484 
   485 * Reification and reflection:
   486   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   487     "Reification".
   488   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   489   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   491 
   492 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   493   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   494     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   495     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   496   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   497     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   498   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   499     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   500     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   501     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   502     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   503     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   504     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   505     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   506   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   507     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   508   - Fact renames:
   509       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   510       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   514 
   515 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   516 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   517 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   519 
   520 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   521 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   522 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   523 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   524 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   525 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   526 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   527 lemmas.
   528 
   529 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   530 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   531 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   534 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   535 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   536 
   537 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   538 top and bottom elements.
   539 
   540 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   541 
   542 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   543 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   544 
   545  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   546    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   547    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   548 
   549  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   550    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   551    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   552 
   553    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   554    arbitrary filter.
   555 
   556  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   557    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   558    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   559    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   560    on a compact set.
   561 
   562  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   563    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   564    linear_continuum_topology).
   565 
   566  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   567    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   568    on all sequences converging to x.
   569 
   570  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   571    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   572    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   573    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   574    left or right.
   575 
   576  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   577 
   578      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   579 
   580  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   581    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   582 
   583  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   584    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   585    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   586    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   587    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   588    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   589 
   590  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   591 
   592    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   593 
   594    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   595      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   596 
   597    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   598 
   599    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   600      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   601 
   602    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   603 
   604    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   605 
   606  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   607 
   608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   609 
   610 * Nitpick:
   611   - Added option "spy"
   612   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   613 
   614 * Sledgehammer:
   615   - Renamed option:
   616       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   617     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   618   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   619   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   620   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   621 
   622 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   623 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   624 
   625 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   626   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   627   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   628     generated code.
   629   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   630   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   631   - Fact renames:
   632     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   633     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   634     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   635 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   638 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   639 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   640 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   641 
   642 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   643 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   644 
   645 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   648 
   649     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   650     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   651 
   652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   653 
   654 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   655 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   656 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   657 
   658 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   659 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   660 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   661 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * HOL-BNF:
   664   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   665     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   666     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   667     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   668   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   669     coinduct).
   670   - Renamed keywords:
   671     data ~> datatype_new
   672     codata ~> codatatype
   673     bnf_def ~> bnf
   674   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   675     discs ~> disc
   676     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   677     map_id' ~> map_id
   678     sels ~> sel
   679     set_map' ~> set_map
   680     sets ~> set
   681 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   682 
   683 
   684 *** ML ***
   685 
   686 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   687 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   688 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   689 Examples.thy in particular.
   690 
   691 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   692 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   693 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   694 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   695 
   696 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   697 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   698 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   699 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   703 
   704     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   705     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   706 
   707 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   708 
   709 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   710 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   711 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   712 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   713 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   714 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   715 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   716 
   717 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   718 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   719 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   720 clasets separately from the context.
   721 
   722 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   723 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   724 
   725 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   726 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   727 
   728 
   729 *** System ***
   730 
   731 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   732 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   733 
   734 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   735 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   736 
   737 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   738 settings variable.
   739 
   740 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   741 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   742 always pdf.
   743 
   744 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   745 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   746 
   747 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   748 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   749 
   750 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   751 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   752 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   753 
   754 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   755 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   756 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   757 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   758 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   759 for HTML presentation of theories.
   760 
   761 
   762 
   763 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   764 -----------------------------------
   765 
   766 *** General ***
   767 
   768 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   769 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   770 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   771 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   772 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   773 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   774 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   775 
   776 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   777 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   778 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   779 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   780 
   781 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   782 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   783 
   784 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   785 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   786 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   787 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   788 dependencies properly.
   789 
   790 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   791 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   792 
   793 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   794 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   795 
   796 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   797 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   798 and "class ... context ...".
   799 
   800 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   801 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   802 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   803 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   804 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   805 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   806 
   807 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   808 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   809 
   810 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   811 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   812 
   813 
   814 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   815 
   816 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   817 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   818 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   819 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   820 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   821 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   822 
   823 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   824 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   825 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   826 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   827 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   828 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   829 
   830 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   831 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   832 browser on demand.
   833 
   834 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   835 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   836 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   837 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   838 
   839 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   840 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   841 
   842 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   843 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   844 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   845 potentially infinite message streams.
   846 
   847 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   848 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   849 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   850 schemes.
   851 
   852 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   853 symbols.
   854 
   855 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   856 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   857 
   858 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   859 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   860 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   861 
   862 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   863 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   864 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   865 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   866 
   867 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   868 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   869 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   870 
   871 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   872 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   873 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   874 Isabelle distribution.
   875 
   876 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   877 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   878 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   879 
   880 
   881 *** Pure ***
   882 
   883 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   884 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   885 
   886 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   887 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   888 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   891 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   892 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   893 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   894 with some care where this is really required.
   895 
   896 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   897 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   898 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   899 
   900   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   901 
   902 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   903 a Hasse diagram.
   904 
   905 
   906 *** HOL ***
   907 
   908 * Sledgehammer:
   909 
   910   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   911     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   912   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   913   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   914   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   915   - Renamed options:
   916       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   917       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   918       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   919       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   920 
   921 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   922 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   923 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   924 
   925 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Lifting:
   929   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   930   - quot_del attribute
   931   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   932 
   933 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   934 expressions.
   935 
   936 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   937 pointfree expressions.
   938 
   939 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   940 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   941 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   942 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   946 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   947 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   948 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   949 accordingly.
   950 
   951 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   952 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   955 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   958 
   959 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   960 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   961 
   962 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   963 
   964 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   965 
   966   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   967   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   968 
   969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   972 
   973   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   974   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   975 
   976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   979 
   980   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   981     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   982     output f x converges to G.
   983 
   984   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   985     infinity (at_bot).
   986 
   987   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   988     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   989 
   990   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   991     at_top".
   992 
   993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   994 
   995 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   996 lattice type classes.
   997 
   998 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   999 
  1000     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1001     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1002 
  1003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1004 
  1005 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1006 changes as follows.
  1007 
  1008   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1009 
  1010       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1011       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1012 
  1013   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1014     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1015     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1016     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1017 
  1018   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1019     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1020     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1021 
  1022   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1023     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1024     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1025     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1026 
  1027   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1028     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1029 
  1030       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1031       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1032       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1033       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1034       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1035       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1036       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1037       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1038       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1039       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1040       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1041       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1042       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1043       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1044       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1045       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1046 
  1047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1048 
  1049 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1050 
  1051 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1052 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1053 
  1054 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1055 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1056 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1057 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1058 
  1059   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1060   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1061   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1062   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1063   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1064   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1065   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1066   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1067   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1068   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1069 
  1070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1073 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1074 Data").
  1075 
  1076 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1077 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1078 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1079 code.
  1080 
  1081 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1082 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1083 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1085 
  1086 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1087 
  1088 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1089 
  1090 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1091 
  1092   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1093   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1094 
  1095 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1096 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1097 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1098 
  1099   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1100 
  1101     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1102     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1103     cart_base i  removed
  1104     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1105 
  1106   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1107 
  1108   Renamed lemmas:
  1109 
  1110     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1111     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1112     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1113     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1114     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1115     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1116     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1117     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1118     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1119     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1120 
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * HOL/Probability:
  1124 
  1125   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1126 
  1127   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1128     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1129     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1130 
  1131   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1132     projective family).
  1133 
  1134 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1135 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1136 
  1137 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1138 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1139 datatypes.
  1140 
  1141 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1142 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1143 
  1144 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1145 trees for the code generator.
  1146 
  1147 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1148 Lifting/Transfer.
  1149 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1150 
  1151 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 
  1155 *** Document preparation ***
  1156 
  1157 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1158 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1159 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1160 
  1161 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1162 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1163 
  1164 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1165 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1166 document/root.tex.
  1167 
  1168 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1169 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1170 
  1171 
  1172 *** ML ***
  1173 
  1174 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1175 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1176 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1177 
  1178 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1179 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1180 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1181 
  1182 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1183 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1184 necessarily printing visible text.
  1185 
  1186 
  1187 *** System ***
  1188 
  1189 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1190 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1191 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1192 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1193 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1194 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1195 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1196 
  1197 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1198 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1199 
  1200   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1201 
  1202 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1203 
  1204 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1205 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1206 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1207 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1208 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1209 
  1210 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1211 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1212 
  1213 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1214 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1215 
  1216 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1218 
  1219 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1220 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1221 version of Isabelle.
  1222 
  1223 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1224 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1225 
  1226 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1227 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1228 for home-made settings.
  1229 
  1230 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1231 
  1232 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1233 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1234 configuration.
  1235 
  1236 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1237 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1238 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1239 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1240 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1241 
  1242 
  1243 
  1244 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1245 ------------------------------
  1246 
  1247 *** General ***
  1248 
  1249 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1250 
  1251   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1252     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1253   - markup for bound variables
  1254   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1255   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1256   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1257     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1258 
  1259 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1260 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1261 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1262 
  1263 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1264 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1265 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1266 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1267 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1268 
  1269   context
  1270     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1271     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1272   begin
  1273 
  1274   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1275 
  1276   end
  1277 
  1278   thm my_trans
  1279 
  1280 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1281 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1282 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1283 
  1284 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1285 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1286 
  1287 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1288 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1289 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1290 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1291 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1292 
  1293 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1294 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1295 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1296 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1297 indices of schematic variables.
  1298 
  1299 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1300 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1301 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1302 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1303 etc. was exploited.
  1304 
  1305 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1306 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1307 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1308 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1309 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1310 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1311 
  1312 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1313 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1314 manual.
  1315 
  1316 
  1317 *** Pure ***
  1318 
  1319 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1320 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1321 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1322 
  1323 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1324 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1325 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1326 undocumented feature.)
  1327 
  1328 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1329 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1330 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1331 
  1332   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1333 
  1334   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1335     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1336 
  1337 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1338 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1339 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1340 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1341 
  1342 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1343 
  1344     num ~> num_token
  1345     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1346     xstr ~> str_token
  1347 
  1348 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1349 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1350 position information via constraints).
  1351 
  1352 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1353 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1354 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1355 
  1356 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1357 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1358 
  1359 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1360 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1361 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1364 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1365 
  1366 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1367 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1368 
  1369   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1370 
  1371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1372 
  1373 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1374 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1377 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1378 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1379 
  1380 
  1381 *** HOL ***
  1382 
  1383 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1384 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1385 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1386 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1387 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1388 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1389 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1390 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1391 possible.
  1392 
  1393 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1394 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1395 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1396 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1397 
  1398 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1399 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1400 
  1401 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1402 
  1403 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1404 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1405 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1406 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1407 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1408 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1409 
  1410   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1411     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1412 
  1413   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1414     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1415     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1416 
  1417   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1418     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1419 
  1420   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1421     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1422     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1423 
  1424   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1425     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1426 
  1427 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1428 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1429 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1430 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1431 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1432 
  1433   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1434     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1435     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1436     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1437     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1438 
  1439     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1440     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1441 
  1442   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1443     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1444     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1445     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1446     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1447     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1448     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1449     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1450 
  1451   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1452     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1453     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1454     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1455 
  1456   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1457     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1458     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1459     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1460 
  1461   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1462     from type nat to type int.
  1463 
  1464 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1465 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1466 
  1467   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1468     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1469     type.  Example syntax:
  1470 
  1471     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1472       is List.insert
  1473 
  1474     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1475     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1476     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1477     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1478     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1479     by the package.
  1480 
  1481   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1482     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1483     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1484     code generation for each constant.
  1485 
  1486   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1487     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1488     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1489     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1490     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1491 
  1492   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1493     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1494     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1495 
  1496 * Quotient package:
  1497 
  1498   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1499     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1500 
  1501   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1502     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1503 
  1504   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1505     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1506     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1507 
  1508   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1509     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1512 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1513 
  1514 * Quickcheck:
  1515 
  1516   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1517     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1518     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1519     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1520     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1521 
  1522     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1523     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1524     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1525 
  1526     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1527     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1528 
  1529     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1530     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1531     show genuine counterexamples.
  1532 
  1533   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1534     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1535 
  1536     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1537     constructors of that type.
  1538 
  1539   - Support for multisets.
  1540 
  1541   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1542 
  1543   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1544     conjectures in a locale context.
  1545 
  1546 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1547 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1548 
  1549 * Sledgehammer:
  1550   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1551     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1552   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1553   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1554     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1555   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1556   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1557   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1558   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1559 
  1560 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1561 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1562 
  1563 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1564 
  1565 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1568 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1569 
  1570   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1571 
  1572 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1573 a list and a nat.
  1574 
  1575 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1576 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1577 
  1578 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1579 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1580 default.
  1581 
  1582 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1583 
  1584   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1585 
  1586 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1587 
  1588 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1589 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1590 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1591 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1592 one_case.
  1593 
  1594 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1595 the result of the fact expression.
  1596 
  1597 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1598 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1599 of some relation theorems:
  1600 
  1601   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1602   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1603   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1604   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1605   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1606   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1607 
  1608 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1609 
  1610 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1611 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1612 
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1616 to match the constant's name:
  1617 
  1618   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1619   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1620   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1621   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1622   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1623   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1624   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1625   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1626   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1627   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1628   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1629   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1630   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1631   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1632   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1633   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1634   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1635   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1636   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1637   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1638   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1639   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1640   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1641   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1642 
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1646 and corresponding theorem names:
  1647 
  1648   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1649 
  1650   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1651 
  1652   - Renamed theorems:
  1653 
  1654     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1655     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1656     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1657     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1658     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1659     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1660     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1661     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1662     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1663     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1664     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1665     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1666     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1667     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1668     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1669     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1670     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1671     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1672     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1673     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1674     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1675     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1676     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1677 
  1678     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1679 
  1680     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1681 
  1682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1685 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1686 
  1687   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1688   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1689   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1690   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1691   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1692   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1693   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1694   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1695   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1696   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1697   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1698   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1699   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1700   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1701   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1702   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1703   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1704   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1705   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1706   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1707   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1708 
  1709 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1710 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713 
  1714 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1715 
  1716   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1717   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1718   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1719   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1720   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1721   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1722   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1723   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1724   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1725   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1726   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1727   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1728   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1729   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1730   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1731   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1732   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1733   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1734 
  1735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1736 
  1737 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1738 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1739 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1740 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1741 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1742 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1743 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1744 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1745 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1746 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1747 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1748 
  1749 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1750 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1751 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1752 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1753 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1754 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1755 
  1756 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1757 through option types.
  1758 
  1759 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1760 relations.
  1761 
  1762 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1765 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1766 
  1767   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1768   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1769   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1770   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1771   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1772   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1773   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1774   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1775   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1776   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1777   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1778   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1779   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1780   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1781   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1782   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1783   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1784   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1785   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1786   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1787   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1788   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1789   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1790   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1791   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1792   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1793   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1794   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1795   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1796   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1797   zless_le ~> less_le
  1798   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1799   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1800   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1801 
  1802 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1803 
  1804   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1805 
  1806 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1807 
  1808 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1809 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1810 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1811 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1815 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1816 
  1817 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1818 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1819 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1820 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1821 follows:
  1822 
  1823   Operations:
  1824   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1825   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1826   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1827   del -> rbt_del
  1828   delete -> rbt_delete
  1829   ins -> rbt_ins
  1830   insert -> rbt_insert
  1831   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1832   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1833   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1834   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1835   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1836   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1837   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1838   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1839   union -> rbt_union
  1840   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1841   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1842 
  1843   Lemmas:
  1844   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1845   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1846   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1847   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1848   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1849   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1850   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1851   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1852   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1853   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1854   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1855   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1856   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1857   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1858   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1859   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1860   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1861   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1862   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1863   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1864   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1865   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1866   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1867   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1868   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1869   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1870   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1871   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1872   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1873   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1874   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1875   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1876   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1877   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1878   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1879   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1880   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1881   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1882   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1883   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1884   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1885   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1886   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1887   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1888   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1889   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1890   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1891   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1892   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1893   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1894   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1895   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1896   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1897   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1898   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1899   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1900   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1901   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1902   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1903   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1904   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1905   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1906   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1907   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1908   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1909   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1910   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1911   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1912   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1913   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1914   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1915   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1916   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1917   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1918   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1919   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1920   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1921   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1922   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1923   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1924   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1925   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1926   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1927 
  1928 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1929 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1930 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932   Changed Operations:
  1933   float_abs -> abs
  1934   float_nprt -> nprt
  1935   float_pprt -> pprt
  1936   pow2 -> use powr
  1937   round_down -> float_round_down
  1938   round_up -> float_round_up
  1939   scale -> exponent
  1940 
  1941   Removed Operations:
  1942   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1943 
  1944   Renamed Lemmas:
  1945   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1946   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1947   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1948   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1949   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1950   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1951   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1952   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1953   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1954   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1955   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1956   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1957   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1958   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1959   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1960   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1961   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1962   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1963   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1964   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1965   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1966   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1967   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1968   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1969   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1970   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1971   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1972   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1973   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1974   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1975   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1976   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1977   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1978   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1979   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1980   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1981 
  1982   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1983   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1984   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1985   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1986   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1987   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1988   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1989   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1990   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1991   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1992 
  1993 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1994 association lists with distinct keys.
  1995 
  1996 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1997 annotated commands.
  1998 
  1999 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2000 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2001 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2002 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2005 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2006 instead.
  2007 
  2008   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2009   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2010   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2011   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2012   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2013   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2014   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2015   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2016   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2017   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2018   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2019   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2020   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2021   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2022   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2023   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2024   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2025   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2026   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2027   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2028   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2029   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2030   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2031   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2032   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2033   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2034   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2035   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2036   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2037   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2038   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2039   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2040   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2041   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2042   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2043   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2044   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2045   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2046   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2047   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2048   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2049 
  2050 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2051 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2052 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2053 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2054 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2055 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2056 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2057 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2058 
  2059 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2060 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2061 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2062 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2063 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2064 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2065 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2066 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2067 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2068 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2069 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2070 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2071 
  2072   Renamed constants:
  2073   measure -> emeasure
  2074   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2075   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2076   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2077   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2078 
  2079   Removed locales:
  2080   completeable_measure_space
  2081   finite_measure_space
  2082   finite_prob_space
  2083   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2084   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2085   finite_sigma_algebra
  2086   measure_space
  2087   pair_finite_prob_space
  2088   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2089   pair_finite_space
  2090   pair_sigma_algebra
  2091   product_sigma_algebra
  2092 
  2093   Removed constants:
  2094   conditional_space
  2095   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2096   image_space
  2097   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2098   pair_measure_generator
  2099   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2100   subvimage
  2101 
  2102   Replacement theorems:
  2103   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2104   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2105   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2106   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2107   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2108   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2109   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2110   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2111   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2112   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2113   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2114   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2115   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2116   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2117   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2118   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2119   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2120   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2121   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2122   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2123   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2124   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2125   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2126   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2127   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2128   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2129   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2130   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2131   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2132   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2133   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2134   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2135   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2136   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2137   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2138   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2139   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2140   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2141   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2142   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2143   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2144   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2145   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2146   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2147   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2148   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2149   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2150   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2151   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2152   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2153   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2154   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2155   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2156   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2157   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2158   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2159   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2160   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2161   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2162   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2163   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2164   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2165   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2166   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2167   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2168   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2169   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2170   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2171   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2172   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2173   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2174   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2175   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2176   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2177   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2178   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2179   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2180   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2181   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2182   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2183   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2184   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2185   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2186   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2187   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2188   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2189   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2190   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2191   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2192   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2193   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2194   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2195   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2196   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2197   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2198   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2199   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2200   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2201   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2202   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2203   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2204   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2205   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2206   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2207   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2208   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2209   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2210   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2211   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2212   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2213   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2214   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2215   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2216   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2217   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2218   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2219   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2220   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2221   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2222   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2223   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2224   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2225   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2226   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2227   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2228   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2229   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2230   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2231 
  2232 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2233 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2234 
  2235 
  2236 *** FOL ***
  2237 
  2238 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2239 
  2240 
  2241 *** ZF ***
  2242 
  2243 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2244 analysis.
  2245 
  2246 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2247 
  2248 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250 
  2251 *** ML ***
  2252 
  2253 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2254 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2255 
  2256 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2257 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2258 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2259 
  2260 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2261 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2262 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2263 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2264 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2265 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2267 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2268 
  2269 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2270 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2271 
  2272 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2273 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2274 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2275 
  2276 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2277 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2280 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2281 context as well.
  2282 
  2283 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2284 
  2285   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2286   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2287   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2288   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2289   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2290   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2291   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2292   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2293   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2294   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2295   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2296   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2297 
  2298 
  2299 *** System ***
  2300 
  2301 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2302 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2303 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2304 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2305 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2306 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2307 the generic user home was intended.
  2308 
  2309 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2310 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2311 
  2312 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2313 (not just JRE).
  2314 
  2315 
  2316 
  2317 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2318 ------------------------------------
  2319 
  2320 *** General ***
  2321 
  2322 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2323 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2324 
  2325   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2326     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2327     files for checking).
  2328 
  2329   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2330     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2331     positions.
  2332 
  2333   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2334     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2335     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2336 
  2337   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2338     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2339     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2340 
  2341   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2342     cores.
  2343 
  2344   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2345     versions (garbage collection).
  2346 
  2347 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2348 including some remaining limitations.
  2349 
  2350 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2351 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2352 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2353 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2354 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2358 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2359 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2360 
  2361 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2362 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2363 usedir option -Q.
  2364 
  2365 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2366 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2367 
  2368   long_names   ~> names_long
  2369   short_names  ~> names_short
  2370   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2371 
  2372 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2373 
  2374   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2375 
  2376 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2377 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2378 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2379 
  2380 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2381 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2382 
  2383 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2384   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2385   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2386   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2387     "Classical Reasoner".
  2388 
  2389 
  2390 *** HOL ***
  2391 
  2392 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2393 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2396 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2397 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2398 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2399 class complete_linorder.
  2400 
  2401 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2402 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2403 
  2404 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2405 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2406 
  2407   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2408   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2409   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2410   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2411   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2412   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2413   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2414   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2415   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2416   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2417   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2418 
  2419 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2420 
  2421   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2422   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2423   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2424   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2425   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2426   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2427   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2428   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2429   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2430   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2431   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2432   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2433   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2434   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2435   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2436   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2437 
  2438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2444 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2445 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2446 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2449 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2450 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2454 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2455 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2456 
  2457 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2458 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2459 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2462 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2463 
  2464 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2465 
  2466     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2467     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2468 
  2469 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2470 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2473 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2474 
  2475 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2476 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2477 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2478 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2481   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2482   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2483   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2484   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2485   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2486   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2487 
  2488 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2489 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490 
  2491   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2492   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2493   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2494   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2495   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2496   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2497   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2498   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2499   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2500   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2501   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2502   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2503   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2504   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2505   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2506   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2507   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2508   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2509   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2510   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2511   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2512   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2513   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2514   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2515   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2516   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2517   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2518   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2519   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2520   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2521   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2522   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2523   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2524   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2525   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2526   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2527   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2528   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2529   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2530   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2531   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2532   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2533   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2534   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2535   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2536   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2537   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2538   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2539   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2540   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2541   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2542   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2543   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2544   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2545   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2546   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2547   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2548   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2549   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2550   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2551   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2552   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2553   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2554   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2555   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2556   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2557   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2558   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2559   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2560   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2561   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2562   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2563   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2564   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2565   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2566   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2567   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2568   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2569   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2570   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2571   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2572   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2573 
  2574 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2575 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2576 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2577 
  2578 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2579 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2580 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2581 
  2582 * Code generation:
  2583 
  2584   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2585     characters in the target language.
  2586 
  2587   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2588     instead.
  2589 
  2590   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2591 
  2592   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2593     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2594 
  2595       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2596 
  2597 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2600 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2601 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2602 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2603 syntax.
  2604 
  2605 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2606 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2607 
  2608 * Nitpick:
  2609   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2610   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2611   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2612     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Sledgehammer:
  2615   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2616   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2617     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2618   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2619     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2620   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2621     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2623     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2624   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2625     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Metis:
  2628   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2630     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * Command 'try':
  2633   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2634     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2636     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2637 
  2638 * Quickcheck:
  2639   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2640     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2641   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2642     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2643   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2644     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2645     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2646     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2647   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2648     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2649 
  2650 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2651 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2652 
  2653 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2654 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2655 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2656 
  2657 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2658 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2660 
  2661 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2662 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2665 arithmetic.
  2666 
  2667 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2668 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2669 and lattice type classes.
  2670 
  2671 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2672 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2673 
  2674 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2675 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2676 
  2677 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2678 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2679 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2682   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2683   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2684   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2685 
  2686 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2687 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2688 constants:
  2689 
  2690   type inat   ~> type enat
  2691   Fin         ~> enat
  2692   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2693   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2694   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2695 
  2696 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2697 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2700 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2701 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2702 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2703 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2704 
  2705 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2706 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2707 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2708 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2709 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2710 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2711 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2712 
  2713   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2714   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2715   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2716   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2717 
  2718 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2719 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2720 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2723   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2724   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2725   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2726   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2727   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2728   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2729   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2730   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2731   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2732   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2733   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2734   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2735   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2736   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2737   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2738   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2739   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2740   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2741   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2742   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2743   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2744   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2745   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2746   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2747   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2748   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2749   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2750   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2751   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2752   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2753   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2754   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2755   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2756   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2757   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2758   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2759   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2760   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2761   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2762   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2763   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2764   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2765   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2766   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2767   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2768   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2769   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2770   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2771   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2772   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2773 
  2774 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2775   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2776   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2777   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2778   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2779     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2782 
  2783   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2784   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2785   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2786   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2787   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2788   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2789   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2790   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2791   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2792   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2793   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2794   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2795   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2796   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2797   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2798   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2799   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2800   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2801   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2802   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2803   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2804   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2805   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2806   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2807   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2808 
  2809 
  2810 *** Document preparation ***
  2811 
  2812 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2813 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2814 same.
  2815 
  2816 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2817 result.
  2818 
  2819 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2820 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2821 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2822 
  2823 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2824 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2825 
  2826 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2827 like this:
  2828 
  2829   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2830   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2831 
  2832 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2833 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2834 layouts.
  2835 
  2836 
  2837 *** ML ***
  2838 
  2839 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2840 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2841 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2842 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2843 under external program control.
  2844 
  2845 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2846 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2847 
  2848 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2849 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2850 (better known as Proof General).
  2851 
  2852 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2853 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2854 
  2855 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2856 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2857 
  2858 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2859 (including quotes etc.).
  2860 
  2861 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2862 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2863 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2864 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2865 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2866 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2867 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2868 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2869 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2870 
  2871 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2872 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2873 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2874 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2875 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2876 
  2877 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2878 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2879 
  2880 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2881 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2882 
  2883 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2884 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2885 
  2886 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2887 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2888 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2889 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2890 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2891 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2892 proper Proof.context.
  2893 
  2894 
  2895 *** System ***
  2896 
  2897 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2898 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2899 
  2900 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2901 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2902 
  2903 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2904 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2905 
  2906   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2907   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2908   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2909   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2910   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2911 
  2912 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2913 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914 
  2915 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2916 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2917 example:
  2918 
  2919   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2920 
  2921 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2922 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2923 
  2924 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2925 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2926 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2927 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2928 
  2929 
  2930 
  2931 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2932 ----------------------------------
  2933 
  2934 *** General ***
  2935 
  2936 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2937 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2938 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2939 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2940 like this:
  2941 
  2942   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2943 
  2944 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2945 
  2946 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2947 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2948 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2949 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2950 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2951 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2952 
  2953 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2954 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2955 the following package declarations:
  2956 
  2957   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2958   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2959 
  2960 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2961 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2962 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2963 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2964 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2965 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2966 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2967 
  2968 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2969 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2970 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2971 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2972 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2973 
  2974 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2975 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2976 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2977 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2978 
  2979 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2980 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2981 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2982 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2983 
  2984   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2985 
  2986   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2987   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2988   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2989   show_types                    show_types
  2990   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2991   show_consts                   show_consts
  2992   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2993 
  2994   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2995   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2996   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2997 
  2998   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2999   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3000 
  3001   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3002 
  3003   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3004   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3005   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3006   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3007   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3008 
  3009 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3010 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3011 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3012 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3013 
  3014 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3018   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3019 
  3020 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3021 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3022 float_token.
  3023 
  3024 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3025 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3027 
  3028 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3029 DejaVu Sans.
  3030 
  3031 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3032 
  3033 
  3034 *** Pure ***
  3035 
  3036 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3037 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3038 time.
  3039 
  3040 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3041 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3044 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3047 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3048 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3049 command already provided this functionality.
  3050 
  3051 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3052 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3053 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3054 without interpretations.
  3055 
  3056 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3057 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3058 
  3059 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3060 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3061 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3062 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3063 
  3064 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3065 'definition' instead.
  3066 
  3067 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3068 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3069 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3070 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3071 
  3072 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3073 constructors.
  3074 
  3075 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3076 the local file system.
  3077 
  3078 
  3079 *** HOL ***
  3080 
  3081 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3082 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3083 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3084 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3085 
  3086   declare [[coercion f]]
  3087 
  3088 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3089 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3090 
  3091   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3092 
  3093 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3094 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3095 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3096 other theories like this:
  3097 
  3098   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3099 
  3100 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3101 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3102 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3103 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3104 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3105 for examples.
  3106 
  3107 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3108 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3111 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3112 
  3113 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3114 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3115 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3116 
  3117 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3118 functorial structure of types.
  3119 
  3120 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3121 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3122 
  3123 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3124 languages.
  3125 
  3126 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3127 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3131 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3134 combinators any longer.
  3135 
  3136 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3137 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3138 
  3139 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3140 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3141 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3142 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3143 
  3144   record 'a foo = ...
  3145   ...
  3146   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3147 
  3148 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3149 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3153 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3154 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3155 
  3156 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3157 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3158 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3159 
  3160 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3161 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3164 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3165 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3166 independently.
  3167 
  3168 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3169 counter example search.
  3170 
  3171 * Sledgehammer:
  3172   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3173     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3174     sledgehammer").
  3175   - Renamed commands:
  3176     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3177     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3178     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3179     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180   - Renamed options:
  3181     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3182     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3183     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3184     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Nitpick:
  3188   - Renamed options:
  3189     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3190     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3191     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3193   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3194   - Added "whack" option.
  3195   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3196   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3197   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3198   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3199     higher cardinalities.
  3200   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3201 
  3202 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3203 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3204 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3205 
  3206     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3207 
  3208 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3209 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3210 
  3211 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3212 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3213 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3214 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3215 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3216 "smt_solver".
  3217 
  3218 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3219 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3220 
  3221 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3222 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3223 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3224 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3227   - Renamed:
  3228     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3229     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3230     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231   - Added:
  3232     smt_verbose
  3233     smt_random_seed
  3234     smt_datatypes
  3235     smt_infer_triggers
  3236     smt_monomorph_limit
  3237     cvc3_options
  3238     remote_cvc3_options
  3239     remote_z3_options
  3240     yices_options
  3241 
  3242 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3243 header.
  3244 
  3245 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3246 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3247 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3248 
  3249   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3250 
  3251 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3254 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3259 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3262 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3263 
  3264 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3265 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3268 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3269 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3277 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3280 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3281 for congruent(2)).
  3282 
  3283 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3284 
  3285   types
  3286     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3287     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3288 
  3289   constants
  3290     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3291     True ~> HOL.True
  3292     False ~> HOL.False
  3293     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3294     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3295     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3296     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3297     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3298     The ~> HOL.The
  3299     All ~> HOL.All
  3300     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3301     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3302     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3303     If ~> HOL.If
  3304     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3305     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3306     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3307     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3308     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3309     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3310     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3311     op : ~> Set.member
  3312     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3313 
  3314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3317 
  3318     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3319     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3320     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3321     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3322     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3323     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3324     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3325     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3326 
  3327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * More stylized fact names:
  3330 
  3331   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3332   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3333   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3334   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3335 
  3336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3339 
  3340   constants
  3341     null ~> List.null
  3342 
  3343   facts
  3344     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3345     null_empty ~> null_def
  3346 
  3347 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3348 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3349 generation.
  3350 
  3351 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3352 Haskell code.
  3353 
  3354 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3355 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3356 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3359 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3362 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3363 
  3364 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3365 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3366 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3369 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3375 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3376 referred to by its qualified name.
  3377 
  3378   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3379   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3380   product ~>  Enum.product
  3381 
  3382 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3383 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3387 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3388 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3390 
  3391 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3392 sort_key.
  3393 
  3394 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3398 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3399 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3400 
  3401   types
  3402     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3403               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3404               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3405         (depends on your needs)
  3406 
  3407   constants
  3408      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3409      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3410      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3411 
  3412 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3413 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3414 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3415 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3418 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3419 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3420 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3421 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3427 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3428 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3429 
  3430 
  3431 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3432 
  3433 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3434 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3435 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3436 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3437 compatibility.
  3438 
  3439 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3440 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3441 
  3442 
  3443 *** HOLCF ***
  3444 
  3445 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3446 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3447 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3451 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3452 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3455   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3456   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3457 
  3458 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3459 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3460 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3463 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3464 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3465 domain definition now works:
  3466 
  3467   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3468 
  3469 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3470 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3471 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3472 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3473 
  3474   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3475     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3476 
  3477   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3478 
  3479 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3480 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3481 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3484 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3487 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3488 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3489 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3490 
  3491 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3492 
  3493 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3501 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3502 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3503 
  3504 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3505 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3506 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3507 
  3508 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3509 still supported as an input translation.
  3510 
  3511 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3512 
  3513   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3514   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3515   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3516   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3517   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3518   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3519   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3520 
  3521 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3522 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3525   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3526   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3527   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3528   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3529   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3530 
  3531 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3532 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3533 
  3534 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3535 
  3536   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3537   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3538   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3539   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3540 
  3541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3544 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3547 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3550   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3551   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3552   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3553   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3554   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3555   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3556   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3557   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3558   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3559   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3560   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3561   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3562   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3563   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3564   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3565   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3566   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3567   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3568   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3569 
  3570 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3573   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3574   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3575   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3576   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3577   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3578   box_less             ~> box_below
  3579   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3580   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3581   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3582   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3583   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3584   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3585   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3586   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3587   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3588   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3589   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3590   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3591   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3592   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3593   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3594   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3595   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3596   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3597   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3598   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3599   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3600   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3601   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3602   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3603   up_less              ~> up_below
  3604   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3605   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3606   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3607   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3608   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3609   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3610   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3611   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3612   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3613   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3614   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3615   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3616   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3617 
  3618 
  3619 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3620 
  3621 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3622 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 
  3625 *** ML ***
  3626 
  3627 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3628 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3629 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3630 
  3631 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3632 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3633 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3634 
  3635 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3636 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3637 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3638 
  3639 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3640 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3641 
  3642 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3643 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3644 
  3645 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3646 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3647 
  3648 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3649 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3650 
  3651 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3652 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3653 almost all situations.
  3654 
  3655 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3656 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3657 Isabelle/ML.
  3658 
  3659 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3660 meaning.
  3661 
  3662 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3663 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3664 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3665 
  3666 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3667 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3668 
  3669 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3670 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3671 
  3672 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3673 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3674 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3675 
  3676 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3677 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3678 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3679 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3680 configuration options.
  3681 
  3682 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3683 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3684 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3685 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3686 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3687 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3688 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3689 
  3690 
  3691 
  3692 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3693 ---------------------------------
  3694 
  3695 *** General ***
  3696 
  3697 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3698 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3699 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3700 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3701 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3702 their full internal name.
  3703 
  3704 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3705 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3706 Some hints on upgrading:
  3707 
  3708   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3709     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3710     which are independent of this issue.
  3711 
  3712   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3713     provides the following special forms:
  3714 
  3715       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3716       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3717       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3718 
  3719     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3720     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3721     extra variables".
  3722 
  3723     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3724     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3725     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3726     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3727     "logic".
  3728 
  3729   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3730     antiquotations:
  3731 
  3732       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3733       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3734       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3735       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3736 
  3737   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3738     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3739     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3740     antiquotations.
  3741 
  3742 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3743 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3744 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3745 diagnose syntax problems.
  3746 
  3747 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3748 
  3749 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3750 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3751 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3752 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3753 
  3754 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3755 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3756 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3757 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3760 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3761 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3762 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3763 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3766 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3767 
  3768 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3769 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3770 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3771 
  3772   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3773 
  3774 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3775 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3776 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3777 
  3778 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3779 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3781 
  3782 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3783 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3784 
  3785 
  3786 *** Pure ***
  3787 
  3788 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3789 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3790 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3791 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3792 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3793 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3794 inspect proof terms.
  3795 
  3796 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3797 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3798 are added internally.  For example:
  3799 
  3800   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3801 
  3802 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3803 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3808 'class' instead.
  3809 
  3810 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3811 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3815 invariants.
  3816 
  3817 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3818 user space functionality any longer.
  3819 
  3820 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3821 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3825 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3826 
  3827 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3828 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3829 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3830 
  3831 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3832 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3833 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3834 
  3835 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3836 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838 
  3839 *** HOL ***
  3840 
  3841 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3842 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3843 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3844 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3845 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3846 
  3847 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3848 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3849 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3850 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3851 
  3852   fun
  3853     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3854   where
  3855     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3856 
  3857   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3858     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3859 
  3860   quotient_definition
  3861     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3862 
  3863 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3864 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3865 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3866 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3867 
  3868 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3869 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3870 
  3871 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3872 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3873 
  3874 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3878 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3879 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3880 
  3881 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3882 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3891 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3894 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3895 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3898   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3899   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3900   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3901   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3902   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3903   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3904   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3905   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3906   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3907   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3908   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3909   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3910   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3911   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3912   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3913   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3914   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3915   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3916   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3917   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3918   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3919   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3920   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3921   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3922   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3923   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3924   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3925   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3926   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3927 
  3928 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3929 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3930 
  3931 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3932 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3933 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3934 
  3935 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3936 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3937 
  3938 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3939 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3942 
  3943 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3944 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3947 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948 
  3949 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3952 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3953 
  3954 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3955 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3956 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3957 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3960   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3961   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3962   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3966 lattices):
  3967 
  3968     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3969     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3970 
  3971     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3972 
  3973     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3974     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3975     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3976     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3977     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3978     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3979     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3980     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3981     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3982     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3983     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3984     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3985     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3986 
  3987     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3988     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3989     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3990     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3991     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3992     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3993     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3994     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3995     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3996     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3997     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3998     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3999     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4000     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4001     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4002     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4003     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4004     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4005 
  4006   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4007   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4008 
  4009     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4010     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4011     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4012     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4013     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4014 
  4015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Refined field classes:
  4018   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4019     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4020     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4021   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4025   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4026   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4027   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4028     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4029   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4030     equal_neg_zero.
  4031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4034 sets to lattices:
  4035 
  4036   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4037   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4038   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4039   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4040   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4041   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4042   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4043   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4044   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4045   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4046 
  4047 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4048 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4049 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4050 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4051 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4052 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4055 multiset order:
  4056 
  4057   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4058     <= and <;
  4059   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4060     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4061     multiset_order;
  4062   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4063     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4064     generation;
  4065   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4066     if needed.
  4067 
  4068 Renamed:
  4069 
  4070   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4071   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4072   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4073 
  4074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4077 
  4078 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4079 
  4080 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4081 
  4082 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4083 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4084 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086   Constants:
  4087   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4088   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4089   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4090   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4091   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4092   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4093   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4094   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4095   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4096   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4097   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4098   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4099   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4100 
  4101   Lemmas:
  4102   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4103   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4104   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4105   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4106   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4107   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4108   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4109   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4110   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4111   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4112   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4113   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4114   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4115 
  4116 * Sledgehammer:
  4117   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4118     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4119     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4120     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4121     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4122     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4123     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4125   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4126     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4127   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4128     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4129     is still experimental.)
  4130   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4131     full-typed mode.
  4132   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4133 
  4134 * Nitpick:
  4135   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4136   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4137   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4138     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4139   - Added support for quotient types.
  4140   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4141     constructs.
  4142   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4143     "termination" proofs).
  4144   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4145   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4146   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4147   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4148     record getters.
  4149   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4150   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4151   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4152   - Added "atoms" option.
  4153   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4154     problems.
  4155   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4156     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4157     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4158   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4159     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4161 
  4162 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4163   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4164   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4165   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4166   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4167   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4168   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4169   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4170   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4171   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 
  4174 *** HOLCF ***
  4175 
  4176 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4177 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4178 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4181 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4182 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4183 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184 
  4185 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4186 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4187 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4188 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4189 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4192 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4193 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4196 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4199   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4200 
  4201 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4202 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4205   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4206   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4207   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4208   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4209 
  4210 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4211 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4214   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4215   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4216 
  4217 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4218 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4222 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4227 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 
  4230 *** ML ***
  4231 
  4232 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4233 
  4234     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4235     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4236 
  4237     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4238     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4239     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4240     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4241 
  4242     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4243     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4244     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4245 
  4246 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4247 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4248 
  4249 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4250 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4251 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4252 
  4253 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4254 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4255 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4256 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4257 
  4258 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4259 the context or even global references.
  4260 
  4261 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4262 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4263 
  4264 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4265 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4266 
  4267   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4268   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4269   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4270   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4271   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4272   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4273   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4274   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4275   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4276   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4277 
  4278 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4279 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4280 
  4281 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4282 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4283 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4284 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4285 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4286 
  4287 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4288 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4289 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4290 Theory_Data version.
  4291 
  4292 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4293 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4294 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4295 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4296 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4297 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4298 explicitly in rare situations.
  4299 
  4300 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4301 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4305 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4308 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4309 quite rare).
  4310 
  4311 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4312 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4315 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4316 terms.
  4317 
  4318 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4319 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4320 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4321 
  4322 
  4323 *** System ***
  4324 
  4325 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4326 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4327 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4328 
  4329 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4330 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4331 respectively.
  4332 
  4333 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4334 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4335 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4336 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4337 
  4338   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4339 
  4340 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4341 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4342 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4343 component.
  4344 
  4345 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4346 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4347 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4348 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4349 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4350 the user for manual installation.
  4351 
  4352 
  4353 
  4354 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4355 -------------------------------------
  4356 
  4357 *** General ***
  4358 
  4359 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4360 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4361 
  4362 
  4363 *** Pure ***
  4364 
  4365 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4366 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4367 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4368 
  4369 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4370 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4371 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4372 
  4373 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4374 interpretation.
  4375 
  4376 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4377 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 
  4380 *** Document preparation ***
  4381 
  4382 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4383 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4384 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4385 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4386 
  4387 
  4388 *** HOL ***
  4389 
  4390 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4391 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4392 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4393 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4394 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4395 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4396 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4397 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4398 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4399 
  4400 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4401 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4402 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4403 
  4404 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4405 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4406 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4407 
  4408 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4409 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4410 
  4411 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4412 
  4413 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4414 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4415 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4416 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4417 
  4418 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4419 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4420 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4421 "mirabelle" utility.
  4422 
  4423 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4424 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4425 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4426 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4427 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4428 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4429 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4430 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4431 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4432 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4433 
  4434 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4435 procedure only.
  4436 
  4437 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4438 
  4439 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4440 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4441 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4442 that fail later.
  4443 
  4444 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4445 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4446 
  4447 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4448 the same method as the approximation method.
  4449 
  4450 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4451 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4452 series expansion.
  4453 
  4454 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4455 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4456 
  4457 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4458 reals.
  4459 
  4460 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4461 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4462 
  4463 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4464 fixpoint theorem.
  4465 
  4466 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4467   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4468     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4469   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4470     accordingly
  4471   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4472     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4473   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4474     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4475 
  4476 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4477 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4478 lattice.
  4479 
  4480 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4481 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4482 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4483 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4484 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4485 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4487 
  4488 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4489   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4490     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4491   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4492     le_inf_iff
  4493   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4494     sup_aci)
  4495   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4496   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4497   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4498     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4499     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4500     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4501     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4502     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4503     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4504     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4505     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4506     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4507     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4508   - authentic syntax for
  4509     Set.Pow
  4510     Set.image
  4511   - mere abbreviations:
  4512     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4513     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4514     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4515     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4516     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4517     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4518     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4519     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4520   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4521 
  4522 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4523 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4524 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4525 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4526 
  4527 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4528 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4529 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4530 
  4531 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4532 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4533 
  4534 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4535 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4536 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4537 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538 
  4539 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4540 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4541 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4542 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4543 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4544 
  4545 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4546 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4550 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4551 
  4552 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4553 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4554 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4555 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4556 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4557 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4558 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4562     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4563     code_post       replaces    code post
  4564     etc.
  4565   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Renamed methods:
  4568     sizechange -> size_change
  4569     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4570   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4573 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4574 
  4575 * Renamed theorems:
  4576     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4577     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4578     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4579     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4580     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4581   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 
  4590 *** HOLCF ***
  4591 
  4592 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4593 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4594 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4595 
  4596 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4597 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4598 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4599 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4600 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4601 
  4602 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4603 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4604 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4605 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4606 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4607 
  4608 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4609 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4610 constructor are pre-configured.
  4611 
  4612 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4613 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4614 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4615 
  4616 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4617 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4618 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4619 as well.)
  4620 
  4621 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4622 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4623 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4624 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4625 examples.
  4626 
  4627 
  4628 *** ML ***
  4629 
  4630 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4631 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4632 
  4633 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4634 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4635 position, logical grouping etc.
  4636 
  4637 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4638 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4639 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4640 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4641 
  4642 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4643 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4644 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4645 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4646 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4647 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4648 
  4649 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4650 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4651 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4652 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4653 experiments with references.
  4654 
  4655 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4656 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4657 
  4658 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4659 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4660 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4661 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4662 
  4663 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4664 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4665 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4666 
  4667 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4668 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4669 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4672 
  4673 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4677 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4678 
  4679 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4680 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4681 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4682 
  4683 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4684 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4685 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4688 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4689 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4691 
  4692 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4693 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4694 instead of global theory.
  4695 
  4696 
  4697 *** System ***
  4698 
  4699 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4700 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4701 usedir option -q.
  4702 
  4703 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4704 also the system manual.
  4705 
  4706 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4707 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4708 
  4709 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4710 this is always enabled.
  4711 
  4712 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4713 
  4714 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4715 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4716 currently supported on Linux only.
  4717 
  4718 
  4719 
  4720 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4721 --------------------------------
  4722 
  4723 *** General ***
  4724 
  4725 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4726 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4727 
  4728   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4729     "isatool."
  4730 
  4731   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4732     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4733 
  4734   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4735     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4736 
  4737 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4738 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4739 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4740 
  4741 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4742 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4743 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4744 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4745 via "isabelle emacs".
  4746 
  4747 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4748 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4749 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4750 
  4751 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4752 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4753 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4754 
  4755 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4756 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4757 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4758 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4759 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4760 
  4761 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4762 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4763 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4764 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4765 
  4766 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4767 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4768 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4769 
  4770 
  4771 *** Pure ***
  4772 
  4773 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4774 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4775 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4776 
  4777 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4778 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4779 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4780 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4781 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4782 
  4783 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4784 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4785 useful in locale declarations.
  4786 
  4787 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4788 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4789 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4790 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4791 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4792 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4793 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4794 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4795 no longer generated.
  4796 
  4797 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4798 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4799 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4800 
  4801 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4802 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4803 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4804 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4805 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4806 
  4807 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4809 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4810 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4811 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4812 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4813 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4814 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4815 
  4816 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4817 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4818 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4819 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4820 
  4821 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4824 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4825 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4826 
  4827 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4828 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4829 
  4830 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4831 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4832 in HOL, write
  4833 
  4834     class foo = ...
  4835 
  4836 instead of
  4837 
  4838     class foo = type + ...
  4839 
  4840 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4841 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4844 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4845 
  4846 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4847 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4848 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4849 
  4850 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4851 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4852 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4853 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4854 directly in regular applications.
  4855 
  4856 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4857 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4858 
  4859 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4860 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4861 
  4862 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4863 theory context.
  4864 
  4865 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4866 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4867 
  4868 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4869 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4870 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4871 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4872 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4873 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4874 
  4875   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4876 
  4877 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4878 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4879 normalization.
  4880 
  4881 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4882 addressing etc.
  4883 
  4884 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4885 
  4886   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4887   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4888 
  4889 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4890 
  4891   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4892      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4893      parts of the code generator framework).
  4894 
  4895   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4896      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4897      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4898 
  4899 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4902 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4905 patterns, e.g.
  4906 
  4907     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4908 
  4909 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4910 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4911 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4912 hyphen:
  4913 
  4914     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4915 
  4916 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4917 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4918 
  4919 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4920 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4921 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4922 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4923 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4924 higher-order unification.
  4925 
  4926 
  4927 *** Document preparation ***
  4928 
  4929 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4930 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4931 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4932 
  4933 
  4934 *** HOL ***
  4935 
  4936 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4937 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4938 
  4939 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4940 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4941 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4942 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4943 Main, as before.
  4944 
  4945 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4946 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4947 
  4948 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4949 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4950 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4951 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4952 
  4953 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4954 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4955 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4956 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4957 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4958 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4959 
  4960 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4961 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4962 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4963 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4964 
  4965 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4966 menu.
  4967 
  4968 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4969 (contains the empty clause).
  4970 
  4971 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4972 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4973 
  4974 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4975 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4976 
  4977 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4978 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4979 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4980 
  4981 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4982 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4983 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4984 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4985 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4986 
  4987 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4988 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4989 
  4990 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4991 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4992 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4993 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4994 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4995 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4996 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4997 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4998 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4999 
  5000 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5001 
  5002 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5003 
  5004 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5005 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5008 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5009 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5010 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5011 
  5012 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5013 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5014 
  5015     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5016     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5017     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5018     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5019     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5020     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5021     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5022     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5023 
  5024 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5025 theory Set.
  5026 
  5027 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5028 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5029 
  5030 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5031 
  5032 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5033 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5034 
  5035 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5036 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5037 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5038 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5039 allowed. For examples see
  5040 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5041 
  5042 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5043 
  5044 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5048 structure:
  5049 
  5050     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5051     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5052     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5053     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5054     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5055     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5056     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5057     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5058     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5059     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5060     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5061     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5062     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5063     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5064     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5065     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5066     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5067     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5068     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5069     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5070     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5071     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5072     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5073     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5074     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5075     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5076     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5077     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5078     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5079     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5080     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5081     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5082     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5083 
  5084     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5085     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5086     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5087     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5088     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5089     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5090     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5091     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5092     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5093     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5094 
  5095     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5096     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5097     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5098     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5099     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5100     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5101 
  5102 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5103 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5104 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5105 
  5106 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5107 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5108 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5109 
  5110 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5111 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5114 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5115 
  5116 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5117 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5118 proofs, e.g.
  5119 
  5120   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5121 
  5122 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5123 
  5124 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5125 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5126 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5129 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5131 
  5132 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5133 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5134 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5138 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5139 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5140 preorder_class.*.
  5141 
  5142 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5143 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5144 
  5145 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5146 
  5147   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5148 
  5149 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5150 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5151 fold_image.
  5152 
  5153 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5154 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5155 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5156 the former will disappear at some point.
  5157 
  5158 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5159 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5160 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5161 
  5162 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5163 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5164 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5165 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5166 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5167 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5168 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5169 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5170 
  5171 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5172 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5173 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5174 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5175 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5176 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5177 
  5178     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5179     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5180     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5181     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5182     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5183     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5184     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5185 
  5186 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5187 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5188 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5189 
  5190 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5191 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5192 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5193 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5194 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5195 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5196 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5197 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5198 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5199 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5200 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5201 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5202 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5203 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5204 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5205 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5206 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5207 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5208 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5209 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5210 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5211 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5212 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5213 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5214 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5215 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5216 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5217 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5218 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5219 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5220 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5221 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5222 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5223 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5224 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5225 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5226 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5227 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5228 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5229 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5230 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5231 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5232 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5233 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5234 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5235 
  5236 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5237 
  5238 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5239 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5240 
  5241 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5242 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5243 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5244 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5245 
  5246 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5247 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5248 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5249 theory RealVector.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5252 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5253 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5254 and inner products are included.
  5255 
  5256 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5257 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5258 supported.
  5259 
  5260 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5261 first diagonalization argument.
  5262 
  5263 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5264 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5265 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5266 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5267 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5268 
  5269     hide (open) const gcd
  5270     abbreviation gcd where
  5271       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5272     notation (output)
  5273       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5274 
  5275 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5276 
  5277 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5278 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5279 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5280 
  5281 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5282 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5283 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5284 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5285 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5286 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5287 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5288 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5289 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5290 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5291 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5292 cases.
  5293 
  5294 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5295 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5296 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5297 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5298 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5299 
  5300     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5301     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5302     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5303     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5304     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5305 
  5306 
  5307 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5308 
  5309 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5310 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5311 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5312 
  5313 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5314 
  5315 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5317 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5318 
  5319 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5320 
  5321 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5322 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5323 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5324 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5325 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5326 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5327 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5328 
  5329 
  5330 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5331 
  5332 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5333 
  5334 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5335 theory targets.
  5336 
  5337 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5338 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5339 'inductive' etc.
  5340 
  5341 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5342 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5343 
  5344 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5345 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5346 
  5347 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5348 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5349 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5350 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5351 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5352 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5353 the algorithm W:
  5354 
  5355  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5356  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5357          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5358 
  5359 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5360 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5361 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5362 
  5363 
  5364 *** HOLCF ***
  5365 
  5366 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5367 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5368 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5369 
  5370 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5371 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5372 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5373 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5374 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5375 
  5376 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5377 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5378 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5379 
  5380 
  5381 *** ZF ***
  5382 
  5383 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5384 
  5385 
  5386 *** ML ***
  5387 
  5388 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5389 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5390 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5391 5.2.1!
  5392 
  5393 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5394 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5395 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5396 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5397 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5398 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5399 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5400 
  5401 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5402 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5403 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5404 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5405 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5406 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5407 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5408 
  5409 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5410 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5411 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5412 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5413 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5414 
  5415 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5416 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5417 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5418 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5419 Method.add_method.
  5420 
  5421 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5422 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5423 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5424 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5425 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5426 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5427 
  5428 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5429 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5430 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5431 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5432 examples.
  5433 
  5434 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5435 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5436 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5437 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5438 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5439 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5440 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5441 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5442 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5443 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5444 
  5445 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5446 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5447 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5448 
  5449 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5450 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5451 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5452 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5453 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5454 resort for legacy applications.
  5455 
  5456 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5457 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5458 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5459 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5460 explicit runtime argument.
  5461 
  5462 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5463 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5464 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5465 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5466 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5469 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5470 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5471 theory state.
  5472 
  5473 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5474 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5475 
  5476   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5477   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5478   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5479   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5480   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5481   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5482   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5483   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5484   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5485   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5486 
  5487 
  5488 *** System ***
  5489 
  5490 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5491 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5492 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5493 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5494 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5495 
  5496 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5497 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5498 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5499 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5500 
  5501 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5502 
  5503 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5504 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5505 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5506 prover operations.
  5507 
  5508 
  5509 
  5510 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5511 -------------------------------
  5512 
  5513 *** General ***
  5514 
  5515 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5516 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5517 
  5518 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5519 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5520 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5521 provides a proper context already.
  5522 
  5523 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5524 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5525 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5526 
  5527 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5528 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5529 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5530 swap theory imports.
  5531 
  5532 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5533 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5534 
  5535 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5536 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5537 white space without escapes.
  5538 
  5539 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5540 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5541 "foo_bar".
  5542 
  5543 
  5544 *** Pure ***
  5545 
  5546 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5547 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5548 
  5549 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5550 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5551 
  5552 (1) unused_thms
  5553      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5554 
  5555 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5556      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5557      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5558 
  5559 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5560      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5561      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5562      their ancestors.
  5563 
  5564 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5565 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5566 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5567 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5568 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5569 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5570 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5571 
  5572 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5573 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5574 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5575 
  5576 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5577 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5578 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5579 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5580 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5581 
  5582 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5583 
  5584 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5585 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5586 update of theories within ML code.
  5587 
  5588 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5589 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5590 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5591 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5592 
  5593 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5594 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5595 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5597 
  5598 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5599 
  5600 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5601 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5602 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5603 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5604 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5605 
  5606 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5607 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5608 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5609 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5610 situations.
  5611 
  5612 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5613 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5614 proof text.
  5615 
  5616 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5617 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5618 
  5619 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5620 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5621 predicates.
  5622 
  5623 
  5624 *** Document preparation ***
  5625 
  5626 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5627 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5628 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5629 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5630 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5631 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5632 
  5633 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5634 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5635 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5636 
  5637 
  5638 *** HOL ***
  5639 
  5640 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5641 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5642 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5643 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5644 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5645 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5646 
  5647 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5648 with multithreading.
  5649 
  5650 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5651 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5652 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5653 
  5654 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5655 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5656 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5657 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5660 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5661 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5662 and makes them available separately.  See
  5663 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5664 
  5665 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5666 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5667 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5668 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5669 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5670 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5671 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5672 the declared rules.
  5673 
  5674 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5675 
  5676   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5677 
  5678 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5679 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5680 
  5681 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5682 
  5683   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5684 
  5685   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5686     definitions on => and bool.
  5687 
  5688   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5689     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5690     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5691 
  5692       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5693       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5694       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5695       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5696       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5697       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5698       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5699       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5700 
  5701   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5702     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5703     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5704 
  5705   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5706     The proof pattern
  5707 
  5708       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5709       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5710 
  5711     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5712     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5713 
  5714       have "EX S. P S"
  5715       proof
  5716         show "P S" <...>
  5717       qed
  5718 
  5719   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5720     The proof pattern
  5721 
  5722       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5723       also have "S = T" <...>
  5724       finally have "P T" .
  5725 
  5726     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5727     must be replaced by something like
  5728 
  5729       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5730       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5731       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5732 
  5733   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5734     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5735 
  5736       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5737 
  5738     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5739     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5740     type of the form
  5741 
  5742       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5743 
  5744     rather than
  5745 
  5746       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5747 
  5748 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5749 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5750 
  5751 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5752 
  5753 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5754 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5756 
  5757 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5758 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5759 
  5760 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5761 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5762 
  5763 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5764 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5765 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5766 
  5767 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5768 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5769 
  5770   less_trans
  5771   less_linear
  5772   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5773   le_less_trans
  5774   less_le_trans
  5775   less_not_sym
  5776   less_asym
  5777 
  5778 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5779 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5780 and different variable names.
  5781 
  5782 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5783 
  5784 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5785 finite maps.
  5786 
  5787 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5788 
  5789 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5790 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5791 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5792 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5793 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5794 accordingly.
  5795 
  5796 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5797 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5798 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5799 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5800 
  5801 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5802 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5803 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5804 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5805 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5807 
  5808 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5809 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5812 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5813 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5814 
  5815 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5817 
  5818 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5819 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5820 
  5821 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5822 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5825 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5826 
  5827 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5828 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5830 
  5831 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5832 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5833 
  5834 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5835 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5836 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5837 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5838 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5839 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5842 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5843 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5844 
  5845 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5846 
  5847 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5848 
  5849 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5850 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5851 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5852 
  5853 
  5854 *** ZF ***
  5855 
  5856 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5857 same session:
  5858 
  5859   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5860   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5861   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5862   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5863   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5864   List      -> List_ZF
  5865   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5866 
  5867 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5868 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5869 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5870 
  5871 
  5872 *** ML ***
  5873 
  5874 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5875 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5876 
  5877 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5878 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5879 
  5880 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5881 
  5882 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5883 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5884 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5885 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5886 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5887 
  5888 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5889 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5890 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5891 
  5892 
  5893 *** System ***
  5894 
  5895 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5896 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5897 
  5898 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5899 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5900 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5901 
  5902 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5903 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5904 
  5905 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5906 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5907 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5908 
  5909 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5910 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5911 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5912 
  5913 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5914 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5915 
  5916 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5917 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5918 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5919 script.
  5920 
  5921 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5922 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5923 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5924 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5925 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5926 
  5927 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5928 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5929 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5930 
  5931 
  5932 
  5933 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5934 -----------------------------------
  5935 
  5936 *** General ***
  5937 
  5938 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5939 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5940 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5941 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5942 
  5943 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5944 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5945 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5946 
  5947 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5948 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5949 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5950 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5953 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5954 quotes.
  5955 
  5956 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5957 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5958 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5959 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5960 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5961 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5962 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5963 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5964 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5965 
  5966 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5967 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5968 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5969 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5970 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5971 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5972 
  5973 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5974 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5975 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5976 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5977 
  5978 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5979 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5980 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5981 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5982 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5983 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5984 
  5985 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5986 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5987 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5988 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5989 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5990 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5991 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5992 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5993 
  5994 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5995 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5996 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5997 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5998 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5999 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6000 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6001 
  6002 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6003 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6004 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6005 
  6006 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6007 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6008 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6009 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6010 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6011 limit is imposed.
  6012 
  6013 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6014 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6015 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6016 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6017 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6018 and scalability.
  6019 
  6020 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6021 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6022 
  6023 
  6024 *** Document preparation ***
  6025 
  6026 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6027 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6028 current context.
  6029 
  6030 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6031 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6032 
  6033 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6034 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6035 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6036 
  6037 
  6038 *** Pure ***
  6039 
  6040 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6041 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6042 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6043 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6044 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6045 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6046 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6047 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6048 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6049 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6050 
  6051 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6052 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6053 sketch:
  6054 
  6055     internal compilation:
  6056         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6057     writing SML code to a file:
  6058         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6059     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6060         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6061     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6062         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6063 
  6064     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6065         method ``eval''
  6066 
  6067 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6068 
  6069 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6070 
  6071     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6072     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6073     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6074     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6075 
  6076 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6077 
  6078     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6079       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6080 
  6081     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6082       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6083 
  6084     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6085       {(target)}+
  6086         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6087 
  6088     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6089       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6090         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6091 
  6092 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6093 
  6094 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6095 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6096 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6097 codegen".
  6098 
  6099 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6100 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6101 annotations).
  6102 
  6103 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6104 syntax.
  6105 
  6106 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6107 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6108 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6109 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6110 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6111 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6112 
  6113 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6114 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6115 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6116 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6117 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6118 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6119 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6120 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6121 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6122 equations, see section "definitions".
  6123 
  6124 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6125 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6126 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6127 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6128 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6129 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6130 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6131 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6132 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6133 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6134 
  6135 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6136 configuration options:
  6137 
  6138   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6139   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6140   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6141   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6142   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6143   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6144   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6145   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6146   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6147 
  6148 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6149 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6150 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6151 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6152 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6153 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6154 order.
  6155 
  6156 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6157 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6158 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6159 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6160 context encountered later on.
  6161 
  6162 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6163 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6164 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6165 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6166 
  6167 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6168 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6169 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6170 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6171 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6172 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6173 
  6174 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6175 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6176 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6177 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6178 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6179 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6180 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6181 more permissive.
  6182 
  6183 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6184 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6185 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6186 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6187 maintainability of proof texts.
  6188 
  6189 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6190 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6191 
  6192   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6193   then guess x and y by clarify
  6194 
  6195 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6196 proof tools being involved here.
  6197 
  6198 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6199 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6200 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6201 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6202 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6203 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6204 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6205 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6206 
  6207 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6208 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6209 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6210 
  6211   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6212   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6213   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6214   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6215 
  6216 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6217 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6218 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6219 
  6220 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6221 both named and unnamed ones.
  6222 
  6223 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6224 
  6225   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6226 
  6227 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6228 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6229 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6230 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6231 
  6232 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6233 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6234 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6235 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6236 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6237 
  6238 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6239 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6240 
  6241 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6242 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6243 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6244 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6245 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6246 originally first one.
  6247 
  6248 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6249 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6250 expected.
  6251 
  6252 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6253 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6254 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6255 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6256 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6257 
  6258   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6259     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6260     obtains x where "P x"
  6261 
  6262   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6263     assumes "A & B&qu