NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Nov 16 17:39:11 2013 +0100 (2013-11-16)
changeset 54449 f3cfe882f9af
parent 54384 50199af40c27
child 54489 03ff4d1e6784
permissions -rw-r--r--
toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    10 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    11 
    12 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    13     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    14 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    17     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    18     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    20 
    21 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    22     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    23     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Fact name consolidation:
    27     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    28     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    29     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    30     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    31     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    32 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    33 
    34 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    35 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    36 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    37 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    38 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    39 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    40 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    41 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    44 
    45 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    46 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    47 
    48 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    49 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    50 
    51 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    52 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    53 or the brute way with
    54 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    55 
    56 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    57 
    58 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    59 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    60 
    61 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    62 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    63 
    64 
    65 *** ML ***
    66 
    67 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
    68 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    69 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
    70 formal context.
    71 
    72 
    73 
    74 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    75 -------------------------------------
    76 
    77 *** General ***
    78 
    79 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    80 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    81 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    82 
    83 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    84 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    85 
    86 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    87 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    88 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    89 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    90 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    91 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    92 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    93 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    94 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    95 syntax.
    96 
    97 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    98 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   101 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   102 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   103 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   104 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   105 
   106 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   110 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   111 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   114 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   115 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   116 
   117 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   118 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   119 
   120 
   121 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   122 
   123 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   124 Documentation panel.
   125 
   126 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   127 documentation.
   128 
   129 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   130 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   131 
   132 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   133 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   134 normal editing and checking process.
   135 
   136 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   137 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   138 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   139 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   140 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   141 
   142 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   143 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   144 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   145 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   146 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   147 
   148 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   149 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   150 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   151 
   152 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   153 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   155 to resolve conflict.
   156 
   157 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   158 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   159 
   160 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   161 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   162 such command executions while editing.
   163 
   164 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   165 document content.
   166 
   167 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   168 toplevel theorem statements.
   169 
   170 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   171 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   172 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   173 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   174 
   175 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   176 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   177 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   178 
   179 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   180 / Global Options / Appearance".
   181 
   182 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   183 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   184 
   185 
   186 *** Pure ***
   187 
   188 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   189 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   190 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   191 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   192 details.
   193 
   194 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   195 
   196 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   197 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   198 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   199 
   200 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   204 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   205 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   206 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   209 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   210 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   213 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   214 
   215 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   216 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   217 situations.
   218 
   219 
   220 *** HOL ***
   221 
   222 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   223 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   227 
   228 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   229 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   230 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   231 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   232 
   233   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   234 
   235 * Code generator:
   236   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   237     'code_instance'.
   238   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   239     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   240 
   241 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   242 examples.
   243 
   244 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   245 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   246 to distinguish both when desired.
   247 
   248 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   249 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   250 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   251 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   254 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   255 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   256 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   257 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   258 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   261 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   262 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   263 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   264 
   265 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   266 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   267 
   268 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   269 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   270 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   271 
   272 * Lifting:
   273   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   274     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   275       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   276       transfer rules
   277     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   278       correspondence relation can be generated
   279     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   280       parametricity
   281     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   282   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   283   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   284     copies
   285   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   286     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   287     anonymous context)
   288   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   289     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   290   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   291     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   292   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   293     INCOMPATIBILITY
   294 
   295 * Transfer:
   296   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   297     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   298   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   299   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   300     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   301   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   302 
   303 * Reification and reflection:
   304   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   305     "Reification".
   306   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   307   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309 
   310 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   311   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   312     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   313     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   314   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   315     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   316   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   317     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   318     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   319     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   320     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   321     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   322     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   323     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   324   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   325     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   326   - Fact renames:
   327       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   328       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   332 
   333 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   334 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   335 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   337 
   338 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   339 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   340 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   341 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   342 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   343 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   344 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   345 lemmas.
   346 
   347 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   348 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   349 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   350 
   351 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   352 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   353 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   354 
   355 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   356 top and bottom elements.
   357 
   358 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   359 
   360 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   361 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   362 
   363  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   364    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   365    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   366 
   367  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   368    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   369    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   370 
   371    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   372    arbitrary filter.
   373 
   374  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   375    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   376    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   377    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   378    on a compact set.
   379 
   380  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   381    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   382    linear_continuum_topology).
   383 
   384  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   385    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   386    on all sequences converging to x.
   387 
   388  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   389    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   390    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   391    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   392    left or right.
   393 
   394  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   395 
   396      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   397 
   398  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   399    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   400 
   401  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   402    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   403    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   404    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   405    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   406    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   407 
   408  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   409 
   410    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   411 
   412    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   413      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   414 
   415    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   416 
   417    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   418      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   419 
   420    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   421 
   422    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   423 
   424  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   425 
   426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428 * Nitpick:
   429   - Added option "spy"
   430   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   431 
   432 * Sledgehammer:
   433   - Renamed option:
   434       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   435     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   437   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   438   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   439 
   440 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   441 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   442 
   443 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   444   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   445   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   446     generated code.
   447   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   448   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   449   - Fact renames:
   450     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   451     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   452     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   453 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   456 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   457 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   458 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   459 
   460 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   461 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   462 
   463 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   466 
   467     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   468     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   469 
   470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   471 
   472 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   473 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   474 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   475 
   476 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   477 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   478 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   479 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * HOL-BNF:
   482   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   483     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   484     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   485     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   486   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   487     coinduct).
   488   - Renamed keywords:
   489     data ~> datatype_new
   490     codata ~> codatatype
   491     bnf_def ~> bnf
   492   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   493     discs ~> disc
   494     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   495     map_id' ~> map_id
   496     sels ~> sel
   497     set_map' ~> set_map
   498     sets ~> set
   499 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 
   502 *** ML ***
   503 
   504 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   505 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   506 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   507 Examples.thy in particular.
   508 
   509 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   510 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   511 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   512 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   513 
   514 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   515 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   516 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   517 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   519 
   520 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   521 
   522     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   523     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   524 
   525 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   528 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   529 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   530 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   531 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   532 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   533 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   534 
   535 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   536 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   537 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   538 clasets separately from the context.
   539 
   540 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   541 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   542 
   543 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   544 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   545 
   546 
   547 *** System ***
   548 
   549 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   550 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   553 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   556 settings variable.
   557 
   558 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   559 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   560 always pdf.
   561 
   562 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   563 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   564 
   565 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   566 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   567 
   568 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   569 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   570 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   571 
   572 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   573 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   574 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   575 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   576 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   577 for HTML presentation of theories.
   578 
   579 
   580 
   581 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   582 -----------------------------------
   583 
   584 *** General ***
   585 
   586 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   587 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   588 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   589 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   590 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   591 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   592 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   593 
   594 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   595 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   596 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   597 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   598 
   599 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   600 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   601 
   602 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   603 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   604 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   605 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   606 dependencies properly.
   607 
   608 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   609 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   610 
   611 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   612 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   613 
   614 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   615 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   616 and "class ... context ...".
   617 
   618 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   619 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   620 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   621 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   622 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   623 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   624 
   625 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   626 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   627 
   628 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   629 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   630 
   631 
   632 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   633 
   634 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   635 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   636 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   637 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   638 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   639 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   640 
   641 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   642 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   643 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   644 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   645 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   646 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   647 
   648 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   649 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   650 browser on demand.
   651 
   652 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   653 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   654 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   655 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   656 
   657 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   658 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   659 
   660 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   661 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   662 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   663 potentially infinite message streams.
   664 
   665 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   666 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   667 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   668 schemes.
   669 
   670 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   671 symbols.
   672 
   673 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   674 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   675 
   676 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   677 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   678 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   679 
   680 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   681 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   682 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   683 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   684 
   685 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   686 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   687 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   688 
   689 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   690 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   691 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   692 Isabelle distribution.
   693 
   694 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   695 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   696 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   697 
   698 
   699 *** Pure ***
   700 
   701 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   702 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   703 
   704 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   705 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   706 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   709 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   710 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   711 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   712 with some care where this is really required.
   713 
   714 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   715 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   716 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   717 
   718   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   719 
   720 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   721 a Hasse diagram.
   722 
   723 
   724 *** HOL ***
   725 
   726 * Sledgehammer:
   727 
   728   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   729     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   730   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   731   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   732   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   733   - Renamed options:
   734       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   735       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   736       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   737       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   738 
   739 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   740 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   741 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   742 
   743 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   745 
   746 * Lifting:
   747   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   748   - quot_del attribute
   749   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   750 
   751 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   752 expressions.
   753 
   754 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   755 pointfree expressions.
   756 
   757 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   758 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   759 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   760 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   764 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   765 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   766 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   767 accordingly.
   768 
   769 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   770 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   773 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   778 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   779 
   780 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   781 
   782 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   783 
   784   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   785   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   786 
   787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   790 
   791   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   792   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   793 
   794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   797 
   798   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   799     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   800     output f x converges to G.
   801 
   802   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   803     infinity (at_bot).
   804 
   805   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   806     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   807 
   808   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   809     at_top".
   810 
   811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   814 lattice type classes.
   815 
   816 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   817 
   818     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   819     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   820 
   821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   822 
   823 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   824 changes as follows.
   825 
   826   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   827 
   828       prefix ~> prefixeq
   829       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   830 
   831   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   832     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   833     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   834     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   835 
   836   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   837     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   838     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   839 
   840   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   841     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   842     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   843     Library/Prefix_Order.
   844 
   845   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   846     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   847 
   848       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   849       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   850       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   851       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   852       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   853       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   854       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   855       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   856       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   857       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   858       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   859       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   860       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   861       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   862       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   863       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   864 
   865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   868 
   869 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   870 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   871 
   872 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   873 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   874 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   875 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   876 
   877   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   878   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   879   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   880   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   881   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   882   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   883   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   884   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   885   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   886   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   887 
   888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   891 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   892 Data").
   893 
   894 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   895 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   896 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   897 code.
   898 
   899 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   900 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   901 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   905 
   906 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   907 
   908 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   909 
   910   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   911   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   912 
   913 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   914 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   915 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   916 
   917   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   918 
   919     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   920     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   921     cart_base i  removed
   922     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   923 
   924   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   925 
   926   Renamed lemmas:
   927 
   928     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   929     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   930     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   931     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   932     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   933     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   934     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   935     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   936     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   937     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   938 
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 * HOL/Probability:
   942 
   943   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   944 
   945   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   946     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   947     (borel_measurable_induct).
   948 
   949   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   950     projective family).
   951 
   952 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   953 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   954 
   955 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   956 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   957 datatypes.
   958 
   959 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   960 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   961 
   962 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   963 trees for the code generator.
   964 
   965 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   966 Lifting/Transfer.
   967 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 
   973 *** Document preparation ***
   974 
   975 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   976 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   977 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   978 
   979 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   980 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   981 
   982 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   983 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   984 document/root.tex.
   985 
   986 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   987 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 
   990 *** ML ***
   991 
   992 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   993 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   994 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   995 
   996 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   997 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   998 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   999 
  1000 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1001 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1002 necessarily printing visible text.
  1003 
  1004 
  1005 *** System ***
  1006 
  1007 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1008 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1009 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1010 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1011 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1012 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1013 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1014 
  1015 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1016 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1017 
  1018   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1019 
  1020 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1021 
  1022 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1023 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1024 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1025 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1026 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1027 
  1028 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1029 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1030 
  1031 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1032 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1033 
  1034 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1036 
  1037 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1038 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1039 version of Isabelle.
  1040 
  1041 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1042 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1043 
  1044 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1045 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1046 for home-made settings.
  1047 
  1048 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1049 
  1050 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1051 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1052 configuration.
  1053 
  1054 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1055 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1056 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1057 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1058 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1059 
  1060 
  1061 
  1062 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1063 ------------------------------
  1064 
  1065 *** General ***
  1066 
  1067 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1068 
  1069   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1070     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1071   - markup for bound variables
  1072   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1073   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1074   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1075     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1076 
  1077 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1078 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1079 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1080 
  1081 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1082 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1083 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1084 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1085 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1086 
  1087   context
  1088     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1089     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1090   begin
  1091 
  1092   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1093 
  1094   end
  1095 
  1096   thm my_trans
  1097 
  1098 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1099 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1100 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1101 
  1102 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1103 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1104 
  1105 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1106 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1107 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1108 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1109 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1110 
  1111 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1112 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1113 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1114 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1115 indices of schematic variables.
  1116 
  1117 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1118 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1119 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1120 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1121 etc. was exploited.
  1122 
  1123 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1124 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1125 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1126 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1127 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1128 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1129 
  1130 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1131 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1132 manual.
  1133 
  1134 
  1135 *** Pure ***
  1136 
  1137 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1138 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1139 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1140 
  1141 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1142 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1143 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1144 undocumented feature.)
  1145 
  1146 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1147 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1148 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1149 
  1150   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1151 
  1152   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1153     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1154 
  1155 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1156 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1157 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1158 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1159 
  1160 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1161 
  1162     num ~> num_token
  1163     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1164     xstr ~> str_token
  1165 
  1166 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1167 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1168 position information via constraints).
  1169 
  1170 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1171 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1172 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1173 
  1174 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1175 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1176 
  1177 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1178 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1179 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1180 
  1181 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1182 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1183 
  1184 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1185 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1186 
  1187   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1188 
  1189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1190 
  1191 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1192 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1195 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1196 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1197 
  1198 
  1199 *** HOL ***
  1200 
  1201 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1202 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1203 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1204 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1205 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1206 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1207 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1208 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1209 possible.
  1210 
  1211 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1212 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1213 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1214 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1215 
  1216 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1217 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1218 
  1219 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1220 
  1221 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1222 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1223 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1224 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1225 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1226 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1227 
  1228   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1229     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1230 
  1231   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1232     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1233     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1234 
  1235   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1236     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1237 
  1238   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1239     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1240     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1241 
  1242   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1243     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1244 
  1245 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1246 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1247 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1248 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1249 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1250 
  1251   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1252     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1253     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1254     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1255     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1256 
  1257     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1258     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1259 
  1260   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1261     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1262     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1263     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1264     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1265     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1266     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1267     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1268 
  1269   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1270     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1271     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1272     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1273 
  1274   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1275     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1276     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1277     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1278 
  1279   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1280     from type nat to type int.
  1281 
  1282 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1283 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1284 
  1285   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1286     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1287     type.  Example syntax:
  1288 
  1289     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1290       is List.insert
  1291 
  1292     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1293     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1294     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1295     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1296     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1297     by the package.
  1298 
  1299   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1300     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1301     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1302     code generation for each constant.
  1303 
  1304   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1305     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1306     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1307     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1308     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1309 
  1310   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1311     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1312     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1313 
  1314 * Quotient package:
  1315 
  1316   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1317     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1318 
  1319   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1320     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1321 
  1322   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1323     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1324     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1325 
  1326   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1327     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1330 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1331 
  1332 * Quickcheck:
  1333 
  1334   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1335     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1336     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1337     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1338     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1339 
  1340     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1341     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1342     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1343 
  1344     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1345     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1346 
  1347     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1348     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1349     show genuine counterexamples.
  1350 
  1351   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1352     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1353 
  1354     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1355     constructors of that type.
  1356 
  1357   - Support for multisets.
  1358 
  1359   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1360 
  1361   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1362     conjectures in a locale context.
  1363 
  1364 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1365 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1366 
  1367 * Sledgehammer:
  1368   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1369     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1370   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1371   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1372     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1373   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1374   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1375   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1376   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1377 
  1378 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1379 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1380 
  1381 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1382 
  1383 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384 
  1385 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1386 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1387 
  1388   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1389 
  1390 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1391 a list and a nat.
  1392 
  1393 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1394 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1395 
  1396 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1397 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1398 default.
  1399 
  1400 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1401 
  1402   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1403 
  1404 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1405 
  1406 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1407 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1408 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1409 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1410 one_case.
  1411 
  1412 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1413 the result of the fact expression.
  1414 
  1415 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1416 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1417 of some relation theorems:
  1418 
  1419   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1420   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1421   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1422   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1423   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1424   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1425 
  1426 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1427 
  1428 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1429 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1430 
  1431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1434 to match the constant's name:
  1435 
  1436   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1437   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1438   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1439   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1440   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1441   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1442   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1443   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1444   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1445   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1446   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1447   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1448   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1449   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1450   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1451   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1452   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1453   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1454   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1455   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1456   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1457   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1458   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1459   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1460 
  1461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1464 and corresponding theorem names:
  1465 
  1466   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1467 
  1468   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1469 
  1470   - Renamed theorems:
  1471 
  1472     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1473     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1474     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1475     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1476     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1477     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1478     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1479     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1480     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1481     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1482     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1483     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1484     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1485     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1486     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1487     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1488     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1489     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1490     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1491     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1492     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1493     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1494     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1495 
  1496     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1497 
  1498     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1499 
  1500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1503 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1504 
  1505   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1506   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1507   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1508   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1509   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1510   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1511   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1512   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1513   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1514   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1515   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1516   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1517   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1518   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1519   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1520   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1521   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1522   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1523   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1524   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1525   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1526 
  1527 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1528 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1533 
  1534   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1535   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1536   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1537   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1538   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1539   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1540   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1541   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1542   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1543   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1544   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1545   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1546   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1547   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1548   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1549   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1550   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1551   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1552 
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1556 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1557 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1558 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1559 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1560 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1561 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1562 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1563 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1564 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1565 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1566 
  1567 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1568 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1569 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1570 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1571 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1572 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1573 
  1574 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1575 through option types.
  1576 
  1577 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1578 relations.
  1579 
  1580 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581 
  1582 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1584 
  1585   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1586   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1587   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1588   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1589   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1590   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1591   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1592   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1593   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1594   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1595   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1596   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1597   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1598   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1599   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1600   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1601   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1602   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1603   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1604   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1605   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1606   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1607   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1608   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1609   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1610   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1611   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1612   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1613   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1614   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1615   zless_le ~> less_le
  1616   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1617   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1618   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1619 
  1620 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1621 
  1622   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1623 
  1624 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1625 
  1626 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1627 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1628 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1629 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1633 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1634 
  1635 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1636 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1637 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1638 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1639 follows:
  1640 
  1641   Operations:
  1642   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1643   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1644   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1645   del -> rbt_del
  1646   delete -> rbt_delete
  1647   ins -> rbt_ins
  1648   insert -> rbt_insert
  1649   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1650   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1651   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1652   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1653   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1654   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1655   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1656   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1657   union -> rbt_union
  1658   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1659   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1660 
  1661   Lemmas:
  1662   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1663   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1664   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1665   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1666   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1667   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1668   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1669   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1670   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1671   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1672   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1673   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1674   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1675   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1676   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1677   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1678   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1679   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1680   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1681   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1682   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1683   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1684   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1685   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1686   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1687   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1688   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1689   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1690   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1691   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1692   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1693   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1694   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1695   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1696   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1697   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1698   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1699   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1700   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1701   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1702   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1703   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1704   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1705   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1706   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1707   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1708   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1709   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1710   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1711   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1712   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1713   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1714   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1715   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1716   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1717   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1718   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1719   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1720   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1721   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1722   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1723   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1724   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1725   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1726   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1727   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1728   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1729   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1730   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1731   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1732   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1733   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1734   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1735   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1736   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1737   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1738   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1739   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1740   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1741   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1742   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1743   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1744   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1745 
  1746 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1747 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1748 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750   Changed Operations:
  1751   float_abs -> abs
  1752   float_nprt -> nprt
  1753   float_pprt -> pprt
  1754   pow2 -> use powr
  1755   round_down -> float_round_down
  1756   round_up -> float_round_up
  1757   scale -> exponent
  1758 
  1759   Removed Operations:
  1760   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1761 
  1762   Renamed Lemmas:
  1763   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1764   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1765   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1766   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1767   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1768   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1769   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1770   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1771   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1772   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1773   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1774   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1775   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1776   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1777   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1778   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1779   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1780   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1781   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1782   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1783   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1784   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1785   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1786   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1787   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1788   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1789   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1790   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1791   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1792   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1793   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1794   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1795   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1796   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1797   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1798   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1799 
  1800   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1801   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1802   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1803   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1804   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1805   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1806   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1807   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1808   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1809   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1810 
  1811 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1812 association lists with distinct keys.
  1813 
  1814 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1815 annotated commands.
  1816 
  1817 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1818 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1819 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1820 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821 
  1822 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1823 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1824 instead.
  1825 
  1826   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1827   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1828   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1829   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1830   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1831   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1832   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1833   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1834   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1835   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1836   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1837   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1838   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1839   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1840   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1841   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1842   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1843   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1844   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1845   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1846   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1847   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1848   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1849   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1850   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1851   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1852   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1853   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1854   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1855   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1856   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1857   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1858   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1859   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1860   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1861   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1862   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1863   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1864   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1865   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1866   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1867 
  1868 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1869 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1870 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1871 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1872 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1873 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1874 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1875 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1876 
  1877 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1878 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1879 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1880 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1881 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1882 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1883 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1884 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1885 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1886 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1887 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1888 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890   Renamed constants:
  1891   measure -> emeasure
  1892   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1893   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1894   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1895   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1896 
  1897   Removed locales:
  1898   completeable_measure_space
  1899   finite_measure_space
  1900   finite_prob_space
  1901   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1902   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1903   finite_sigma_algebra
  1904   measure_space
  1905   pair_finite_prob_space
  1906   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1907   pair_finite_space
  1908   pair_sigma_algebra
  1909   product_sigma_algebra
  1910 
  1911   Removed constants:
  1912   conditional_space
  1913   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1914   image_space
  1915   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1916   pair_measure_generator
  1917   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1918   subvimage
  1919 
  1920   Replacement theorems:
  1921   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1922   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1923   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1924   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1925   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1926   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1927   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1928   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1929   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1930   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1931   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1932   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1933   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1934   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1935   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1936   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1937   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1938   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1939   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1940   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1941   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1942   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1943   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1944   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1945   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1946   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1947   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1948   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1949   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1950   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1951   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1952   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1953   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1954   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1955   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1956   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1957   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1958   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1959   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1960   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1961   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1962   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1963   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1964   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1965   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1966   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1967   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1968   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1969   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1970   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1971   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1972   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1973   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1974   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1975   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1976   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1977   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1978   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1979   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1980   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1981   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1982   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1983   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1984   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1985   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1986   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1987   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1988   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1989   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1990   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1991   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1992   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1993   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1994   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1995   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1996   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1997   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1998   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1999   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2000   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2001   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2002   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2003   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2004   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2005   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2006   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2007   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2008   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2009   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2010   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2011   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2012   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2013   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2014   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2015   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2016   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2017   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2018   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2019   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2020   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2021   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2022   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2023   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2024   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2025   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2026   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2027   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2028   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2029   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2030   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2031   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2032   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2033   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2034   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2035   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2036   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2037   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2038   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2039   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2040   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2041   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2042   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2043   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2044   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2045   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2046   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2047   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2048   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2049 
  2050 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2051 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2052 
  2053 
  2054 *** FOL ***
  2055 
  2056 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2057 
  2058 
  2059 *** ZF ***
  2060 
  2061 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2062 analysis.
  2063 
  2064 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2065 
  2066 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067 
  2068 
  2069 *** ML ***
  2070 
  2071 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2072 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2073 
  2074 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2075 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2076 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2077 
  2078 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2079 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2080 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2081 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2082 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2083 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2084 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2085 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2086 
  2087 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2088 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2089 
  2090 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2091 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2092 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2093 
  2094 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2095 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2096 
  2097 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2098 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2099 context as well.
  2100 
  2101 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2102 
  2103   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2104   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2105   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2106   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2107   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2108   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2109   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2110   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2111   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2112   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2113   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2114   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2115 
  2116 
  2117 *** System ***
  2118 
  2119 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2120 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2121 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2122 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2123 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2124 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2125 the generic user home was intended.
  2126 
  2127 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2128 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2129 
  2130 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2131 (not just JRE).
  2132 
  2133 
  2134 
  2135 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2136 ------------------------------------
  2137 
  2138 *** General ***
  2139 
  2140 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2141 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2142 
  2143   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2144     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2145     files for checking).
  2146 
  2147   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2148     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2149     positions.
  2150 
  2151   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2152     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2153     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2154 
  2155   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2156     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2157     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2158 
  2159   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2160     cores.
  2161 
  2162   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2163     versions (garbage collection).
  2164 
  2165 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2166 including some remaining limitations.
  2167 
  2168 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2169 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2170 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2171 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2172 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2176 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2177 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2178 
  2179 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2180 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2181 usedir option -Q.
  2182 
  2183 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2184 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2185 
  2186   long_names   ~> names_long
  2187   short_names  ~> names_short
  2188   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2189 
  2190 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2191 
  2192   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2193 
  2194 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2195 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2196 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2197 
  2198 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2199 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2200 
  2201 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2202   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2203   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2204   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2205     "Classical Reasoner".
  2206 
  2207 
  2208 *** HOL ***
  2209 
  2210 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2211 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2214 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2215 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2216 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2217 class complete_linorder.
  2218 
  2219 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2220 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2221 
  2222 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2223 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2224 
  2225   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2226   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2227   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2228   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2229   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2230   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2231   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2232   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2233   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2234   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2235   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2236 
  2237 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2238 
  2239   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2240   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2241   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2242   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2243   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2244   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2245   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2246   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2247   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2248   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2249   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2250   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2251   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2252   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2253   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2254   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2255 
  2256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257 
  2258 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2260 
  2261 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2262 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2263 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2264 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2267 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2268 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2272 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2273 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2274 
  2275 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2276 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2277 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2280 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2281 
  2282 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2283 
  2284     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2285     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2286 
  2287 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2288 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2291 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2294 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2295 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2296 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2299   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2300   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2301   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2302   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2303   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2304   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2305 
  2306 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2307 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2310   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2311   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2312   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2313   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2314   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2315   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2316   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2317   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2318   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2319   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2320   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2321   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2322   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2323   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2324   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2325   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2326   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2327   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2328   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2329   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2330   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2331   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2332   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2333   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2334   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2335   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2336   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2337   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2338   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2339   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2340   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2341   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2342   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2343   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2344   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2345   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2346   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2347   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2348   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2349   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2350   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2351   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2352   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2353   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2354   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2355   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2356   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2357   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2358   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2359   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2360   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2361   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2362   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2363   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2364   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2365   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2366   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2367   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2368   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2369   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2370   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2371   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2372   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2373   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2374   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2375   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2376   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2377   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2378   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2379   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2380   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2381   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2382   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2383   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2384   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2385   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2386   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2387   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2388   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2389   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2390   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2391 
  2392 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2393 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2394 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2395 
  2396 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2397 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2398 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2399 
  2400 * Code generation:
  2401 
  2402   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2403     characters in the target language.
  2404 
  2405   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2406     instead.
  2407 
  2408   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2409 
  2410   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2411     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2412 
  2413       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2414 
  2415 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2418 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2419 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2420 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2421 syntax.
  2422 
  2423 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2424 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2425 
  2426 * Nitpick:
  2427   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2428   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2429   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2430     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431 
  2432 * Sledgehammer:
  2433   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2434   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2435     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2436   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2437     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2438   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2439     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2441     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2442   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2443     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445 * Metis:
  2446   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2448     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2449 
  2450 * Command 'try':
  2451   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2452     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2454     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2455 
  2456 * Quickcheck:
  2457   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2458     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2459   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2460     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2461   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2462     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2463     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2464     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2465   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2466     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2467 
  2468 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2469 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2470 
  2471 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2472 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2473 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2474 
  2475 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2476 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2478 
  2479 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2480 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2481 
  2482 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2483 arithmetic.
  2484 
  2485 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2486 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2487 and lattice type classes.
  2488 
  2489 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2490 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2491 
  2492 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2493 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2494 
  2495 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2496 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2497 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2500   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2501   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2502   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2503 
  2504 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2505 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2506 constants:
  2507 
  2508   type inat   ~> type enat
  2509   Fin         ~> enat
  2510   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2511   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2512   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2513 
  2514 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2515 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2518 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2519 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2520 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2521 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2522 
  2523 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2524 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2525 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2526 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2527 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2528 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2529 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2530 
  2531   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2532   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2533   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2534   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2535 
  2536 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2537 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2538 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 
  2540   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2541   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2542   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2543   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2544   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2545   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2546   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2547   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2548   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2549   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2550   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2551   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2552   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2553   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2554   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2555   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2556   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2557   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2558   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2559   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2560   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2561   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2562   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2563   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2564   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2565   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2566   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2567   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2568   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2569   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2570   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2571   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2572   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2573   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2574   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2575   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2576   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2577   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2578   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2579   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2580   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2581   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2582   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2583   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2584   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2585   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2586   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2587   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2588   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2589   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2590   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2591 
  2592 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2593   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2594   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2595   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2596   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2597     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2602   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2603   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2604   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2605   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2606   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2607   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2608   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2609   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2610   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2611   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2612   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2613   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2614   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2615   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2616   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2617   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2618   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2619   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2620   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2621   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2622   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2623   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2624   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2625   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2626 
  2627 
  2628 *** Document preparation ***
  2629 
  2630 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2631 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2632 same.
  2633 
  2634 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2635 result.
  2636 
  2637 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2638 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2639 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2640 
  2641 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2642 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2643 
  2644 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2645 like this:
  2646 
  2647   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2648   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2649 
  2650 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2651 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2652 layouts.
  2653 
  2654 
  2655 *** ML ***
  2656 
  2657 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2658 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2659 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2660 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2661 under external program control.
  2662 
  2663 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2664 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2665 
  2666 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2667 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2668 (better known as Proof General).
  2669 
  2670 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2671 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2672 
  2673 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2674 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2675 
  2676 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2677 (including quotes etc.).
  2678 
  2679 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2680 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2681 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2682 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2683 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2684 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2685 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2686 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2687 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2688 
  2689 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2690 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2691 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2692 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2693 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2694 
  2695 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2696 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2697 
  2698 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2699 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2700 
  2701 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2702 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2703 
  2704 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2705 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2706 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2707 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2708 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2709 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2710 proper Proof.context.
  2711 
  2712 
  2713 *** System ***
  2714 
  2715 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2716 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2717 
  2718 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2719 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2720 
  2721 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2722 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2723 
  2724   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2725   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2726   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2727   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2728   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2729 
  2730 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2731 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2732 
  2733 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2734 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2735 example:
  2736 
  2737   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2738 
  2739 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2740 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2741 
  2742 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2743 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2744 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2745 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2746 
  2747 
  2748 
  2749 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2750 ----------------------------------
  2751 
  2752 *** General ***
  2753 
  2754 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2755 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2756 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2757 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2758 like this:
  2759 
  2760   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2761 
  2762 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2763 
  2764 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2765 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2766 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2767 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2768 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2769 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2770 
  2771 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2772 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2773 the following package declarations:
  2774 
  2775   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2776   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2777 
  2778 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2779 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2780 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2781 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2782 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2783 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2784 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2785 
  2786 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2787 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2788 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2789 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2790 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2791 
  2792 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2793 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2794 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2795 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2796 
  2797 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2798 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2799 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2800 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2801 
  2802   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2803 
  2804   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2805   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2806   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2807   show_types                    show_types
  2808   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2809   show_consts                   show_consts
  2810   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2811 
  2812   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2813   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2814   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2815 
  2816   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2817   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2818 
  2819   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2820 
  2821   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2822   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2823   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2824   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2825   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2826 
  2827 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2828 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2829 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2830 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2831 
  2832 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2836   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2837 
  2838 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2839 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2840 float_token.
  2841 
  2842 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2843 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2847 DejaVu Sans.
  2848 
  2849 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2850 
  2851 
  2852 *** Pure ***
  2853 
  2854 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2855 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2856 time.
  2857 
  2858 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2859 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2862 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2865 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2866 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2867 command already provided this functionality.
  2868 
  2869 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2870 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2871 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2872 without interpretations.
  2873 
  2874 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2875 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2876 
  2877 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2878 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2879 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2880 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2881 
  2882 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2883 'definition' instead.
  2884 
  2885 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2886 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2887 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2888 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2889 
  2890 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2891 constructors.
  2892 
  2893 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2894 the local file system.
  2895 
  2896 
  2897 *** HOL ***
  2898 
  2899 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2900 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2901 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2902 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2903 
  2904   declare [[coercion f]]
  2905 
  2906 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2907 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2908 
  2909   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2910 
  2911 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2912 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2913 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2914 other theories like this:
  2915 
  2916   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2917 
  2918 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2919 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2920 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2921 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2922 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2923 for examples.
  2924 
  2925 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2926 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2929 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2930 
  2931 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2932 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2933 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2934 
  2935 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2936 functorial structure of types.
  2937 
  2938 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2939 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2940 
  2941 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2942 languages.
  2943 
  2944 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2945 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2949 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2952 combinators any longer.
  2953 
  2954 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2955 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2956 
  2957 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2958 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2959 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2960 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2961 
  2962   record 'a foo = ...
  2963   ...
  2964   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2965 
  2966 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2967 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2971 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2972 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2973 
  2974 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2975 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2976 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2977 
  2978 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2979 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980 
  2981 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2982 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2983 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2984 independently.
  2985 
  2986 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2987 counter example search.
  2988 
  2989 * Sledgehammer:
  2990   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2991     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2992     sledgehammer").
  2993   - Renamed commands:
  2994     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2995     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2996     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2997     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998   - Renamed options:
  2999     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3000     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3001     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3002     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3003     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Nitpick:
  3006   - Renamed options:
  3007     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3008     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3009     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3011   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3012   - Added "whack" option.
  3013   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3014   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3015   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3016   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3017     higher cardinalities.
  3018   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3019 
  3020 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3021 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3022 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3023 
  3024     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3025 
  3026 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3027 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3028 
  3029 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3030 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3031 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3032 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3033 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3034 "smt_solver".
  3035 
  3036 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3037 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3038 
  3039 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3040 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3041 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3042 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3045   - Renamed:
  3046     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3047     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3048     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049   - Added:
  3050     smt_verbose
  3051     smt_random_seed
  3052     smt_datatypes
  3053     smt_infer_triggers
  3054     smt_monomorph_limit
  3055     cvc3_options
  3056     remote_cvc3_options
  3057     remote_z3_options
  3058     yices_options
  3059 
  3060 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3061 header.
  3062 
  3063 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3064 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3065 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3066 
  3067   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3068 
  3069 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3072 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3077 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3080 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3081 
  3082 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3083 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3086 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3087 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3095 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3098 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3099 for congruent(2)).
  3100 
  3101 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3102 
  3103   types
  3104     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3105     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3106 
  3107   constants
  3108     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3109     True ~> HOL.True
  3110     False ~> HOL.False
  3111     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3112     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3113     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3114     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3115     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3116     The ~> HOL.The
  3117     All ~> HOL.All
  3118     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3119     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3120     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3121     If ~> HOL.If
  3122     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3123     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3124     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3125     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3126     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3127     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3128     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3129     op : ~> Set.member
  3130     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3131 
  3132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3135 
  3136     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3137     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3138     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3139     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3140     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3141     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3142     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3143     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3144 
  3145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * More stylized fact names:
  3148 
  3149   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3150   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3151   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3152   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3153 
  3154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3155 
  3156 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3157 
  3158   constants
  3159     null ~> List.null
  3160 
  3161   facts
  3162     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3163     null_empty ~> null_def
  3164 
  3165 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3166 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3167 generation.
  3168 
  3169 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3170 Haskell code.
  3171 
  3172 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3173 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3174 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3177 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3180 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3181 
  3182 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3183 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3184 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3187 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3193 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3194 referred to by its qualified name.
  3195 
  3196   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3197   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3198   product ~>  Enum.product
  3199 
  3200 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3201 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3203 
  3204 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3205 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3206 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3210 sort_key.
  3211 
  3212 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3214 
  3215 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3216 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3217 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3218 
  3219   types
  3220     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3221               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3222               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3223         (depends on your needs)
  3224 
  3225   constants
  3226      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3227      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3228      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3229 
  3230 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3231 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3232 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3233 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3236 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3237 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3238 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3239 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3245 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3246 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3247 
  3248 
  3249 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3250 
  3251 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3252 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3253 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3254 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3255 compatibility.
  3256 
  3257 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3258 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3259 
  3260 
  3261 *** HOLCF ***
  3262 
  3263 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3264 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3265 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3269 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3270 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3273   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3274   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3275 
  3276 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3277 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3278 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3281 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3282 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3283 domain definition now works:
  3284 
  3285   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3286 
  3287 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3288 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3289 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3290 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3291 
  3292   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3293     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3294 
  3295   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3296 
  3297 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3298 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3299 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3302 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3305 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3306 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3307 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3308 
  3309 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3310 
  3311 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3319 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3320 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3321 
  3322 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3323 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3324 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3327 still supported as an input translation.
  3328 
  3329 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3330 
  3331   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3332   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3333   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3334   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3335   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3336   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3337   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3338 
  3339 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3340 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3343   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3344   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3345   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3346   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3347   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3348 
  3349 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3350 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3353 
  3354   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3355   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3356   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3357   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3358 
  3359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3362 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3365 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3368   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3369   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3370   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3371   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3372   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3373   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3374   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3375   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3376   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3377   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3378   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3379   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3380   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3381   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3382   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3383   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3384   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3385   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3386   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3387 
  3388 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3391   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3392   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3393   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3394   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3395   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3396   box_less             ~> box_below
  3397   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3398   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3399   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3400   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3401   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3402   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3403   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3404   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3405   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3406   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3407   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3408   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3409   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3410   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3411   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3412   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3413   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3414   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3415   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3416   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3417   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3418   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3419   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3420   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3421   up_less              ~> up_below
  3422   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3423   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3424   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3425   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3426   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3427   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3428   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3429   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3430   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3431   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3432   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3433   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3434   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3435 
  3436 
  3437 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3438 
  3439 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3440 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 
  3443 *** ML ***
  3444 
  3445 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3446 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3447 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3448 
  3449 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3450 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3451 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3452 
  3453 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3454 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3455 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3456 
  3457 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3458 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3459 
  3460 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3461 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3462 
  3463 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3464 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3465 
  3466 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3467 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3468 
  3469 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3470 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3471 almost all situations.
  3472 
  3473 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3474 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3475 Isabelle/ML.
  3476 
  3477 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3478 meaning.
  3479 
  3480 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3481 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3482 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3483 
  3484 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3485 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3486 
  3487 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3488 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3489 
  3490 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3491 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3492 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3493 
  3494 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3495 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3496 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3497 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3498 configuration options.
  3499 
  3500 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3501 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3502 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3503 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3504 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3505 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3506 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3507 
  3508 
  3509 
  3510 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3511 ---------------------------------
  3512 
  3513 *** General ***
  3514 
  3515 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3516 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3517 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3518 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3519 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3520 their full internal name.
  3521 
  3522 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3523 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3524 Some hints on upgrading:
  3525 
  3526   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3527     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3528     which are independent of this issue.
  3529 
  3530   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3531     provides the following special forms:
  3532 
  3533       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3534       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3535       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3536 
  3537     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3538     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3539     extra variables".
  3540 
  3541     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3542     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3543     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3544     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3545     "logic".
  3546 
  3547   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3548     antiquotations:
  3549 
  3550       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3551       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3552       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3553       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3554 
  3555   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3556     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3557     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3558     antiquotations.
  3559 
  3560 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3561 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3562 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3563 diagnose syntax problems.
  3564 
  3565 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3566 
  3567 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3568 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3569 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3570 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3571 
  3572 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3573 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3574 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3575 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3578 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3579 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3580 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3581 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3584 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3585 
  3586 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3587 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3588 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3589 
  3590   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3591 
  3592 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3593 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3594 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3595 
  3596 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3597 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3601 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3602 
  3603 
  3604 *** Pure ***
  3605 
  3606 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3607 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3608 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3609 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3610 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3611 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3612 inspect proof terms.
  3613 
  3614 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3615 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3616 are added internally.  For example:
  3617 
  3618   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3619 
  3620 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3621 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3626 'class' instead.
  3627 
  3628 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3629 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3633 invariants.
  3634 
  3635 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3636 user space functionality any longer.
  3637 
  3638 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3639 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3643 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3644 
  3645 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3646 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3647 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3648 
  3649 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3650 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3651 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3652 
  3653 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3654 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 
  3657 *** HOL ***
  3658 
  3659 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3660 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3661 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3662 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3663 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3664 
  3665 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3666 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3667 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3668 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3669 
  3670   fun
  3671     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3672   where
  3673     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3674 
  3675   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3676     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3677 
  3678   quotient_definition
  3679     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3680 
  3681 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3682 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3683 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3684 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3685 
  3686 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3687 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3688 
  3689 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3690 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3691 
  3692 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3696 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3697 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3698 
  3699 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3700 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 
  3708 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3709 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3712 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3713 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3716   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3717   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3718   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3719   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3720   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3721   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3722   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3723   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3724   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3725   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3726   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3727   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3728   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3729   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3730   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3731   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3732   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3733   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3734   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3735   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3736   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3737   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3738   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3739   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3740   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3741   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3742   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3743   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3744   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3745 
  3746 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3747 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3748 
  3749 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3750 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3751 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3752 
  3753 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3754 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3755 
  3756 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3757 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3760 
  3761 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3762 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3765 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3770 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3771 
  3772 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3773 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3774 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3775 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3778   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3779   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3780   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3784 lattices):
  3785 
  3786     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3787     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3788 
  3789     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3790 
  3791     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3792     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3793     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3794     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3795     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3796     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3797     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3798     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3799     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3800     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3801     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3802     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3803     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3804 
  3805     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3806     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3807     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3808     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3809     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3810     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3811     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3812     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3813     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3814     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3815     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3816     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3817     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3818     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3819     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3820     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3821     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3822     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3823 
  3824   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3825   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3826 
  3827     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3828     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3829     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3830     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3831     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3832 
  3833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834 
  3835 * Refined field classes:
  3836   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3837     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3838     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3839   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3843   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3844   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3845   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3846     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3847   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3848     equal_neg_zero.
  3849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3850 
  3851 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3852 sets to lattices:
  3853 
  3854   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3855   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3856   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3857   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3858   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3859   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3860   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3861   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3862   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3863   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3864 
  3865 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3866 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3867 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3868 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3869 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3870 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3873 multiset order:
  3874 
  3875   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3876     <= and <;
  3877   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3878     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3879     multiset_order;
  3880   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3881     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3882     generation;
  3883   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3884     if needed.
  3885 
  3886 Renamed:
  3887 
  3888   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3889   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3890   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3891 
  3892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3895 
  3896 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3897 
  3898 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3899 
  3900 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3901 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3902 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904   Constants:
  3905   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3906   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3907   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3908   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3909   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3910   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3911   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3912   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3913   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3914   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3915   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3916   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3917   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3918 
  3919   Lemmas:
  3920   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3921   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3922   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3923   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3924   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3925   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3926   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3927   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3928   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3929   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3930   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3931   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3932   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3933 
  3934 * Sledgehammer:
  3935   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3936     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3937     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3938     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3939     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3940     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3941     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3943   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3944     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3945   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3946     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3947     is still experimental.)
  3948   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3949     full-typed mode.
  3950   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3951 
  3952 * Nitpick:
  3953   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3954   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3955   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3956     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3957   - Added support for quotient types.
  3958   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3959     constructs.
  3960   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3961     "termination" proofs).
  3962   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3963   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3964   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3965   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3966     record getters.
  3967   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3968   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3969   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3970   - Added "atoms" option.
  3971   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3972     problems.
  3973   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3974     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3975     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3977     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979 
  3980 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3981   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3982   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3983   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3984   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3985   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3986   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3987   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3988   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3989   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 
  3992 *** HOLCF ***
  3993 
  3994 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3995 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3996 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3999 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4000 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4001 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4004 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4005 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4006 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4007 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4008 
  4009 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4010 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4011 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4014 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4017   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4018 
  4019 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4020 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4023   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4024   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4025   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4026   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4027 
  4028 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4029 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4032   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4033   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4034 
  4035 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4036 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4040 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4041 
  4042 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4043 
  4044 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4045 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4046 
  4047 
  4048 *** ML ***
  4049 
  4050 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4051 
  4052     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4053     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4054 
  4055     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4056     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4057     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4058     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4059 
  4060     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4061     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4062     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4063 
  4064 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4065 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4066 
  4067 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4068 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4069 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4070 
  4071 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4072 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4073 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4074 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4075 
  4076 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4077 the context or even global references.
  4078 
  4079 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4080 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4081 
  4082 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4083 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4084 
  4085   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4086   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4087   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4088   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4089   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4090   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4091   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4092   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4093   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4094   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4095 
  4096 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4097 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4098 
  4099 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4100 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4101 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4102 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4103 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4104 
  4105 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4106 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4107 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4108 Theory_Data version.
  4109 
  4110 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4111 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4112 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4113 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4114 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4115 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4116 explicitly in rare situations.
  4117 
  4118 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4119 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4121 
  4122 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4123 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4126 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4127 quite rare).
  4128 
  4129 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4130 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4133 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4134 terms.
  4135 
  4136 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4137 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4138 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4139 
  4140 
  4141 *** System ***
  4142 
  4143 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4144 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4145 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4146 
  4147 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4148 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4149 respectively.
  4150 
  4151 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4152 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4153 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4154 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4155 
  4156   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4157 
  4158 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4159 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4160 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4161 component.
  4162 
  4163 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4164 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4165 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4166 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4167 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4168 the user for manual installation.
  4169 
  4170 
  4171 
  4172 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4173 -------------------------------------
  4174 
  4175 *** General ***
  4176 
  4177 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4178 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4179 
  4180 
  4181 *** Pure ***
  4182 
  4183 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4184 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4185 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4186 
  4187 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4188 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4189 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4190 
  4191 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4192 interpretation.
  4193 
  4194 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4195 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4196 
  4197 
  4198 *** Document preparation ***
  4199 
  4200 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4201 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4202 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4203 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4204 
  4205 
  4206 *** HOL ***
  4207 
  4208 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4209 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4210 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4211 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4212 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4213 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4214 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4215 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4216 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4217 
  4218 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4219 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4220 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4221 
  4222 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4223 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4224 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4225 
  4226 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4227 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4228 
  4229 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4230 
  4231 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4232 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4233 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4234 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4235 
  4236 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4237 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4238 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4239 "mirabelle" utility.
  4240 
  4241 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4242 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4243 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4244 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4245 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4246 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4247 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4248 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4249 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4250 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4251 
  4252 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4253 procedure only.
  4254 
  4255 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4256 
  4257 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4258 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4259 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4260 that fail later.
  4261 
  4262 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4263 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4264 
  4265 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4266 the same method as the approximation method.
  4267 
  4268 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4269 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4270 series expansion.
  4271 
  4272 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4273 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4274 
  4275 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4276 reals.
  4277 
  4278 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4279 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4280 
  4281 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4282 fixpoint theorem.
  4283 
  4284 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4285   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4286     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4287   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4288     accordingly
  4289   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4290     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4291   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4292     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4293 
  4294 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4295 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4296 lattice.
  4297 
  4298 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4299 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4300 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4301 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4302 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4303 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4307   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4308     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4309   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4310     le_inf_iff
  4311   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4312     sup_aci)
  4313   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4314   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4315   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4316     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4317     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4318     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4319     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4320     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4321     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4322     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4323     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4324     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4325     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4326   - authentic syntax for
  4327     Set.Pow
  4328     Set.image
  4329   - mere abbreviations:
  4330     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4331     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4332     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4333     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4334     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4335     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4336     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4337     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4338   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4339 
  4340 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4341 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4342 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4343 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4344 
  4345 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4346 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4347 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4348 
  4349 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4350 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4351 
  4352 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4353 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4354 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4355 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4358 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4359 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4360 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4361 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4362 
  4363 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4364 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4368 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4371 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4372 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4373 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4374 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4375 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4376 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4380     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4381     code_post       replaces    code post
  4382     etc.
  4383   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4384 
  4385 * Renamed methods:
  4386     sizechange -> size_change
  4387     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4388   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4391 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4392 
  4393 * Renamed theorems:
  4394     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4395     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4396     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4397     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4398     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4399   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 
  4408 *** HOLCF ***
  4409 
  4410 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4411 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4412 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4413 
  4414 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4415 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4416 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4417 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4418 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4419 
  4420 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4421 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4422 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4423 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4424 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4425 
  4426 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4427 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4428 constructor are pre-configured.
  4429 
  4430 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4431 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4432 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4433 
  4434 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4435 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4436 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4437 as well.)
  4438 
  4439 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4440 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4441 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4442 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4443 examples.
  4444 
  4445 
  4446 *** ML ***
  4447 
  4448 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4449 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4450 
  4451 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4452 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4453 position, logical grouping etc.
  4454 
  4455 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4456 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4457 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4458 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4459 
  4460 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4461 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4462 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4463 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4464 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4465 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4466 
  4467 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4468 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4469 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4470 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4471 experiments with references.
  4472 
  4473 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4474 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4475 
  4476 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4477 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4478 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4479 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4480 
  4481 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4482 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4483 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4484 
  4485 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4486 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4487 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4488 
  4489 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4495 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4496 
  4497 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4498 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4499 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4500 
  4501 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4502 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4503 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4504 
  4505 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4506 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4507 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4511 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4512 instead of global theory.
  4513 
  4514 
  4515 *** System ***
  4516 
  4517 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4518 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4519 usedir option -q.
  4520 
  4521 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4522 also the system manual.
  4523 
  4524 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4525 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4526 
  4527 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4528 this is always enabled.
  4529 
  4530 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4531 
  4532 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4533 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4534 currently supported on Linux only.
  4535 
  4536 
  4537 
  4538 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4539 --------------------------------
  4540 
  4541 *** General ***
  4542 
  4543 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4544 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4545 
  4546   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4547     "isatool."
  4548 
  4549   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4550     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4551 
  4552   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4553     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4554 
  4555 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4556 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4557 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4558 
  4559 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4560 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4561 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4562 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4563 via "isabelle emacs".
  4564 
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4566 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4567 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4568 
  4569 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4570 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4571 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4572 
  4573 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4574 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4575 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4576 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4577 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4578 
  4579 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4580 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4581 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4582 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4583 
  4584 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4585 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4586 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4587 
  4588 
  4589 *** Pure ***
  4590 
  4591 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4592 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4593 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4594 
  4595 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4596 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4597 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4598 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4599 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4600 
  4601 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4602 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4603 useful in locale declarations.
  4604 
  4605 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4606 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4607 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4608 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4609 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4610 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4611 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4612 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4613 no longer generated.
  4614 
  4615 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4616 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4617 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4618 
  4619 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4620 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4621 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4622 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4623 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4624 
  4625 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4627 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4628 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4629 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4630 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4631 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4632 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4633 
  4634 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4635 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4636 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4637 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4638 
  4639 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4642 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4643 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4644 
  4645 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4646 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4647 
  4648 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4649 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4650 in HOL, write
  4651 
  4652     class foo = ...
  4653 
  4654 instead of
  4655 
  4656     class foo = type + ...
  4657 
  4658 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4659 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4662 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4663 
  4664 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4665 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4666 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4667 
  4668 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4669 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4670 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4671 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4672 directly in regular applications.
  4673 
  4674 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4675 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4676 
  4677 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4678 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4679 
  4680 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4681 theory context.
  4682 
  4683 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4684 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4687 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4688 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4689 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4690 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4691 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4692 
  4693   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4694 
  4695 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4696 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4697 normalization.
  4698 
  4699 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4700 addressing etc.
  4701 
  4702 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4703 
  4704   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4705   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4706 
  4707 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4708 
  4709   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4710      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4711      parts of the code generator framework).
  4712 
  4713   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4714      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4715      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4716 
  4717 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4718 
  4719 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4720 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4723 patterns, e.g.
  4724 
  4725     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4726 
  4727 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4728 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4729 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4730 hyphen:
  4731 
  4732     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4733 
  4734 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4735 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4736 
  4737 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4738 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4739 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4740 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4741 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4742 higher-order unification.
  4743 
  4744 
  4745 *** Document preparation ***
  4746 
  4747 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4748 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4749 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 *** HOL ***
  4753 
  4754 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4755 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4756 
  4757 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4758 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4759 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4760 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4761 Main, as before.
  4762 
  4763 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4764 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4765 
  4766 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4767 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4768 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4769 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4770 
  4771 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4772 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4773 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4774 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4775 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4776 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4777 
  4778 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4779 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4780 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4781 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4782 
  4783 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4784 menu.
  4785 
  4786 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4787 (contains the empty clause).
  4788 
  4789 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4790 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4791 
  4792 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4793 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4794 
  4795 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4796 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4797 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4800 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4801 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4802 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4803 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4804 
  4805 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4806 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4807 
  4808 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4809 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4810 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4811 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4812 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4813 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4814 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4815 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4816 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4817 
  4818 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4819 
  4820 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4821 
  4822 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4823 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4824 
  4825 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4826 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4827 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4828 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4829 
  4830 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4831 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4832 
  4833     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4834     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4835     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4836     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4837     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4838     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4839     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4840     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4841 
  4842 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4843 theory Set.
  4844 
  4845 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4846 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4847 
  4848 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4849 
  4850 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4851 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4852 
  4853 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4854 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4855 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4856 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4857 allowed. For examples see
  4858 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4859 
  4860 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4861 
  4862 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4866 structure:
  4867 
  4868     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4869     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4870     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4871     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4872     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4873     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4874     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4875     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4876     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4877     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4878     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4879     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4880     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4881     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4882     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4883     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4884     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4885     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4886     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4887     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4888     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4889     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4890     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4891     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4892     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4893     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4894     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4895     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4896     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4897     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4898     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4899     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4900     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4901 
  4902     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4903     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4904     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4905     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4906     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4907     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4908     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4909     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4910     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4911     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4912 
  4913     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4914     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4915     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4916     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4917     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4918     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4919 
  4920 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4921 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4922 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4923 
  4924 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4925 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4926 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4927 
  4928 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4929 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4930 
  4931 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4932 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4933 
  4934 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4935 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4936 proofs, e.g.
  4937 
  4938   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4939 
  4940 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4941 
  4942 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4943 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4944 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4947 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4949 
  4950 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4951 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4952 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4957 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4958 preorder_class.*.
  4959 
  4960 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4961 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4962 
  4963 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4964 
  4965   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4966 
  4967 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4968 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4969 fold_image.
  4970 
  4971 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4972 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4973 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4974 the former will disappear at some point.
  4975 
  4976 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4977 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4978 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4979 
  4980 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4981 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4982 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4983 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4984 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4985 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4986 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4987 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4988 
  4989 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4990 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4991 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4992 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4993 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4994 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4995 
  4996     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4997     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4998     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4999     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5000     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5001     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5002     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5003 
  5004 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5005 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5006 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5007 
  5008 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5009 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5010 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5011 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5012 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5013 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5014 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5015 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5016 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5017 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5018 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5019 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5020 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5021 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5022 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5023 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5024 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5025 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5026 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5027 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5028 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5029 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5030 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5031 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5032 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5033 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5034 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5035 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5036 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5037 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5038 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5039 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5040 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5041 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5042 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5043 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5044 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5045 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5046 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5047 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5048 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5049 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5050 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5051 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5052 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5053 
  5054 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5057 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5058 
  5059 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5060 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5061 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5062 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5063 
  5064 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5065 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5066 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5067 theory RealVector.
  5068 
  5069 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5070 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5071 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5072 and inner products are included.
  5073 
  5074 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5075 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5076 supported.
  5077 
  5078 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5079 first diagonalization argument.
  5080 
  5081 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5082 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5083 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5084 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5085 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5086 
  5087     hide (open) const gcd
  5088     abbreviation gcd where
  5089       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5090     notation (output)
  5091       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5092 
  5093 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5094 
  5095 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5096 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5097 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5098 
  5099 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5100 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5101 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5102 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5103 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5104 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5105 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5106 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5107 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5108 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5109 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5110 cases.
  5111 
  5112 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5113 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5114 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5115 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5116 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5117 
  5118     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5119     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5120     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5121     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5122     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5123 
  5124 
  5125 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5126 
  5127 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5128 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5129 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5130 
  5131 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5132 
  5133 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5134 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5135 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5136 
  5137 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5138 
  5139 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5140 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5141 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5142 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5143 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5144 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5145 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5146 
  5147 
  5148 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5149 
  5150 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5151 
  5152 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5153 theory targets.
  5154 
  5155 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5156 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5157 'inductive' etc.
  5158 
  5159 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5160 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5161 
  5162 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5163 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5164 
  5165 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5166 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5167 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5168 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5169 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5170 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5171 the algorithm W:
  5172 
  5173  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5174  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5175          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5176 
  5177 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5178 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5179 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5180 
  5181 
  5182 *** HOLCF ***
  5183 
  5184 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5185 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5186 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5187 
  5188 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5189 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5190 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5191 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5192 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5193 
  5194 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5195 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5196 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 
  5199 *** ZF ***
  5200 
  5201 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5202 
  5203 
  5204 *** ML ***
  5205 
  5206 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5207 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5208 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5209 5.2.1!
  5210 
  5211 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5212 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5213 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5214 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5215 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5216 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5217 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5218 
  5219 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5220 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5221 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5222 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5223 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5224 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5225 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5226 
  5227 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5228 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5229 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5230 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5231 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5232 
  5233 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5234 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5235 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5236 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5237 Method.add_method.
  5238 
  5239 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5240 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5241 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5242 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5243 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5244 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5245 
  5246 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5247 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5248 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5249 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5250 examples.
  5251 
  5252 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5253 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5254 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5255 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5256 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5257 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5258 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5259 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5260 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5261 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5262 
  5263 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5264 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5265 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5266 
  5267 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5268 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5269 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5270 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5271 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5272 resort for legacy applications.
  5273 
  5274 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5275 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5276 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5277 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5278 explicit runtime argument.
  5279 
  5280 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5281 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5282 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5283 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5284 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5285 
  5286 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5287 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5288 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5289 theory state.
  5290 
  5291 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5292 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5293 
  5294   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5295   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5296   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5297   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5298   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5299   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5300   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5301   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5302   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5303   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5304 
  5305 
  5306 *** System ***
  5307 
  5308 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5309 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5310 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5311 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5312 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5313 
  5314 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5315 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5316 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5317 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5318 
  5319 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5320 
  5321 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5322 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5323 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5324 prover operations.
  5325 
  5326 
  5327 
  5328 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5329 -------------------------------
  5330 
  5331 *** General ***
  5332 
  5333 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5334 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5335 
  5336 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5337 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5338 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5339 provides a proper context already.
  5340 
  5341 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5342 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5343 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5344 
  5345 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5346 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5347 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5348 swap theory imports.
  5349 
  5350 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5351 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5352 
  5353 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5354 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5355 white space without escapes.
  5356 
  5357 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5358 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5359 "foo_bar".
  5360 
  5361 
  5362 *** Pure ***
  5363 
  5364 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5365 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5366 
  5367 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5368 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5369 
  5370 (1) unused_thms
  5371      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5372 
  5373 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5374      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5375      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5376 
  5377 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5378      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5379      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5380      their ancestors.
  5381 
  5382 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5383 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5384 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5385 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5386 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5387 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5388 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5389 
  5390 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5391 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5392 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5393 
  5394 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5395 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5396 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5397 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5398 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5399 
  5400 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5401 
  5402 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5403 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5404 update of theories within ML code.
  5405 
  5406 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5407 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5408 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5409 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5410 
  5411 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5412 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5413 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5415 
  5416 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5417 
  5418 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5419 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5420 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5421 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5422 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5423 
  5424 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5425 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5426 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5427 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5428 situations.
  5429 
  5430 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5431 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5432 proof text.
  5433 
  5434 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5435 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5436 
  5437 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5438 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5439 predicates.
  5440 
  5441 
  5442 *** Document preparation ***
  5443 
  5444 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5445 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5446 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5447 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5448 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5449 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5450 
  5451 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5452 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5453 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5454 
  5455 
  5456 *** HOL ***
  5457 
  5458 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5459 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5460 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5461 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5462 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5463 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5464 
  5465 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5466 with multithreading.
  5467 
  5468 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5469 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5470 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5471 
  5472 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5473 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5474 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5475 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5478 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5479 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5480 and makes them available separately.  See
  5481 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5482 
  5483 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5484 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5485 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5486 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5487 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5488 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5489 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5490 the declared rules.
  5491 
  5492 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5493 
  5494   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5495 
  5496 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5497 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5498 
  5499 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5500 
  5501   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5502 
  5503   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5504     definitions on => and bool.
  5505 
  5506   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5507     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5508     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5509 
  5510       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5511       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5512       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5513       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5514       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5515       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5516       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5517       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5518 
  5519   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5520     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5521     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5522 
  5523   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5524     The proof pattern
  5525 
  5526       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5527       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5528 
  5529     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5530     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5531 
  5532       have "EX S. P S"
  5533       proof
  5534         show "P S" <...>
  5535       qed
  5536 
  5537   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5538     The proof pattern
  5539 
  5540       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5541       also have "S = T" <...>
  5542       finally have "P T" .
  5543 
  5544     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5545     must be replaced by something like
  5546 
  5547       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5548       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5549       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5550 
  5551   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5552     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5553 
  5554       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5555 
  5556     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5557     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5558     type of the form
  5559 
  5560       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5561 
  5562     rather than
  5563 
  5564       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5565 
  5566 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5567 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5568 
  5569 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5570 
  5571 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5572 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5576 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5579 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5580 
  5581 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5582 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5583 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5586 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5587 
  5588   less_trans
  5589   less_linear
  5590   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5591   le_less_trans
  5592   less_le_trans
  5593   less_not_sym
  5594   less_asym
  5595 
  5596 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5597 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5598 and different variable names.
  5599 
  5600 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5601 
  5602 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5603 finite maps.
  5604 
  5605 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5606 
  5607 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5608 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5609 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5610 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5611 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5612 accordingly.
  5613 
  5614 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5615 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5616 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5617 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5618 
  5619 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5620 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5621 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5622 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5623 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5625 
  5626 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5627 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5628 
  5629 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5630 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5631 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5632 
  5633 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5635 
  5636 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5637 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5638 
  5639 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5640 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5641 
  5642 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5643 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5644 
  5645 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5646 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5648 
  5649 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5650 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5651 
  5652 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5653 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5654 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5655 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5656 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5657 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5660 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5661 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5662 
  5663 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5664 
  5665 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5666 
  5667 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5668 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5669 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5670 
  5671 
  5672 *** ZF ***
  5673 
  5674 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5675 same session:
  5676 
  5677   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5678   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5679   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5680   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5681   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5682   List      -> List_ZF
  5683   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5684 
  5685 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5686 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5687 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5688 
  5689 
  5690 *** ML ***
  5691 
  5692 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5693 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5694 
  5695 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5696 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5697 
  5698 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5699 
  5700 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5701 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5702 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5703 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5704 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5705 
  5706 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5707 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5708 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5709 
  5710 
  5711 *** System ***
  5712 
  5713 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5714 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5715 
  5716 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5717 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5718 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5719 
  5720 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5721 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5722 
  5723 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5724 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5725 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5726 
  5727 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5728 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5729 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5730 
  5731 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5732 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5733 
  5734 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5735 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5736 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5737 script.
  5738 
  5739 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5740 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5741 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5742 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5743 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5744 
  5745 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5746 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5747 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5748 
  5749 
  5750 
  5751 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5752 -----------------------------------
  5753 
  5754 *** General ***
  5755 
  5756 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5757 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5758 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5759 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5760 
  5761 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5762 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5763 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5764 
  5765 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5766 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5767 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5768 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5769 
  5770 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5771 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5772 quotes.
  5773 
  5774 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5775 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5776 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5777 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5778 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5779 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5780 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5781 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5782 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5783 
  5784 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5785 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5786 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5787 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5788 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5789 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5790 
  5791 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5792 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5793 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5794 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5795 
  5796 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5797 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5798 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5799 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5800 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5801 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5802 
  5803 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5804 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5805 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5806 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5807 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5808 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5809 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5810 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5811 
  5812 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5813 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5814 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5815 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5816 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5817 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5818 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5819 
  5820 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5821 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5822 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5823 
  5824 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5825 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5826 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5827 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5828 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5829 limit is imposed.
  5830 
  5831 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5832 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5833 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5834 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5835 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5836 and scalability.
  5837 
  5838 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5839 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5840 
  5841 
  5842 *** Document preparation ***
  5843 
  5844 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5845 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5846 current context.
  5847 
  5848 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5849 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5850 
  5851 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5852 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5853 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5854 
  5855 
  5856 *** Pure ***
  5857 
  5858 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5859 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5860 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5861 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5862 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5863 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5864 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5865 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5866 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5867 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5868 
  5869 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5870 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5871 sketch:
  5872 
  5873     internal compilation:
  5874         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5875     writing SML code to a file:
  5876         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5877     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5878         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5879     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5880         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5881 
  5882     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5883         method ``eval''
  5884 
  5885 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5886 
  5887 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5888 
  5889     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5890     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5891     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5892     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5893 
  5894 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5895 
  5896     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5897       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5898 
  5899     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5900       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5901 
  5902     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5903       {(target)}+
  5904         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5905 
  5906     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5907       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5908         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5909 
  5910 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5911 
  5912 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5913 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5914 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5915 codegen".
  5916 
  5917 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5918 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5919 annotations).
  5920 
  5921 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5922 syntax.
  5923 
  5924 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5925 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5926 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5927 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5928 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5929 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5930 
  5931 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5932 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5933 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5934 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5935 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5936 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5937 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5938 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5939 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5940 equations, see section "definitions".
  5941 
  5942 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5943 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5944 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5945 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5946 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5947 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5948 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5949 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5950 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5951 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5952 
  5953 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5954 configuration options:
  5955 
  5956   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5957   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5958   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5959   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5960   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5961   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5962   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5963   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5964   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5965 
  5966 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5967 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5968 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5969 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5970 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5971 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5972 order.
  5973 
  5974 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5975 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5976 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5977 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5978 context encountered later on.
  5979 
  5980 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5981 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5982 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5983 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5984 
  5985 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5986 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5987 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5988 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5989 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5990 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5991 
  5992 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5993 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5994 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5995 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5996 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5997 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5998 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5999 more permissive.
  6000 
  6001 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6002 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6003 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6004 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6005 maintainability of proof texts.
  6006 
  6007 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6008 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6009 
  6010   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6011   then guess x and y by clarify
  6012 
  6013 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6014 proof tools being involved here.
  6015 
  6016 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6017 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6018 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6019 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6020 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6021 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6022 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6023 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6024 
  6025 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6026 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6027 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6028 
  6029   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6030   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6031   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6032   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6033 
  6034 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6035 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6036 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6037 
  6038 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6039 both named and unnamed ones.
  6040 
  6041 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6042 
  6043   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6044 
  6045 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6046 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6047 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6048 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6049 
  6050 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6051 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6052 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6053 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6054 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6055 
  6056 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6057 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6058 
  6059 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6060 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6061 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6062 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6063 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6064 originally first one.
  6065 
  6066 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6067 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6068 expected.
  6069 
  6070 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6071 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6072 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6073 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6074 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6075 
  6076   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6077     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6078     obtains x where "P x"
  6079 
  6080   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6081     assumes "A & B"
  6082     obtains A and B
  6083 
  6084   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6085     assumes "A | B"
  6086     obtains
  6087       A
  6088     | B
  6089 
  6090 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6091 explicitly:
  6092 
  6093   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6094     obtains "~ thesis"
  6095 
  6096   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6097     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6098 
  6099 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6100 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6101 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6102 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6103 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6104 case_names).
  6105 
  6106 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6107 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6108 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6109 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6110 
  6111 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6112 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6113 top-level lemma.
  6114 
  6115 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6116 introduction rule (default "that").
  6117 
  6118 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6119 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6120 to occur.
  6121 
  6122 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6123 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6124 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6125 representations independently of name spaces.
  6126 
  6127 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6128 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6129 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6130 
  6131 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6132 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6133 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6134 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6135 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6136 current context.
  6137 
  6138 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6139 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6140 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6141 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6142 
  6143   axiomatization
  6144     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6145     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6146 
  6147   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6148   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6149 
  6150   abbreviation
  6151     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6152     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6153 
  6154 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6155 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6156 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6157 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6158 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6159 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6160 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6161 
  6162 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6163 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6164 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6165 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6166 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6167 
  6168 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6169 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6170 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6171 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6172 
  6173 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6174 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6175 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6176 
  6177   definition "K x _ = x"
  6178 
  6179   inductive conj for A B
  6180   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6181 
  6182 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6183 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6184 abbreviations on output.
  6185 
  6186 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6187 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6188 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6189 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6190 
  6191 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6192 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6193 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6194 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6195 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6196 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6197 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6198 
  6199 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6200 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6201 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6202 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6203 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6204 
  6205 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6206 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6207 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6208 
  6209 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6210 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6211 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6212 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6213 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6214 
  6215   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6216     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6217 
  6218 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6219 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6220 partial_order.
  6221 
  6222 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6223 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6224 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6225 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6226 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6227 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6228 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6229 examples.
  6230 
  6231 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6232 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6233 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6234 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6235 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6236 
  6237 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6238 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6239 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6240 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6241 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6242 
  6243   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6244   (induct set: foo bar)
  6245   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6246   (induct type: foo bar)
  6247 
  6248 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6249 new format.
  6250 
  6251 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6252 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6253 
  6254 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6255 considered a legacy feature.