NEWS
author nipkow
Fri Jun 13 07:05:01 2014 +0200 (2014-06-13)
changeset 57251 f51985ebd152
parent 57246 62746a41cc0c
child 57252 19b7ace1c5da
permissions -rw-r--r--
announce Tree
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319   * No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by default,
   320     eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322   * No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   323     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   324     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * Old datatype package:
   328   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   329     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   332     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   333     "case_prod").
   334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   337   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   338   datatype package.
   339   Renamed constants:
   340     Option.set ~> set_option
   341     Option.map ~> map_option
   342     option_rel ~> rel_option
   343   Renamed theorems:
   344     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   345     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   346     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   347     option.recs ~> option.rec
   348     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   349     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   350     map.simps ~> list.map
   351     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   352     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   353     the.simps ~> option.sel
   354   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   357     sum_map ~> map_sum
   358     map_pair ~> map_prod
   359     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   360     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   361     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   362     set_rel ~> rel_set
   363     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   364     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   365     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   366     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   367 
   368 * New theories:
   369     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   370     Library/Tree
   371 
   372 * Theory reorganizations:
   373   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   374 
   375 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   376   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   377   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   378   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   379   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   380   the old default can be restored using
   381   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * SMT module:
   384   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   385     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   386     called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also supported as oracles. Yices is no
   387     longer supported, because no version of the solver can handle both
   388     SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   389 
   390 * Sledgehammer:
   391   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   392   - MaSh overhaul:
   393       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   394         and increase performance and reliability.
   395       - Activation of MaSh now works via the "MaSh" system option (without
   396         requiring restart), instead of former settings variable "MASH".
   397         The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu Plugin
   398         Options / Isabelle / General. Allowed values include "sml" (for the
   399         default SML engine), "py" (for the old Python engine), and "none".
   400   - New option:
   401       smt_proofs
   402   - Renamed options:
   403       isar_compress ~> compress
   404       isar_try0 ~> try0
   405     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Metis:
   408   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   409     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   412 
   413 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   416 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   417 
   418 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   419 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   420 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   421 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   422 
   423 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   427 with the given constants.
   428 
   429 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   430 
   431 Fact consolidations:
   432     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   433     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   434     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   435     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   436     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   437     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   438     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   439     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   440     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   441     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   442     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   443     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   444     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   445     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   446     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   447     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   448     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   449     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   450     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   451     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   452     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   453     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   454     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   455     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   456     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   457     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   458     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   459     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   460     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   461     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   462     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   463     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   464     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   465     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   466     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   467     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   468     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   469     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   470     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   471     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   472 
   473 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   474 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   475 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   476 
   477 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   478 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   479 
   480 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   481 
   482 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   483 
   484 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   491 operations on records.
   492 
   493 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   497     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   501     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   502     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   506   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   507   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   508   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   509     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   510   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   511     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   512   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   514 
   515 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   516     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   517     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   518     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   519     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 * Fact name consolidation:
   523     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   524     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   525     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   526     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   527     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   529 
   530 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   531 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   532 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   533 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   534 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   535 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   536 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   537 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   540 
   541 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   542 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   543 
   544 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   545 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   546 
   547 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   548 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   549 or the brute way with
   550 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   551 
   552 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   553 
   554 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   555 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   558 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   559 
   560 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   561 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   562 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   563 INCOMPATIBILITY
   564 
   565 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   566   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   567   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   568   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   569   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   570   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   571   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   572   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   573   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   574   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   575   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   576   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   577 
   578   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   579 
   580   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   581     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   582     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   583     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   584     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   586 
   587 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   588   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   589 
   590   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   591 
   592   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   593 
   594   - removed constant isDiff
   595 
   596   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   597     syntax.
   598 
   599   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   600 
   601   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   602 
   603   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   604 
   605   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   606 
   607   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   608     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   609 
   610   - Other renamings:
   611     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   612     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   613     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   614     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   615     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   616     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   617     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   621   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   622 
   623 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   624   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   625   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   626 
   627   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   628   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   629   removes
   630     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   631 
   632   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   633     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   634 
   635   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   636 
   637   Renamings:
   638     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   639     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   640     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   641     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   642     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   643     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   644     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   645     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   646     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   647     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   648     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   649     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   650 
   651     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   652     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   653     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   654 
   655   Removed theorems:
   656     complex_zero_def
   657     complex_add_def
   658     complex_minus_def
   659     complex_diff_def
   660     complex_one_def
   661     complex_mult_def
   662     complex_inverse_def
   663     complex_scaleR_def
   664 
   665 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   666 
   667 * Nitpick:
   668   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   669     infinite values.
   670   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   671     "Rep_Integ".
   672   - Removed "std" option.
   673   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   674     "hide_types".
   675 
   676 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   677   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   678   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   679     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   680     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   681     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   682     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   683     intervals.
   684 
   685   - renamed theorems:
   686     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   687     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   688     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   689 
   690 * HOL-Probability:
   691   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   692     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   693 
   694     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   695     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   696     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   697     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   698     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   699     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   700     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   701     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   702     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   703     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   704     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   705     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   706     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   707     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   708     integral_indicator          ~>
   709          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   710     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   711     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   712     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   713 
   714     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   715          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   716 
   717     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   718          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   719 
   720     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   721          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   722 
   723     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   724          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   725          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   726 
   727     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   728          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   729 
   730     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   731          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   732 
   733     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   734          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   735          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   736 
   737     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   738          positive_integral_real_affine
   739 
   740     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   741          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   742 
   743     The following theorems where removed:
   744 
   745     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   746     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   747     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   748     lebesgue_integral_multc
   749     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   750     integral_cmul_indicator
   751     integral_real
   752 
   753   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   754 
   755     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   756       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   757 
   758     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   759 
   760 * Library/Kleene-Algebra was removed because AFP/Kleene_Algebra subsumes it.
   761 
   762 *** Scala ***
   763 
   764 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   765 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   766 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   767 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   768 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 
   771 *** ML ***
   772 
   773 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   774 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   777 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   778 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   784 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   785 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   787 
   788 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   789 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   790 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   791 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   792 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   793 of schematic variables.
   794 
   795 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   796 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   798 formal context.
   799 
   800 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   801 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   802 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   803 actually belongs to it).
   804 
   805 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   806 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   807 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   808 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   809 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   810 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   811 
   812 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   813 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   814 
   815 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   816 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   817 
   818 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   819 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   820 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   821 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   822 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   823 
   824 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   825 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   826 purposes.
   827 
   828 
   829 *** System ***
   830 
   831 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   832 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   833 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   834 processing is started.
   835 
   836 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   837 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   838 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   839 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   840 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   841 
   842 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   843 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   844 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   845 
   846 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   847 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   848 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   849 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   850 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   851 settings variable yet.
   852 
   853 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   854 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   855 
   856 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   857 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   858 
   859 
   860 
   861 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   862 -------------------------------------
   863 
   864 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   865 
   866 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   867 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   868 
   869 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   870 after edits surrounding the command location.
   871 
   872 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   873 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   874 e.g. out-of-memory).
   875 
   876 
   877 *** System ***
   878 
   879 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   880 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   881 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   882 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   883 
   884 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   885 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   886 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   887 
   888 
   889 
   890 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   891 -------------------------------------
   892 
   893 *** General ***
   894 
   895 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   896 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   897 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   900 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   901 
   902 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   903 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   904 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   905 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   906 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   907 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   908 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   909 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   910 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   911 syntax.
   912 
   913 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   914 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   917 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   918 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   919 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   920 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   921 
   922 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   926 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   927 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   928 
   929 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   930 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   931 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   932 
   933 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   934 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   935 
   936 
   937 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   938 
   939 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   940 Documentation panel.
   941 
   942 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   943 documentation.
   944 
   945 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   946 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   947 
   948 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   949 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   950 normal editing and checking process.
   951 
   952 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   953 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   954 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   955 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   956 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   957 
   958 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   959 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   960 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   961 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   962 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   963 
   964 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   965 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   966 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   967 
   968 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   969 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   971 to resolve conflict.
   972 
   973 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   974 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   975 
   976 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   977 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   978 such command executions while editing.
   979 
   980 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   981 document content.
   982 
   983 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   984 toplevel theorem statements.
   985 
   986 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   987 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   988 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   989 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   990 
   991 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   992 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   993 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   994 
   995 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   996 / Global Options / Appearance".
   997 
   998 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   999 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1000 
  1001 
  1002 *** Pure ***
  1003 
  1004 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1005 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1006 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1007 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1008 details.
  1009 
  1010 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1011 
  1012 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1013 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1014 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1015 
  1016 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1020 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1021 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1022 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1025 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1026 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1029 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1030 
  1031 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1032 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1033 situations.
  1034 
  1035 
  1036 *** HOL ***
  1037 
  1038 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1039 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1041 
  1042 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1043 
  1044 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1045 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1046 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1047 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1048 
  1049   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1050 
  1051 * Code generator:
  1052   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1053     'code_instance'.
  1054   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1055     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1056 
  1057 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1058 examples.
  1059 
  1060 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1061 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1062 to distinguish both when desired.
  1063 
  1064 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1065 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1066 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1067 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1068 
  1069 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1070 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1071 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1072 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1073 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1074 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1075 
  1076 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1077 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1078 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1079 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1080 
  1081 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1082 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1083 
  1084 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1085 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1086 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1087 
  1088 * Lifting:
  1089   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1090     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1091       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1092       transfer rules
  1093     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1094       correspondence relation can be generated
  1095     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1096       parametricity
  1097     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1098   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1099   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1100     copies
  1101   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1102     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1103     anonymous context)
  1104   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1105     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1106   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1107     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1108   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1109     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1110 
  1111 * Transfer:
  1112   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1113     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1114   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1115   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1116     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1117   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1118 
  1119 * Reification and reflection:
  1120   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1121     "Reification".
  1122   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1123   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1125 
  1126 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1127   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1128     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1129     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1130   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1131     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1132   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1133     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1134     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1135     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1136     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1137     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1138     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1139     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1140   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1141     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1142   - Fact renames:
  1143       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1144       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1148 
  1149 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1150 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1151 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1155 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1156 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1157 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1158 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1159 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1160 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1161 lemmas.
  1162 
  1163 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1164 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1165 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1166 
  1167 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1168 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1169 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1170 
  1171 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1172 top and bottom elements.
  1173 
  1174 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1175 
  1176 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1177 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1178 
  1179  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1180    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1181    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1182 
  1183  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1184    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1185    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1186 
  1187    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1188    arbitrary filter.
  1189 
  1190  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1191    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1192    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1193    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1194    on a compact set.
  1195 
  1196  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1197    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1198    linear_continuum_topology).
  1199 
  1200  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1201    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1202    on all sequences converging to x.
  1203 
  1204  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1205    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1206    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1207    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1208    left or right.
  1209 
  1210  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1211 
  1212      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1213 
  1214  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1215    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1216 
  1217  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1218    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1219    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1220    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1221    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1222    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1223 
  1224  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1225 
  1226    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1227 
  1228    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1229      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1230 
  1231    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1232 
  1233    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1234      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1235 
  1236    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1237 
  1238    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1239 
  1240  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1241 
  1242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1243 
  1244 * Nitpick:
  1245   - Added option "spy".
  1246   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1247 
  1248 * Sledgehammer:
  1249   - Renamed option:
  1250       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1251     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1252   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1253   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1254   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1255 
  1256 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1257 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1258 
  1259 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1260   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1261   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1262     generated code.
  1263   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1264   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1265   - Fact renames:
  1266     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1267     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1268     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1269 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1270 
  1271 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1272 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1273 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1274 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1275 
  1276 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1277 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1278 
  1279 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1282 
  1283     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1284     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1285 
  1286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1287 
  1288 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1289 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1290 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1291 
  1292 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1293 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1294 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1295 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1296 
  1297 * HOL-BNF:
  1298   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1299     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1300     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1301     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1302   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1303     coinduct).
  1304   - Renamed keywords:
  1305     data ~> datatype_new
  1306     codata ~> codatatype
  1307     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1308   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1309     discs ~> disc
  1310     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1311     map_id' ~> map_id
  1312     sels ~> sel
  1313     set_map' ~> set_map
  1314     sets ~> set
  1315 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 
  1318 *** ML ***
  1319 
  1320 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1321 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1322 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1323 Examples.thy in particular.
  1324 
  1325 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1326 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1327 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1328 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1329 
  1330 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1331 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1332 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1333 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1335 
  1336 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1337 
  1338     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1339     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1340 
  1341 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1344 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1345 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1346 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1347 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1348 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1349 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1350 
  1351 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1352 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1353 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1354 clasets separately from the context.
  1355 
  1356 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1357 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1358 
  1359 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1360 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1361 
  1362 
  1363 *** System ***
  1364 
  1365 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1366 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1367 
  1368 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1369 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1372 settings variable.
  1373 
  1374 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1375 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1376 always pdf.
  1377 
  1378 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1379 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1380 
  1381 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1382 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1383 
  1384 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1385 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1386 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1387 
  1388 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1389 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1390 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1391 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1392 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1393 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1394 
  1395 
  1396 
  1397 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1398 -----------------------------------
  1399 
  1400 *** General ***
  1401 
  1402 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1403 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1404 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1405 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1406 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1407 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1408 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1409 
  1410 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1411 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1412 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1413 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1414 
  1415 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1416 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1417 
  1418 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1419 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1420 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1421 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1422 dependencies properly.
  1423 
  1424 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1425 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1426 
  1427 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1428 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1429 
  1430 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1431 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1432 and "class ... context ...".
  1433 
  1434 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1435 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1436 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1437 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1438 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1439 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1440 
  1441 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1442 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1443 
  1444 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1445 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1446 
  1447 
  1448 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1449 
  1450 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1451 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1452 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1453 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1454 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1455 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1456 
  1457 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1458 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1459 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1460 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1461 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1462 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1463 
  1464 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1465 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1466 browser on demand.
  1467 
  1468 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1469 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1470 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1471 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1472 
  1473 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1474 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1475 
  1476 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1477 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1478 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1479 potentially infinite message streams.
  1480 
  1481 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1482 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1483 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1484 schemes.
  1485 
  1486 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1487 symbols.
  1488 
  1489 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1490 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1491 
  1492 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1493 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1494 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1495 
  1496 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1497 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1498 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1499 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1500 
  1501 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1502 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1503 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1504 
  1505 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1506 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1507 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1508 Isabelle distribution.
  1509 
  1510 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1511 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1512 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1513 
  1514 
  1515 *** Pure ***
  1516 
  1517 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1518 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1519 
  1520 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1521 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1522 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1525 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1526 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1527 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1528 with some care where this is really required.
  1529 
  1530 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1531 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1532 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1533 
  1534   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1535 
  1536 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1537 a Hasse diagram.
  1538 
  1539 
  1540 *** HOL ***
  1541 
  1542 * Sledgehammer:
  1543 
  1544   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1545     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1546   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1547   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1548   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1549   - Renamed options:
  1550       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1551       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1552       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1553       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1554 
  1555 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1556 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1557 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1558 
  1559 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Lifting:
  1563   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1564   - quot_del attribute
  1565   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1566 
  1567 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1568 expressions.
  1569 
  1570 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1571 pointfree expressions.
  1572 
  1573 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1574 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1575 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1576 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1580 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1581 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1582 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1583 accordingly.
  1584 
  1585 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1586 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1589 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1592 
  1593 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1594 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1595 
  1596 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1597 
  1598 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1599 
  1600   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1601   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1602 
  1603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1606 
  1607   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1608   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1609 
  1610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1611 
  1612 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1613 
  1614   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1615     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1616     output f x converges to G.
  1617 
  1618   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1619     infinity (at_bot).
  1620 
  1621   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1622     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1623 
  1624   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1625     at_top".
  1626 
  1627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1630 lattice type classes.
  1631 
  1632 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1633 
  1634     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1635     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1636 
  1637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638 
  1639 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1640 changes as follows.
  1641 
  1642   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1643 
  1644       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1645       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1646 
  1647   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1648     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1649     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1650     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1651 
  1652   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1653     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1654     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1655 
  1656   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1657     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1658     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1659     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1660 
  1661   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1662     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1663 
  1664       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1665       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1666       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1667       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1668       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1669       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1670       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1671       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1672       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1673       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1674       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1675       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1676       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1677       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1678       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1679       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1680 
  1681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1684 
  1685 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1686 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1687 
  1688 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1689 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1690 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1691 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1692 
  1693   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1694   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1695   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1696   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1697   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1698   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1699   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1700   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1701   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1702   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1703 
  1704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705 
  1706 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1707 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1708 Data").
  1709 
  1710 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1711 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1712 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1713 code.
  1714 
  1715 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1716 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1717 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1721 
  1722 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1723 
  1724 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1725 
  1726   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1727   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1728 
  1729 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1730 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1731 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1732 
  1733   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1734 
  1735     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1736     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1737     cart_base i  removed
  1738     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1739 
  1740   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1741 
  1742   Renamed lemmas:
  1743 
  1744     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1745     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1746     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1747     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1748     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1749     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1750     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1751     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1752     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1753     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1754 
  1755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * HOL/Probability:
  1758 
  1759   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1760 
  1761   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1762     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1763     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1764 
  1765   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1766     projective family).
  1767 
  1768 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1769 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1770 
  1771 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1772 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1773 datatypes.
  1774 
  1775 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1776 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1777 
  1778 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1779 trees for the code generator.
  1780 
  1781 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1782 Lifting/Transfer.
  1783 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 
  1789 *** Document preparation ***
  1790 
  1791 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1792 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1793 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1794 
  1795 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1796 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1797 
  1798 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1799 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1800 document/root.tex.
  1801 
  1802 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1803 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1804 
  1805 
  1806 *** ML ***
  1807 
  1808 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1809 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1810 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1811 
  1812 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1813 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1814 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1815 
  1816 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1817 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1818 necessarily printing visible text.
  1819 
  1820 
  1821 *** System ***
  1822 
  1823 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1824 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1825 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1826 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1827 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1828 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1829 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1830 
  1831 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1832 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1833 
  1834   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1835 
  1836 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1837 
  1838 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1839 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1840 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1841 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1842 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1843 
  1844 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1845 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1846 
  1847 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1848 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1849 
  1850 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1852 
  1853 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1854 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1855 version of Isabelle.
  1856 
  1857 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1858 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1859 
  1860 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1861 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1862 for home-made settings.
  1863 
  1864 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1865 
  1866 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1867 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1868 configuration.
  1869 
  1870 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1871 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1872 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1873 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1874 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1875 
  1876 
  1877 
  1878 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1879 ------------------------------
  1880 
  1881 *** General ***
  1882 
  1883 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1884 
  1885   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1886     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1887   - markup for bound variables
  1888   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1889   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1890   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1891     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1892 
  1893 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1894 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1895 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1896 
  1897 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1898 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1899 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1900 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1901 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1902 
  1903   context
  1904     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1905     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1906   begin
  1907 
  1908   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1909 
  1910   end
  1911 
  1912   thm my_trans
  1913 
  1914 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1915 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1916 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1917 
  1918 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1919 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1920 
  1921 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1922 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1923 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1924 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1925 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1926 
  1927 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1928 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1929 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1930 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1931 indices of schematic variables.
  1932 
  1933 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1934 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1935 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1936 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1937 etc. was exploited.
  1938 
  1939 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1940 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1941 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1942 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1943 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1944 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1945 
  1946 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1947 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1948 manual.
  1949 
  1950 
  1951 *** Pure ***
  1952 
  1953 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1954 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1955 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1956 
  1957 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1958 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1959 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1960 undocumented feature.)
  1961 
  1962 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1963 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1964 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1965 
  1966   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1967 
  1968   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1969     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1970 
  1971 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1972 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1973 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1974 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1975 
  1976 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1977 
  1978     num ~> num_token
  1979     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1980     xstr ~> str_token
  1981 
  1982 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1983 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1984 position information via constraints).
  1985 
  1986 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1987 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1988 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1991 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1992 
  1993 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1994 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1995 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1998 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1999 
  2000 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2001 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2002 
  2003   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2004 
  2005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2006 
  2007 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2008 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2011 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2012 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2013 
  2014 
  2015 *** HOL ***
  2016 
  2017 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2018 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2019 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2020 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2021 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2022 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2023 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2024 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2025 possible.
  2026 
  2027 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2028 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2029 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2030 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2031 
  2032 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2033 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2034 
  2035 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2036 
  2037 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2038 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2039 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2040 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2041 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2042 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2043 
  2044   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2045     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2046 
  2047   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2048     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2049     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2050 
  2051   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2052     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2053 
  2054   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2055     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2056     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2057 
  2058   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2059     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2060 
  2061 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2062 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2063 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2064 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2065 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2066 
  2067   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2068     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2069     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2070     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2071     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2072 
  2073     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2074     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2075 
  2076   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2077     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2078     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2079     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2080     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2081     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2082     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2083     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2084 
  2085   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2086     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2087     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2088     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2089 
  2090   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2091     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2092     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2093     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2094 
  2095   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2096     from type nat to type int.
  2097 
  2098 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2099 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2100 
  2101   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2102     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2103     type.  Example syntax:
  2104 
  2105     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2106       is List.insert
  2107 
  2108     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2109     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2110     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2111     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2112     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2113     by the package.
  2114 
  2115   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2116     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2117     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2118     code generation for each constant.
  2119 
  2120   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2121     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2122     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2123     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2124     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2125 
  2126   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2127     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2128     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2129 
  2130 * Quotient package:
  2131 
  2132   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2133     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2134 
  2135   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2136     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2137 
  2138   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2139     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2140     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2141 
  2142   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2143     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2144 
  2145 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2146 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2147 
  2148 * Quickcheck:
  2149 
  2150   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2151     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2152     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2153     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2154     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2155 
  2156     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2157     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2158     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2159 
  2160     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2161     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2162 
  2163     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2164     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2165     show genuine counterexamples.
  2166 
  2167   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2168     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2169 
  2170     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2171     constructors of that type.
  2172 
  2173   - Support for multisets.
  2174 
  2175   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2176 
  2177   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2178     conjectures in a locale context.
  2179 
  2180 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2181 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2182 
  2183 * Sledgehammer:
  2184   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2185     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2186   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2187   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2188     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2189   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2190   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2191   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2192   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2193 
  2194 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2195 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2196 
  2197 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2198 
  2199 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2202 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2203 
  2204   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2205 
  2206 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2207 a list and a nat.
  2208 
  2209 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2210 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2211 
  2212 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2213 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2214 default.
  2215 
  2216 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2217 
  2218   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2219 
  2220 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2221 
  2222 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2223 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2224 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2225 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2226 one_case.
  2227 
  2228 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2229 the result of the fact expression.
  2230 
  2231 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2232 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2233 of some relation theorems:
  2234 
  2235   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2236   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2237   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2238   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2239   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2240   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2241 
  2242 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2243 
  2244 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2245 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2246 
  2247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2250 to match the constant's name:
  2251 
  2252   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2253   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2254   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2255   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2256   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2257   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2258   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2259   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2260   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2261   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2262   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2263   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2264   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2265   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2266   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2267   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2268   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2269   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2270   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2271   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2272   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2273   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2274   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2275   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2276 
  2277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2280 and corresponding theorem names:
  2281 
  2282   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2283 
  2284   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2285 
  2286   - Renamed theorems:
  2287 
  2288     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2289     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2290     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2291     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2292     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2293     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2294     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2295     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2296     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2297     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2298     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2299     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2300     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2301     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2302     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2303     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2304     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2305     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2306     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2307     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2308     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2309     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2310     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2311 
  2312     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2313 
  2314     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2315 
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2319 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2320 
  2321   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2322   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2323   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2324   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2325   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2326   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2327   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2328   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2329   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2330   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2331   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2332   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2333   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2334   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2335   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2336   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2337   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2338   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2339   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2340   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2341   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2342 
  2343 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2344 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2349 
  2350   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2351   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2352   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2353   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2354   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2355   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2356   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2357   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2358   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2359   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2360   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2361   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2362   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2363   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2364   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2365   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2366   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2367   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2368 
  2369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2372 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2373 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2374 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2375 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2376 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2377 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2378 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2379 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2380 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2381 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2382 
  2383 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2384 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2385 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2386 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2387 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2388 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2389 
  2390 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2391 through option types.
  2392 
  2393 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2394 relations.
  2395 
  2396 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2399 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2400 
  2401   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2402   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2403   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2404   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2405   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2406   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2407   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2408   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2409   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2410   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2411   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2412   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2413   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2414   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2415   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2416   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2417   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2418   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2419   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2420   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2421   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2422   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2423   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2424   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2425   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2426   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2427   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2428   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2429   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2430   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2431   zless_le ~> less_le
  2432   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2433   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2434   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2435 
  2436 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2437 
  2438   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2439 
  2440 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2441 
  2442 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2443 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2444 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2445 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2449 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2450 
  2451 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2452 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2453 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2454 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2455 follows:
  2456 
  2457   Operations:
  2458   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2459   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2460   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2461   del -> rbt_del
  2462   delete -> rbt_delete
  2463   ins -> rbt_ins
  2464   insert -> rbt_insert
  2465   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2466   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2467   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2468   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2469   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2470   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2471   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2472   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2473   union -> rbt_union
  2474   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2475   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2476 
  2477   Lemmas:
  2478   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2479   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2480   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2481   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2482   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2483   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2484   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2485   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2486   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2487   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2488   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2489   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2490   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2491   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2492   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2493   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2494   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2495   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2496   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2497   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2498   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2499   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2500   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2501   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2502   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2503   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2504   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2505   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2506   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2507   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2508   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2509   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2510   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2511   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2512   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2513   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2514   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2515   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2516   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2517   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2518   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2519   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2520   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2521   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2522   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2523   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2524   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2525   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2526   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2527   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2528   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2529   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2530   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2531   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2532   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2533   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2534   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2535   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2536   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2537   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2538   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2539   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2540   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2541   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2542   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2543   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2544   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2545   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2546   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2547   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2548   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2549   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2550   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2551   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2552   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2553   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2554   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2555   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2556   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2557   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2558   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2559   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2560   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2561 
  2562 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2563 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2564 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566   Changed Operations:
  2567   float_abs -> abs
  2568   float_nprt -> nprt
  2569   float_pprt -> pprt
  2570   pow2 -> use powr
  2571   round_down -> float_round_down
  2572   round_up -> float_round_up
  2573   scale -> exponent
  2574 
  2575   Removed Operations:
  2576   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2577 
  2578   Renamed Lemmas:
  2579   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2580   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2581   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2582   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2583   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2584   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2585   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2586   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2587   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2588   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2589   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2590   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2591   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2592   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2593   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2594   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2595   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2596   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2597   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2598   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2599   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2600   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2601   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2602   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2603   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2604   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2605   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2606   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2607   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2608   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2609   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2610   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2611   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2612   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2613   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2614   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2615 
  2616   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2617   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2618   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2619   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2620   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2621   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2622   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2623   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2624   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2625   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2626 
  2627 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2628 association lists with distinct keys.
  2629 
  2630 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2631 annotated commands.
  2632 
  2633 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2634 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2635 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2636 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2639 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2640 instead.
  2641 
  2642   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2643   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2644   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2645   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2646   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2647   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2648   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2649   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2650   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2651   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2652   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2653   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2654   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2655   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2656   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2657   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2658   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2659   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2660   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2661   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2662   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2663   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2664   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2665   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2666   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2667   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2668   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2669   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2670   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2671   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2672   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2673   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2674   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2675   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2676   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2677   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2678   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2679   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2680   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2681   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2682   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2683 
  2684 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2685 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2686 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2687 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2688 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2689 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2690 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2691 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2692 
  2693 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2694 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2695 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2696 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2697 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2698 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2699 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2700 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2701 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2702 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2703 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2704 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706   Renamed constants:
  2707   measure -> emeasure
  2708   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2709   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2710   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2711   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2712 
  2713   Removed locales:
  2714   completeable_measure_space
  2715   finite_measure_space
  2716   finite_prob_space
  2717   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2718   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2719   finite_sigma_algebra
  2720   measure_space
  2721   pair_finite_prob_space
  2722   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2723   pair_finite_space
  2724   pair_sigma_algebra
  2725   product_sigma_algebra
  2726 
  2727   Removed constants:
  2728   conditional_space
  2729   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2730   image_space
  2731   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2732   pair_measure_generator
  2733   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2734   subvimage
  2735 
  2736   Replacement theorems:
  2737   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2738   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2739   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2740   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2741   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2742   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2743   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2744   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2745   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2746   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2747   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2748   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2749   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2750   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2751   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2752   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2753   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2754   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2755   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2756   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2757   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2758   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2759   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2760   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2761   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2762   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2763   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2764   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2765   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2766   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2767   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2768   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2769   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2770   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2771   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2772   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2773   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2774   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2775   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2776   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2777   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2778   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2779   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2780   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2781   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2782   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2783   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2784   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2785   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2786   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2787   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2788   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2789   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2790   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2791   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2792   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2793   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2794   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2795   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2796   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2797   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2798   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2799   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2800   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2801   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2802   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2803   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2804   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2805   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2806   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2807   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2808   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2809   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2810   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2811   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2812   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2813   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2814   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2815   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2816   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2817   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2818   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2819   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2820   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2821   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2822   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2823   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2824   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2825   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2826   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2827   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2828   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2829   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2830   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2831   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2832   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2833   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2834   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2835   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2836   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2837   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2838   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2839   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2840   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2841   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2842   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2843   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2844   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2845   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2846   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2847   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2848   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2849   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2850   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2851   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2852   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2853   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2854   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2855   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2856   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2857   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2858   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2859   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2860   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2861   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2862   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2863   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2864   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2865 
  2866 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2867 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2868 
  2869 
  2870 *** FOL ***
  2871 
  2872 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2873 
  2874 
  2875 *** ZF ***
  2876 
  2877 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2878 analysis.
  2879 
  2880 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2881 
  2882 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2883 
  2884 
  2885 *** ML ***
  2886 
  2887 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2888 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2889 
  2890 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2891 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2892 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2893 
  2894 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2895 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2896 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2897 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2898 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2899 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2900 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2901 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2902 
  2903 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2904 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2905 
  2906 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2907 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2908 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2909 
  2910 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2911 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2914 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2915 context as well.
  2916 
  2917 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2918 
  2919   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2920   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2921   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2922   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2923   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2924   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2925   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2926   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2927   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2928   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2929   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2930   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2931 
  2932 
  2933 *** System ***
  2934 
  2935 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2936 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2937 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2938 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2939 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2940 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2941 the generic user home was intended.
  2942 
  2943 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2944 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2945 
  2946 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2947 (not just JRE).
  2948 
  2949 
  2950 
  2951 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2952 ------------------------------------
  2953 
  2954 *** General ***
  2955 
  2956 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2957 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2958 
  2959   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2960     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2961     files for checking).
  2962 
  2963   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2964     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2965     positions.
  2966 
  2967   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2968     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2969     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2970 
  2971   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2972     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2973     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2974 
  2975   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2976     cores.
  2977 
  2978   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2979     versions (garbage collection).
  2980 
  2981 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2982 including some remaining limitations.
  2983 
  2984 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2985 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2986 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2987 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2988 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2992 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2993 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2994 
  2995 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2996 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2997 usedir option -Q.
  2998 
  2999 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3000 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3001 
  3002   long_names   ~> names_long
  3003   short_names  ~> names_short
  3004   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3005 
  3006 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3007 
  3008   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3009 
  3010 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3011 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3012 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3013 
  3014 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3015 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3016 
  3017 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3018   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3019   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3020   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3021     "Classical Reasoner".
  3022 
  3023 
  3024 *** HOL ***
  3025 
  3026 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3027 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3030 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3031 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3032 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3033 class complete_linorder.
  3034 
  3035 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3036 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3037 
  3038 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3039 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3040 
  3041   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3042   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3043   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3044   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3045   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3046   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3047   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3048   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3049   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3050   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3051   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3052 
  3053 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3054 
  3055   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3056   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3057   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3058   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3059   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3060   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3061   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3062   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3063   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3064   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3065   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3066   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3067   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3068   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3069   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3070   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3071 
  3072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3078 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3079 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3080 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3083 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3084 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3088 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3089 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3090 
  3091 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3092 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3093 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3096 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3097 
  3098 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3099 
  3100     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3101     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3102 
  3103 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3104 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3107 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3110 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3111 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3112 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3115   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3116   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3117   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3118   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3119   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3120   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3121 
  3122 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3123 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3126   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3127   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3128   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3129   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3130   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3131   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3132   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3133   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3134   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3135   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3136   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3137   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3138   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3139   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3140   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3141   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3142   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3143   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3144   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3145   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3146   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3147   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3148   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3149   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3150   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3151   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3152   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3153   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3154   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3155   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3156   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3157   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3158   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3159   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3160   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3161   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3162   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3163   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3164   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3165   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3166   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3167   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3168   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3169   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3170   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3171   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3172   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3173   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3174   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3175   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3176   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3177   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3178   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3179   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3180   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3181   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3182   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3183   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3184   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3185   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3186   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3187   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3188   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3189   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3190   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3191   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3192   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3193   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3194   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3195   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3196   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3197   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3198   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3199   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3200   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3201   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3202   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3203   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3204   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3205   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3206   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3207 
  3208 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3209 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3210 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3211 
  3212 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3213 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3214 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3215 
  3216 * Code generation:
  3217 
  3218   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3219     characters in the target language.
  3220 
  3221   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3222     instead.
  3223 
  3224   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3225 
  3226   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3227     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3228 
  3229       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3230 
  3231 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3234 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3235 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3236 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3237 syntax.
  3238 
  3239 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3240 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3241 
  3242 * Nitpick:
  3243   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3244   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3245   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3246     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * Sledgehammer:
  3249   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3250   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3251     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3252   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3253     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3254   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3257     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3258   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3259     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Metis:
  3262   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3264     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265 
  3266 * Command 'try':
  3267   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3268     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3270     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3271 
  3272 * Quickcheck:
  3273   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3274     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3275   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3276     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3277   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3278     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3279     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3280     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3281   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3282     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3283 
  3284 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3285 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3286 
  3287 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3288 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3289 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3290 
  3291 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3292 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3296 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3299 arithmetic.
  3300 
  3301 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3302 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3303 and lattice type classes.
  3304 
  3305 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3306 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3307 
  3308 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3309 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3310 
  3311 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3312 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3313 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3316   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3317   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3318   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3319 
  3320 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3321 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3322 constants:
  3323 
  3324   type inat   ~> type enat
  3325   Fin         ~> enat
  3326   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3327   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3328   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3329 
  3330 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3331 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3334 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3335 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3336 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3337 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3338 
  3339 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3340 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3341 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3342 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3343 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3344 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3345 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3346 
  3347   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3348   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3349   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3350   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3351 
  3352 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3353 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3354 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3357   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3358   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3359   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3360   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3361   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3362   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3363   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3364   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3365   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3366   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3367   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3368   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3369   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3370   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3371   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3372   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3373   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3374   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3375   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3376   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3377   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3378   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3379   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3380   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3381   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3382   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3383   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3384   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3385   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3386   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3387   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3388   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3389   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3390   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3391   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3392   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3393   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3394   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3395   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3396   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3397   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3398   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3399   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3400   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3401   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3402   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3403   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3404   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3405   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3406   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3407 
  3408 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3409   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3410   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3411   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3412   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3413     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3418   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3419   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3420   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3421   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3422   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3423   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3424   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3425   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3426   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3427   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3428   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3429   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3430   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3431   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3432   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3433   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3434   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3435   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3436   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3437   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3438   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3439   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3440   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3441   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3442 
  3443 
  3444 *** Document preparation ***
  3445 
  3446 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3447 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3448 same.
  3449 
  3450 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3451 result.
  3452 
  3453 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3454 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3455 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3456 
  3457 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3458 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3459 
  3460 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3461 like this:
  3462 
  3463   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3464   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3465 
  3466 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3467 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3468 layouts.
  3469 
  3470 
  3471 *** ML ***
  3472 
  3473 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3474 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3475 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3476 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3477 under external program control.
  3478 
  3479 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3480 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3481 
  3482 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3483 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3484 (better known as Proof General).
  3485 
  3486 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3487 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3488 
  3489 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3490 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3491 
  3492 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3493 (including quotes etc.).
  3494 
  3495 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3496 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3497 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3498 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3499 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3500 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3501 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3502 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3503 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3504 
  3505 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3506 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3507 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3508 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3509 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3510 
  3511 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3512 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3513 
  3514 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3515 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3516 
  3517 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3518 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3519 
  3520 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3521 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3522 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3523 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3524 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3525 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3526 proper Proof.context.
  3527 
  3528 
  3529 *** System ***
  3530 
  3531 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3532 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3533 
  3534 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3535 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3536 
  3537 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3538 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3539 
  3540   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3541   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3542   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3543   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3544   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3545 
  3546 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3547 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3550 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3551 example:
  3552 
  3553   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3554 
  3555 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3556 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3557 
  3558 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3559 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3560 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3561 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3562 
  3563 
  3564 
  3565 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3566 ----------------------------------
  3567 
  3568 *** General ***
  3569 
  3570 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3571 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3572 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3573 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3574 like this:
  3575 
  3576   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3577 
  3578 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3579 
  3580 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3581 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3582 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3583 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3584 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3585 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3586 
  3587 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3588 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3589 the following package declarations:
  3590 
  3591   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3592   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3593 
  3594 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3595 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3596 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3597 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3598 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3599 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3600 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3601 
  3602 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3603 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3604 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3605 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3606 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3607 
  3608 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3609 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3610 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3611 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3612 
  3613 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3614 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3615 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3616 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3617 
  3618   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3619 
  3620   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3621   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3622   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3623   show_types                    show_types
  3624   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3625   show_consts                   show_consts
  3626   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3627 
  3628   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3629   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3630   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3631 
  3632   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3633   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3634 
  3635   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3636 
  3637   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3638   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3639   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3640   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3641   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3642 
  3643 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3644 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3645 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3646 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3647 
  3648 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3652   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3653 
  3654 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3655 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3656 float_token.
  3657 
  3658 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3659 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661 
  3662 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3663 DejaVu Sans.
  3664 
  3665 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3666 
  3667 
  3668 *** Pure ***
  3669 
  3670 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3671 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3672 time.
  3673 
  3674 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3675 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3678 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3681 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3682 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3683 command already provided this functionality.
  3684 
  3685 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3686 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3687 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3688 without interpretations.
  3689 
  3690 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3691 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3692 
  3693 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3694 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3695 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3696 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3697 
  3698 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3699 'definition' instead.
  3700 
  3701 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3702 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3703 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3704 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3705 
  3706 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3707 constructors.
  3708 
  3709 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3710 the local file system.
  3711 
  3712 
  3713 *** HOL ***
  3714 
  3715 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3716 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3717 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3718 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3719 
  3720   declare [[coercion f]]
  3721 
  3722 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3723 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3724 
  3725   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3726 
  3727 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3728 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3729 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3730 other theories like this:
  3731 
  3732   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3733 
  3734 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3735 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3736 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3737 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3738 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3739 for examples.
  3740 
  3741 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3742 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3745 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3746 
  3747 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3748 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3749 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3750 
  3751 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3752 functorial structure of types.
  3753 
  3754 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3755 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3756 
  3757 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3758 languages.
  3759 
  3760 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3761 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3765 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3768 combinators any longer.
  3769 
  3770 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3771 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3772 
  3773 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3774 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3775 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3776 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3777 
  3778   record 'a foo = ...
  3779   ...
  3780   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3781 
  3782 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3783 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3787 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3788 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3789 
  3790 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3791 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3792 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3793 
  3794 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3795 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3798 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3799 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3800 independently.
  3801 
  3802 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3803 counter example search.
  3804 
  3805 * Sledgehammer:
  3806   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3807     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3808     sledgehammer").
  3809   - Renamed commands:
  3810     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3811     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3812     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3813     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3814   - Renamed options:
  3815     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3816     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3817     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3818     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3819     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3820 
  3821 * Nitpick:
  3822   - Renamed options:
  3823     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3824     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3825     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3827   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3828   - Added "whack" option.
  3829   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3830   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3831   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3832   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3833     higher cardinalities.
  3834   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3835 
  3836 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3837 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3838 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3839 
  3840     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3841 
  3842 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3843 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3844 
  3845 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3846 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3847 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3848 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3849 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3850 "smt_solver".
  3851 
  3852 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3853 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3854 
  3855 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3856 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3857 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3858 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3861   - Renamed:
  3862     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3863     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3864     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865   - Added:
  3866     smt_verbose
  3867     smt_random_seed
  3868     smt_datatypes
  3869     smt_infer_triggers
  3870     smt_monomorph_limit
  3871     cvc3_options
  3872     remote_cvc3_options
  3873     remote_z3_options
  3874     yices_options
  3875 
  3876 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3877 header.
  3878 
  3879 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3880 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3881 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3882 
  3883   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3884 
  3885 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3888 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3893 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3896 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3897 
  3898 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3899 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900 
  3901 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3902 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3903 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3911 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3914 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3915 for congruent(2)).
  3916 
  3917 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3918 
  3919   types
  3920     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3921     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3922 
  3923   constants
  3924     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3925     True ~> HOL.True
  3926     False ~> HOL.False
  3927     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3928     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3929     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3930     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3931     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3932     The ~> HOL.The
  3933     All ~> HOL.All
  3934     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3935     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3936     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3937     If ~> HOL.If
  3938     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3939     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3940     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3941     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3942     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3943     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3944     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3945     op : ~> Set.member
  3946     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3947 
  3948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3951 
  3952     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3953     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3954     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3955     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3956     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3957     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3958     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3959     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3960 
  3961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * More stylized fact names:
  3964 
  3965   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3966   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3967   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3968   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3969 
  3970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3973 
  3974   constants
  3975     null ~> List.null
  3976 
  3977   facts
  3978     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3979     null_empty ~> null_def
  3980 
  3981 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3982 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3983 generation.
  3984 
  3985 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3986 Haskell code.
  3987 
  3988 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3989 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3990 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3993 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3996 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3997 
  3998 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3999 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4000 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4003 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4009 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4010 referred to by its qualified name.
  4011 
  4012   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4013   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4014   product ~>  Enum.product
  4015 
  4016 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4017 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4021 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4022 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4026 sort_key.
  4027 
  4028 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4032 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4033 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4034 
  4035   types
  4036     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4037               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4038               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4039         (depends on your needs)
  4040 
  4041   constants
  4042      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4043      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4044      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4045 
  4046 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4047 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4048 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4049 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4052 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4053 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4054 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4055 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4061 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4062 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4063 
  4064 
  4065 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4066 
  4067 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4068 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4069 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4070 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4071 compatibility.
  4072 
  4073 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4074 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4075 
  4076 
  4077 *** HOLCF ***
  4078 
  4079 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4080 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4081 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4085 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4086 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4089   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4090   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4091 
  4092 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4093 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4094 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4097 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4098 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4099 domain definition now works:
  4100 
  4101   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4102 
  4103 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4104 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4105 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4106 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4107 
  4108   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4109     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4110 
  4111   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4112 
  4113 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4114 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4115 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4118 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4121 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4122 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4123 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4124 
  4125 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4126 
  4127 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4135 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4136 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4137 
  4138 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4139 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4140 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4143 still supported as an input translation.
  4144 
  4145 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4146 
  4147   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4148   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4149   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4150   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4151   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4152   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4153   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4154 
  4155 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4156 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4159   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4160   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4161   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4162   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4163   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4164 
  4165 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4166 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4169 
  4170   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4171   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4172   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4173   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4174 
  4175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4178 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4181 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4184   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4185   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4186   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4187   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4188   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4189   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4190   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4191   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4192   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4193   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4194   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4195   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4196   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4197   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4198   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4199   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4200   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4201   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4202   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4203 
  4204 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4207   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4208   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4209   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4210   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4211   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4212   box_less             ~> box_below
  4213   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4214   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4215   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4216   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4217   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4218   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4219   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4220   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4221   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4222   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4223   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4224   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4225   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4226   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4227   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4228   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4229   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4230   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4231   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4232   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4233   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4234   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4235   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4236   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4237   up_less              ~> up_below
  4238   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4239   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4240   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4241   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4242   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4243   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4244   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4245   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4246   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4247   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4248   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4249   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4250   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4251 
  4252 
  4253 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4254 
  4255 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4256 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 
  4259 *** ML ***
  4260 
  4261 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4262 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4263 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4264 
  4265 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4266 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4267 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4268 
  4269 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4270 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4271 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4272 
  4273 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4274 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4275 
  4276 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4277 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4278 
  4279 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4280 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4281 
  4282 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4283 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4284 
  4285 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4286 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4287 almost all situations.
  4288 
  4289 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4290 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4291 Isabelle/ML.
  4292 
  4293 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4294 meaning.
  4295 
  4296 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4297 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4298 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4299 
  4300 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4301 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4302 
  4303 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4304 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4305 
  4306 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4307 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4308 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4309 
  4310 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4311 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4312 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4313 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4314 configuration options.
  4315 
  4316 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4317 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4318 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4319 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4320 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4321 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4322 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4323 
  4324 
  4325 
  4326 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4327 ---------------------------------
  4328 
  4329 *** General ***
  4330 
  4331 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4332 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4333 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4334 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4335 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4336 their full internal name.
  4337 
  4338 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4339 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4340 Some hints on upgrading:
  4341 
  4342   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4343     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4344     which are independent of this issue.
  4345 
  4346   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4347     provides the following special forms:
  4348 
  4349       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4350       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4351       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4352 
  4353     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4354     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4355     extra variables".
  4356 
  4357     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4358     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4359     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4360     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4361     "logic".
  4362 
  4363   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4364     antiquotations:
  4365 
  4366       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4367       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4368       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4369       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4370 
  4371   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4372     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4373     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4374     antiquotations.
  4375 
  4376 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4377 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4378 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4379 diagnose syntax problems.
  4380 
  4381 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4382 
  4383 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4384 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4385 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4386 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4387 
  4388 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4389 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4390 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4391 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4394 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4395 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4396 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4397 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4398 
  4399 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4400 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4401 
  4402 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4403 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4404 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4405 
  4406   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4407 
  4408 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4409 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4410 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4411 
  4412 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4413 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4417 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4418 
  4419 
  4420 *** Pure ***
  4421 
  4422 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4423 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4424 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4425 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4426 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4427 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4428 inspect proof terms.
  4429 
  4430 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4431 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4432 are added internally.  For example:
  4433 
  4434   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4435 
  4436 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4437 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4440 
  4441 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4442 'class' instead.
  4443 
  4444 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4445 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4449 invariants.
  4450 
  4451 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4452 user space functionality any longer.
  4453 
  4454 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4455 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4457 
  4458 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4459 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4460 
  4461 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4462 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4463 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4464 
  4465 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4466 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4467 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4468 
  4469 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4470 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4471 
  4472 
  4473 *** HOL ***
  4474 
  4475 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4476 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4477 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4478 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4479 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4480 
  4481 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4482 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4483 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4484 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4485 
  4486   fun
  4487     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4488   where
  4489     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4490 
  4491   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4492     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4493 
  4494   quotient_definition
  4495     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4496 
  4497 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4498 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4499 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4500 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4501 
  4502 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4503 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4504 
  4505 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4506 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4507 
  4508 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4510 
  4511 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4512 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4513 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4514 
  4515 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4516 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4523 
  4524 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4525 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4528 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4529 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4530 
  4531   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4532   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4533   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4534   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4535   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4536   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4537   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4538   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4539   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4540   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4541   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4542   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4543   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4544   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4545   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4546   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4547   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4548   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4549   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4550   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4551   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4552   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4553   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4554   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4555   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4556   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4557   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4558   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4559   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4560   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4561 
  4562 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4563 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4564 
  4565 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4566 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4567 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4568 
  4569 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4570 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4571 
  4572 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4573 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4576 
  4577 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4578 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4579 
  4580 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4581 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4586 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4587 
  4588 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4589 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4590 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4591 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4594   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4595   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4596   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4600 lattices):
  4601 
  4602     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4603     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4604 
  4605     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4606 
  4607     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4608     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4609     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4610     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4611     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4612     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4613     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4614     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4615     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4616     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4617     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4618     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4619     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4620 
  4621     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4622     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4623     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4624     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4625     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4626     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4627     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4628     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4629     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4630     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4631     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4632     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4633     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4634     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4635     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4636     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4637     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4638     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4639 
  4640   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4641   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4642 
  4643     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4644     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4645     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4646     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4647     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4648 
  4649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Refined field classes:
  4652   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4653     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4654     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4655   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4657 
  4658 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4659   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4660   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4661   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4662     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4663   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4664     equal_neg_zero.
  4665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4668 sets to lattices:
  4669 
  4670   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4671   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4672   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4673   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4674   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4675   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4676   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4677   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4678   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4679   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4680 
  4681 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4682 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4683 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4684 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4685 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4686 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4689 multiset order:
  4690 
  4691   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4692     <= and <;
  4693   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4694     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4695     multiset_order;
  4696   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4697     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4698     generation;
  4699   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4700     if needed.
  4701 
  4702 Renamed:
  4703 
  4704   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4705   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4706   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4707 
  4708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4711 
  4712 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4713 
  4714 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4715 
  4716 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4717 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4718 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720   Constants:
  4721   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4722   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4723   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4724   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4725   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4726   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4727   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4728   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4729   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4730   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4731   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4732   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4733   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4734 
  4735   Lemmas:
  4736   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4737   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4738   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4739   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4740   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4741   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4742   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4743   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4744   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4745   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4746   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4747   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4748   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4749 
  4750 * Sledgehammer:
  4751   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4752     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4753     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4754     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4755     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4756     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4757     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4759   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4760     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4761   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4762     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4763     is still experimental.)
  4764   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4765     full-typed mode.
  4766   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4767 
  4768 * Nitpick:
  4769   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4770   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4771   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4772     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4773   - Added support for quotient types.
  4774   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4775     constructs.
  4776   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4777     "termination" proofs).
  4778   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4779   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4780   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4781   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4782     record getters.
  4783   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4784   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4785   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4786   - Added "atoms" option.
  4787   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4788     problems.
  4789   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4790     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4791     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4792   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4793     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4795 
  4796 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4797   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4798   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4799   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4800   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4801   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4802   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4803   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4804   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4805   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 *** HOLCF ***
  4809 
  4810 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4811 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4812 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4815 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4816 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4817 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4820 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4821 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4822 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4823 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4824 
  4825 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4826 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4827 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4828 
  4829 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4830 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4833   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4834 
  4835 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4836 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4839   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4840   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4841   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4842   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4843 
  4844 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4845 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4848   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4849   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4850 
  4851 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4852 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4856 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4861 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 *** ML ***
  4865 
  4866 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4867 
  4868     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4869     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4870 
  4871     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4872     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4873     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4874     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4875 
  4876     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4877     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4878     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4879 
  4880 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4881 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4882 
  4883 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4884 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4885 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4886 
  4887 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4888 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4889 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4890 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4891 
  4892 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4893 the context or even global references.
  4894 
  4895 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4896 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4897 
  4898 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4899 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4900 
  4901   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4902   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4903   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4904   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4905   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4906   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4907   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4908   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4909   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4910   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4911 
  4912 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4913 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4914 
  4915 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4916 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4917 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4918 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4919 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4920 
  4921 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4922 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4923 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4924 Theory_Data version.
  4925 
  4926 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4927 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4928 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4929 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4930 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4931 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4932 explicitly in rare situations.
  4933 
  4934 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4935 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4939 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4942 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4943 quite rare).
  4944 
  4945 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4946 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4947 
  4948 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4949 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4950 terms.
  4951 
  4952 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4953 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4954 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4955 
  4956 
  4957 *** System ***
  4958 
  4959 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4960 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4961 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4962 
  4963 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4964 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4965 respectively.
  4966 
  4967 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4968 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4969 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4970 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4971 
  4972   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4973 
  4974 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4975 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4976 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4977 component.
  4978 
  4979 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4980 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4981 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4982 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4983 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4984 the user for manual installation.
  4985 
  4986 
  4987 
  4988 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4989 -------------------------------------
  4990 
  4991 *** General ***
  4992 
  4993 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4994 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4995 
  4996 
  4997 *** Pure ***
  4998 
  4999 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5000 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5001 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5002 
  5003 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5004 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5005 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5006 
  5007 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5008 interpretation.
  5009 
  5010 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5011 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 
  5014 *** Document preparation ***
  5015 
  5016 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5017 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5018 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5019 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5020 
  5021 
  5022 *** HOL ***
  5023 
  5024 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5025 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5026 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5027 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5028 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5029 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5030 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5031 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5032 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5033 
  5034 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5035 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5036 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5037 
  5038 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5039 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5040 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5041 
  5042 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5043 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5044 
  5045 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5046 
  5047 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5048 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5049 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5050 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5051 
  5052 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5053 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5054 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5055 "mirabelle" utility.
  5056 
  5057 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5058 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5059 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5060 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5061 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5062 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5063 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5064 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5065 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5066 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5067 
  5068 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5069 procedure only.
  5070 
  5071 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5072 
  5073 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5074 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5075 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5076 that fail later.
  5077 
  5078 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5079 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5080 
  5081 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5082 the same method as the approximation method.
  5083 
  5084 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5085 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5086 series expansion.
  5087 
  5088 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5089 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5090 
  5091 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5092 reals.
  5093 
  5094 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5095 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5096 
  5097 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5098 fixpoint theorem.
  5099 
  5100 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5101   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5102     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5103   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5104     accordingly
  5105   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5106     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5107   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5108     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5109 
  5110 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5111 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5112 lattice.
  5113 
  5114 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5115 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5116 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5117 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5118 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5119 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5123   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5124     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5125   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5126     le_inf_iff
  5127   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5128     sup_aci)
  5129   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5130   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5131   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5132     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5133     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5134     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5135     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5136     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5137     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5138     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5139     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5140     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5141     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5142   - authentic syntax for
  5143     Set.Pow
  5144     Set.image
  5145   - mere abbreviations:
  5146     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5147     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5148     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5149     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5150     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5151     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5152     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5153     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5154   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5155 
  5156 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5157 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5158 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5159 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5160 
  5161 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5162 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5163 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5166 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5169 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5170 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5171 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5174 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5175 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5176 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5177 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5178 
  5179 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5180 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5182 
  5183 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5184 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5187 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5188 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5189 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5190 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5191 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5192 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5194 
  5195 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5196     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5197     code_post       replaces    code post
  5198     etc.
  5199   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5200 
  5201 * Renamed methods:
  5202     sizechange -> size_change
  5203     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5204   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5205 
  5206 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5207 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5208 
  5209 * Renamed theorems:
  5210     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5211     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5212     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5213     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5214     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5215   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5216 
  5217 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5219 
  5220 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5222 
  5223 
  5224 *** HOLCF ***
  5225 
  5226 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5227 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5228 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5229 
  5230 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5231 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5232 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5233 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5234 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5235 
  5236 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5237 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5238 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5239 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5240 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5241 
  5242 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5243 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5244 constructor are pre-configured.
  5245 
  5246 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5247 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5248 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5249 
  5250 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5251 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5252 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5253 as well.)
  5254 
  5255 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5256 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5257 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5258 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5259 examples.
  5260 
  5261 
  5262 *** ML ***
  5263 
  5264 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5265 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5266 
  5267 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5268 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5269 position, logical grouping etc.
  5270 
  5271 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5272 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5273 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5274 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5275 
  5276 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5277 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5278 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5279 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5280 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5281 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5282 
  5283 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5284 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5285 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5286 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5287 experiments with references.
  5288 
  5289 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5290 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5291 
  5292 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5293 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5294 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5295 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5296 
  5297 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5298 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5299 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5300 
  5301 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5302 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5303 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5304 
  5305 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5306 
  5307 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5311 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5312 
  5313 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5314 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5315 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5316 
  5317 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5318 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5319 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5320 
  5321 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5322 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5323 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5325 
  5326 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5327 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5328 instead of global theory.
  5329 
  5330 
  5331 *** System ***
  5332 
  5333 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5334 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5335 usedir option -q.
  5336 
  5337 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5338 also the system manual.
  5339 
  5340 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5341 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5342 
  5343 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5344 this is always enabled.
  5345 
  5346 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5347 
  5348 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5349 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5350 currently supported on Linux only.
  5351 
  5352 
  5353 
  5354 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5355 --------------------------------
  5356 
  5357 *** General ***
  5358 
  5359 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5360 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5361 
  5362   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5363     "isatool."
  5364 
  5365   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5366     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5367 
  5368   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5369     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5370 
  5371 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5372 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5373 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5374 
  5375 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5376 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5377 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5378 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5379 via "isabelle emacs".
  5380 
  5381 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5382 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5383 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5384 
  5385 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5386 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5387 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5388 
  5389 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5390 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5391 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5392 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5393 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5394 
  5395 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5396 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5397 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5398 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5399 
  5400 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5401 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5402 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5403 
  5404 
  5405 *** Pure ***
  5406 
  5407 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5408 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5409 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5410 
  5411 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5412 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5413 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5414 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5415 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5416 
  5417 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5418 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5419 useful in locale declarations.
  5420 
  5421 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5422 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5423 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5424 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5425 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5426 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5427 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5428 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5429 no longer generated.
  5430 
  5431 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5432 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5433 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5434 
  5435 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5436 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5437 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5438 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5439 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5440 
  5441 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5442 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5443 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5444 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5445 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5446 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5447 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5448 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5449 
  5450 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5451 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5452 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5453 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5454 
  5455 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5456 
  5457 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5458 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5459 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5460 
  5461 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5462 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5463 
  5464 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5465 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5466 in HOL, write
  5467 
  5468     class foo = ...
  5469 
  5470 instead of
  5471 
  5472     class foo = type + ...
  5473 
  5474 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5475 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5478 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5479 
  5480 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5481 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5482 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5483 
  5484 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5485 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5486 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5487 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5488 directly in regular applications.
  5489 
  5490 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5491 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5492 
  5493 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5494 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5495 
  5496 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5497 theory context.
  5498 
  5499 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5500 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5501 
  5502 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5503 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5504 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5505 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5506 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5507 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5508 
  5509   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5510 
  5511 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5512 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5513 normalization.
  5514 
  5515 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5516 addressing etc.
  5517 
  5518 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5519 
  5520   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5521   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5522 
  5523 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5524 
  5525   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5526      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5527      parts of the code generator framework).
  5528 
  5529   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5530      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5531      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5532 
  5533 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5536 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5539 patterns, e.g.
  5540 
  5541     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5542 
  5543 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5544 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5545 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5546 hyphen:
  5547 
  5548     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5549 
  5550 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5551 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5552 
  5553 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5554 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5555 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5556 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5557 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5558 higher-order unification.
  5559 
  5560 
  5561 *** Document preparation ***
  5562 
  5563 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5564 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5565 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5566 
  5567 
  5568 *** HOL ***
  5569 
  5570 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5571 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5572 
  5573 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5574 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5575 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5576 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5577 Main, as before.
  5578 
  5579 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5580 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5581 
  5582 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5583 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5584 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5585 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5586 
  5587 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5588 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5589 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5590 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5591 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5592 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5593 
  5594 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5595 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5596 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5597 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5598 
  5599 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5600 menu.
  5601 
  5602 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5603 (contains the empty clause).
  5604 
  5605 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5606 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5607 
  5608 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5609 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5610 
  5611 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5612 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5613 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5614 
  5615 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5616 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5617 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5618 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5619 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5620 
  5621 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5622 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5623 
  5624 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5625 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5626 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5627 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5628 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5629 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5630 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5631 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5632 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5633 
  5634 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5635 
  5636 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5637 
  5638 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5639 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5640 
  5641 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5642 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5643 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5644 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5645 
  5646 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5647 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5648 
  5649     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5650     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5651     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5652     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5653     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5654     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5655     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5656     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5657 
  5658 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5659 theory Set.
  5660 
  5661 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5662 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5663 
  5664 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5665 
  5666 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5667 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5668 
  5669 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5670 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5671 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5672 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5673 allowed. For examples see
  5674 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5675 
  5676 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5677 
  5678 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5680 
  5681 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5682 structure:
  5683 
  5684     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5685     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5686     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5687     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5688     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5689     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5690     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5691     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5692     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5693     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5694     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5695     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5696     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5697     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5698     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5699     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5700     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5701     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5702     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5703     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5704     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5705     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5706     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5707     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5708     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5709     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5710     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5711     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5712     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5713     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5714     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5715     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5716     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5717 
  5718     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5719     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5720     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5721     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5722     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5723     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5724     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5725     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5726     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5727     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5728 
  5729     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5730     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5731     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5732     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5733     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5734     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5735 
  5736 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5737 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5738 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5739 
  5740 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5741 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5742 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5743 
  5744 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5745 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5746 
  5747 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5748 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5749 
  5750 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5751 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5752 proofs, e.g.
  5753 
  5754   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5755 
  5756 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5757 
  5758 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5759 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5760 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5761 
  5762 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5763 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5765 
  5766 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5767 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5768 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5770 
  5771 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5772 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5773 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5774 preorder_class.*.
  5775 
  5776 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5777 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5778 
  5779 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5780 
  5781   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5782 
  5783 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5784 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5785 fold_image.
  5786 
  5787 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5788 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5789 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5790 the former will disappear at some point.
  5791 
  5792 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5793 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5794 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5795 
  5796 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5797 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5798 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5799 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5800 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5801 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5802 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5803 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5804 
  5805 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5806 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5807 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5808 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5809 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5810 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5811 
  5812     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5813     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5814     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5815     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5816     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5817     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5818     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5819 
  5820 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5821 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5822 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5823 
  5824 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5825 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5826 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5827 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5828 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5829 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5830 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5831 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5832 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5833 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5834 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5835 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5836 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5837 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5838 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5839 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5840 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5841 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5842 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5843 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5844 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5845 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5846 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5847 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5848 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5849 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5850 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5851 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5852 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5853 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5854 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5855 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5856 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5857 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5858 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5859 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5860 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5861 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5862 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5863 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5864 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5865 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5866 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5867 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5868 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5869 
  5870 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871 
  5872 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5873 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5874 
  5875 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5876 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5877 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5878 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5879 
  5880 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5881 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5882 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5883 theory RealVector.
  5884 
  5885 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5886 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5887 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5888 and inner products are included.
  5889 
  5890 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5891 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5892 supported.
  5893 
  5894 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5895 first diagonalization argument.
  5896 
  5897 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5898 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5899 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5900 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5901 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5902 
  5903     hide (open) const gcd
  5904     abbreviation gcd where
  5905       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5906     notation (output)
  5907       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5908 
  5909 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5910 
  5911 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5912 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5913 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5914 
  5915 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5916 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5917 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5918 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5919 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5920 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5921 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5922 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5923 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5924 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5925 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5926 cases.
  5927 
  5928 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5929 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5930 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5931 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5932 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5933 
  5934     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5935     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5936     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5937     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5938     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5939 
  5940 
  5941 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5942 
  5943 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5944 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5945 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5946 
  5947 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5948 
  5949 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5950 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5951 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5952 
  5953 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5954 
  5955 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5956 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5957 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5958 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5959 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5960 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5961 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5962 
  5963 
  5964 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5965 
  5966 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5967 
  5968 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5969 theory targets.
  5970 
  5971 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5972 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5973 'inductive' etc.
  5974 
  5975 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5976 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5977 
  5978 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5979 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5980 
  5981 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5982 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5983 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5984 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5985 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5986 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5987 the algorithm W:
  5988 
  5989  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5990  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5991          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5992 
  5993 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5994 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5995 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5996 
  5997 
  5998 *** HOLCF ***
  5999 
  6000 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6001 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6002 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6003 
  6004 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6005 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6006 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6007 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6008 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6011 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6012 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 
  6015 *** ZF ***
  6016 
  6017 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6018 
  6019 
  6020 *** ML ***
  6021 
  6022 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6023 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6024 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6025 5.2.1!
  6026 
  6027 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6028 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6029 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6030 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6031 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6032 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6033 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6034 
  6035 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6036 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6037 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6038 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6039 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6040 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6041 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6042 
  6043 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6044 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6045 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6046 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6047 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6048 
  6049 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6050 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6051 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6052 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6053 Method.add_method.
  6054 
  6055 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6056 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6057 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6058 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6059 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6060 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6061 
  6062 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6063 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6064 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6065 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6066 examples.
  6067 
  6068 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6069 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6070 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6071 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6072 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6073 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6074 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6075 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6076 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6077 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6078 
  6079 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6080 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6081 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6082 
  6083 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6084 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6085 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6086 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6087 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6088 resort for legacy applications.
  6089 
  6090 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6091 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6092 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6093 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6094 explicit runtime argument.
  6095 
  6096 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6097 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6098 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6099 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6100 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6101 
  6102 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6103 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6104 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6105 theory state.
  6106 
  6107 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6108 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6109 
  6110   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6111   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6112   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6113   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6114   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6115   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6116   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6117   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6118   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6119   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6120 
  6121 
  6122 *** System ***
  6123 
  6124 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6125 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6126 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6127 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6128 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6129 
  6130 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6131 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6132 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6133 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6134 
  6135 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6136 
  6137 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6138 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6139 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6140 prover operations.
  6141 
  6142 
  6143 
  6144 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6145 -------------------------------
  6146 
  6147 *** General ***
  6148 
  6149 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6150 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6151 
  6152 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6153 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6154 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6155 provides a proper context already.
  6156 
  6157 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6158 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6159 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6160 
  6161 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6162 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6163 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6164 swap theory imports.
  6165 
  6166 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6167 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6168 
  6169 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6170 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6171 white space without escapes.
  6172 
  6173 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6174 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6175 "foo_bar".
  6176 
  6177 
  6178 *** Pure ***
  6179 
  6180 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6181 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6182 
  6183 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6184 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6185 
  6186 (1) unused_thms
  6187      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6188 
  6189 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6190      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6191      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6192 
  6193 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6194      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6195      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6196      their ancestors.
  6197 
  6198 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6199 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6200 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6201 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6202 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6203 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6204 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6205 
  6206 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6207 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6208 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6209 
  6210 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6211 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6212 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6213 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6214 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6215 
  6216 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6217 
  6218 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6219 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6220 update of theories within ML code.
  6221 
  6222 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6223 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6224 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6225 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6226 
  6227 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6228 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6229 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6231 
  6232 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6233 
  6234 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6235 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6236 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6237 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6238 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6239 
  6240 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6241 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6242 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6243 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6244 situations.
  6245 
  6246 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6247 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6248 proof text.
  6249 
  6250 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6251 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6252 
  6253 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6254 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6255 predicates.
  6256 
  6257 
  6258 *** Document preparation ***
  6259 
  6260 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for