NEWS
author blanchet
Mon Nov 26 11:46:19 2012 +0100 (2012-11-26)
changeset 50219 f6b95f0bba78
parent 50198 0c7b351a6871
child 50231 81a067b188b8
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated NEWS etc.
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    46 
    47 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    48 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    49 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    50 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    51 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    52 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    53 
    54 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    55 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    56 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    57 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    58 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    59 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    60 
    61 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    62 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    63 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    64 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    65 
    66 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    67 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    68 
    69 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    70 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    71 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    72 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    73 potentially infinite message streams.
    74 
    75 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    76 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    77 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    78 schemes.
    79 
    80 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    81 symbols.
    82 
    83 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    84 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    85 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    86 
    87 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    88 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    89 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    90 
    91 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    92 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    93 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    94 
    95 
    96 *** Pure ***
    97 
    98 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    99 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   100 
   101 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
   102 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
   103 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
   104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   107 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   108 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   109 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   110 with some care where this is really required.
   111 
   112 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   113 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   114 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   115 
   116   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   117 
   118 
   119 *** HOL ***
   120 
   121 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   122 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   125 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   128 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   129 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   130 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   131 accordingly.
   132 
   133 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   134 
   135   - Renamed constants
   136       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   137 
   138   - Renamed facts
   139       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   140 
   141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   146 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   147 
   148 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   149 to lattice type classes.
   150 
   151 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   152 
   153 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   155 
   156   - Renamed constants:
   157 
   158       prefix ~> prefixeq
   159       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   160 
   161     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   162 
   163   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   164     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   165     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   166     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   169     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   170 
   171   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   172     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   173     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   174     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   177     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   178 
   179       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   180       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   181       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   182       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   183       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   184       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   185       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   186       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   187       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   188       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   189       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   190       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   191       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   192       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   193       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   194       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   195 
   196     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   199 
   200 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   201 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   202 
   203 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   206 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   207 non-free datatypes.
   208 
   209 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   210 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   211 
   212 * HOL/Probability:
   213   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   214 
   215   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   216     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   217 
   218   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   219 
   220 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   221 
   222 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   223 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   224 
   225 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   226 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   227 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   228 
   229       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   230       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   231       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   232       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   233       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   234       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   235       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   236       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   237       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   238       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   239 
   240   INCOMPATIBUILITY.
   241 
   242 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   243 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   244 
   245 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   246 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   247 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   248 
   249 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   250 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   251 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   254 
   255 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   256 expressions.
   257 
   258 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   259 pointfree expressions.
   260 
   261 * Quickcheck:
   262 
   263   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   264     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   265     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   266 
   267 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   268 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   269 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   270 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   271 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Sledgehammer:
   274 
   275   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   276     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   277   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   278   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   279   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   280   - Renamed options:
   281       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   282       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   283       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   284       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   285 
   286 
   287 *** Document preparation ***
   288 
   289 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   290 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   291 
   292 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   293 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   294 document/root.tex.
   295 
   296 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   297 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 
   300 *** ML ***
   301 
   302 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   303 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   304 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   305 
   306 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   307 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   308 necessarily printing visible text.
   309 
   310 
   311 *** System ***
   312 
   313 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   314 instead of 4.
   315 
   316 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   317 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   318 for home-made configurations.
   319 
   320 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   321 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   322 
   323 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   324 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   325 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   326 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   327 
   328 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   329 
   330 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   331 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   332 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   333 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   334 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   335 
   336 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   337 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   338 
   339   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   340 
   341 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   342 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   343 
   344 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   345 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   346 "isabelle usedir".
   347 
   348 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   349 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   350 version of Isabelle.
   351 
   352 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   354 
   355 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   356 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   357 configuration.
   358 
   359 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   360 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   361 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   362 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   363 bundled as Isabelle component.
   364 
   365 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   366 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   367 
   368 
   369 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   370 ------------------------------
   371 
   372 *** General ***
   373 
   374 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   375 
   376   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   377     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   378   - markup for bound variables
   379   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   380   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   381   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   382     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   383 
   384 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   385 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   386 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   387 
   388 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   389 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   390 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   391 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   392 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   393 
   394   context
   395     fixes x y z :: 'a
   396     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   397   begin
   398 
   399   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   400 
   401   end
   402 
   403   thm my_trans
   404 
   405 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   406 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   407 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   408 
   409 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   410 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   411 
   412 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   413 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   414 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   415 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   416 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   417 
   418 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   419 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   420 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   421 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   422 indices of schematic variables.
   423 
   424 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   425 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   426 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   427 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   428 etc. was exploited.
   429 
   430 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   431 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   432 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   433 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   434 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   435 of the material of that old tutorial.
   436 
   437 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   438 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   439 manual.
   440 
   441 
   442 *** Pure ***
   443 
   444 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   445 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   446 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   447 
   448 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   449 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   450 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   451 undocumented feature.)
   452 
   453 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   454 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   455 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   456 
   457   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   458 
   459   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   460     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   461 
   462 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   463 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   464 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   465 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   466 
   467 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   468 
   469     num ~> num_token
   470     xnum ~> xnum_token
   471     xstr ~> str_token
   472 
   473 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   474 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   475 position information via constraints).
   476 
   477 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   478 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   479 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   482 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   483 
   484 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   485 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   486 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   489 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   492 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   493 
   494   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   495 
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   499 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   502 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   503 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   504 
   505 
   506 *** HOL ***
   507 
   508 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   509 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   510 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   511 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   512 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   513 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   514 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   515 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   516 possible.
   517 
   518 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   519 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   520 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   521 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   522 
   523 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   524 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   527 
   528 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   529 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   530 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   531 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   532 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   533 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   534 
   535   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   536     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   537 
   538   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   539     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   540     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   541 
   542   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   543     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   544 
   545   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   546     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   547     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   548 
   549   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   550     Redefine using other integer operations.
   551 
   552 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   553 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   554 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   555 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   556 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   557 
   558   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   559     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   560     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   561     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   562     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   563 
   564     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   565     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   566 
   567   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   568     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   569     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   570     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   571     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   572     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   573     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   574     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   575 
   576   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   577     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   578     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   579     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   580 
   581   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   582     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   583     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   584     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   585 
   586   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   587     from type nat to type int.
   588 
   589 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   590 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   591 
   592   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   593     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   594     type.  Example syntax:
   595 
   596     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   597       is List.insert
   598 
   599     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   600     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   601     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   602     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   603     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   604     by the package.
   605 
   606   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   607     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   608     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   609     code generation for each constant.
   610 
   611   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   612     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   613     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   614     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   615     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   616 
   617   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   618     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   619     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   620 
   621 * Quotient package:
   622 
   623   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   624     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   625 
   626   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   627     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   628 
   629   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   630     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   631     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   632 
   633   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   634     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   637 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   638 
   639 * Quickcheck:
   640 
   641   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   642     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   643     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   644     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   645     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   646 
   647     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   648     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   649     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   650 
   651     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   652     continues searching for genuine ones.
   653 
   654     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   655     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   656     show genuine counterexamples.
   657 
   658   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   659     value generators for a given type and operations.
   660 
   661     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   662     constructors of that type.
   663 
   664   - Support for multisets.
   665 
   666   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   667 
   668   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   669     conjectures in a locale context.
   670 
   671 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   672 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   673 
   674 * Sledgehammer:
   675   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   676     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   677   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   678   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   679     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   680   - Sped up the minimizer.
   681   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   682   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   683   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   684 
   685 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   686 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   687 
   688 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   689 
   690 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   693 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   694 
   695   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   696 
   697 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   698 a list and a nat.
   699 
   700 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   701 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   702 
   703 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   704 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   705 default.
   706 
   707 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   708 
   709   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   710 
   711 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   712 
   713 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   714 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   715 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   716 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   717 one_case.
   718 
   719 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   720 the result of the fact expression.
   721 
   722 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   723 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   724 of some relation theorems:
   725 
   726   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   727   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   728   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   729   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   730   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   731   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   732 
   733 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   734 
   735 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   736 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   737 
   738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   741 to match the constant's name:
   742 
   743   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   744   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   745   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   746   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   747   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   748   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   749   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   750   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   751   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   752   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   753   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   754   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   755   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   756   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   757   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   758   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   759   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   760   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   761   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   762   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   763   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   764   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   765   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   766   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   767 
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   771 and corresponding theorem names:
   772 
   773   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   774 
   775   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   776 
   777   - Renamed theorems:
   778 
   779     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   780     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   781     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   782     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   783     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   784     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   785     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   786     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   787     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   788     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   789     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   790     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   791     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   792     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   793     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   794     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   795     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   796     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   797     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   798     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   799     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   800     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   801     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   802 
   803     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   804 
   805     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   806 
   807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   810 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   811 
   812   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   813   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   814   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   815   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   816   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   817   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   818   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   819   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   820   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   821   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   822   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   823   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   824   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   825   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   826   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   827   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   828   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   829   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   830   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   831   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   832   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   833 
   834 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   835 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   838 
   839 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   840 
   841   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   842   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   843   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   844   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   845   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   846   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   847   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   848   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   849   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   850   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   851   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   852   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   853   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   854   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   855   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   856   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   857   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   858   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   859 
   860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   861 
   862 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   863 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   864 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   865 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   866 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   867 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   868 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   870 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   871 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   872 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   873 
   874 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   875 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   876 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   877 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   878 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   879 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   880 
   881 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   882 through option types.
   883 
   884 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   885 relations.
   886 
   887 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   891 
   892   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   893   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   894   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   895   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   896   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   897   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   898   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   899   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   900   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   901   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   902   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   903   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   904   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   905   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   906   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   907   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   908   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   909   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   910   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   911   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   912   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   913   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   914   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   915   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   916   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   917   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   918   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   919   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   920   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   921   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   922   zless_le ~> less_le
   923   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   924   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   925   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   926 
   927 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   928 
   929   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   930 
   931 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   932 
   933 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   934 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   935 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   936 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   938 
   939 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   940 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   941 
   942 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   943 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   944 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   945 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   946 follows:
   947 
   948   Operations:
   949   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   950   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   951   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   952   del -> rbt_del
   953   delete -> rbt_delete
   954   ins -> rbt_ins
   955   insert -> rbt_insert
   956   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   957   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   958   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   959   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   960   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   961   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   962   tree_less -> rbt_less
   963   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   964   union -> rbt_union
   965   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   966   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   967 
   968   Lemmas:
   969   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   970   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   971   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   972   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   973   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   974   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   975   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   976   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   977   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   978   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   979   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   980   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   981   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   982   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   983   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   984   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   985   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   986   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   987   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   988   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   989   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   990   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   991   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   992   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   993   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   994   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   995   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   996   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   997   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   998   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   999   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1000   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1001   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1002   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1003   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1004   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1005   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1006   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1007   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1008   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1009   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1010   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1011   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1012   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1013   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1014   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1015   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1016   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1017   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1018   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1019   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1020   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1021   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1022   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1023   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1024   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1025   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1026   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1027   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1028   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1029   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1030   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1031   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1032   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1033   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1034   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1035   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1036   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1037   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1038   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1039   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1040   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1041   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1042   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1043   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1044   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1045   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1046   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1047   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1048   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1049   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1050   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1051   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1052 
  1053 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1054 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1055 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1056 
  1057   Changed Operations:
  1058   float_abs -> abs
  1059   float_nprt -> nprt
  1060   float_pprt -> pprt
  1061   pow2 -> use powr
  1062   round_down -> float_round_down
  1063   round_up -> float_round_up
  1064   scale -> exponent
  1065 
  1066   Removed Operations:
  1067   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1068 
  1069   Renamed Lemmas:
  1070   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1071   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1072   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1073   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1074   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1075   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1076   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1077   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1078   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1079   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1080   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1081   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1082   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1083   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1084   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1085   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1086   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1087   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1088   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1089   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1090   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1091   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1092   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1093   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1094   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1095   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1096   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1097   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1098   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1099   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1100   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1101   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1102   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1103   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1104   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1105   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1106 
  1107   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1108   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1109   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1110   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1111   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1112   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1113   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1114   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1115   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1116   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1117 
  1118 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1119 association lists with distinct keys.
  1120 
  1121 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1122 annotated commands.
  1123 
  1124 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1125 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1126 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1127 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1130 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1131 instead.
  1132 
  1133   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1134   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1135   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1136   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1137   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1138   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1139   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1140   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1141   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1142   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1143   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1144   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1145   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1146   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1147   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1148   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1149   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1150   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1151   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1152   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1153   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1154   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1155   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1156   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1157   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1158   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1159   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1160   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1161   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1162   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1163   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1164   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1165   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1166   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1167   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1168   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1169   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1170   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1171   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1172   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1173   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1174 
  1175 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1176 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1177 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1178 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1179 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1180 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1181 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1182 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1183 
  1184 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1185 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1186 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1187 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1188 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1189 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1190 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1191 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1192 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1193 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1194 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1195 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197   Renamed constants:
  1198   measure -> emeasure
  1199   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1200   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1201   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1202   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1203 
  1204   Removed locales:
  1205   completeable_measure_space
  1206   finite_measure_space
  1207   finite_prob_space
  1208   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1209   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1210   finite_sigma_algebra
  1211   measure_space
  1212   pair_finite_prob_space
  1213   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1214   pair_finite_space
  1215   pair_sigma_algebra
  1216   product_sigma_algebra
  1217 
  1218   Removed constants:
  1219   conditional_space
  1220   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1221   image_space
  1222   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1223   pair_measure_generator
  1224   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1225   subvimage
  1226 
  1227   Replacement theorems:
  1228   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1229   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1230   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1231   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1232   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1233   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1234   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1235   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1236   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1237   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1238   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1239   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1240   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1241   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1242   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1243   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1244   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1245   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1246   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1247   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1248   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1249   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1250   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1251   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1252   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1253   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1254   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1255   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1256   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1257   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1258   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1259   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1260   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1261   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1262   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1263   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1264   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1265   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1266   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1267   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1268   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1269   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1270   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1271   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1272   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1273   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1274   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1275   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1276   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1277   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1278   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1279   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1280   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1281   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1282   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1283   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1284   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1285   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1286   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1287   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1288   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1289   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1290   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1291   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1292   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1293   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1294   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1295   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1296   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1297   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1298   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1299   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1300   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1301   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1302   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1303   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1304   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1305   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1306   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1307   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1308   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1309   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1310   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1311   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1312   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1313   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1314   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1315   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1316   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1317   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1318   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1319   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1320   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1321   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1322   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1323   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1324   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1325   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1326   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1327   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1328   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1329   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1330   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1331   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1332   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1333   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1334   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1335   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1336   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1337   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1338   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1339   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1340   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1341   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1342   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1343   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1344   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1345   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1346   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1347   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1348   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1349   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1350   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1351   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1352   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1353   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1354   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1355   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1356 
  1357 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1358 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1359 
  1360 
  1361 *** FOL ***
  1362 
  1363 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1364 
  1365 
  1366 *** ZF ***
  1367 
  1368 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1369 analysis.
  1370 
  1371 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1372 
  1373 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1374 
  1375 
  1376 *** ML ***
  1377 
  1378 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1379 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1380 
  1381 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1382 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1383 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1384 
  1385 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1386 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1387 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1388 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1389 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1390 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1391 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1392 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1393 
  1394 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1395 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1396 
  1397 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1398 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1399 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1400 
  1401 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1402 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1403 
  1404 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1405 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1406 context as well.
  1407 
  1408 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1409 
  1410   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1411   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1412   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1413   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1414   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1415   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1416   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1417   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1418   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1419   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1420   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1421   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1422 
  1423 
  1424 *** System ***
  1425 
  1426 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1427 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1428 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1429 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1430 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1431 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1432 the generic user home was intended.
  1433 
  1434 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1435 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1436 
  1437 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1438 (not just JRE).
  1439 
  1440 
  1441 
  1442 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1443 ------------------------------------
  1444 
  1445 *** General ***
  1446 
  1447 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1448 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1449 
  1450   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1451     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1452     files for checking).
  1453 
  1454   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1455     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1456     positions.
  1457 
  1458   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1459     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1460     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1461 
  1462   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1463     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1464     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1465 
  1466   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1467     cores.
  1468 
  1469   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1470     versions (garbage collection).
  1471 
  1472 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1473 including some remaining limitations.
  1474 
  1475 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1476 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1477 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1478 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1479 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1483 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1484 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1485 
  1486 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1487 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1488 usedir option -Q.
  1489 
  1490 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1491 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1492 
  1493   long_names   ~> names_long
  1494   short_names  ~> names_short
  1495   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1496 
  1497 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1498 
  1499   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1500 
  1501 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1502 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1503 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1504 
  1505 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1506 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1507 
  1508 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1509   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1510   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1511   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1512     "Classical Reasoner".
  1513 
  1514 
  1515 *** HOL ***
  1516 
  1517 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1518 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1521 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1522 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1523 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1524 class complete_linorder.
  1525 
  1526 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1527 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1528 
  1529 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1530 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1531 
  1532   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1533   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1534   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1535   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1536   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1537   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1538   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1539   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1540   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1541   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1542   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1543 
  1544 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1545 
  1546   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1547   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1548   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1549   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1550   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1551   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1552   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1553   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1554   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1555   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1556   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1557   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1558   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1559   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1560   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1561   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1562 
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567 
  1568 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1569 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1570 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1571 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1572 
  1573 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1574 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1575 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577 
  1578 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1579 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1580 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1581 
  1582 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1583 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1584 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585 
  1586 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1587 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1588 
  1589 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1590 
  1591     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1592     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1593 
  1594 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1595 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1596 
  1597 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1598 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1601 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1602 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1603 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1606   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1607   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1608   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1609   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1610   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1611   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1612 
  1613 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1614 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1615 
  1616   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1617   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1618   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1619   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1620   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1621   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1622   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1623   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1624   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1625   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1626   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1627   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1628   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1629   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1630   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1631   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1632   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1633   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1634   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1635   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1636   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1637   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1638   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1639   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1640   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1641   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1642   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1643   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1644   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1645   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1646   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1647   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1648   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1649   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1650   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1651   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1652   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1653   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1654   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1655   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1656   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1657   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1658   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1659   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1660   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1661   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1662   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1663   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1664   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1665   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1666   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1667   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1668   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1669   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1670   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1671   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1672   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1673   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1674   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1675   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1676   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1677   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1678   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1679   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1680   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1681   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1682   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1683   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1684   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1685   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1686   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1687   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1688   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1689   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1690   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1691   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1692   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1693   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1694   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1695   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1696   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1697   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1698 
  1699 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1700 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1701 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1702 
  1703 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1704 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1705 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1706 
  1707 * Code generation:
  1708 
  1709   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1710     characters in the target language.
  1711 
  1712   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1713     instead.
  1714 
  1715   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1716 
  1717   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1718     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1719 
  1720       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1721 
  1722 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1723 
  1724 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1725 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1726 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1727 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1728 syntax.
  1729 
  1730 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1731 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1732 
  1733 * Nitpick:
  1734   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1735   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1736   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1737     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1738 
  1739 * Sledgehammer:
  1740   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1741   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1742     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1743   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1744     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1745   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1746     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1748     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1749   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1750     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Metis:
  1753   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1754   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1755     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Command 'try':
  1758   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1759     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1760   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1761     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1762 
  1763 * Quickcheck:
  1764   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1765     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1766   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1767     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1768   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1769     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1770     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1771     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1772   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1773     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1774 
  1775 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1776 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1777 
  1778 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1779 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1780 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1781 
  1782 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1783 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1787 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1790 arithmetic.
  1791 
  1792 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1793 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1794 and lattice type classes.
  1795 
  1796 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1797 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1798 
  1799 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1800 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1801 
  1802 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1803 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1804 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1805 
  1806   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1807   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1808   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1809   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1810 
  1811 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1812 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1813 constants:
  1814 
  1815   type inat   ~> type enat
  1816   Fin         ~> enat
  1817   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1818   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1819   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1820 
  1821 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1822 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1825 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1826 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1827 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1828 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1829 
  1830 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1831 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1832 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1833 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1834 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1835 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1836 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1837 
  1838   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1839   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1840   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1841   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1842 
  1843 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1844 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1845 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1848   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1849   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1850   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1851   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1852   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1853   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1854   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1855   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1856   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1857   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1858   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1859   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1860   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1861   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1862   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1863   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1864   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1865   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1866   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1867   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1868   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1869   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1870   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1871   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1872   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1873   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1874   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1875   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1876   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1877   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1878   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1879   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1880   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1881   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1882   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1883   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1884   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1885   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1886   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1887   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1888   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1889   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1890   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1891   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1892   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1893   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1894   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1895   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1896   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1897   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1898 
  1899 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1900   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1901   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1902   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1903   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1904     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1905 
  1906 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1909   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1910   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1911   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1912   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1913   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1914   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1915   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1916   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1917   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1918   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1919   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1920   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1921   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1922   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1923   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1924   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1925   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1926   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1927   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1928   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1929   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1930   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1931   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1932   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1933 
  1934 
  1935 *** Document preparation ***
  1936 
  1937 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1938 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1939 same.
  1940 
  1941 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1942 result.
  1943 
  1944 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1945 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1946 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1947 
  1948 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1949 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1950 
  1951 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1952 like this:
  1953 
  1954   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1955   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1956 
  1957 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1958 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1959 layouts.
  1960 
  1961 
  1962 *** ML ***
  1963 
  1964 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1965 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1966 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1967 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1968 under external program control.
  1969 
  1970 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1971 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1972 
  1973 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1974 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1975 (better known as Proof General).
  1976 
  1977 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1978 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1979 
  1980 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1981 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1982 
  1983 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1984 (including quotes etc.).
  1985 
  1986 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1987 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1988 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1989 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1990 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1991 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1992 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1993 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1994 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1995 
  1996 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1997 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1998 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1999 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2000 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2001 
  2002 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2003 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2004 
  2005 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2006 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2007 
  2008 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2009 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2010 
  2011 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2012 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2013 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2014 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2015 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2016 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2017 proper Proof.context.
  2018 
  2019 
  2020 *** System ***
  2021 
  2022 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2023 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2024 
  2025 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2026 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2027 
  2028 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2029 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2030 
  2031   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2032   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2033   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2034   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2035   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2036 
  2037 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2038 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2041 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2042 example:
  2043 
  2044   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2045 
  2046 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2047 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2048 
  2049 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2050 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2051 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2052 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2053 
  2054 
  2055 
  2056 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2057 ----------------------------------
  2058 
  2059 *** General ***
  2060 
  2061 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2062 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2063 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2064 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2065 like this:
  2066 
  2067   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2068 
  2069 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2070 
  2071 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2072 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2073 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2074 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2075 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2076 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2077 
  2078 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2079 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2080 the following package declarations:
  2081 
  2082   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2083   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2084 
  2085 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2086 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2087 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2088 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2089 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2090 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2091 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2092 
  2093 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2094 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2095 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2096 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2097 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2098 
  2099 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2100 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2101 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2102 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2103 
  2104 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2105 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2106 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2107 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2108 
  2109   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2110 
  2111   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2112   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2113   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2114   show_types                    show_types
  2115   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2116   show_consts                   show_consts
  2117   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2118 
  2119   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2120   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2121   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2122 
  2123   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2124   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2125 
  2126   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2127 
  2128   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2129   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2130   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2131   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2132   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2133 
  2134 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2135 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2136 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2137 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2138 
  2139 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2141 
  2142   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2143   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2144 
  2145 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2146 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2147 float_token.
  2148 
  2149 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2150 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2154 DejaVu Sans.
  2155 
  2156 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2157 
  2158 
  2159 *** Pure ***
  2160 
  2161 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2162 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2163 time.
  2164 
  2165 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2166 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2167 
  2168 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2169 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2170 
  2171 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2172 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2173 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2174 command already provided this functionality.
  2175 
  2176 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2177 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2178 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2179 without interpretations.
  2180 
  2181 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2182 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2183 
  2184 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2185 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2186 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2187 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2188 
  2189 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2190 'definition' instead.
  2191 
  2192 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2193 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2194 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2195 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2196 
  2197 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2198 constructors.
  2199 
  2200 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2201 the local file system.
  2202 
  2203 
  2204 *** HOL ***
  2205 
  2206 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2207 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2208 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2209 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2210 
  2211   declare [[coercion f]]
  2212 
  2213 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2214 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2215 
  2216   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2217 
  2218 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2219 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2220 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2221 other theories like this:
  2222 
  2223   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2224 
  2225 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2226 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2227 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2228 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2229 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2230 for examples.
  2231 
  2232 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2233 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2234 
  2235 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2236 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2237 
  2238 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2239 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2240 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2241 
  2242 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2243 functorial structure of types.
  2244 
  2245 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2246 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2247 
  2248 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2249 languages.
  2250 
  2251 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2252 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2256 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257 
  2258 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2259 combinators any longer.
  2260 
  2261 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2262 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2263 
  2264 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2265 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2266 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2267 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2268 
  2269   record 'a foo = ...
  2270   ...
  2271   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2272 
  2273 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2274 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2278 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2279 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2280 
  2281 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2282 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2283 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2284 
  2285 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2286 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287 
  2288 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2289 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2290 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2291 independently.
  2292 
  2293 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2294 counter example search.
  2295 
  2296 * Sledgehammer:
  2297   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2298     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2299     sledgehammer").
  2300   - Renamed commands:
  2301     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2302     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2303     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2304     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305   - Renamed options:
  2306     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2307     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2308     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2309     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2310     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * Nitpick:
  2313   - Renamed options:
  2314     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2315     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2316     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2318   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2319   - Added "whack" option.
  2320   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2321   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2322   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2323   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2324     higher cardinalities.
  2325   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2326 
  2327 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2328 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2329 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2330 
  2331     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2332 
  2333 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2334 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2335 
  2336 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2337 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2338 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2339 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2340 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2341 "smt_solver".
  2342 
  2343 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2344 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2345 
  2346 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2347 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2348 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2349 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2352   - Renamed:
  2353     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2354     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2355     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356   - Added:
  2357     smt_verbose
  2358     smt_random_seed
  2359     smt_datatypes
  2360     smt_infer_triggers
  2361     smt_monomorph_limit
  2362     cvc3_options
  2363     remote_cvc3_options
  2364     remote_z3_options
  2365     yices_options
  2366 
  2367 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2368 header.
  2369 
  2370 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2371 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2372 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2373 
  2374   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2375 
  2376 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2379 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2384 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2387 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2388 
  2389 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2390 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2393 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2394 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2400 
  2401 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2402 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2405 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2406 for congruent(2)).
  2407 
  2408 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2409 
  2410   types
  2411     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2412     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2413 
  2414   constants
  2415     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2416     True ~> HOL.True
  2417     False ~> HOL.False
  2418     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2419     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2420     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2421     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2422     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2423     The ~> HOL.The
  2424     All ~> HOL.All
  2425     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2426     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2427     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2428     If ~> HOL.If
  2429     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2430     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2431     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2432     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2433     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2434     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2435     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2436     op : ~> Set.member
  2437     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2438 
  2439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2442 
  2443     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2444     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2445     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2446     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2447     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2448     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2449     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2450     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2451 
  2452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * More stylized fact names:
  2455 
  2456   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2457   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2458   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2459   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2460 
  2461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2464 
  2465   constants
  2466     null ~> List.null
  2467 
  2468   facts
  2469     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2470     null_empty ~> null_def
  2471 
  2472 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2473 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2474 generation.
  2475 
  2476 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2477 Haskell code.
  2478 
  2479 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2480 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2481 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2482 
  2483 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2484 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2485 
  2486 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2487 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2488 
  2489 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2490 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2491 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2494 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2495 
  2496 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2500 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2501 referred to by its qualified name.
  2502 
  2503   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2504   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2505   product ~>  Enum.product
  2506 
  2507 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2508 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2512 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2513 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2517 sort_key.
  2518 
  2519 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2523 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2524 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2525 
  2526   types
  2527     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2528               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2529               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2530         (depends on your needs)
  2531 
  2532   constants
  2533      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2534      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2535      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2536 
  2537 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2538 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2539 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2540 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2543 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2544 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2545 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2546 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2552 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2553 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2554 
  2555 
  2556 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2557 
  2558 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2559 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2560 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2561 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2562 compatibility.
  2563 
  2564 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2565 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2566 
  2567 
  2568 *** HOLCF ***
  2569 
  2570 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2571 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2572 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2576 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2577 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578 
  2579   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2580   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2581   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2582 
  2583 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2584 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2585 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2588 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2589 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2590 domain definition now works:
  2591 
  2592   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2593 
  2594 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2595 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2596 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2597 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2598 
  2599   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2600     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2601 
  2602   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2603 
  2604 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2605 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2606 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2609 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2612 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2613 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2614 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2615 
  2616 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2617 
  2618 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2626 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2627 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2628 
  2629 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2630 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2631 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2634 still supported as an input translation.
  2635 
  2636 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2637 
  2638   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2639   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2640   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2641   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2642   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2643   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2644   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2645 
  2646 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2647 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2650   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2651   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2652   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2653   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2654   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2655 
  2656 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2657 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2660 
  2661   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2662   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2663   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2664   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2665 
  2666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2667 
  2668 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2669 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670 
  2671 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2672 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673 
  2674   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2675   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2676   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2677   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2678   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2679   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2680   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2681   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2682   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2683   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2684   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2685   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2686   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2687   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2688   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2689   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2690   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2691   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2692   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2693   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2694 
  2695 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2698   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2699   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2700   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2701   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2702   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2703   box_less             ~> box_below
  2704   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2705   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2706   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2707   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2708   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2709   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2710   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2711   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2712   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2713   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2714   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2715   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2716   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2717   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2718   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2719   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2720   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2721   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2722   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2723   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2724   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2725   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2726   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2727   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2728   up_less              ~> up_below
  2729   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2730   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2731   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2732   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2733   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2734   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2735   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2736   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2737   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2738   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2739   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2740   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2741   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2742 
  2743 
  2744 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2745 
  2746 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2747 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 
  2750 *** ML ***
  2751 
  2752 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2753 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2754 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2755 
  2756 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2757 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2758 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2759 
  2760 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2761 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2762 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2763 
  2764 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2765 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2766 
  2767 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2768 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2769 
  2770 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2771 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2772 
  2773 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2774 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2775 
  2776 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2777 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2778 almost all situations.
  2779 
  2780 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2781 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2782 Isabelle/ML.
  2783 
  2784 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2785 meaning.
  2786 
  2787 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2788 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2789 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2790 
  2791 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2792 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2793 
  2794 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2795 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2796 
  2797 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2798 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2799 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2800 
  2801 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2802 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2803 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2804 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2805 configuration options.
  2806 
  2807 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2808 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2809 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2810 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2811 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2812 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2813 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2814 
  2815 
  2816 
  2817 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2818 ---------------------------------
  2819 
  2820 *** General ***
  2821 
  2822 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2823 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2824 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2825 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2826 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2827 their full internal name.
  2828 
  2829 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2830 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2831 Some hints on upgrading:
  2832 
  2833   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2834     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2835     which are independent of this issue.
  2836 
  2837   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2838     provides the following special forms:
  2839 
  2840       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2841       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2842       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2843 
  2844     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2845     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2846     extra variables".
  2847 
  2848     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2849     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2850     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2851     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2852     "logic".
  2853 
  2854   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2855     antiquotations:
  2856 
  2857       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2858       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2859       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2860       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2861 
  2862   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2863     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2864     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2865     antiquotations.
  2866 
  2867 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2868 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2869 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2870 diagnose syntax problems.
  2871 
  2872 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2873 
  2874 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2875 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2876 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2877 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2878 
  2879 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2880 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2881 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2882 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2883 
  2884 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2885 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2886 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2887 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2888 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2889 
  2890 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2891 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2892 
  2893 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2894 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2895 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2896 
  2897   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2898 
  2899 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2900 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2901 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2902 
  2903 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2904 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2908 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2909 
  2910 
  2911 *** Pure ***
  2912 
  2913 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2914 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2915 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2916 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2917 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2918 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2919 inspect proof terms.
  2920 
  2921 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2922 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2923 are added internally.  For example:
  2924 
  2925   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2926 
  2927 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2928 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2933 'class' instead.
  2934 
  2935 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2936 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938 
  2939 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2940 invariants.
  2941 
  2942 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2943 user space functionality any longer.
  2944 
  2945 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2946 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2948 
  2949 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2950 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2951 
  2952 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2953 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2954 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2955 
  2956 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2957 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2958 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2959 
  2960 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2961 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963 
  2964 *** HOL ***
  2965 
  2966 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2967 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2968 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2969 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2970 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2971 
  2972 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2973 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2974 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2975 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2976 
  2977   fun
  2978     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2979   where
  2980     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2981 
  2982   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2983     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2984 
  2985   quotient_definition
  2986     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2987 
  2988 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2989 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2990 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2991 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2992 
  2993 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2994 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2995 
  2996 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2997 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2998 
  2999 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3003 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3004 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3005 
  3006 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3007 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3016 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3019 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3020 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3023   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3024   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3025   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3026   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3027   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3028   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3029   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3030   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3031   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3032   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3033   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3034   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3035   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3036   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3037   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3038   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3039   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3040   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3041   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3042   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3043   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3044   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3045   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3046   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3047   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3048   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3049   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3050   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3051   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3052 
  3053 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3054 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3055 
  3056 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3057 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3058 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3059 
  3060 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3061 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3062 
  3063 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3064 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3067 
  3068 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3069 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3072 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3077 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3078 
  3079 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3080 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3081 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3082 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3085   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3086   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3087   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3091 lattices):
  3092 
  3093     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3094     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3095 
  3096     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3097 
  3098     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3099     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3100     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3101     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3102     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3103     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3104     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3105     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3106     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3107     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3108     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3109     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3110     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3111 
  3112     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3113     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3114     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3115     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3116     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3117     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3118     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3119     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3120     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3121     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3122     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3123     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3124     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3125     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3126     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3127     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3128     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3129     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3130 
  3131   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3132   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3133 
  3134     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3135     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3136     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3137     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3138     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3139 
  3140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Refined field classes:
  3143   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3144     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3145     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3146   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3150   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3151   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3152   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3153     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3154   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3155     equal_neg_zero.
  3156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3159 sets to lattices:
  3160 
  3161   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3162   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3163   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3164   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3165   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3166   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3167   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3168   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3169   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3170   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3171 
  3172 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3173 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3174 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3175 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3176 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3177 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3180 multiset order:
  3181 
  3182   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3183     <= and <;
  3184   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3185     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3186     multiset_order;
  3187   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3188     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3189     generation;
  3190   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3191     if needed.
  3192 
  3193 Renamed:
  3194 
  3195   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3196   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3197   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3198 
  3199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3200 
  3201 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3202 
  3203 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3204 
  3205 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3206 
  3207 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3208 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3209 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211   Constants:
  3212   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3213   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3214   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3215   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3216   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3217   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3218   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3219   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3220   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3221   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3222   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3223   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3224   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3225 
  3226   Lemmas:
  3227   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3228   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3229   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3230   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3231   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3232   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3233   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3234   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3235   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3236   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3237   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3238   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3239   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3240 
  3241 * Sledgehammer:
  3242   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3243     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3244     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3245     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3246     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3247     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3248     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3250   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3251     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3252   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3253     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3254     is still experimental.)
  3255   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3256     full-typed mode.
  3257   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3258 
  3259 * Nitpick:
  3260   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3261   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3262   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3263     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3264   - Added support for quotient types.
  3265   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3266     constructs.
  3267   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3268     "termination" proofs).
  3269   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3270   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3271   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3272   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3273     record getters.
  3274   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3275   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3276   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3277   - Added "atoms" option.
  3278   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3279     problems.
  3280   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3281     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3282     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3284     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3288   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3289   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3290   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3291   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3292   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3293   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3294   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3295   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3296   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 
  3299 *** HOLCF ***
  3300 
  3301 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3302 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3303 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304 
  3305 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3306 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3307 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3308 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3311 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3312 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3313 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3314 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3317 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3318 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3321 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3324   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3325 
  3326 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3327 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3330   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3331   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3332   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3333   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3334 
  3335 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3336 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3339   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3340   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3341 
  3342 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3343 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3347 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3352 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3353 
  3354 
  3355 *** ML ***
  3356 
  3357 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3358 
  3359     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3360     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3361 
  3362     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3363     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3364     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3365     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3366 
  3367     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3368     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3369     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3370 
  3371 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3372 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3373 
  3374 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3375 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3376 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3377 
  3378 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3379 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3380 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3381 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3382 
  3383 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3384 the context or even global references.
  3385 
  3386 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3387 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3388 
  3389 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3390 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3391 
  3392   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3393   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3394   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3395   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3396   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3397   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3398   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3399   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3400   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3401   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3402 
  3403 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3404 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3405 
  3406 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3407 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3408 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3409 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3410 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3411 
  3412 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3413 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3414 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3415 Theory_Data version.
  3416 
  3417 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3418 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3419 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3420 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3421 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3422 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3423 explicitly in rare situations.
  3424 
  3425 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3426 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3430 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3433 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3434 quite rare).
  3435 
  3436 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3437 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3440 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3441 terms.
  3442 
  3443 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3444 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3445 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3446 
  3447 
  3448 *** System ***
  3449 
  3450 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3451 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3452 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3453 
  3454 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3455 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3456 respectively.
  3457 
  3458 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3459 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3460 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3461 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3462 
  3463   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3464 
  3465 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3466 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3467 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3468 component.
  3469 
  3470 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3471 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3472 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3473 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3474 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3475 the user for manual installation.
  3476 
  3477 
  3478 
  3479 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3480 -------------------------------------
  3481 
  3482 *** General ***
  3483 
  3484 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3485 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3486 
  3487 
  3488 *** Pure ***
  3489 
  3490 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3491 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3492 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3493 
  3494 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3495 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3496 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3497 
  3498 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3499 interpretation.
  3500 
  3501 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3502 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 
  3505 *** Document preparation ***
  3506 
  3507 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3508 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3509 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3510 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3511 
  3512 
  3513 *** HOL ***
  3514 
  3515 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3516 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3517 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3518 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3519 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3520 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3521 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3522 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3523 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3524 
  3525 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3526 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3527 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3528 
  3529 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3530 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3531 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3532 
  3533 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3534 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3535 
  3536 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3537 
  3538 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3539 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3540 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3541 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3542 
  3543 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3544 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3545 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3546 "mirabelle" utility.
  3547 
  3548 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3549 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3550 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3551 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3552 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3553 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3554 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3555 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3556 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3557 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3558 
  3559 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3560 procedure only.
  3561 
  3562 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3563 
  3564 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3565 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3566 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3567 that fail later.
  3568 
  3569 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3570 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3571 
  3572 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3573 the same method as the approximation method.
  3574 
  3575 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3576 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3577 series expansion.
  3578 
  3579 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3580 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3581 
  3582 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3583 reals.
  3584 
  3585 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3586 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3587 
  3588 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3589 fixpoint theorem.
  3590 
  3591 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3592   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3593     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3594   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3595     accordingly
  3596   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3597     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3598   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3599     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3600 
  3601 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3602 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3603 lattice.
  3604 
  3605 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3606 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3607 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3608 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3609 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3610 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3614   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3615     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3616   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3617     le_inf_iff
  3618   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3619     sup_aci)
  3620   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3621   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3622   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3623     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3624     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3625     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3626     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3627     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3628     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3629     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3630     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3631     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3632     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3633   - authentic syntax for
  3634     Set.Pow
  3635     Set.image
  3636   - mere abbreviations:
  3637     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3638     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3639     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3640     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3641     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3642     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3643     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3644     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3645   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3646 
  3647 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3648 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3649 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3650 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3651 
  3652 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3653 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3654 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3657 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3660 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3661 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3662 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3665 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3666 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3667 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3668 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3669 
  3670 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3671 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3675 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3678 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3679 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3680 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3681 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3682 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3683 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3685 
  3686 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3687     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3688     code_post       replaces    code post
  3689     etc.
  3690   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Renamed methods:
  3693     sizechange -> size_change
  3694     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3695   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3698 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3699 
  3700 * Renamed theorems:
  3701     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3702     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3703     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3704     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3705     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3706   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 
  3708 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3713 
  3714 
  3715 *** HOLCF ***
  3716 
  3717 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3718 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3719 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3720 
  3721 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3722 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3723 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3724 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3725 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3726 
  3727 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3728 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3729 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3730 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3731 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3732 
  3733 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3734 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3735 constructor are pre-configured.
  3736 
  3737 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3738 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3739 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3740 
  3741 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3742 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3743 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3744 as well.)
  3745 
  3746 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3747 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3748 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3749 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3750 examples.
  3751 
  3752 
  3753 *** ML ***
  3754 
  3755 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3756 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3757 
  3758 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3759 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3760 position, logical grouping etc.
  3761 
  3762 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3763 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3764 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3765 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3766 
  3767 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3768 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3769 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3770 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3771 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3772 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3773 
  3774 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3775 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3776 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3777 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3778 experiments with references.
  3779 
  3780 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3781 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3782 
  3783 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3784 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3785 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3786 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3787 
  3788 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3789 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3790 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3791 
  3792 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3793 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3794 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3802 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3803 
  3804 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3805 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3806 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3807 
  3808 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3809 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3810 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3813 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3814 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3816 
  3817 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3818 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3819 instead of global theory.
  3820 
  3821 
  3822 *** System ***
  3823 
  3824 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3825 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3826 usedir option -q.
  3827 
  3828 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3829 also the system manual.
  3830 
  3831 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3832 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3833 
  3834 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3835 this is always enabled.
  3836 
  3837 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3838 
  3839 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3840 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3841 currently supported on Linux only.
  3842 
  3843 
  3844 
  3845 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3846 --------------------------------
  3847 
  3848 *** General ***
  3849 
  3850 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3851 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3852 
  3853   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3854     "isatool."
  3855 
  3856   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3857     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3858 
  3859   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3860     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3861 
  3862 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3863 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3864 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3865 
  3866 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3867 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3868 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3869 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3870 via "isabelle emacs".
  3871 
  3872 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3873 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3874 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3875 
  3876 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3877 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3878 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3879 
  3880 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3881 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3882 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3883 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3884 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3885 
  3886 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3887 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3888 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3889 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3890 
  3891 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3892 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3893 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3894 
  3895 
  3896 *** Pure ***
  3897 
  3898 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3899 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3900 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3901 
  3902 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3903 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3904 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3905 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3906 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3907 
  3908 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3909 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3910 useful in locale declarations.
  3911 
  3912 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3913 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3914 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3915 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3916 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3917 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3918 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3919 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3920 no longer generated.
  3921 
  3922 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3923 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3924 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3925 
  3926 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3927 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3928 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3929 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3930 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3931 
  3932 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3934 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3935 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3936 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3937 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3938 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3939 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3940 
  3941 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3942 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3943 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3944 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3945 
  3946 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3949 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3950 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3951 
  3952 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3953 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3956 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3957 in HOL, write
  3958 
  3959     class foo = ...
  3960 
  3961 instead of
  3962 
  3963     class foo = type + ...
  3964 
  3965 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3966 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3970 
  3971 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3972 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3973 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3974 
  3975 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3976 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3977 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3978 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3979 directly in regular applications.
  3980 
  3981 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3982 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3983 
  3984 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3985 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3986 
  3987 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3988 theory context.
  3989 
  3990 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3991 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3994 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3995 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3996 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3997 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3998 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3999 
  4000   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4001 
  4002 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4003 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4004 normalization.
  4005 
  4006 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4007 addressing etc.
  4008 
  4009 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4010 
  4011   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4012   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4013 
  4014 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4015 
  4016   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4017      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4018      parts of the code generator framework).
  4019 
  4020   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4021      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4022      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4023 
  4024 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4027 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4030 patterns, e.g.
  4031 
  4032     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4033 
  4034 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4035 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4036 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4037 hyphen:
  4038 
  4039     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4040 
  4041 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4042 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4043 
  4044 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4045 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4046 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4047 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4048 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4049 higher-order unification.
  4050 
  4051 
  4052 *** Document preparation ***
  4053 
  4054 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4055 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4056 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4057 
  4058 
  4059 *** HOL ***
  4060 
  4061 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4062 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4063 
  4064 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4065 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4066 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4067 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4068 Main, as before.
  4069 
  4070 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4071 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4072 
  4073 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4074 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4075 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4076 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4077 
  4078 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4079 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4080 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4081 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4082 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4083 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4084 
  4085 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4086 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4087 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4088 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4089 
  4090 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4091 menu.
  4092 
  4093 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4094 (contains the empty clause).
  4095 
  4096 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4097 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4098 
  4099 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4100 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4101 
  4102 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4103 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4104 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4107 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4108 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4109 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4110 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4111 
  4112 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4113 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4114 
  4115 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4116 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4117 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4118 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4119 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4120 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4121 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4122 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4123 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4124 
  4125 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4126 
  4127 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4128 
  4129 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4130 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4133 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4134 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4135 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4136 
  4137 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4138 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4139 
  4140     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4141     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4142     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4143     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4144     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4145     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4146     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4147     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4148 
  4149 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4150 theory Set.
  4151 
  4152 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4153 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4154 
  4155 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4156 
  4157 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4158 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4159 
  4160 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4161 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4162 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4163 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4164 allowed. For examples see
  4165 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4166 
  4167 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4168 
  4169 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4173 structure:
  4174 
  4175     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4176     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4177     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4178     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4179     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4180     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4181     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4182     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4183     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4184     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4185     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4186     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4187     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4188     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4189     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4190     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4191     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4192     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4193     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4194     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4195     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4196     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4197     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4198     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4199     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4200     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4201     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4202     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4203     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4204     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4205     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4206     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4207     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4208 
  4209     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4210     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4211     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4212     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4213     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4214     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4215     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4216     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4217     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4218     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4219 
  4220     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4221     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4222     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4223     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4224     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4225     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4226 
  4227 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4228 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4229 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4230 
  4231 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4232 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4233 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4234 
  4235 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4236 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4239 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4240 
  4241 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4242 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4243 proofs, e.g.
  4244 
  4245   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4246 
  4247 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4248 
  4249 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4250 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4251 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4254 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4256 
  4257 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4258 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4259 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4261 
  4262 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4264 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4265 preorder_class.*.
  4266 
  4267 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4268 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4269 
  4270 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4271 
  4272   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4273 
  4274 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4275 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4276 fold_image.
  4277 
  4278 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4279 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4280 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4281 the former will disappear at some point.
  4282 
  4283 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4284 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4285 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4286 
  4287 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4288 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4289 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4290 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4291 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4292 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4293 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4294 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4295 
  4296 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4297 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4298 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4299 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4300 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4301 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4302 
  4303     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4304     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4305     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4306     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4307     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4308     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4309     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4310 
  4311 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4312 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4313 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4314 
  4315 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4316 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4317 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4318 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4319 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4320 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4321 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4322 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4323 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4324 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4325 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4326 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4327 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4328 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4329 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4330 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4331 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4332 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4333 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4334 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4335 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4336 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4337 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4338 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4339 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4340 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4341 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4342 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4343 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4344 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4345 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4346 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4347 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4348 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4349 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4350 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4351 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4352 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4353 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4354 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4355 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4356 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4357 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4358 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4359 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4360 
  4361 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4364 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4365 
  4366 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4367 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4368 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4369 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4370 
  4371 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4372 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4373 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4374 theory RealVector.
  4375 
  4376 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4377 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4378 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4379 and inner products are included.
  4380 
  4381 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4382 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4383 supported.
  4384 
  4385 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4386 first diagonalization argument.
  4387 
  4388 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4389 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4390 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4391 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4392 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4393 
  4394     hide (open) const gcd
  4395     abbreviation gcd where
  4396       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4397     notation (output)
  4398       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4399 
  4400 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4401 
  4402 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4403 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4404 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4407 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4408 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4409 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4410 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4411 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4412 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4413 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4414 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4415 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4416 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4417 cases.
  4418 
  4419 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4420 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4421 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4422 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4423 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4424 
  4425     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4426     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4427     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4428     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4429     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4430 
  4431 
  4432 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4433 
  4434 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4435 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4436 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4437 
  4438 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4439 
  4440 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4441 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4442 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4443 
  4444 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4445 
  4446 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4447 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4448 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4449 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4450 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4451 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4452 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4453 
  4454 
  4455 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4456 
  4457 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4458 
  4459 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4460 theory targets.
  4461 
  4462 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4463 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4464 'inductive' etc.
  4465 
  4466 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4467 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4468 
  4469 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4470 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4471 
  4472 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4473 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4474 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4475 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4476 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4477 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4478 the algorithm W:
  4479 
  4480  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4481  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4482          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4483 
  4484 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4485 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4486 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4487 
  4488 
  4489 *** HOLCF ***
  4490 
  4491 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4492 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4493 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4494 
  4495 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4496 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4497 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4498 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4499 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4500 
  4501 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4502 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4503 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4504 
  4505 
  4506 *** ZF ***
  4507 
  4508 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4509 
  4510 
  4511 *** ML ***
  4512 
  4513 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4514 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4515 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4516 5.2.1!
  4517 
  4518 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4519 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4520 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4521 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4522 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4523 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4524 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4525 
  4526 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4527 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4528 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4529 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4530 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4531 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4532 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4533 
  4534 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4535 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4536 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4537 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4538 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4539 
  4540 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4541 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4542 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4543 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4544 Method.add_method.
  4545 
  4546 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4547 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4548 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4549 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4550 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4551 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4552 
  4553 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4554 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4555 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4556 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4557 examples.
  4558 
  4559 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4560 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4561 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4562 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4563 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4564 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4565 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4566 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4567 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4568 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4569 
  4570 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4571 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4572 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4573 
  4574 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4575 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4576 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4577 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4578 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4579 resort for legacy applications.
  4580 
  4581 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4582 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4583 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4584 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4585 explicit runtime argument.
  4586 
  4587 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4588 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4589 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4590 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4591 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4594 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4595 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4596 theory state.
  4597 
  4598 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4599 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4600 
  4601   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4602   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4603   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4604   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4605   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4606   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4607   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4608   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4609   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4610   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4611 
  4612 
  4613 *** System ***
  4614 
  4615 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4616 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4617 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4618 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4619 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4620 
  4621 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4622 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4623 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4624 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4625 
  4626 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4627 
  4628 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4629 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4630 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4631 prover operations.
  4632 
  4633 
  4634 
  4635 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4636 -------------------------------
  4637 
  4638 *** General ***
  4639 
  4640 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4641 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4642 
  4643 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4644 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4645 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4646 provides a proper context already.
  4647 
  4648 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4649 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4650 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4651 
  4652 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4653 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4654 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4655 swap theory imports.
  4656 
  4657 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4658 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4659 
  4660 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4661 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4662 white space without escapes.
  4663 
  4664 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4665 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4666 "foo_bar".
  4667 
  4668 
  4669 *** Pure ***
  4670 
  4671 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4672 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4673 
  4674 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4675 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4676 
  4677 (1) unused_thms
  4678      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4679 
  4680 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4681      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4682      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4683 
  4684 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4685      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4686      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4687      their ancestors.
  4688 
  4689 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4690 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4691 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4692 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4693 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4694 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4695 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4696 
  4697 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4698 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4699 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4700 
  4701 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4702 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4703 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4704 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4705 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4706 
  4707 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4708 
  4709 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4710 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4711 update of theories within ML code.
  4712 
  4713 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4714 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4715 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4716 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4717 
  4718 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4719 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4720 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4724 
  4725 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4726 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4727 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4728 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4729 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4730 
  4731 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4732 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4733 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4734 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4735 situations.
  4736 
  4737 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4738 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4739 proof text.
  4740 
  4741 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4742 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4743 
  4744 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4745 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4746 predicates.
  4747 
  4748 
  4749 *** Document preparation ***
  4750 
  4751 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4752 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4753 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4754 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4755 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4756 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4757 
  4758 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4759 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4760 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4761 
  4762 
  4763 *** HOL ***
  4764 
  4765 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4766 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4767 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4768 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4769 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4770 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4771 
  4772 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4773 with multithreading.
  4774 
  4775 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4776 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4777 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4778 
  4779 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4780 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4781 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4782 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4785 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4786 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4787 and makes them available separately.  See
  4788 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4789 
  4790 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4791 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4792 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4793 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4794 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4795 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4796 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4797 the declared rules.
  4798 
  4799 This setup also deals with rules like
  4800 
  4801   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4802 
  4803 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4804 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4805 
  4806 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4807 
  4808   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4809 
  4810   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4811     definitions on => and bool.
  4812 
  4813   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4814     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4815     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4816 
  4817       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4818       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4819       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4820       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4821       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4822       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4823       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4824       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4825 
  4826   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4827     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4828     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4829 
  4830   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4831     The proof pattern
  4832 
  4833       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4834       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4835 
  4836     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4837     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4838 
  4839       have "EX S. P S"
  4840       proof
  4841         show "P S" <...>
  4842       qed
  4843 
  4844   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4845     The proof pattern
  4846 
  4847       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4848       also have "S = T" <...>
  4849       finally have "P T" .
  4850 
  4851     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4852     must be replaced by something like
  4853 
  4854       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4855       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4856       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4857 
  4858   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4859     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4860 
  4861       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4862 
  4863     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4864     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4865     type of the form
  4866 
  4867       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4868 
  4869     rather than
  4870 
  4871       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4872 
  4873 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4874 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4875 
  4876 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4879 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4881 
  4882 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4883 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4886 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4887 
  4888 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4889 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4890 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4891 
  4892 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4893 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4894 
  4895   less_trans
  4896   less_linear
  4897   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4898   le_less_trans
  4899   less_le_trans
  4900   less_not_sym
  4901   less_asym
  4902 
  4903 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4904 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4905 and different variable names.
  4906 
  4907 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4908 
  4909 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4910 finite maps.
  4911 
  4912 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4913 
  4914 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4915 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4916 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4917 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4918 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4919 accordingly.
  4920 
  4921 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4922 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4923 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4924 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4925 
  4926 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4927 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4928 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4929 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4930 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4934 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4935 
  4936 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4937 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4938 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4939 
  4940 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4944 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4945 
  4946 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4947 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948 
  4949 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4950 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4951 
  4952 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4953 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4955 
  4956 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4957 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4958 
  4959 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4960 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4961 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4962 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4963 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4964 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4967 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4968 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4969 
  4970 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4971 
  4972 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4973 
  4974 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4975 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4976 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4977 
  4978 
  4979 *** ZF ***
  4980 
  4981 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4982 same session:
  4983 
  4984   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4985   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4986   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4987   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4988   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4989   List      -> List_ZF
  4990   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4991 
  4992 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4993 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4994 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4995 
  4996 
  4997 *** ML ***
  4998 
  4999 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5000 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5001 
  5002 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5003 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5004 
  5005 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5006 
  5007 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5008 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5009 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5010 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5011 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5014 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5015 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5016 
  5017 
  5018 *** System ***
  5019 
  5020 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5021 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5022 
  5023 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5024 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5025 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5026 
  5027 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5028 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5029 
  5030 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5031 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5032 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5033 
  5034 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5035 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5036 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5037 
  5038 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5039 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5040 
  5041 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5042 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5043 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5044 script.
  5045 
  5046 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5047 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5048 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5049 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5050 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5051 
  5052 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5053 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5054 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5055 
  5056 
  5057 
  5058 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5059 -----------------------------------
  5060 
  5061 *** General ***
  5062 
  5063 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5064 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5065 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5066 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5067 
  5068 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5069 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5070 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5071 
  5072 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5073 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5074 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5075 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5076 
  5077 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5078 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5079 quotes.
  5080 
  5081 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5082 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5083 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5084 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5085 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5086 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5087 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5088 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5089 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5090 
  5091 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5092 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5093 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5094 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5095 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5096 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5097 
  5098 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5099 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5100 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5101 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5102 
  5103 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5104 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5105 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5106 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5107 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5108 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5109 
  5110 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5111 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5112 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5113 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5114 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5115 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5116 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5117 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5118 
  5119 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5120 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5121 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5122 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5123 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5124 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5125 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5126 
  5127 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5128 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5129 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5130 
  5131 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5132 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5133 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5134 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5135 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5136 limit is imposed.
  5137 
  5138 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5139 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5140 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5141 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5142 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5143 and scalability.
  5144 
  5145 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5146 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5147 
  5148 
  5149 *** Document preparation ***
  5150 
  5151 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5152 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5153 current context.
  5154 
  5155 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5156 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5157 
  5158 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5159 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5160 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5161 
  5162 
  5163 *** Pure ***
  5164 
  5165 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5166 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5167 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5168 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5169 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5170 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5171 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5172 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5173 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5174 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5175 
  5176 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5177 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5178 sketch:
  5179 
  5180     internal compilation:
  5181         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5182     writing SML code to a file:
  5183         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5184     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5185         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5186     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5187         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5188 
  5189     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5190         method ``eval''
  5191 
  5192 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5193 
  5194 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5195 
  5196     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5197     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5198     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5199     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5200 
  5201 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5202 
  5203     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5204       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5205 
  5206     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5207       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5208 
  5209     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5210       {(target)}+
  5211         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5212 
  5213     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5214       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5215         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5216 
  5217 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5218 
  5219 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5220 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5221 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5222 codegen".
  5223 
  5224 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5225 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5226 annotations).
  5227 
  5228 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5229 syntax.
  5230 
  5231 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5232 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5233 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5234 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5235 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5236 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5237 
  5238 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5239 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5240 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5241 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5242 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5243 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5244 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5245 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5246 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5247 equations, see section "definitions".
  5248 
  5249 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5250 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5251 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5252 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5253 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5254 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5255 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5256 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5257 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5258 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5259 
  5260 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5261 configuration options:
  5262 
  5263   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5264   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5265   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5266   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5267   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5268   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5269   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5270   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5271   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5272 
  5273 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5274 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5275 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5276 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5277 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5278 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5279 order.
  5280 
  5281 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5282 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5283 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5284 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5285 context encountered later on.
  5286 
  5287 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5288 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5289 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5290 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5291 
  5292 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5293 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5294 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5295 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5296 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5297 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5298 
  5299 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5300 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5301 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5302 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5303 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5304 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5305 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5306 more permissive.
  5307 
  5308 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5309 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5310 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5311 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5312 maintainability of proof texts.
  5313 
  5314 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5315 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5316 
  5317   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5318   then guess x and y by clarify
  5319 
  5320 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5321 proof tools being involved here.
  5322 
  5323 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5324 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5325 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5326 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5327 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5328 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5329 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5330 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5331 
  5332 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5333 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5334 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5335 
  5336   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5337   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5338   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5339   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5340 
  5341 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5342 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5343 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5344 
  5345 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5346 both named and unnamed ones.
  5347 
  5348 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5349 
  5350   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5351 
  5352 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5353 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5354 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5355 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5356 
  5357 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5358 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5359 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5360 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5361 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5362 
  5363 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5364 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5365 
  5366 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5367 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5368 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5369 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5370 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5371 originally first one.
  5372 
  5373 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5374 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5375 expected.
  5376 
  5377 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5378 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5379 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5380 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5381 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5382 
  5383   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5384     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5385     obtains x where "P x"
  5386 
  5387   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5388     assumes "A & B"
  5389     obtains A and B
  5390 
  5391   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5392     assumes "A | B"
  5393     obtains
  5394       A
  5395     | B
  5396 
  5397 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5398 explicitly:
  5399 
  5400   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5401     obtains "~ thesis"
  5402 
  5403   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5404     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5405 
  5406 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5407 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5408 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5409 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5410 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5411 case_names).
  5412 
  5413 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5414 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5415 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5416 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5417 
  5418 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5419 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5420 top-level lemma.
  5421 
  5422 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5423 introduction rule (default "that").
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5426 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5427 to occur.
  5428 
  5429 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5430 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5431 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5432 representations independently of name spaces.
  5433 
  5434 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5435 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5436 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5437 
  5438 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5439 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5440 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5441 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5442 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5443 current context.
  5444 
  5445 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5446 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5447 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5448 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5449 
  5450   axiomatization
  5451     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5452     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5453 
  5454   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5455   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5456 
  5457   abbreviation
  5458     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5459     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5460 
  5461 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5462 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5463 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5464 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5465 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5466 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5467 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5468 
  5469 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5470 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5471 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5472 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5473 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5474 
  5475 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5476 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5477 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5478 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5479 
  5480 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5481 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5482 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5483 
  5484   definition "K x _ = x"
  5485 
  5486   inductive conj for A B
  5487   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5488 
  5489 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5490 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5491 abbreviations on output.
  5492 
  5493 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5494 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5495 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5496 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5497 
  5498 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5499 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5500 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5501 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5502 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5503 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5504 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5505 
  5506 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5507 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5508 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5509 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5510 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5511 
  5512 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5513 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5514 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5515 
  5516 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5517 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5518 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5519 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5520 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5521 
  5522   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5523     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5524 
  5525 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5526 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5527 partial_order.
  5528 
  5529 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5530 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5531 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5532 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5533 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5534 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5535 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5536 examples.
  5537 
  5538 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5539 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5540 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5541 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5542 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5543 
  5544 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5545 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5546 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5547 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5548 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5549 
  5550   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5551   (induct set: foo bar)
  5552   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5553   (induct type: foo bar)
  5554 
  5555 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5556 new format.
  5557 
  5558 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5559 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5560 
  5561 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5562 considered a legacy feature.
  5563 
  5564 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5565 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5566 
  5567 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5568 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5569 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5570 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5571 
  5572 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5573 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5574 manipulating the claset.
  5575 
  5576 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5577 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5578 least one premise.
  5579 
  5580 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5581 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5582 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5583 rule steps.
  5584 
  5585 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5586 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5587 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5588 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5589 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5590 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5591 
  5592 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5593 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5594 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5595 
  5596 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5597 the graph browser tool.
  5598 
  5599 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5600 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5601 
  5602 
  5603 *** HOL ***
  5604 
  5605 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5606 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5607 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5608 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5609 multi-threading.
  5610 
  5611 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5612 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5613 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5614 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5615 work with multi-threading.
  5616 
  5617 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5618 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5619 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5620 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5621 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5622 
  5623 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5624 
  5625 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5626 equality.
  5627 
  5628 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5629 the new 'class' package:
  5630 
  5631     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5632     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5633     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5634     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5635     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5636     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5637     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5638     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5639     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5640     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5641     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5642     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5643     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5644     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5645     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5646     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5647     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5648     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5649     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5650     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5651 
  5652 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5653 
  5654 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5655 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5656 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5657 names.
  5658 
  5659 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5660 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5661 
  5662 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5663 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5664 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5665 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5666 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5667 
  5668 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5669 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5670 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5671 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5672 
  5673 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5674 
  5675 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5676 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5677 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5678 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5680 
  5681 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5682 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5683 
  5684 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5685 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5686 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5687 
  5688 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5689 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5690 
  5691 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5692 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5693 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5694 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5695 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5696 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5697 in the current context.
  5698 
  5699 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5700 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5702 
  5703 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5704 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5705 
  5706 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5707 
  5708     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5709     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5710 
  5711     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5712       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5713     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5714     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5715 
  5716     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5717     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5718 
  5719   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5720 
  5721     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5722     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5723     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5724     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5725     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5726     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5727     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5728     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5729     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5730     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5731     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5732     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5733     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5734     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5735     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5736     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5737     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5738     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5739     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5740     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5741     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5742     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5743     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5744     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5745     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5746     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5747     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5748     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5749     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5750     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5751     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5752     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5753     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5754     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5755     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5756 
  5757     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5758     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5759     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5760     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5761     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5762     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5763     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5764     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5765     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5766     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5767     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5768     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5769     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5770     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5771     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5772     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5773     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5774 
  5775     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5776     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5777     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5778     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5779     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5780     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5781     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5782     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5783     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5784     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5785     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5786     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5787     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5788     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5789     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5790     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5791     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5792     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5793     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5794     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5795     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5796     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5797     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5798     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5799     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5800     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5801     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5802     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5803 
  5804     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5805     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5806     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5807     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5808     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5809     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5810 
  5811     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5812     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5813     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5814     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5815 
  5816     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5817     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5818 
  5819     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5820     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5821 
  5822 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5823 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5824 
  5825 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5826 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5827 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5828 "*.size".
  5829 
  5830 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5834 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5835 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5836 
  5837 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5838 
  5839 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5840 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5841 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5842 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5843 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5844 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5845 numerals on all operations.
  5846 
  5847 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5848 
  5849 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5850 
  5851 * Code generator library theories:
  5852   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5853     languages.
  5854   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5855     languages.
  5856   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5857     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5858   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5859   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5860     denominator).
  5861   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5862     representable by rational numbers.
  5863   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5864     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5865     includes Code_Integer.
  5866   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5867     target-language built-in integers.
  5868   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5869     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5870 
  5871 * New package for inductive predicates
  5872 
  5873   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5874 
  5875     inductive
  5876       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5877       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5878     where
  5879       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5880     | ...
  5881 
  5882   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5883 
  5884     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5885 
  5886     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5887     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5888 
  5889     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5890     intros
  5891       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5892       ...
  5893 
  5894   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5895   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5896 
  5897     inductive_set
  5898       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5899       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5900     where
  5901       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5902     | ...
  5903 
  5904   or
  5905 
  5906     inductive_set
  5907       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5908       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5909       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5910     where
  5911       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5912     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5913     | ...
  5914 
  5915   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5916 
  5917   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5918   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5919 
  5920   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5921 
  5922   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5923     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5924     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5925     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5926     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5927 
  5928   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5929     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5930     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5931     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5932     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5933     statements of the form
  5934 
  5935       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5936 
  5937     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5938     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5939 
  5940       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5941 
  5942   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5943 
  5944       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5945         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5946         ==> ... ==> P
  5947 
  5948     for predicates and
  5949 
  5950       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5951         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5952         ==> ... ==> P
  5953 
  5954     for sets rather than
  5955 
  5956       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5957         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5958         ==> ... ==> P
  5959 
  5960     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5961     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5962     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5963 
  5964   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5965     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5966     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5967 
  5968 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5969 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5970 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5971 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5972 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5973 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5974 
  5975 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5976 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5977 
  5978 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5979 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5980 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5981 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5982 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5983 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5984 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5985 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5986 variable.
  5987 
  5988 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5989 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5990 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5991 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5992   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5993   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5994 
  5995 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5996 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5997 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5998 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5999 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6000 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6001 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6002 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6003 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6004 
  6005 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6006 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6007 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6008 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6009 rat, etc.
  6010 
  6011 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6012 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6013 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6014 
  6015 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6016 
  6017 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6018 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6019 
  6020 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6021 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6022 
  6023 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6024 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6025 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6028 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6032 
  6033 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6034 
  6035 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6036 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6037 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6038 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6039 
  6040 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6041 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6042 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6043 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6044 
  6045 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6046 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6047 algebraic operations.
  6048 
  6049 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6051 
  6052 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6054 
  6055 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6056 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6057 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6058 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6059 adapted.
  6060 
  6061 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6062 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6063 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6064 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6065 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6066 
  6067 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6068 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6069 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6070 
  6071 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6072 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6073 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6074 
  6075 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6076 
  6077 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6078 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6079 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6080   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6081       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6082   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6083   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6084   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6085 
  6086 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6087 
  6088 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6089 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6090 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6091 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6092 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6093 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6094 
  6095 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6096 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6097 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6098 
  6099 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6100 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6101 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6103 
  6104 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6105 
  6106 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6107 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6108 
  6109 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6110 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6111 
  6112 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6113 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6114 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6115 
  6116 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6117 True/False.
  6118 
  6119 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6120 
  6121 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6122 
  6123 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6124 ``rule'' method.
  6125 
  6126 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6127 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6128 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6129 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6130 
  6131 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6132 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6133 
  6134 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6135 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6136 
  6137 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6138 Library.
  6139 
  6140 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6141 
  6142 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6143 as greatest fixed-point.
  6144 
  6145 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6146 association lists.
  6147 
  6148 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6149 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6150 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6151 
  6152 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6153 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6154 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6155 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6156 behavior.
  6157 
  6158 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6159 
  6160 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6161 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6162 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6163 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6164 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6165 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6166 
  6167 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6168 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6169 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6170 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6171 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6172 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6173 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6174 
  6175 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6176 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6177 
  6178 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6179 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6180 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6181 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6182 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6183 
  6184 
  6185 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6186 
  6187 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6188 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6189 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6190 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6194 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6195 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6196 
  6197 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6198 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6199 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6202 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6203 
  6204 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6205 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6206 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6208 
  6209   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6210   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6211   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6212   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6213   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6214   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6215   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6216   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6217   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6218   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6219   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6220   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6221   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6222   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6223   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6224 
  6225 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6226 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6227 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6228 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6229 
  6230   approx        <-- capprox
  6231   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6232   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6233   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6234   monad         <-- cmonad
  6235   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6236   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM