NEWS
author blanchet
Fri Jan 31 13:29:20 2014 +0100 (2014-01-31)
changeset 55206 f7358e55018f
parent 55183 17ec4a29ef71
child 55289 30d874dc7000
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuning
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 
    41 *** Pure ***
    42 
    43 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    44 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    45 instantiated theorem.
    46 
    47 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    48 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    49 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    50 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    51 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    52 
    53   attribute_setup standard =
    54     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    55 
    56 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    57 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    58 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    59 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    60 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    61 
    62 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    63 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    64 differently).
    65 
    66 
    67 *** HOL ***
    68 
    69 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    70 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    71 
    72 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    73   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    74   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    75   "Main".
    76   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77   Theory renamings:
    78     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    79     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    80     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    81     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    82     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    83     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    84     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    85     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    86     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
    87     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
    88     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
    89     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
    90     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
    91     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
    92     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
    93     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
    94     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
    95     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
    96     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
    97     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
    98     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
    99     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   100   New theories:
   101     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
   102     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   103     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   104     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   105     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   106     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   107   Discontinued theory:
   108     BNF/BNF.thy
   109     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   110 
   111 * New theory:
   112     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   113 
   114 * Theory reorganizations:
   115   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   116 
   117 * Sledgehammer:
   118   - Renamed options:
   119       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   120       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   121     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   124 
   125 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   126 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   127 
   128 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   129 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   130 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   131 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   132 
   133 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   135 
   136 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   137 with the given constants.
   138 
   139 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   140 
   141 Fact consolidations:
   142     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   143     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   144     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   145     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   146     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   147     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   148     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   149     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   150     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   151     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   152     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   153     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   154     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   155     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   156     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   157     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   158     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   159     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   160     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   161     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   162     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   163     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   164     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   165     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   166     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   167     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   168     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   169     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   170     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   171     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   172     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   173     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   174     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   175     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   176     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   177     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   178     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   179     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   180     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   181     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   182 
   183 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   184 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   185 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   186 
   187 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   188 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   189 
   190 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   191 
   192 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   193 
   194 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196 
   197 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   201 operations on records.
   202 
   203 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   207     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   211     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   212     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   216   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   217   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   218   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   219     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   220   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   221     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   222   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   223 INCOMPATBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   226     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   227     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   228     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   229     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Fact name consolidation:
   233     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   234     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   235     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   236     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   237     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   241 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   242 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   243 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   244 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   245 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   246 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   247 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   250 
   251 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   252 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   253 
   254 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   255 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   256 
   257 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   258 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   259 or the brute way with
   260 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   261 
   262 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   263 
   264 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   265 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266 
   267 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   268 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   269 
   270 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   271 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   272 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   273 INCOMPATIBILITY
   274 
   275 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   276 
   277 * Nitpick:
   278   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   279     infinite values.
   280 
   281 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   282   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   283   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   284     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   285     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   286     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   287     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   288     intervals.
   289 
   290 
   291 *** ML ***
   292 
   293 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   294 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   295 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   296 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   297 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   298 of schematic variables.
   299 
   300 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   301 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   303 formal context.
   304 
   305 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   306 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   307 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   308 actually belongs to it).
   309 
   310 
   311 *** System ***
   312 
   313 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   314 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   315 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   316 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   318 
   319 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   320 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   321 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   322 
   323 
   324 
   325 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   326 -------------------------------------
   327 
   328 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   329 
   330 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   331 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   332 
   333 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   334 after edits surrounding the command location.
   335 
   336 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   337 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   338 e.g. out-of-memory).
   339 
   340 
   341 *** System ***
   342 
   343 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   344 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   345 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   346 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   347 
   348 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   349 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   350 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   351 
   352 
   353 
   354 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   355 -------------------------------------
   356 
   357 *** General ***
   358 
   359 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   360 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   361 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   364 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   367 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   368 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   369 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   370 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   371 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   372 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   373 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   374 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   375 syntax.
   376 
   377 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   378 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   381 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   382 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   383 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   384 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   385 
   386 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   390 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   391 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   392 
   393 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   394 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   395 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   396 
   397 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   398 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   399 
   400 
   401 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   402 
   403 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   404 Documentation panel.
   405 
   406 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   407 documentation.
   408 
   409 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   410 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   411 
   412 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   413 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   414 normal editing and checking process.
   415 
   416 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   417 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   418 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   419 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   420 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   421 
   422 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   423 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   424 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   425 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   426 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   427 
   428 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   429 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   430 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   431 
   432 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   433 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   434 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   435 to resolve conflict.
   436 
   437 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   438 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   439 
   440 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   441 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   442 such command executions while editing.
   443 
   444 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   445 document content.
   446 
   447 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   448 toplevel theorem statements.
   449 
   450 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   451 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   452 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   453 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   454 
   455 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   456 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   457 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   458 
   459 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   460 / Global Options / Appearance".
   461 
   462 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   463 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   464 
   465 
   466 *** Pure ***
   467 
   468 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   469 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   470 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   471 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   472 details.
   473 
   474 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   475 
   476 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   477 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   478 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   479 
   480 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   484 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   485 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   486 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   489 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   490 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   491 
   492 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   493 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   494 
   495 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   496 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   497 situations.
   498 
   499 
   500 *** HOL ***
   501 
   502 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   503 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   507 
   508 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   509 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   510 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   511 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   512 
   513   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   514 
   515 * Code generator:
   516   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   517     'code_instance'.
   518   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   519     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   520 
   521 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   522 examples.
   523 
   524 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   525 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   526 to distinguish both when desired.
   527 
   528 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   529 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   530 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   531 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   534 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   535 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   536 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   537 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   538 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   539 
   540 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   541 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   542 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   543 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   544 
   545 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   546 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   547 
   548 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   549 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   550 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   551 
   552 * Lifting:
   553   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   554     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   555       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   556       transfer rules
   557     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   558       correspondence relation can be generated
   559     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   560       parametricity
   561     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   562   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   563   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   564     copies
   565   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   566     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   567     anonymous context)
   568   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   569     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   570   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   571     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   572   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   573     INCOMPATIBILITY
   574 
   575 * Transfer:
   576   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   577     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   578   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   579   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   580     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   581   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   582 
   583 * Reification and reflection:
   584   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   585     "Reification".
   586   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   587   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   591   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   592     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   593     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   594   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   595     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   596   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   597     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   598     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   599     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   600     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   601     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   602     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   603     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   604   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   605     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   606   - Fact renames:
   607       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   608       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   612 
   613 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   614 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   615 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   619 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   620 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   621 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   622 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   623 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   624 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   625 lemmas.
   626 
   627 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   628 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   629 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   632 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   633 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   634 
   635 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   636 top and bottom elements.
   637 
   638 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   639 
   640 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   641 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   642 
   643  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   644    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   645    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   646 
   647  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   648    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   649    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   650 
   651    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   652    arbitrary filter.
   653 
   654  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   655    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   656    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   657    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   658    on a compact set.
   659 
   660  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   661    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   662    linear_continuum_topology).
   663 
   664  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   665    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   666    on all sequences converging to x.
   667 
   668  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   669    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   670    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   671    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   672    left or right.
   673 
   674  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   675 
   676      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   677 
   678  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   679    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   680 
   681  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   682    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   683    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   684    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   685    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   686    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   687 
   688  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   689 
   690    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   691 
   692    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   693      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   694 
   695    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   696 
   697    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   698      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   699 
   700    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   701 
   702    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   703 
   704  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   705 
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Nitpick:
   709   - Added option "spy"
   710   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   711 
   712 * Sledgehammer:
   713   - Renamed option:
   714       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   715     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   717   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   718   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   719 
   720 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   721 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   722 
   723 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   724   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   725   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   726     generated code.
   727   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   728   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   729   - Fact renames:
   730     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   731     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   732     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   733 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   736 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   737 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   738 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   739 
   740 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   741 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   742 
   743 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   746 
   747     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   748     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   749 
   750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   753 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   754 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   755 
   756 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   757 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   758 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   759 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   760 
   761 * HOL-BNF:
   762   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   763     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   764     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   765     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   766   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   767     coinduct).
   768   - Renamed keywords:
   769     data ~> datatype_new
   770     codata ~> codatatype
   771     bnf_def ~> bnf
   772   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   773     discs ~> disc
   774     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   775     map_id' ~> map_id
   776     sels ~> sel
   777     set_map' ~> set_map
   778     sets ~> set
   779 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 
   782 *** ML ***
   783 
   784 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   785 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   786 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   787 Examples.thy in particular.
   788 
   789 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   790 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   791 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   792 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   793 
   794 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   795 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   796 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   797 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   801 
   802     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   803     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   804 
   805 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   808 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   809 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   810 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   811 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   812 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   813 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   814 
   815 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   816 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   817 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   818 clasets separately from the context.
   819 
   820 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   821 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   822 
   823 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   824 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   825 
   826 
   827 *** System ***
   828 
   829 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   830 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   833 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   834 
   835 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   836 settings variable.
   837 
   838 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   839 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   840 always pdf.
   841 
   842 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   843 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   844 
   845 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   846 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   847 
   848 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   849 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   850 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   851 
   852 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   853 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   854 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   855 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   856 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   857 for HTML presentation of theories.
   858 
   859 
   860 
   861 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   862 -----------------------------------
   863 
   864 *** General ***
   865 
   866 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   867 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   868 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   869 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   870 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   871 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   872 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   873 
   874 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   875 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   876 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   877 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   878 
   879 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   880 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   881 
   882 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   883 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   884 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   885 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   886 dependencies properly.
   887 
   888 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   889 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   890 
   891 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   892 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   893 
   894 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   895 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   896 and "class ... context ...".
   897 
   898 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   899 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   900 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   901 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   902 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   903 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   904 
   905 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   906 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   907 
   908 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   909 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   910 
   911 
   912 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   913 
   914 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   915 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   916 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   917 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   918 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   919 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   920 
   921 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   922 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   923 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   924 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   925 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   926 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   927 
   928 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   929 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   930 browser on demand.
   931 
   932 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   933 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   934 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   935 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   936 
   937 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   938 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   939 
   940 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   941 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   942 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   943 potentially infinite message streams.
   944 
   945 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   946 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   947 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   948 schemes.
   949 
   950 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   951 symbols.
   952 
   953 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   954 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   955 
   956 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   957 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   958 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   959 
   960 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   961 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   962 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   963 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   964 
   965 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   966 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   967 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   968 
   969 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   970 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   971 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   972 Isabelle distribution.
   973 
   974 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   975 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   976 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   977 
   978 
   979 *** Pure ***
   980 
   981 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   982 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   983 
   984 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   985 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   986 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987 
   988 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   989 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   990 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   991 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   992 with some care where this is really required.
   993 
   994 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   995 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   996 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   997 
   998   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   999 
  1000 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1001 a Hasse diagram.
  1002 
  1003 
  1004 *** HOL ***
  1005 
  1006 * Sledgehammer:
  1007 
  1008   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1009     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1010   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1011   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1012   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1013   - Renamed options:
  1014       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1015       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1016       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1017       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1018 
  1019 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1020 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1021 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1022 
  1023 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Lifting:
  1027   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1028   - quot_del attribute
  1029   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1030 
  1031 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1032 expressions.
  1033 
  1034 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1035 pointfree expressions.
  1036 
  1037 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1038 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1039 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1040 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042 
  1043 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1044 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1045 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1046 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1047 accordingly.
  1048 
  1049 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1050 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1053 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1056 
  1057 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1058 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1059 
  1060 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1061 
  1062 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1063 
  1064   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1065   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1066 
  1067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1068 
  1069 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1070 
  1071   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1072   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1073 
  1074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1075 
  1076 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1077 
  1078   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1079     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1080     output f x converges to G.
  1081 
  1082   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1083     infinity (at_bot).
  1084 
  1085   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1086     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1087 
  1088   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1089     at_top".
  1090 
  1091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1094 lattice type classes.
  1095 
  1096 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1097 
  1098     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1099     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1100 
  1101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1104 changes as follows.
  1105 
  1106   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1107 
  1108       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1109       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1110 
  1111   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1112     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1113     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1114     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1115 
  1116   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1117     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1118     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1119 
  1120   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1121     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1122     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1123     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1124 
  1125   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1126     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1127 
  1128       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1129       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1130       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1131       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1132       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1133       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1134       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1135       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1136       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1137       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1138       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1139       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1140       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1141       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1142       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1143       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1144 
  1145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1148 
  1149 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1150 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1151 
  1152 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1153 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1154 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1155 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1156 
  1157   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1158   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1159   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1160   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1161   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1162   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1163   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1164   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1165   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1166   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1167 
  1168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1171 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1172 Data").
  1173 
  1174 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1175 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1176 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1177 code.
  1178 
  1179 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1180 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1181 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1183 
  1184 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1185 
  1186 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1187 
  1188 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1189 
  1190   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1191   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1192 
  1193 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1194 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1195 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1196 
  1197   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1198 
  1199     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1200     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1201     cart_base i  removed
  1202     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1203 
  1204   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1205 
  1206   Renamed lemmas:
  1207 
  1208     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1209     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1210     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1211     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1212     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1213     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1214     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1215     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1216     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1217     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1218 
  1219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 * HOL/Probability:
  1222 
  1223   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1224 
  1225   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1226     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1227     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1228 
  1229   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1230     projective family).
  1231 
  1232 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1233 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1234 
  1235 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1236 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1237 datatypes.
  1238 
  1239 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1240 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1241 
  1242 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1243 trees for the code generator.
  1244 
  1245 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1246 Lifting/Transfer.
  1247 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1248 
  1249 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 *** Document preparation ***
  1254 
  1255 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1256 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1257 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1258 
  1259 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1260 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1261 
  1262 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1263 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1264 document/root.tex.
  1265 
  1266 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1267 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 
  1270 *** ML ***
  1271 
  1272 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1273 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1274 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1275 
  1276 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1277 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1278 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1279 
  1280 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1281 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1282 necessarily printing visible text.
  1283 
  1284 
  1285 *** System ***
  1286 
  1287 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1288 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1289 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1290 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1291 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1292 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1293 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1294 
  1295 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1296 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1297 
  1298   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1299 
  1300 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1301 
  1302 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1303 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1304 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1305 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1306 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1307 
  1308 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1309 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1310 
  1311 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1312 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1313 
  1314 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1318 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1319 version of Isabelle.
  1320 
  1321 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1322 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1323 
  1324 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1325 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1326 for home-made settings.
  1327 
  1328 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1329 
  1330 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1331 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1332 configuration.
  1333 
  1334 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1335 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1336 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1337 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1338 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1339 
  1340 
  1341 
  1342 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1343 ------------------------------
  1344 
  1345 *** General ***
  1346 
  1347 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1348 
  1349   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1350     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1351   - markup for bound variables
  1352   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1353   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1354   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1355     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1356 
  1357 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1358 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1359 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1360 
  1361 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1362 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1363 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1364 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1365 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1366 
  1367   context
  1368     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1369     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1370   begin
  1371 
  1372   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1373 
  1374   end
  1375 
  1376   thm my_trans
  1377 
  1378 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1379 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1380 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1381 
  1382 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1383 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1384 
  1385 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1386 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1387 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1388 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1389 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1390 
  1391 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1392 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1393 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1394 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1395 indices of schematic variables.
  1396 
  1397 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1398 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1399 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1400 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1401 etc. was exploited.
  1402 
  1403 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1404 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1405 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1406 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1407 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1408 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1409 
  1410 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1411 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1412 manual.
  1413 
  1414 
  1415 *** Pure ***
  1416 
  1417 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1418 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1419 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1420 
  1421 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1422 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1423 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1424 undocumented feature.)
  1425 
  1426 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1427 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1428 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1429 
  1430   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1431 
  1432   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1433     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1434 
  1435 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1436 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1437 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1438 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1439 
  1440 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1441 
  1442     num ~> num_token
  1443     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1444     xstr ~> str_token
  1445 
  1446 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1447 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1448 position information via constraints).
  1449 
  1450 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1451 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1452 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1455 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1456 
  1457 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1458 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1459 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1462 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1465 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1466 
  1467   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1468 
  1469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1472 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1475 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1476 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1477 
  1478 
  1479 *** HOL ***
  1480 
  1481 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1482 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1483 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1484 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1485 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1486 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1487 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1488 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1489 possible.
  1490 
  1491 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1492 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1493 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1494 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1495 
  1496 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1497 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498 
  1499 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1500 
  1501 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1502 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1503 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1504 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1505 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1506 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1507 
  1508   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1509     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1510 
  1511   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1512     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1513     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1514 
  1515   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1516     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1517 
  1518   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1519     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1520     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1521 
  1522   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1523     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1524 
  1525 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1526 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1527 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1528 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1529 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1530 
  1531   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1532     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1533     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1534     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1535     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1536 
  1537     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1538     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1539 
  1540   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1541     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1542     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1543     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1544     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1545     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1546     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1547     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1548 
  1549   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1550     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1551     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1552     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1553 
  1554   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1555     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1556     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1557     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1558 
  1559   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1560     from type nat to type int.
  1561 
  1562 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1563 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1564 
  1565   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1566     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1567     type.  Example syntax:
  1568 
  1569     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1570       is List.insert
  1571 
  1572     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1573     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1574     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1575     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1576     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1577     by the package.
  1578 
  1579   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1580     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1581     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1582     code generation for each constant.
  1583 
  1584   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1585     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1586     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1587     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1588     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1589 
  1590   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1591     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1592     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1593 
  1594 * Quotient package:
  1595 
  1596   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1597     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1598 
  1599   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1600     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1601 
  1602   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1603     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1604     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1607     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1610 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1611 
  1612 * Quickcheck:
  1613 
  1614   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1615     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1616     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1617     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1618     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1619 
  1620     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1621     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1622     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1623 
  1624     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1625     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1626 
  1627     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1628     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1629     show genuine counterexamples.
  1630 
  1631   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1632     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1633 
  1634     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1635     constructors of that type.
  1636 
  1637   - Support for multisets.
  1638 
  1639   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1640 
  1641   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1642     conjectures in a locale context.
  1643 
  1644 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1645 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1646 
  1647 * Sledgehammer:
  1648   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1649     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1650   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1651   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1652     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1653   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1654   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1655   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1656   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1657 
  1658 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1659 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1660 
  1661 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1662 
  1663 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1664 
  1665 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1666 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1667 
  1668   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1669 
  1670 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1671 a list and a nat.
  1672 
  1673 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1674 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1675 
  1676 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1677 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1678 default.
  1679 
  1680 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1681 
  1682   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1683 
  1684 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1685 
  1686 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1687 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1688 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1689 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1690 one_case.
  1691 
  1692 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1693 the result of the fact expression.
  1694 
  1695 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1696 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1697 of some relation theorems:
  1698 
  1699   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1700   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1701   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1702   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1703   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1704   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1705 
  1706 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1707 
  1708 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1709 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1710 
  1711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1712 
  1713 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1714 to match the constant's name:
  1715 
  1716   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1717   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1718   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1719   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1720   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1721   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1722   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1723   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1724   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1725   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1726   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1727   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1728   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1729   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1730   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1731   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1732   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1733   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1734   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1735   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1736   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1737   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1738   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1739   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1740 
  1741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1744 and corresponding theorem names:
  1745 
  1746   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1747 
  1748   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1749 
  1750   - Renamed theorems:
  1751 
  1752     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1753     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1754     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1755     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1756     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1757     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1758     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1759     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1760     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1761     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1762     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1763     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1764     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1765     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1766     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1767     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1768     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1769     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1770     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1771     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1772     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1773     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1774     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1775 
  1776     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1777 
  1778     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1779 
  1780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1783 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1784 
  1785   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1786   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1787   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1788   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1789   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1790   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1791   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1792   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1793   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1794   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1795   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1796   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1797   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1798   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1799   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1800   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1801   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1802   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1803   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1804   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1805   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1806 
  1807 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1808 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1809 
  1810 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1813 
  1814   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1815   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1816   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1817   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1818   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1819   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1820   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1821   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1822   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1823   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1824   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1825   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1826   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1827   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1828   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1829   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1830   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1831   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1832 
  1833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1836 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1837 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1838 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1839 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1840 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1841 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1842 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1843 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1844 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1845 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1846 
  1847 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1848 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1849 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1850 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1851 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1852 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1853 
  1854 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1855 through option types.
  1856 
  1857 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1858 relations.
  1859 
  1860 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1863 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1864 
  1865   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1866   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1867   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1868   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1869   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1870   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1871   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1872   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1873   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1874   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1875   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1876   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1877   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1878   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1879   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1880   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1881   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1882   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1883   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1884   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1885   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1886   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1887   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1888   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1889   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1890   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1891   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1892   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1893   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1894   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1895   zless_le ~> less_le
  1896   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1897   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1898   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1899 
  1900 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1901 
  1902   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1903 
  1904 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1905 
  1906 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1907 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1908 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1909 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1911 
  1912 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1913 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1914 
  1915 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1916 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1917 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1918 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1919 follows:
  1920 
  1921   Operations:
  1922   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1923   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1924   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1925   del -> rbt_del
  1926   delete -> rbt_delete
  1927   ins -> rbt_ins
  1928   insert -> rbt_insert
  1929   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1930   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1931   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1932   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1933   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1934   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1935   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1936   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1937   union -> rbt_union
  1938   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1939   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1940 
  1941   Lemmas:
  1942   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1943   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1944   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1945   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1946   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1947   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1948   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1949   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1950   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1951   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1952   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1953   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1954   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1955   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1956   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1957   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1958   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1959   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1960   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1961   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1962   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1963   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1964   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1965   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1966   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1967   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1968   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1969   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1970   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1971   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1972   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1973   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1974   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1975   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1976   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1977   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1978   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1979   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1980   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1981   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1982   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1983   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1984   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1985   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1986   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1987   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1988   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1989   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1990   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1991   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1992   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1993   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1994   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1995   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1996   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1997   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1998   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1999   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2000   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2001   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2002   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2003   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2004   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2005   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2006   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2007   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2008   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2009   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2010   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2011   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2012   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2013   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2014   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2015   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2016   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2017   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2018   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2019   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2020   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2021   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2022   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2023   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2024   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2025 
  2026 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2027 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2028 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030   Changed Operations:
  2031   float_abs -> abs
  2032   float_nprt -> nprt
  2033   float_pprt -> pprt
  2034   pow2 -> use powr
  2035   round_down -> float_round_down
  2036   round_up -> float_round_up
  2037   scale -> exponent
  2038 
  2039   Removed Operations:
  2040   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2041 
  2042   Renamed Lemmas:
  2043   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2044   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2045   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2046   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2047   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2048   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2049   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2050   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2051   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2052   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2053   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2054   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2055   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2056   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2057   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2058   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2059   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2060   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2061   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2062   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2063   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2064   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2065   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2066   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2067   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2068   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2069   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2070   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2071   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2072   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2073   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2074   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2075   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2076   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2077   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2078   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2079 
  2080   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2081   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2082   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2083   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2084   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2085   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2086   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2087   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2088   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2089   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2090 
  2091 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2092 association lists with distinct keys.
  2093 
  2094 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2095 annotated commands.
  2096 
  2097 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2098 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2099 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2100 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2101 
  2102 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2103 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2104 instead.
  2105 
  2106   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2107   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2108   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2109   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2110   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2111   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2112   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2113   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2114   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2115   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2116   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2117   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2118   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2119   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2120   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2121   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2122   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2123   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2124   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2125   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2126   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2127   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2128   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2129   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2130   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2131   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2132   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2133   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2134   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2135   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2136   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2137   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2138   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2139   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2140   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2141   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2142   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2143   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2144   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2145   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2146   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2147 
  2148 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2149 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2150 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2151 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2152 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2153 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2154 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2155 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2156 
  2157 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2158 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2159 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2160 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2161 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2162 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2163 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2164 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2165 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2166 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2167 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2168 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170   Renamed constants:
  2171   measure -> emeasure
  2172   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2173   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2174   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2175   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2176 
  2177   Removed locales:
  2178   completeable_measure_space
  2179   finite_measure_space
  2180   finite_prob_space
  2181   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2182   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2183   finite_sigma_algebra
  2184   measure_space
  2185   pair_finite_prob_space
  2186   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2187   pair_finite_space
  2188   pair_sigma_algebra
  2189   product_sigma_algebra
  2190 
  2191   Removed constants:
  2192   conditional_space
  2193   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2194   image_space
  2195   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2196   pair_measure_generator
  2197   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2198   subvimage
  2199 
  2200   Replacement theorems:
  2201   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2202   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2203   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2204   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2205   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2206   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2207   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2208   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2209   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2210   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2211   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2212   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2213   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2214   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2215   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2216   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2217   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2218   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2219   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2220   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2221   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2222   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2223   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2224   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2225   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2226   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2227   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2228   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2229   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2230   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2231   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2232   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2233   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2234   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2235   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2236   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2237   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2238   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2239   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2240   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2241   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2242   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2243   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2244   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2245   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2246   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2247   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2248   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2249   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2250   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2251   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2252   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2253   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2254   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2255   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2256   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2257   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2258   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2259   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2260   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2261   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2262   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2263   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2264   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2265   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2266   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2267   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2268   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2269   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2270   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2271   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2272   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2273   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2274   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2275   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2276   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2277   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2278   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2279   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2280   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2281   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2282   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2283   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2284   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2285   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2286   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2287   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2288   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2289   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2290   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2291   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2292   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2293   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2294   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2295   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2296   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2297   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2298   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2299   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2300   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2301   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2302   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2303   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2304   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2305   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2306   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2307   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2308   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2309   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2310   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2311   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2312   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2313   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2314   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2315   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2316   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2317   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2318   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2319   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2320   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2321   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2322   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2323   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2324   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2325   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2326   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2327   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2328   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2329 
  2330 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2331 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2332 
  2333 
  2334 *** FOL ***
  2335 
  2336 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2337 
  2338 
  2339 *** ZF ***
  2340 
  2341 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2342 analysis.
  2343 
  2344 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2345 
  2346 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 
  2349 *** ML ***
  2350 
  2351 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2352 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2353 
  2354 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2355 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2356 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2357 
  2358 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2359 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2360 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2361 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2362 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2363 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2364 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2365 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2366 
  2367 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2368 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2369 
  2370 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2371 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2372 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2373 
  2374 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2375 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2378 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2379 context as well.
  2380 
  2381 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2382 
  2383   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2384   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2385   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2386   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2387   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2388   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2389   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2390   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2391   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2392   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2393   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2394   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2395 
  2396 
  2397 *** System ***
  2398 
  2399 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2400 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2401 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2402 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2403 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2404 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2405 the generic user home was intended.
  2406 
  2407 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2408 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2409 
  2410 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2411 (not just JRE).
  2412 
  2413 
  2414 
  2415 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2416 ------------------------------------
  2417 
  2418 *** General ***
  2419 
  2420 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2421 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2422 
  2423   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2424     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2425     files for checking).
  2426 
  2427   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2428     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2429     positions.
  2430 
  2431   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2432     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2433     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2434 
  2435   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2436     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2437     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2438 
  2439   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2440     cores.
  2441 
  2442   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2443     versions (garbage collection).
  2444 
  2445 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2446 including some remaining limitations.
  2447 
  2448 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2449 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2450 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2451 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2452 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2456 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2457 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2458 
  2459 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2460 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2461 usedir option -Q.
  2462 
  2463 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2464 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2465 
  2466   long_names   ~> names_long
  2467   short_names  ~> names_short
  2468   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2469 
  2470 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2471 
  2472   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2473 
  2474 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2475 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2476 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2477 
  2478 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2479 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2480 
  2481 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2482   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2483   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2484   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2485     "Classical Reasoner".
  2486 
  2487 
  2488 *** HOL ***
  2489 
  2490 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2491 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2494 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2495 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2496 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2497 class complete_linorder.
  2498 
  2499 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2500 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2501 
  2502 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2503 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2504 
  2505   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2506   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2507   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2508   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2509   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2510   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2511   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2512   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2513   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2514   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2515   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2516 
  2517 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2518 
  2519   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2520   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2521   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2522   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2523   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2524   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2525   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2526   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2527   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2528   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2529   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2530   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2531   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2532   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2533   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2534   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2535 
  2536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2542 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2543 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2544 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2545 
  2546 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2547 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2548 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2552 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2553 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2554 
  2555 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2556 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2557 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2560 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2561 
  2562 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2563 
  2564     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2565     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2566 
  2567 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2568 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2569 
  2570 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2571 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2574 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2575 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2576 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2579   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2580   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2581   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2582   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2583   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2584   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2585 
  2586 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2587 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2590   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2591   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2592   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2593   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2594   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2595   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2596   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2597   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2598   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2599   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2600   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2601   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2602   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2603   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2604   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2605   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2606   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2607   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2608   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2609   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2610   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2611   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2612   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2613   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2614   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2615   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2616   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2617   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2618   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2619   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2620   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2621   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2622   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2623   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2624   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2625   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2626   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2627   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2628   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2629   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2630   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2631   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2632   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2633   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2634   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2635   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2636   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2637   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2638   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2639   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2640   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2641   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2642   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2643   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2644   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2645   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2646   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2647   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2648   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2649   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2650   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2651   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2652   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2653   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2654   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2655   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2656   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2657   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2658   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2659   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2660   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2661   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2662   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2663   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2664   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2665   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2666   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2667   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2668   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2669   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2670   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2671 
  2672 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2673 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2674 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2675 
  2676 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2677 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2678 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2679 
  2680 * Code generation:
  2681 
  2682   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2683     characters in the target language.
  2684 
  2685   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2686     instead.
  2687 
  2688   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2689 
  2690   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2691     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2692 
  2693       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2694 
  2695 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2698 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2699 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2700 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2701 syntax.
  2702 
  2703 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2704 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2705 
  2706 * Nitpick:
  2707   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2708   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2709   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2710     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Sledgehammer:
  2713   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2714   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2715     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2716   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2717     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2718   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2719     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2721     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2722   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2723     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Metis:
  2726   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2727   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2728     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * Command 'try':
  2731   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2732     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2734     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2735 
  2736 * Quickcheck:
  2737   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2738     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2739   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2740     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2741   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2742     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2743     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2744     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2745   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2746     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2747 
  2748 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2749 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2750 
  2751 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2752 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2753 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2754 
  2755 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2756 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758 
  2759 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2760 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2763 arithmetic.
  2764 
  2765 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2766 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2767 and lattice type classes.
  2768 
  2769 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2770 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2771 
  2772 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2773 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2774 
  2775 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2776 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2777 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778 
  2779   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2780   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2781   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2782   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2783 
  2784 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2785 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2786 constants:
  2787 
  2788   type inat   ~> type enat
  2789   Fin         ~> enat
  2790   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2791   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2792   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2793 
  2794 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2795 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2798 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2799 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2800 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2801 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2802 
  2803 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2804 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2805 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2806 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2807 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2808 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2809 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2810 
  2811   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2812   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2813   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2814   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2815 
  2816 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2817 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2818 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2819 
  2820   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2821   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2822   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2823   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2824   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2825   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2826   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2827   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2828   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2829   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2830   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2831   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2832   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2833   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2834   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2835   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2836   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2837   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2838   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2839   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2840   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2841   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2842   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2843   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2844   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2845   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2846   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2847   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2848   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2849   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2850   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2851   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2852   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2853   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2854   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2855   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2856   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2857   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2858   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2859   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2860   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2861   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2862   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2863   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2864   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2865   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2866   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2867   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2868   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2869   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2870   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2871 
  2872 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2873   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2874   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2875   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2876   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2877     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2882   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2883   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2884   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2885   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2886   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2887   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2888   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2889   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2890   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2891   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2892   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2893   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2894   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2895   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2896   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2897   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2898   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2899   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2900   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2901   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2902   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2903   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2904   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2905   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2906 
  2907 
  2908 *** Document preparation ***
  2909 
  2910 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2911 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2912 same.
  2913 
  2914 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2915 result.
  2916 
  2917 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2918 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2919 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2920 
  2921 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2922 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2923 
  2924 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2925 like this:
  2926 
  2927   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2928   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2929 
  2930 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2931 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2932 layouts.
  2933 
  2934 
  2935 *** ML ***
  2936 
  2937 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2938 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2939 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2940 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2941 under external program control.
  2942 
  2943 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2944 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2945 
  2946 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2947 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2948 (better known as Proof General).
  2949 
  2950 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2951 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2952 
  2953 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2954 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2955 
  2956 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2957 (including quotes etc.).
  2958 
  2959 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2960 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2961 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2962 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2963 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2964 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2965 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2966 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2967 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2968 
  2969 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2970 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2971 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2972 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2973 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2974 
  2975 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2976 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2977 
  2978 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2979 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2980 
  2981 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2982 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2983 
  2984 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2985 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2986 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2987 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2988 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2990 proper Proof.context.
  2991 
  2992 
  2993 *** System ***
  2994 
  2995 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2996 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2997 
  2998 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2999 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3000 
  3001 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3002 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3003 
  3004   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3005   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3006   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3007   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3008   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3009 
  3010 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3011 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3014 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3015 example:
  3016 
  3017   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3018 
  3019 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3020 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3021 
  3022 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3023 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3024 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3025 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3026 
  3027 
  3028 
  3029 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3030 ----------------------------------
  3031 
  3032 *** General ***
  3033 
  3034 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3035 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3036 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3037 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3038 like this:
  3039 
  3040   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3041 
  3042 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3043 
  3044 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3045 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3046 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3047 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3048 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3049 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3050 
  3051 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3052 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3053 the following package declarations:
  3054 
  3055   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3056   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3057 
  3058 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3059 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3060 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3061 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3062 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3063 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3064 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3065 
  3066 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3067 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3068 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3069 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3070 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3071 
  3072 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3073 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3074 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3075 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3076 
  3077 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3078 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3079 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3080 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3081 
  3082   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3083 
  3084   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3085   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3086   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3087   show_types                    show_types
  3088   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3089   show_consts                   show_consts
  3090   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3091 
  3092   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3093   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3094   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3095 
  3096   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3097   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3098 
  3099   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3100 
  3101   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3102   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3103   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3104   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3105   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3106 
  3107 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3108 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3109 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3110 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3111 
  3112 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3116   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3117 
  3118 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3119 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3120 float_token.
  3121 
  3122 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3123 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3125 
  3126 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3127 DejaVu Sans.
  3128 
  3129 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3130 
  3131 
  3132 *** Pure ***
  3133 
  3134 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3135 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3136 time.
  3137 
  3138 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3139 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3142 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3145 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3146 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3147 command already provided this functionality.
  3148 
  3149 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3150 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3151 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3152 without interpretations.
  3153 
  3154 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3155 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3156 
  3157 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3158 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3159 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3160 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3161 
  3162 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3163 'definition' instead.
  3164 
  3165 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3166 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3167 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3168 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3169 
  3170 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3171 constructors.
  3172 
  3173 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3174 the local file system.
  3175 
  3176 
  3177 *** HOL ***
  3178 
  3179 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3180 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3181 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3182 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3183 
  3184   declare [[coercion f]]
  3185 
  3186 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3187 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3188 
  3189   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3190 
  3191 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3192 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3193 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3194 other theories like this:
  3195 
  3196   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3197 
  3198 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3199 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3200 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3201 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3202 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3203 for examples.
  3204 
  3205 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3206 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3209 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3210 
  3211 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3212 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3213 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3214 
  3215 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3216 functorial structure of types.
  3217 
  3218 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3219 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3220 
  3221 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3222 languages.
  3223 
  3224 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3225 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227 
  3228 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3229 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3232 combinators any longer.
  3233 
  3234 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3235 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3236 
  3237 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3238 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3239 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3240 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3241 
  3242   record 'a foo = ...
  3243   ...
  3244   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3245 
  3246 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3247 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3251 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3252 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3253 
  3254 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3255 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3256 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3257 
  3258 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3259 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3262 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3263 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3264 independently.
  3265 
  3266 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3267 counter example search.
  3268 
  3269 * Sledgehammer:
  3270   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3271     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3272     sledgehammer").
  3273   - Renamed commands:
  3274     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3275     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3276     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3277     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278   - Renamed options:
  3279     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3280     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3281     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3282     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3283     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Nitpick:
  3286   - Renamed options:
  3287     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3288     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3289     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3291   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3292   - Added "whack" option.
  3293   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3294   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3295   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3296   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3297     higher cardinalities.
  3298   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3299 
  3300 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3301 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3302 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3303 
  3304     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3305 
  3306 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3307 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3308 
  3309 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3310 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3311 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3312 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3313 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3314 "smt_solver".
  3315 
  3316 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3317 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3318 
  3319 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3320 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3321 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3322 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323 
  3324 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3325   - Renamed:
  3326     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3327     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3328     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329   - Added:
  3330     smt_verbose
  3331     smt_random_seed
  3332     smt_datatypes
  3333     smt_infer_triggers
  3334     smt_monomorph_limit
  3335     cvc3_options
  3336     remote_cvc3_options
  3337     remote_z3_options
  3338     yices_options
  3339 
  3340 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3341 header.
  3342 
  3343 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3344 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3345 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3346 
  3347   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3348 
  3349 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3352 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3353 
  3354 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3357 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358 
  3359 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3360 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3361 
  3362 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3363 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3366 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3367 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3375 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3378 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3379 for congruent(2)).
  3380 
  3381 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3382 
  3383   types
  3384     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3385     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3386 
  3387   constants
  3388     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3389     True ~> HOL.True
  3390     False ~> HOL.False
  3391     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3392     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3393     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3394     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3395     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3396     The ~> HOL.The
  3397     All ~> HOL.All
  3398     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3399     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3400     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3401     If ~> HOL.If
  3402     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3403     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3404     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3405     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3406     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3407     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3408     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3409     op : ~> Set.member
  3410     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3411 
  3412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3415 
  3416     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3417     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3418     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3419     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3420     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3421     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3422     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3423     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3424 
  3425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * More stylized fact names:
  3428 
  3429   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3430   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3431   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3432   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3433 
  3434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3437 
  3438   constants
  3439     null ~> List.null
  3440 
  3441   facts
  3442     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3443     null_empty ~> null_def
  3444 
  3445 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3446 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3447 generation.
  3448 
  3449 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3450 Haskell code.
  3451 
  3452 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3453 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3454 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3457 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3460 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3461 
  3462 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3463 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3464 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3467 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3473 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3474 referred to by its qualified name.
  3475 
  3476   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3477   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3478   product ~>  Enum.product
  3479 
  3480 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3481 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3485 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3486 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3490 sort_key.
  3491 
  3492 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3496 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3497 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3498 
  3499   types
  3500     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3501               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3502               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3503         (depends on your needs)
  3504 
  3505   constants
  3506      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3507      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3508      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3509 
  3510 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3511 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3512 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3513 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3516 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3517 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3518 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3519 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3525 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3526 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3527 
  3528 
  3529 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3530 
  3531 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3532 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3533 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3534 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3535 compatibility.
  3536 
  3537 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3538 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3539 
  3540 
  3541 *** HOLCF ***
  3542 
  3543 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3544 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3545 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3549 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3550 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3553   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3554   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3555 
  3556 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3557 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3558 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3561 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3562 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3563 domain definition now works:
  3564 
  3565   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3566 
  3567 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3568 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3569 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3570 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3571 
  3572   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3573     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3574 
  3575   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3576 
  3577 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3578 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3579 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3580 
  3581 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3582 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3585 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3586 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3587 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3588 
  3589 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3590 
  3591 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592 
  3593 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597 
  3598 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3599 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3600 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3601 
  3602 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3603 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3604 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3607 still supported as an input translation.
  3608 
  3609 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3610 
  3611   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3612   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3613   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3614   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3615   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3616   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3617   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3618 
  3619 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3620 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3621 
  3622   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3623   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3624   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3625   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3626   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3627   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3628 
  3629 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3630 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3633 
  3634   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3635   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3636   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3637   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3638 
  3639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3642 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3645 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3648   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3649   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3650   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3651   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3652   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3653   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3654   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3655   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3656   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3657   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3658   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3659   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3660   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3661   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3662   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3663   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3664   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3665   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3666   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3667 
  3668 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3669 
  3670   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3671   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3672   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3673   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3674   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3675   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3676   box_less             ~> box_below
  3677   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3678   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3679   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3680   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3681   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3682   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3683   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3684   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3685   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3686   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3687   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3688   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3689   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3690   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3691   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3692   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3693   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3694   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3695   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3696   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3697   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3698   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3699   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3700   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3701   up_less              ~> up_below
  3702   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3703   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3704   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3705   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3706   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3707   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3708   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3709   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3710   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3711   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3712   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3713   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3714   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3715 
  3716 
  3717 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3718 
  3719 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3720 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 
  3723 *** ML ***
  3724 
  3725 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3726 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3727 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3728 
  3729 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3730 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3731 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3732 
  3733 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3734 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3735 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3736 
  3737 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3738 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3739 
  3740 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3741 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3742 
  3743 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3744 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3745 
  3746 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3747 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3748 
  3749 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3750 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3751 almost all situations.
  3752 
  3753 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3754 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3755 Isabelle/ML.
  3756 
  3757 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3758 meaning.
  3759 
  3760 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3761 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3762 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3763 
  3764 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3765 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3766 
  3767 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3768 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3769 
  3770 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3771 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3772 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3773 
  3774 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3775 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3776 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3777 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3778 configuration options.
  3779 
  3780 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3781 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3782 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3783 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3784 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3785 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3786 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3787 
  3788 
  3789 
  3790 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3791 ---------------------------------
  3792 
  3793 *** General ***
  3794 
  3795 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3796 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3797 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3798 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3799 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3800 their full internal name.
  3801 
  3802 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3803 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3804 Some hints on upgrading:
  3805 
  3806   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3807     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3808     which are independent of this issue.
  3809 
  3810   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3811     provides the following special forms:
  3812 
  3813       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3814       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3815       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3816 
  3817     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3818     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3819     extra variables".
  3820 
  3821     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3822     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3823     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3824     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3825     "logic".
  3826 
  3827   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3828     antiquotations:
  3829 
  3830       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3831       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3832       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3833       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3834 
  3835   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3836     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3837     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3838     antiquotations.
  3839 
  3840 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3841 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3842 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3843 diagnose syntax problems.
  3844 
  3845 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3846 
  3847 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3848 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3849 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3850 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3851 
  3852 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3853 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3854 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3855 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3858 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3859 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3860 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3861 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3864 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3865 
  3866 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3867 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3868 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3869 
  3870   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3871 
  3872 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3873 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3874 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3875 
  3876 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3877 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3881 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3882 
  3883 
  3884 *** Pure ***
  3885 
  3886 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3887 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3888 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3889 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3890 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3891 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3892 inspect proof terms.
  3893 
  3894 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3895 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3896 are added internally.  For example:
  3897 
  3898   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3899 
  3900 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3901 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3906 'class' instead.
  3907 
  3908 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3909 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3913 invariants.
  3914 
  3915 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3916 user space functionality any longer.
  3917 
  3918 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3919 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3920 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3923 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3924 
  3925 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3926 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3927 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3928 
  3929 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3930 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3931 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3932 
  3933 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3934 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 
  3937 *** HOL ***
  3938 
  3939 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3940 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3941 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3942 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3943 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3944 
  3945 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3946 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3947 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3948 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3949 
  3950   fun
  3951     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3952   where
  3953     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3954 
  3955   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3956     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3957 
  3958   quotient_definition
  3959     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3960 
  3961 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3962 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3963 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3964 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3965 
  3966 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3967 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3968 
  3969 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3970 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3971 
  3972 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3976 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3977 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3978 
  3979 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3980 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3989 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3992 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3993 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3996   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3997   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3998   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3999   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4000   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4001   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4002   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4003   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4004   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4005   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4006   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4007   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4008   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4009   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4010   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4011   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4012   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4013   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4014   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4015   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4016   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4017   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4018   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4019   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4020   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4021   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4022   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4023   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4024   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4025 
  4026 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4027 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4028 
  4029 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4030 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4031 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4032 
  4033 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4034 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4035 
  4036 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4037 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4040 
  4041 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4042 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4043 
  4044 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4045 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4046 
  4047 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4050 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4051 
  4052 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4053 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4054 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4055 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4058   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4059   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4060   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4064 lattices):
  4065 
  4066     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4067     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4068 
  4069     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4070 
  4071     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4072     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4073     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4074     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4075     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4076     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4077     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4078     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4079     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4080     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4081     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4082     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4083     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4084 
  4085     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4086     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4087     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4088     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4089     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4090     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4091     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4092     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4093     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4094     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4095     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4096     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4097     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4098     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4099     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4100     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4101     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4102     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4103 
  4104   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4105   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4106 
  4107     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4108     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4109     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4110     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4111     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4112 
  4113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115 * Refined field classes:
  4116   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4117     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4118     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4119   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4121 
  4122 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4123   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4124   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4125   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4126     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4127   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4128     equal_neg_zero.
  4129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4132 sets to lattices:
  4133 
  4134   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4135   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4136   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4137   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4138   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4139   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4140   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4141   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4142   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4143   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4144 
  4145 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4146 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4147 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4148 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4149 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4150 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4151 
  4152 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4153 multiset order:
  4154 
  4155   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4156     <= and <;
  4157   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4158     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4159     multiset_order;
  4160   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4161     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4162     generation;
  4163   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4164     if needed.
  4165 
  4166 Renamed:
  4167 
  4168   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4169   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4170   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4171 
  4172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4173 
  4174 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4175 
  4176 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4177 
  4178 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4179 
  4180 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4181 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4182 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4183 
  4184   Constants:
  4185   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4186   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4187   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4188   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4189   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4190   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4191   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4192   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4193   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4194   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4195   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4196   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4197   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4198 
  4199   Lemmas:
  4200   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4201   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4202   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4203   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4204   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4205   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4206   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4207   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4208   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4209   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4210   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4211   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4212   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4213 
  4214 * Sledgehammer:
  4215   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4216     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4217     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4218     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4219     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4220     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4221     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4222   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4223   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4224     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4225   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4226     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4227     is still experimental.)
  4228   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4229     full-typed mode.
  4230   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4231 
  4232 * Nitpick:
  4233   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4234   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4235   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4236     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4237   - Added support for quotient types.
  4238   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4239     constructs.
  4240   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4241     "termination" proofs).
  4242   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4243   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4244   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4245   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4246     record getters.
  4247   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4248   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4249   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4250   - Added "atoms" option.
  4251   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4252     problems.
  4253   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4254     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4255     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4256   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4257     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4259 
  4260 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4261   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4262   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4263   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4264   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4265   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4266   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4267   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4268   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4269   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270 
  4271 
  4272 *** HOLCF ***
  4273 
  4274 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4275 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4276 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4279 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4280 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4281 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4284 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4285 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4286 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4287 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4290 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4291 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4294 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4297   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4298 
  4299 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4300 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4303   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4304   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4305   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4306   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4307 
  4308 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4309 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4312   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4313   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4314 
  4315 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4316 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4320 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4325 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 
  4328 *** ML ***
  4329 
  4330 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4331 
  4332     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4333     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4334 
  4335     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4336     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4337     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4338     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4339 
  4340     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4341     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4342     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4343 
  4344 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4345 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4346 
  4347 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4348 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4349 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4350 
  4351 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4352 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4353 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4354 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4355 
  4356 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4357 the context or even global references.
  4358 
  4359 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4360 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4361 
  4362 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4363 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4364 
  4365   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4366   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4367   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4368   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4369   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4370   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4371   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4372   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4373   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4374   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4375 
  4376 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4377 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4378 
  4379 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4380 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4381 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4382 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4383 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4384 
  4385 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4386 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4387 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4388 Theory_Data version.
  4389 
  4390 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4391 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4392 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4393 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4394 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4395 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4396 explicitly in rare situations.
  4397 
  4398 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4399 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4403 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4406 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4407 quite rare).
  4408 
  4409 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4410 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4413 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4414 terms.
  4415 
  4416 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4417 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4418 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4419 
  4420 
  4421 *** System ***
  4422 
  4423 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4424 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4425 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4426 
  4427 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4428 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4429 respectively.
  4430 
  4431 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4432 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4433 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4434 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4435 
  4436   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4437 
  4438 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4439 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4440 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4441 component.
  4442 
  4443 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4444 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4445 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4446 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4447 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4448 the user for manual installation.
  4449 
  4450 
  4451 
  4452 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4453 -------------------------------------
  4454 
  4455 *** General ***
  4456 
  4457 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4458 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4459 
  4460 
  4461 *** Pure ***
  4462 
  4463 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4464 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4465 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4466 
  4467 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4468 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4469 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4470 
  4471 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4472 interpretation.
  4473 
  4474 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4475 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477 
  4478 *** Document preparation ***
  4479 
  4480 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4481 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4482 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4483 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4484 
  4485 
  4486 *** HOL ***
  4487 
  4488 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4489 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4490 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4491 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4492 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4493 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4494 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4495 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4496 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4497 
  4498 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4499 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4500 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4501 
  4502 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4503 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4504 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4505 
  4506 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4507 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4508 
  4509 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4510 
  4511 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4512 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4513 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4514 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4515 
  4516 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4517 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4518 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4519 "mirabelle" utility.
  4520 
  4521 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4522 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4523 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4524 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4525 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4526 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4527 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4528 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4529 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4530 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4531 
  4532 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4533 procedure only.
  4534 
  4535 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4536 
  4537 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4538 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4539 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4540 that fail later.
  4541 
  4542 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4543 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4544 
  4545 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4546 the same method as the approximation method.
  4547 
  4548 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4549 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4550 series expansion.
  4551 
  4552 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4553 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4554 
  4555 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4556 reals.
  4557 
  4558 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4559 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4560 
  4561 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4562 fixpoint theorem.
  4563 
  4564 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4565   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4566     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4567   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4568     accordingly
  4569   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4570     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4571   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4572     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4573 
  4574 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4575 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4576 lattice.
  4577 
  4578 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4579 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4580 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4581 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4582 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4583 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4587   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4588     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4589   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4590     le_inf_iff
  4591   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4592     sup_aci)
  4593   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4594   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4595   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4596     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4597     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4598     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4599     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4600     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4601     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4602     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4603     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4604     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4605     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4606   - authentic syntax for
  4607     Set.Pow
  4608     Set.image
  4609   - mere abbreviations:
  4610     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4611     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4612     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4613     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4614     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4615     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4616     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4617     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4618   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4619 
  4620 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4621 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4622 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4623 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4624 
  4625 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4626 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4627 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4630 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4633 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4634 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4635 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4638 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4639 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4640 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4641 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4642 
  4643 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4644 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4648 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4649 
  4650 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4651 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4652 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4653 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4654 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4655 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4656 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4660     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4661     code_post       replaces    code post
  4662     etc.
  4663   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 * Renamed methods:
  4666     sizechange -> size_change
  4667     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4668   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4671 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4672 
  4673 * Renamed theorems:
  4674     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4675     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4676     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4677     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4678     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4679   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 
  4688 *** HOLCF ***
  4689 
  4690 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4691 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4692 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4693 
  4694 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4695 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4696 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4697 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4698 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4699 
  4700 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4701 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4702 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4703 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4704 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4705 
  4706 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4707 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4708 constructor are pre-configured.
  4709 
  4710 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4711 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4712 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4713 
  4714 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4715 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4716 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4717 as well.)
  4718 
  4719 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4720 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4721 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4722 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4723 examples.
  4724 
  4725 
  4726 *** ML ***
  4727 
  4728 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4729 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4730 
  4731 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4732 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4733 position, logical grouping etc.
  4734 
  4735 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4736 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4737 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4738 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4739 
  4740 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4741 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4742 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4743 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4744 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4745 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4746 
  4747 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4748 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4749 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4750 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4751 experiments with references.
  4752 
  4753 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4754 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4755 
  4756 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4757 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4758 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4759 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4760 
  4761 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4762 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4763 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4764 
  4765 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4766 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4767 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4768 
  4769 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4773 
  4774 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4775 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4776 
  4777 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4778 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4779 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4780 
  4781 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4782 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4783 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4786 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4787 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4791 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4792 instead of global theory.
  4793 
  4794 
  4795 *** System ***
  4796 
  4797 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4798 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4799 usedir option -q.
  4800 
  4801 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4802 also the system manual.
  4803 
  4804 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4805 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4806 
  4807 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4808 this is always enabled.
  4809 
  4810 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4811 
  4812 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4813 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4814 currently supported on Linux only.
  4815 
  4816 
  4817 
  4818 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4819 --------------------------------
  4820 
  4821 *** General ***
  4822 
  4823 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4824 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4825 
  4826   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4827     "isatool."
  4828 
  4829   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4830     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4831 
  4832   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4833     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4834 
  4835 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4836 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4837 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4838 
  4839 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4840 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4841 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4842 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4843 via "isabelle emacs".
  4844 
  4845 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4846 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4847 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4848 
  4849 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4850 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4851 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4852 
  4853 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4854 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4855 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4856 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4857 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4858 
  4859 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4860 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4861 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4862 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4863 
  4864 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4865 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4866 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4867 
  4868 
  4869 *** Pure ***
  4870 
  4871 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4872 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4873 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4874 
  4875 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4876 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4877 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4878 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4879 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4880 
  4881 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4882 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4883 useful in locale declarations.
  4884 
  4885 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4886 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4887 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4888 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4889 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4890 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4891 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4892 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4893 no longer generated.
  4894 
  4895 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4896 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4897 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4898 
  4899 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4900 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4901 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4902 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4903 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4904 
  4905 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4907 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4908 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4909 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4910 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4911 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4912 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4913 
  4914 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4915 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4916 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4917 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4918 
  4919 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4920 
  4921 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4922 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4923 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4924 
  4925 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4926 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4929 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4930 in HOL, write
  4931 
  4932     class foo = ...
  4933 
  4934 instead of
  4935 
  4936     class foo = type + ...
  4937 
  4938 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4939 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4942 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4943 
  4944 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4945 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4946 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4947 
  4948 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4949 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4950 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4951 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4952 directly in regular applications.
  4953 
  4954 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4955 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4956 
  4957 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4958 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4959 
  4960 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4961 theory context.
  4962 
  4963 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4964 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4967 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4968 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4969 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4970 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4971 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4972 
  4973   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4974 
  4975 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4976 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4977 normalization.
  4978 
  4979 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4980 addressing etc.
  4981 
  4982 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4983 
  4984   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4985   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4986 
  4987 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4988 
  4989   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4990      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4991      parts of the code generator framework).
  4992 
  4993   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4994      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4995      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4996 
  4997 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5000 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5001 
  5002 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5003 patterns, e.g.
  5004 
  5005     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5006 
  5007 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5008 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5009 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5010 hyphen:
  5011 
  5012     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5013 
  5014 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5015 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5016 
  5017 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5018 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5019 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5020 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5021 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5022 higher-order unification.
  5023 
  5024 
  5025 *** Document preparation ***
  5026 
  5027 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5028 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5029 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5030 
  5031 
  5032 *** HOL ***
  5033 
  5034 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5035 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5036 
  5037 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5038 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5039 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5040 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5041 Main, as before.
  5042 
  5043 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5044 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5045 
  5046 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5047 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5048 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5049 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5050 
  5051 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5052 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5053 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5054 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5055 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5056 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5057 
  5058 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5059 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5060 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5061 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5062 
  5063 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5064 menu.
  5065 
  5066 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5067 (contains the empty clause).
  5068 
  5069 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5070 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5071 
  5072 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5073 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5074 
  5075 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5076 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5077 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 
  5079 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5080 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5081 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5082 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5083 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5084 
  5085 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5086 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5087 
  5088 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5089 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5090 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5091 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5092 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5093 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5094 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5095 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5096 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5097 
  5098 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5099 
  5100 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5101 
  5102 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5103 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5104 
  5105 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5106 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5107 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5108 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5109 
  5110 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5111 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5112 
  5113     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5114     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5115     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5116     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5117     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5118     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5119     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5120     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5121 
  5122 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5123 theory Set.
  5124 
  5125 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5126 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5127 
  5128 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5129 
  5130 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5131 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5132 
  5133 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5134 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5135 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5136 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5137 allowed. For examples see
  5138 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5139 
  5140 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5141 
  5142 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5146 structure:
  5147 
  5148     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5149     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5150     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5151     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5152     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5153     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5154     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5155     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5156     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5157     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5158     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5159     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5160     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5161     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5162     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5163     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5164     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5165     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5166     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5167     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5168     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5169     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5170     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5171     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5172     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5173     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5174     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5175     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5176     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5177     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5178     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5179     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5180     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5181 
  5182     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5183     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5184     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5185     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5186     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5187     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5188     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5189     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5190     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5191     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5192 
  5193     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5194     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5195     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5196     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5197     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5198     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5199 
  5200 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5201 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5202 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5203 
  5204 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5205 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5206 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5207 
  5208 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5209 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5210 
  5211 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5212 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5213 
  5214 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5215 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5216 proofs, e.g.
  5217 
  5218   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5219 
  5220 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5221 
  5222 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5223 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5224 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 
  5226 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5227 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5229 
  5230 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5231 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5232 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5234 
  5235 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5236 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5237 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5238 preorder_class.*.
  5239 
  5240 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5241 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5242 
  5243 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5244 
  5245   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5246 
  5247 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5248 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5249 fold_image.
  5250 
  5251 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5252 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5253 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5254 the former will disappear at some point.
  5255 
  5256 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5257 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5258 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5259 
  5260 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5261 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5262 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5263 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5264 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5265 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5266 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5267 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5268 
  5269 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5270 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5271 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5272 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5273 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5274 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5275 
  5276     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5277     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5278     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5279     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5280     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5281     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5282     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5283 
  5284 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5285 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5286 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5287 
  5288 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5289 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5290 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5291 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5292 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5293 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5294 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5295 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5296 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5297 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5298 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5299 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5300 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5301 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5302 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5303 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5304 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5305 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5306 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5307 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5308 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5309 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5310 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5311 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5312 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5313 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5314 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5315 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5316 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5317 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5318 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5319 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5320 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5321 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5322 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5323 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5324 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5325 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5326 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5327 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5328 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5329 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5330 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5331 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5332 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5333 
  5334 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5335 
  5336 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5337 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5338 
  5339 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5340 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5341 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5342 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5343 
  5344 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5345 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5346 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5347 theory RealVector.
  5348 
  5349 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5350 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5351 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5352 and inner products are included.
  5353 
  5354 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5355 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5356 supported.
  5357 
  5358 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5359 first diagonalization argument.
  5360 
  5361 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5362 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5363 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5364 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5365 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5366 
  5367     hide (open) const gcd
  5368     abbreviation gcd where
  5369       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5370     notation (output)
  5371       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5372 
  5373 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5374 
  5375 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5376 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5377 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378 
  5379 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5380 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5381 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5382 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5383 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5384 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5385 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5386 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5387 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5388 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5389 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5390 cases.
  5391 
  5392 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5393 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5394 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5395 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5396 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5397 
  5398     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5399     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5400     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5401     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5402     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5403 
  5404 
  5405 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5406 
  5407 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5408 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5409 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5410 
  5411 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5412 
  5413 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5414 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5415 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5416 
  5417 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5418 
  5419 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5420 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5421 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5422 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5423 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5424 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5425 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5426 
  5427 
  5428 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5429 
  5430 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5431 
  5432 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5433 theory targets.
  5434 
  5435 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5436 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5437 'inductive' etc.
  5438 
  5439 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5440 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5441 
  5442 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5443 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5444 
  5445 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5446 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5447 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5448 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5449 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5450 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5451 the algorithm W:
  5452 
  5453  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5454  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5455          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5456 
  5457 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5458 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5459 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5460 
  5461 
  5462 *** HOLCF ***
  5463 
  5464 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5465 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5466 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5467 
  5468 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5469 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5470 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5471 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5472 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5473 
  5474 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5475 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5476 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 
  5479 *** ZF ***
  5480 
  5481 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5482 
  5483 
  5484 *** ML ***
  5485 
  5486 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5487 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5488 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5489 5.2.1!
  5490 
  5491 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5492 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5493 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5494 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5495 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5496 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5497 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5498 
  5499 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5500 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5501 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5502 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5503 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5504 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5505 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5506 
  5507 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5508 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5509 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5510 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5511 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5512 
  5513 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5514 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5515 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5516 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5517 Method.add_method.
  5518 
  5519 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5520 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5521 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5522 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5523 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5524 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5525 
  5526 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5527 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5528 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5529 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5530 examples.
  5531 
  5532 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5533 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5534 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5535 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5536 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5537 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5538 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5539 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5540 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5541 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5542 
  5543 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5544 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5545 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5546 
  5547 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5548 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5549 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5550 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5551 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5552 resort for legacy applications.
  5553 
  5554 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5555 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5556 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5557 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5558 explicit runtime argument.
  5559 
  5560 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5561 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5562 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5563 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5564 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5567 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5568 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5569 theory state.
  5570 
  5571 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5572 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5573 
  5574   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5575   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5576   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5577   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5578   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5579   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5580   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5581   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5582   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5583   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5584 
  5585 
  5586 *** System ***
  5587 
  5588 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5589 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5590 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5591 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5592 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5593 
  5594 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5595 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5596 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5597 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5598 
  5599 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5600 
  5601 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5602 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5603 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5604 prover operations.
  5605 
  5606 
  5607 
  5608 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5609 -------------------------------
  5610 
  5611 *** General ***
  5612 
  5613 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5614 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5615 
  5616 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5617 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5618 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5619 provides a proper context already.
  5620 
  5621 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5622 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5623 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5624 
  5625 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5626 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5627 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5628 swap theory imports.
  5629 
  5630 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5631 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5632 
  5633 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5634 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5635 white space without escapes.
  5636 
  5637 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5638 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5639 "foo_bar".
  5640 
  5641 
  5642 *** Pure ***
  5643 
  5644 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5645 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5646 
  5647 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5648 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5649 
  5650 (1) unused_thms
  5651      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5652 
  5653 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5654      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5655      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5656 
  5657 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5658      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5659      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5660      their ancestors.
  5661 
  5662 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5663 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5664 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5665 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5666 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5667 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5668 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5669 
  5670 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5671 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5672 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5673 
  5674 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5675 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5676 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5677 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5678 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5679 
  5680 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5681 
  5682 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5683 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5684 update of theories within ML code.
  5685 
  5686 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5688 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5689 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5690 
  5691 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5692 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5693 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5695 
  5696 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5697 
  5698 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5699 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5700 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5701 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5702 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5703 
  5704 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5705 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5706 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5707 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5708 situations.
  5709 
  5710 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5711 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5712 proof text.
  5713 
  5714 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5715 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5716 
  5717 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5718 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5719 predicates.
  5720 
  5721 
  5722 *** Document preparation ***
  5723 
  5724 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5725 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5726 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5727 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5728 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5729 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5730 
  5731 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5732 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5733 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5734 
  5735 
  5736 *** HOL ***
  5737 
  5738 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5739 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5740 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5741 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5742 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5743 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5744 
  5745 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5746 with multithreading.
  5747 
  5748 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5749 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5750 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5751 
  5752 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5753 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5754 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5755 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5756 
  5757 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5758 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5759 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5760 and makes them available separately.  See
  5761 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5762 
  5763 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5764 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5765 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5766 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5767 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5768 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5769 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5770 the declared rules.
  5771 
  5772 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5773 
  5774   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5775 
  5776 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5777 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5778 
  5779 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5780 
  5781   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5782 
  5783   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5784     definitions on => and bool.
  5785 
  5786   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5787     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5788     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5789 
  5790       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5791       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5792       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5793       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5794       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5795       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5796       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5797       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5798 
  5799   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5800     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5801     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5802 
  5803   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5804     The proof pattern
  5805 
  5806       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5807       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5808 
  5809     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5810     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5811 
  5812       have "EX S. P S"
  5813       proof
  5814         show "P S" <...>
  5815       qed
  5816 
  5817   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5818     The proof pattern
  5819 
  5820       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5821       also have "S = T" <...>
  5822       finally have "P T" .
  5823 
  5824     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5825     must be replaced by something like
  5826 
  5827       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5828       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5829       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5830 
  5831   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5832     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5833 
  5834       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5835 
  5836     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5837     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5838     type of the form
  5839 
  5840       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5841 
  5842     rather than
  5843 
  5844       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5845 
  5846 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5847 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5848 
  5849 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5850 
  5851 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5852 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5854 
  5855 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5856 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5857 
  5858 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5859 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5860 
  5861 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5862 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5863 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5864 
  5865 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5866 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5867 
  5868   less_trans
  5869   less_linear
  5870   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5871   le_less_trans
  5872   less_le_trans
  5873   less_not_sym
  5874   less_asym
  5875 
  5876 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5877 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5878 and different variable names.
  5879 
  5880 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5881 
  5882 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5883 finite maps.
  5884 
  5885 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5886 
  5887 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5888 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5889 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5890 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5891 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5892 accordingly.
  5893 
  5894 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5895 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5896 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5897 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5898 
  5899 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5900 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5901 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5902 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5903 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5907 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5908 
  5909 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5910 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5911 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5912 
  5913 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5917 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5918 
  5919 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5920 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5921 
  5922 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5923 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5924 
  5925 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5926 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5930 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5933 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5934 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5935 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5936 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5937 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5938 
  5939 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5940 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5941 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5942 
  5943 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5944 
  5945 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5946 
  5947 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5948 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5949 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5950 
  5951 
  5952 *** ZF ***
  5953 
  5954 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5955 same session:
  5956 
  5957   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5958   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5959   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5960   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5961   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5962   List      -> List_ZF
  5963   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5964 
  5965 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5966 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5967 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5968 
  5969 
  5970 *** ML ***
  5971 
  5972 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5973 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5974 
  5975 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5976 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5977 
  5978 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5979 
  5980 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5981 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5982 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5983 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5984 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5985 
  5986 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5987 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5988 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5989 
  5990 
  5991 *** System ***
  5992 
  5993 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5994 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5995 
  5996 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5997 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5998 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5999 
  6000 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6001 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6002 
  6003 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6004 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6005 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6006 
  6007 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6008 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6009 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6010 
  6011 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6012 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6013 
  6014 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6015 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6016 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6017 script.
  6018 
  6019 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6020 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6021 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6022 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6023 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6024 
  6025 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6026 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6027 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6028 
  6029 
  6030 
  6031 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6032 -----------------------------------
  6033 
  6034 *** General ***
  6035 
  6036 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6037 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6038 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6039 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6040 
  6041 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6042 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6043 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6044 
  6045 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6046 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6047 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6048 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6049 
  6050 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6051 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6052 quotes.
  6053 
  6054 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6055 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6056 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6057 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6058 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6059 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6060 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6061 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6062 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6063 
  6064 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6065 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6066 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6067 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6068 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6069 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6070 
  6071 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6072 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6073 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6074 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6075 
  6076 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6077 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6078 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6079 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6080 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6081 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6082 
  6083 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6084 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6085 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6086 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6087 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6088 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6089 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6090 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6091 
  6092 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6093 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6094 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6095 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6096 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6097 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6098 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6099 
  6100 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6101 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6102 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6103 
  6104 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6105 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6106 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6107 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6108 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6109 limit is imposed.
  6110 
  6111 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6112 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6113 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6114 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6115 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6116 and scalability.
  6117 
  6118 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6119 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6120 
  6121 
  6122 *** Document preparation ***
  6123 
  6124 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6125 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6126 current context.
  6127 
  6128 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6129 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6130 
  6131 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6132 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6133 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6134 
  6135 
  6136 *** Pure ***
  6137 
  6138 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6139 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6140 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6141 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6142 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6143 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6144 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6145 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6146 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6147 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6148 
  6149 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6150 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6151 sketch:
  6152 
  6153     internal compilation:
  6154         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6155     writing SML code to a file:
  6156         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6157     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6158         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6159     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6160         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6161 
  6162     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6163         method ``eval''
  6164 
  6165 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6166 
  6167 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6168 
  6169     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6170     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6171     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6172     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6173 
  6174 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6175 
  6176     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6177       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6178 
  6179     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6180       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6181 
  6182     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6183       {(target)}+
  6184         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6185 
  6186     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6187       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6188         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6189 
  6190 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6191 
  6192 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6193 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6194 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6195 codegen".
  6196 
  6197 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6198 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6199 annotations).
  6200 
  6201 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6202 syntax.
  6203 
  6204 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6205 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6206 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6207 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6208 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6209 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6210 
  6211 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6212 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6213 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6214 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6215 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6216 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6217 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6218 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6219 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6220 equations, see section "definitions".
  6221 
  6222 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6223 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6224 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6225 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6226 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6227 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6228 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6229 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6230 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6231 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6232 
  6233 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6234 configuration options:
  6235 
  6236   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6237   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6238   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6239   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6240   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6241   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6242   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6243   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6244   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6245 
  6246 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6247 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6248 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6249 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6250 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6251 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6252 order.
  6253 
  6254 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6255 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6256 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6257 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6258 context encountered later on.
  6259 
  6260 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6261 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6262 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6263 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6264 
  6265 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6266 abbreviates a theorem reference in