NEWS
author blanchet
Tue May 20 16:46:42 2014 +0200 (2014-05-20)
changeset 57020 f7cf92543e6c
parent 56996 891e992e510f
child 57028 e5466055e94f
permissions -rw-r--r--
news
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * Old datatype package:
   321   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   322     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   325     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   326     "case_prod").
   327     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   330   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   331   datatype package.
   332   Renamed constants:
   333     Option.set ~> set_option
   334     Option.map ~> map_option
   335     option_rel ~> rel_option
   336   Renamed theorems:
   337     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   338     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   339     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   340     option.recs ~> option.rec
   341     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   342     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   343     map.simps ~> list.map
   344     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   345     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   346     the.simps ~> option.sel
   347   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   350     sum_map ~> map_sum
   351     map_pair ~> map_prod
   352     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   353     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   354     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   355     set_rel ~> rel_set
   356     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   357     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   358     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   359     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   360 
   361 * New theory:
   362     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   363 
   364 * Theory reorganizations:
   365   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   366 
   367 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   368   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   369   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   370   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   371   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   372   the old default can be restored using
   373   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * SMT module:
   376   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   377     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   378     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   379     elsewhere.
   380 
   381 * Sledgehammer:
   382   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   383   - MaSh overhaul:
   384       - A new SML-based learning engine eliminates the dependency on Python
   385         and increases performance and reliability. See the Sledgehammer
   386         documentation for details.
   387   - New option:
   388       smt_proofs
   389   - Renamed options:
   390       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   391       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Metis:
   395   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   396     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   399 
   400 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   403 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   404 
   405 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   406 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   407 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   408 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   409 
   410 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   412 
   413 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   414 with the given constants.
   415 
   416 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   417 
   418 Fact consolidations:
   419     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   420     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   421     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   422     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   423     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   424     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   425     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   426     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   427     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   428     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   429     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   430     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   431     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   432     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   433     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   434     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   435     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   436     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   437     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   438     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   439     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   440     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   441     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   442     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   443     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   444     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   445     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   446     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   447     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   448     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   449     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   450     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   451     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   452     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   453     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   454     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   455     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   456     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   457     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   458     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   459 
   460 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   461 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   462 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   463 
   464 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   465 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   466 
   467 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   468 
   469 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   470 
   471 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   473 
   474 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   476 
   477 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   478 operations on records.
   479 
   480 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   484     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   488     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   489     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   491 
   492 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   493   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   494   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   495   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   496     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   497   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   498     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   499   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   503     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   504     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   505     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   506     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Fact name consolidation:
   510     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   511     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   512     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   513     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   514     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   516 
   517 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   518 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   519 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   520 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   521 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   522 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   523 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   524 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   527 
   528 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   529 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   530 
   531 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   532 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   533 
   534 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   535 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   536 or the brute way with
   537 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   538 
   539 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   540 
   541 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   542 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   543 
   544 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   545 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   546 
   547 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   548 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   549 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   550 INCOMPATIBILITY
   551 
   552 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   553   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   554   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   555   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   556   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   557   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   558   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   559   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   560   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   561   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   562   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   563   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   564 
   565   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   566 
   567   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   568     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   569     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   570     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   571     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   575   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   576 
   577   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   578 
   579   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   580 
   581   - removed constant isDiff
   582 
   583   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   584     syntax.
   585 
   586   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   587 
   588   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   589 
   590   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   591 
   592   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   593 
   594   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   595     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   596 
   597   - Other renamings:
   598     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   599     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   600     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   601     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   602     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   603     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   604     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   608   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   609 
   610 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   611   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   612   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   613 
   614   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   615   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   616   removes
   617     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   618 
   619   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   620     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   621 
   622   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   623 
   624   Renamings:
   625     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   626     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   627     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   628     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   629     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   630     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   631     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   632     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   633     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   634     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   635     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   636     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   637 
   638     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   639     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   640     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   641 
   642   Removed theorems:
   643     complex_zero_def
   644     complex_add_def
   645     complex_minus_def
   646     complex_diff_def
   647     complex_one_def
   648     complex_mult_def
   649     complex_inverse_def
   650     complex_scaleR_def
   651 
   652 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   653 
   654 * Nitpick:
   655   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   656     infinite values.
   657   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   658     "Rep_Integ".
   659   - Removed "std" option.
   660   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   661     "hide_types".
   662 
   663 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   664   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   665   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   666     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   667     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   668     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   669     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   670     intervals.
   671 
   672   - renamed theorems:
   673     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   674     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   675     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   676 
   677 * HOL-Probability:
   678   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   679     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   680 
   681     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   682     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   683     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   684     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   685     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   686     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   687     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   688     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   689     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   690     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   691     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   692     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   693     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   694     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   695     integral_indicator          ~>
   696          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   697     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   698     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   699     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   700 
   701     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   702          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   703 
   704     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   705          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   706 
   707     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   708          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   709 
   710     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   711          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   712          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   713 
   714     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   715          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   716 
   717     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   718          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   719 
   720     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   721          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   722          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   723 
   724     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   725          positive_integral_real_affine
   726 
   727     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   728          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   729 
   730     The following theorems where removed:
   731 
   732     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   733     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   734     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   735     lebesgue_integral_multc
   736     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   737     integral_cmul_indicator
   738     integral_real
   739 
   740   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   741 
   742     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   743       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   744 
   745     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   746 
   747 *** Scala ***
   748 
   749 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   750 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   751 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   752 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   753 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 
   756 *** ML ***
   757 
   758 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   759 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   760 
   761 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   762 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   763 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   769 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   770 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   774 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   775 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   776 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   777 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   778 of schematic variables.
   779 
   780 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   781 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   783 formal context.
   784 
   785 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   786 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   787 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   788 actually belongs to it).
   789 
   790 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   791 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   792 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   793 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   794 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   795 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   796 
   797 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   798 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   801 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   802 
   803 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   804 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   805 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   806 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   807 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   808 
   809 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   810 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   811 purposes.
   812 
   813 
   814 *** System ***
   815 
   816 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   817 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   818 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   819 processing is started.
   820 
   821 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   822 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   823 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   824 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   825 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   826 
   827 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   828 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   829 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   830 
   831 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   832 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   833 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   834 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   835 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   836 settings variable yet.
   837 
   838 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   839 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   840 
   841 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   842 -------------------------------------
   843 
   844 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   845 
   846 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   847 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   848 
   849 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   850 after edits surrounding the command location.
   851 
   852 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   853 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   854 e.g. out-of-memory).
   855 
   856 
   857 *** System ***
   858 
   859 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   860 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   861 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   862 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   863 
   864 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   865 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   866 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   867 
   868 
   869 
   870 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   871 -------------------------------------
   872 
   873 *** General ***
   874 
   875 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   876 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   877 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   880 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   883 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   884 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   885 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   886 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   887 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   888 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   889 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   890 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   891 syntax.
   892 
   893 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   894 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   897 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   898 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   899 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   900 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   901 
   902 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   906 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   907 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   908 
   909 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   910 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   911 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   912 
   913 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   914 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   915 
   916 
   917 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   918 
   919 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   920 Documentation panel.
   921 
   922 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   923 documentation.
   924 
   925 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   926 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   927 
   928 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   929 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   930 normal editing and checking process.
   931 
   932 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   933 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   934 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   935 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   936 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   937 
   938 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   939 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   940 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   941 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   942 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   943 
   944 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   945 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   946 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   947 
   948 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   949 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   950 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   951 to resolve conflict.
   952 
   953 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   954 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   955 
   956 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   957 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   958 such command executions while editing.
   959 
   960 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   961 document content.
   962 
   963 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   964 toplevel theorem statements.
   965 
   966 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   967 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   968 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   969 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   970 
   971 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   972 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   973 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   974 
   975 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   976 / Global Options / Appearance".
   977 
   978 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   979 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   980 
   981 
   982 *** Pure ***
   983 
   984 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   985 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   986 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   987 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   988 details.
   989 
   990 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   991 
   992 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   993 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   994 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   995 
   996 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1000 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1001 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1002 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1005 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1006 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1009 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1010 
  1011 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1012 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1013 situations.
  1014 
  1015 
  1016 *** HOL ***
  1017 
  1018 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1019 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1023 
  1024 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1025 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1026 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1027 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1028 
  1029   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1030 
  1031 * Code generator:
  1032   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1033     'code_instance'.
  1034   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1035     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1036 
  1037 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1038 examples.
  1039 
  1040 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1041 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1042 to distinguish both when desired.
  1043 
  1044 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1045 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1046 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1047 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1048 
  1049 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1050 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1051 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1052 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1053 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1054 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1057 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1058 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1059 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1060 
  1061 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1062 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1063 
  1064 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1065 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1066 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1067 
  1068 * Lifting:
  1069   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1070     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1071       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1072       transfer rules
  1073     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1074       correspondence relation can be generated
  1075     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1076       parametricity
  1077     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1078   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1079   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1080     copies
  1081   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1082     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1083     anonymous context)
  1084   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1085     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1086   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1087     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1088   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1089     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1090 
  1091 * Transfer:
  1092   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1093     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1094   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1095   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1096     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1097   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1098 
  1099 * Reification and reflection:
  1100   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1101     "Reification".
  1102   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1103   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1107   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1108     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1109     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1110   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1111     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1112   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1113     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1114     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1115     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1116     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1117     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1118     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1119     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1120   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1121     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1122   - Fact renames:
  1123       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1124       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1128 
  1129 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1130 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1131 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1133 
  1134 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1135 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1136 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1137 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1138 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1139 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1140 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1141 lemmas.
  1142 
  1143 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1144 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1145 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1148 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1149 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1150 
  1151 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1152 top and bottom elements.
  1153 
  1154 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1155 
  1156 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1157 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1158 
  1159  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1160    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1161    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1162 
  1163  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1164    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1165    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1166 
  1167    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1168    arbitrary filter.
  1169 
  1170  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1171    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1172    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1173    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1174    on a compact set.
  1175 
  1176  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1177    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1178    linear_continuum_topology).
  1179 
  1180  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1181    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1182    on all sequences converging to x.
  1183 
  1184  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1185    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1186    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1187    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1188    left or right.
  1189 
  1190  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1191 
  1192      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1193 
  1194  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1195    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1196 
  1197  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1198    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1199    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1200    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1201    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1202    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1203 
  1204  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1205 
  1206    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1207 
  1208    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1209      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1210 
  1211    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1212 
  1213    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1214      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1215 
  1216    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1217 
  1218    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1219 
  1220  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1221 
  1222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 * Nitpick:
  1225   - Added option "spy".
  1226   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1227 
  1228 * Sledgehammer:
  1229   - Renamed option:
  1230       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1231     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1233   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1234   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1235 
  1236 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1237 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1238 
  1239 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1240   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1241   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1242     generated code.
  1243   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1244   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1245   - Fact renames:
  1246     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1247     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1248     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1249 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1250 
  1251 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1252 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1253 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1254 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1255 
  1256 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1257 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1258 
  1259 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1260 
  1261 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1262 
  1263     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1264     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1265 
  1266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1267 
  1268 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1269 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1270 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1271 
  1272 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1273 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1274 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1275 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * HOL-BNF:
  1278   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1279     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1280     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1281     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1282   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1283     coinduct).
  1284   - Renamed keywords:
  1285     data ~> datatype_new
  1286     codata ~> codatatype
  1287     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1288   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1289     discs ~> disc
  1290     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1291     map_id' ~> map_id
  1292     sels ~> sel
  1293     set_map' ~> set_map
  1294     sets ~> set
  1295 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1296 
  1297 
  1298 *** ML ***
  1299 
  1300 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1301 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1302 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1303 Examples.thy in particular.
  1304 
  1305 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1306 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1307 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1308 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1309 
  1310 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1311 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1312 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1313 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1317 
  1318     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1319     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1320 
  1321 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1324 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1325 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1326 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1327 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1328 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1329 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1330 
  1331 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1332 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1333 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1334 clasets separately from the context.
  1335 
  1336 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1337 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1338 
  1339 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1340 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1341 
  1342 
  1343 *** System ***
  1344 
  1345 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1346 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1349 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1350 
  1351 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1352 settings variable.
  1353 
  1354 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1355 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1356 always pdf.
  1357 
  1358 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1359 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1360 
  1361 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1362 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1363 
  1364 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1365 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1366 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1367 
  1368 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1369 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1370 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1371 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1372 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1373 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1374 
  1375 
  1376 
  1377 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1378 -----------------------------------
  1379 
  1380 *** General ***
  1381 
  1382 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1383 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1384 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1385 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1386 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1387 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1388 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1389 
  1390 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1391 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1392 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1393 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1394 
  1395 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1396 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1397 
  1398 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1399 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1400 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1401 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1402 dependencies properly.
  1403 
  1404 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1405 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1406 
  1407 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1408 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1409 
  1410 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1411 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1412 and "class ... context ...".
  1413 
  1414 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1415 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1416 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1417 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1418 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1419 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1420 
  1421 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1422 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1423 
  1424 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1425 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1426 
  1427 
  1428 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1429 
  1430 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1431 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1432 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1433 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1434 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1435 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1436 
  1437 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1438 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1439 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1440 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1441 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1442 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1443 
  1444 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1445 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1446 browser on demand.
  1447 
  1448 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1449 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1450 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1451 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1452 
  1453 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1454 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1455 
  1456 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1457 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1458 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1459 potentially infinite message streams.
  1460 
  1461 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1462 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1463 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1464 schemes.
  1465 
  1466 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1467 symbols.
  1468 
  1469 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1470 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1471 
  1472 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1473 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1474 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1475 
  1476 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1477 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1478 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1479 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1480 
  1481 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1482 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1483 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1484 
  1485 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1486 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1487 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1488 Isabelle distribution.
  1489 
  1490 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1491 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1492 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1493 
  1494 
  1495 *** Pure ***
  1496 
  1497 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1498 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1499 
  1500 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1501 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1502 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1505 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1506 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1507 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1508 with some care where this is really required.
  1509 
  1510 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1511 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1512 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1513 
  1514   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1515 
  1516 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1517 a Hasse diagram.
  1518 
  1519 
  1520 *** HOL ***
  1521 
  1522 * Sledgehammer:
  1523 
  1524   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1525     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1526   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1527   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1528   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1529   - Renamed options:
  1530       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1531       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1532       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1533       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1534 
  1535 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1536 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1537 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1538 
  1539 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Lifting:
  1543   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1544   - quot_del attribute
  1545   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1546 
  1547 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1548 expressions.
  1549 
  1550 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1551 pointfree expressions.
  1552 
  1553 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1554 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1555 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1556 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1560 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1561 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1562 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1563 accordingly.
  1564 
  1565 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1566 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567 
  1568 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1569 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1572 
  1573 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1574 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1575 
  1576 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1577 
  1578 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1579 
  1580   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1581   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1582 
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1586 
  1587   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1588   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1589 
  1590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1593 
  1594   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1595     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1596     output f x converges to G.
  1597 
  1598   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1599     infinity (at_bot).
  1600 
  1601   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1602     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1603 
  1604   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1605     at_top".
  1606 
  1607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1610 lattice type classes.
  1611 
  1612 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1613 
  1614     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1615     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1616 
  1617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1618 
  1619 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1620 changes as follows.
  1621 
  1622   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1623 
  1624       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1625       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1626 
  1627   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1628     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1629     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1630     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1631 
  1632   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1633     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1634     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1635 
  1636   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1637     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1638     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1639     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1640 
  1641   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1642     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1643 
  1644       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1645       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1646       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1647       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1648       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1649       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1650       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1651       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1652       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1653       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1654       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1655       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1656       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1657       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1658       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1659       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1660 
  1661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1664 
  1665 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1666 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1667 
  1668 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1669 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1670 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1671 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1672 
  1673   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1674   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1675   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1676   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1677   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1678   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1679   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1680   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1681   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1682   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1683 
  1684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1687 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1688 Data").
  1689 
  1690 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1691 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1692 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1693 code.
  1694 
  1695 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1696 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1697 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1699 
  1700 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1701 
  1702 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1703 
  1704 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1705 
  1706   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1707   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1708 
  1709 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1710 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1711 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1712 
  1713   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1714 
  1715     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1716     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1717     cart_base i  removed
  1718     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1719 
  1720   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1721 
  1722   Renamed lemmas:
  1723 
  1724     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1725     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1726     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1727     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1728     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1729     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1730     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1731     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1732     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1733     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1734 
  1735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1736 
  1737 * HOL/Probability:
  1738 
  1739   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1740 
  1741   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1742     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1743     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1744 
  1745   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1746     projective family).
  1747 
  1748 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1749 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1750 
  1751 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1752 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1753 datatypes.
  1754 
  1755 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1756 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1757 
  1758 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1759 trees for the code generator.
  1760 
  1761 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1762 Lifting/Transfer.
  1763 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1767 
  1768 
  1769 *** Document preparation ***
  1770 
  1771 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1772 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1773 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1774 
  1775 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1776 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1777 
  1778 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1779 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1780 document/root.tex.
  1781 
  1782 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1783 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 
  1786 *** ML ***
  1787 
  1788 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1789 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1790 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1791 
  1792 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1793 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1794 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1795 
  1796 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1797 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1798 necessarily printing visible text.
  1799 
  1800 
  1801 *** System ***
  1802 
  1803 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1804 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1805 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1806 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1807 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1808 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1809 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1810 
  1811 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1812 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1813 
  1814   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1815 
  1816 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1817 
  1818 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1819 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1820 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1821 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1822 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1823 
  1824 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1825 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1826 
  1827 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1828 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1829 
  1830 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1832 
  1833 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1834 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1835 version of Isabelle.
  1836 
  1837 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1838 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1839 
  1840 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1841 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1842 for home-made settings.
  1843 
  1844 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1845 
  1846 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1847 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1848 configuration.
  1849 
  1850 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1851 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1852 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1853 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1854 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1855 
  1856 
  1857 
  1858 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1859 ------------------------------
  1860 
  1861 *** General ***
  1862 
  1863 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1864 
  1865   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1866     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1867   - markup for bound variables
  1868   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1869   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1870   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1871     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1872 
  1873 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1874 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1875 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1876 
  1877 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1878 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1879 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1880 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1881 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1882 
  1883   context
  1884     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1885     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1886   begin
  1887 
  1888   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1889 
  1890   end
  1891 
  1892   thm my_trans
  1893 
  1894 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1895 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1896 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1897 
  1898 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1899 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1900 
  1901 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1902 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1903 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1904 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1905 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1906 
  1907 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1908 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1909 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1910 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1911 indices of schematic variables.
  1912 
  1913 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1914 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1915 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1916 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1917 etc. was exploited.
  1918 
  1919 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1920 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1921 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1922 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1923 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1924 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1925 
  1926 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1927 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1928 manual.
  1929 
  1930 
  1931 *** Pure ***
  1932 
  1933 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1934 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1935 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1936 
  1937 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1938 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1939 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1940 undocumented feature.)
  1941 
  1942 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1943 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1944 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1945 
  1946   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1947 
  1948   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1949     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1950 
  1951 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1952 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1953 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1954 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1955 
  1956 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1957 
  1958     num ~> num_token
  1959     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1960     xstr ~> str_token
  1961 
  1962 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1963 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1964 position information via constraints).
  1965 
  1966 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1967 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1968 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969 
  1970 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1971 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1972 
  1973 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1974 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1975 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1978 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1981 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1982 
  1983   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1984 
  1985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1986 
  1987 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1988 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1991 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1992 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1993 
  1994 
  1995 *** HOL ***
  1996 
  1997 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1998 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1999 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2000 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2001 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2002 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2003 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2004 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2005 possible.
  2006 
  2007 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2008 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2009 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2010 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2011 
  2012 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2013 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2016 
  2017 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2018 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2019 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2020 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2021 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2022 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2023 
  2024   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2025     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2026 
  2027   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2028     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2029     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2030 
  2031   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2032     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2033 
  2034   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2035     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2036     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2037 
  2038   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2039     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2040 
  2041 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2042 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2043 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2044 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2045 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2046 
  2047   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2048     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2049     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2050     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2051     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2052 
  2053     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2054     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2055 
  2056   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2057     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2058     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2059     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2060     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2061     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2062     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2063     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2064 
  2065   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2066     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2067     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2068     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2069 
  2070   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2071     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2072     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2073     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2074 
  2075   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2076     from type nat to type int.
  2077 
  2078 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2079 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2080 
  2081   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2082     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2083     type.  Example syntax:
  2084 
  2085     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2086       is List.insert
  2087 
  2088     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2089     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2090     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2091     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2092     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2093     by the package.
  2094 
  2095   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2096     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2097     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2098     code generation for each constant.
  2099 
  2100   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2101     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2102     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2103     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2104     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2105 
  2106   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2107     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2108     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2109 
  2110 * Quotient package:
  2111 
  2112   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2113     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2114 
  2115   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2116     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2117 
  2118   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2119     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2120     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2123     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2124 
  2125 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2126 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2127 
  2128 * Quickcheck:
  2129 
  2130   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2131     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2132     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2133     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2134     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2135 
  2136     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2137     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2138     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2139 
  2140     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2141     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2142 
  2143     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2144     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2145     show genuine counterexamples.
  2146 
  2147   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2148     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2149 
  2150     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2151     constructors of that type.
  2152 
  2153   - Support for multisets.
  2154 
  2155   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2156 
  2157   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2158     conjectures in a locale context.
  2159 
  2160 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2161 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2162 
  2163 * Sledgehammer:
  2164   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2165     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2166   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2167   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2168     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2169   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2170   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2171   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2172   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2173 
  2174 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2175 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2176 
  2177 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2178 
  2179 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2182 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2183 
  2184   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2185 
  2186 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2187 a list and a nat.
  2188 
  2189 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2190 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2191 
  2192 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2193 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2194 default.
  2195 
  2196 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2197 
  2198   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2199 
  2200 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2201 
  2202 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2203 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2204 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2205 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2206 one_case.
  2207 
  2208 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2209 the result of the fact expression.
  2210 
  2211 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2212 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2213 of some relation theorems:
  2214 
  2215   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2216   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2217   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2218   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2219   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2220   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2221 
  2222 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2223 
  2224 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2225 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2226 
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2230 to match the constant's name:
  2231 
  2232   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2233   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2234   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2235   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2236   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2237   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2238   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2239   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2240   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2241   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2242   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2243   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2244   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2245   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2246   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2247   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2248   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2249   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2250   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2251   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2252   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2253   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2254   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2255   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2256 
  2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2260 and corresponding theorem names:
  2261 
  2262   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2263 
  2264   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2265 
  2266   - Renamed theorems:
  2267 
  2268     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2269     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2270     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2271     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2272     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2273     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2274     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2275     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2276     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2277     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2278     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2279     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2280     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2281     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2282     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2283     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2284     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2285     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2286     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2287     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2288     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2289     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2290     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2291 
  2292     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2293 
  2294     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2295 
  2296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2299 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2300 
  2301   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2302   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2303   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2304   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2305   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2306   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2307   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2308   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2309   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2310   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2311   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2312   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2313   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2314   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2315   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2316   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2317   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2318   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2319   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2320   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2321   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2322 
  2323 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2324 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2329 
  2330   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2331   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2332   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2333   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2334   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2335   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2336   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2337   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2338   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2339   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2340   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2341   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2342   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2343   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2344   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2345   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2346   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2347   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2348 
  2349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2352 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2353 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2354 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2355 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2356 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2357 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2358 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2359 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2360 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2361 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2362 
  2363 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2364 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2365 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2366 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2367 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2368 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2369 
  2370 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2371 through option types.
  2372 
  2373 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2374 relations.
  2375 
  2376 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2379 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2380 
  2381   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2382   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2383   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2384   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2385   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2386   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2387   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2388   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2389   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2390   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2391   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2392   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2393   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2394   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2395   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2396   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2397   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2398   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2399   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2400   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2401   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2402   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2403   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2404   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2405   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2406   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2407   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2408   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2409   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2410   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2411   zless_le ~> less_le
  2412   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2413   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2414   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2415 
  2416 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2417 
  2418   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2419 
  2420 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2421 
  2422 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2423 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2424 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2425 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2429 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2430 
  2431 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2432 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2433 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2434 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2435 follows:
  2436 
  2437   Operations:
  2438   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2439   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2440   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2441   del -> rbt_del
  2442   delete -> rbt_delete
  2443   ins -> rbt_ins
  2444   insert -> rbt_insert
  2445   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2446   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2447   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2448   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2449   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2450   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2451   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2452   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2453   union -> rbt_union
  2454   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2455   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2456 
  2457   Lemmas:
  2458   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2459   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2460   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2461   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2462   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2463   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2464   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2465   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2466   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2467   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2468   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2469   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2470   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2471   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2472   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2473   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2474   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2475   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2476   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2477   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2478   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2479   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2480   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2481   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2482   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2483   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2484   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2485   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2486   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2487   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2488   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2489   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2490   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2491   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2492   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2493   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2494   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2495   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2496   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2497   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2498   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2499   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2500   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2501   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2502   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2503   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2504   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2505   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2506   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2507   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2508   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2509   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2510   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2511   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2512   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2513   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2514   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2515   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2516   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2517   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2518   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2519   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2520   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2521   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2522   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2523   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2524   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2525   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2526   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2527   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2528   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2529   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2530   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2531   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2532   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2533   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2534   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2535   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2536   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2537   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2538   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2539   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2540   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2541 
  2542 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2543 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2544 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2545 
  2546   Changed Operations:
  2547   float_abs -> abs
  2548   float_nprt -> nprt
  2549   float_pprt -> pprt
  2550   pow2 -> use powr
  2551   round_down -> float_round_down
  2552   round_up -> float_round_up
  2553   scale -> exponent
  2554 
  2555   Removed Operations:
  2556   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2557 
  2558   Renamed Lemmas:
  2559   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2560   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2561   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2562   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2563   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2564   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2565   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2566   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2567   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2568   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2569   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2570   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2571   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2572   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2573   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2574   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2575   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2576   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2577   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2578   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2579   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2580   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2581   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2582   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2583   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2584   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2585   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2586   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2587   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2588   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2589   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2590   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2591   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2592   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2593   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2594   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2595 
  2596   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2597   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2598   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2599   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2600   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2601   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2602   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2603   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2604   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2605   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2606 
  2607 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2608 association lists with distinct keys.
  2609 
  2610 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2611 annotated commands.
  2612 
  2613 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2614 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2615 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2616 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2617 
  2618 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2619 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2620 instead.
  2621 
  2622   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2623   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2624   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2625   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2626   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2627   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2628   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2629   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2630   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2631   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2632   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2633   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2634   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2635   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2636   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2637   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2638   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2639   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2640   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2641   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2642   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2643   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2644   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2645   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2646   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2647   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2648   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2649   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2650   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2651   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2652   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2653   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2654   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2655   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2656   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2657   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2658   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2659   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2660   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2661   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2662   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2663 
  2664 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2665 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2666 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2667 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2668 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2669 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2670 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2671 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2672 
  2673 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2674 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2675 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2676 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2677 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2678 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2679 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2680 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2681 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2682 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2683 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2684 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2685 
  2686   Renamed constants:
  2687   measure -> emeasure
  2688   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2689   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2690   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2691   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2692 
  2693   Removed locales:
  2694   completeable_measure_space
  2695   finite_measure_space
  2696   finite_prob_space
  2697   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2698   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2699   finite_sigma_algebra
  2700   measure_space
  2701   pair_finite_prob_space
  2702   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2703   pair_finite_space
  2704   pair_sigma_algebra
  2705   product_sigma_algebra
  2706 
  2707   Removed constants:
  2708   conditional_space
  2709   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2710   image_space
  2711   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2712   pair_measure_generator
  2713   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2714   subvimage
  2715 
  2716   Replacement theorems:
  2717   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2718   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2719   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2720   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2721   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2722   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2723   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2724   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2725   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2726   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2727   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2728   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2729   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2730   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2731   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2732   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2733   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2734   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2735   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2736   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2737   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2738   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2739   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2740   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2741   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2742   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2743   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2744   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2745   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2746   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2747   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2748   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2749   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2750   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2751   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2752   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2753   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2754   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2755   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2756   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2757   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2758   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2759   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2760   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2761   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2762   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2763   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2764   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2765   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2766   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2767   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2768   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2769   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2770   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2771   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2772   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2773   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2774   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2775   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2776   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2777   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2778   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2779   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2780   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2781   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2782   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2783   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2784   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2785   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2786   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2787   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2788   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2789   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2790   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2791   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2792   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2793   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2794   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2795   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2796   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2797   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2798   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2799   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2800   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2801   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2802   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2803   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2804   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2805   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2806   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2807   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2808   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2809   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2810   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2811   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2812   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2813   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2814   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2815   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2816   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2817   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2818   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2819   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2820   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2821   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2822   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2823   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2824   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2825   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2826   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2827   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2828   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2829   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2830   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2831   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2832   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2833   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2834   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2835   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2836   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2837   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2838   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2839   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2840   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2841   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2842   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2843   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2844   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2845 
  2846 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2847 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2848 
  2849 
  2850 *** FOL ***
  2851 
  2852 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2853 
  2854 
  2855 *** ZF ***
  2856 
  2857 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2858 analysis.
  2859 
  2860 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2861 
  2862 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 
  2865 *** ML ***
  2866 
  2867 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2868 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2869 
  2870 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2871 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2872 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2873 
  2874 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2875 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2876 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2877 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2878 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2879 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2880 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2881 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2882 
  2883 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2884 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2885 
  2886 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2887 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2888 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2889 
  2890 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2891 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2892 
  2893 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2894 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2895 context as well.
  2896 
  2897 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2898 
  2899   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2900   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2901   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2902   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2903   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2904   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2905   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2906   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2907   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2908   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2909   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2910   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2911 
  2912 
  2913 *** System ***
  2914 
  2915 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2916 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2917 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2918 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2919 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2920 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2921 the generic user home was intended.
  2922 
  2923 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2924 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2925 
  2926 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2927 (not just JRE).
  2928 
  2929 
  2930 
  2931 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2932 ------------------------------------
  2933 
  2934 *** General ***
  2935 
  2936 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2937 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2938 
  2939   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2940     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2941     files for checking).
  2942 
  2943   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2944     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2945     positions.
  2946 
  2947   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2948     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2949     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2950 
  2951   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2952     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2953     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2954 
  2955   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2956     cores.
  2957 
  2958   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2959     versions (garbage collection).
  2960 
  2961 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2962 including some remaining limitations.
  2963 
  2964 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2965 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2966 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2967 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2968 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2972 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2973 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2974 
  2975 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2976 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2977 usedir option -Q.
  2978 
  2979 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2980 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2981 
  2982   long_names   ~> names_long
  2983   short_names  ~> names_short
  2984   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2985 
  2986 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2987 
  2988   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2989 
  2990 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2991 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2992 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2993 
  2994 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2995 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2996 
  2997 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2998   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2999   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3000   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3001     "Classical Reasoner".
  3002 
  3003 
  3004 *** HOL ***
  3005 
  3006 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3007 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3010 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3011 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3012 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3013 class complete_linorder.
  3014 
  3015 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3016 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3017 
  3018 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3019 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3020 
  3021   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3022   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3023   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3024   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3025   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3026   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3027   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3028   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3029   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3030   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3031   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3032 
  3033 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3034 
  3035   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3036   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3037   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3038   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3039   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3040   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3041   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3042   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3043   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3044   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3045   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3046   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3047   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3048   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3049   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3050   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3051 
  3052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3058 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3059 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3060 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3063 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3064 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3068 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3069 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3070 
  3071 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3072 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3073 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3076 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3077 
  3078 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3079 
  3080     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3081     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3082 
  3083 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3084 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3087 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3090 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3091 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3092 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3095   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3096   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3097   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3098   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3099   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3100   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3101 
  3102 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3103 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3106   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3107   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3108   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3109   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3110   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3111   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3112   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3113   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3114   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3115   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3116   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3117   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3118   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3119   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3120   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3121   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3122   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3123   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3124   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3125   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3126   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3127   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3128   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3129   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3130   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3131   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3132   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3133   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3134   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3135   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3136   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3137   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3138   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3139   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3140   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3141   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3142   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3143   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3144   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3145   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3146   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3147   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3148   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3149   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3150   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3151   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3152   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3153   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3154   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3155   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3156   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3157   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3158   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3159   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3160   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3161   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3162   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3163   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3164   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3165   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3166   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3167   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3168   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3169   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3170   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3171   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3172   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3173   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3174   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3175   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3176   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3177   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3178   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3179   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3180   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3181   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3182   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3183   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3184   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3185   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3186   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3187 
  3188 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3189 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3190 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3191 
  3192 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3193 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3194 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3195 
  3196 * Code generation:
  3197 
  3198   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3199     characters in the target language.
  3200 
  3201   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3202     instead.
  3203 
  3204   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3205 
  3206   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3207     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3208 
  3209       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3210 
  3211 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3212 
  3213 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3214 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3215 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3216 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3217 syntax.
  3218 
  3219 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3220 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3221 
  3222 * Nitpick:
  3223   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3224   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3225   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3226     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227 
  3228 * Sledgehammer:
  3229   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3230   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3231     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3232   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3233     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3234   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3235     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3237     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3238   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3239     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * Metis:
  3242   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3244     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * Command 'try':
  3247   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3248     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3250     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3251 
  3252 * Quickcheck:
  3253   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3254     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3255   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3256     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3257   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3258     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3259     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3260     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3261   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3262     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3263 
  3264 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3265 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3266 
  3267 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3268 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3269 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3270 
  3271 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3272 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3276 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3279 arithmetic.
  3280 
  3281 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3282 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3283 and lattice type classes.
  3284 
  3285 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3286 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3287 
  3288 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3289 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3290 
  3291 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3292 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3293 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3296   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3297   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3298   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3299 
  3300 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3301 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3302 constants:
  3303 
  3304   type inat   ~> type enat
  3305   Fin         ~> enat
  3306   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3307   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3308   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3309 
  3310 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3311 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3314 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3315 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3316 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3317 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3318 
  3319 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3320 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3321 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3322 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3323 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3324 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3325 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3326 
  3327   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3328   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3329   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3330   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3331 
  3332 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3333 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3334 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3337   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3338   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3339   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3340   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3341   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3342   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3343   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3344   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3345   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3346   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3347   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3348   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3349   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3350   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3351   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3352   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3353   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3354   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3355   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3356   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3357   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3358   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3359   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3360   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3361   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3362   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3363   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3364   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3365   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3366   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3367   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3368   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3369   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3370   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3371   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3372   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3373   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3374   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3375   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3376   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3377   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3378   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3379   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3380   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3381   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3382   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3383   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3384   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3385   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3386   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3387 
  3388 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3389   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3390   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3391   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3392   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3393     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3394 
  3395 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3398   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3399   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3400   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3401   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3402   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3403   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3404   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3405   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3406   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3407   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3408   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3409   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3410   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3411   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3412   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3413   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3414   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3415   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3416   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3417   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3418   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3419   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3420   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3421   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3422 
  3423 
  3424 *** Document preparation ***
  3425 
  3426 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3427 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3428 same.
  3429 
  3430 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3431 result.
  3432 
  3433 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3434 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3435 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3436 
  3437 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3438 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3439 
  3440 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3441 like this:
  3442 
  3443   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3444   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3445 
  3446 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3447 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3448 layouts.
  3449 
  3450 
  3451 *** ML ***
  3452 
  3453 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3454 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3455 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3456 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3457 under external program control.
  3458 
  3459 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3460 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3461 
  3462 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3463 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3464 (better known as Proof General).
  3465 
  3466 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3467 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3468 
  3469 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3470 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3471 
  3472 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3473 (including quotes etc.).
  3474 
  3475 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3476 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3477 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3478 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3479 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3480 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3481 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3482 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3483 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3484 
  3485 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3486 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3487 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3488 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3489 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3490 
  3491 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3492 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3493 
  3494 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3495 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3496 
  3497 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3498 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3499 
  3500 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3501 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3502 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3503 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3504 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3505 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3506 proper Proof.context.
  3507 
  3508 
  3509 *** System ***
  3510 
  3511 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3512 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3513 
  3514 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3515 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3516 
  3517 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3518 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3519 
  3520   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3521   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3522   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3523   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3524   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3525 
  3526 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3527 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3530 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3531 example:
  3532 
  3533   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3534 
  3535 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3536 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3537 
  3538 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3539 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3540 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3541 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3542 
  3543 
  3544 
  3545 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3546 ----------------------------------
  3547 
  3548 *** General ***
  3549 
  3550 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3551 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3552 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3553 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3554 like this:
  3555 
  3556   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3557 
  3558 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3559 
  3560 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3561 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3562 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3563 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3564 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3565 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3566 
  3567 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3568 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3569 the following package declarations:
  3570 
  3571   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3572   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3573 
  3574 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3575 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3576 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3577 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3578 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3579 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3580 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3581 
  3582 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3583 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3584 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3585 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3586 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3587 
  3588 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3589 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3590 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3591 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3592 
  3593 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3594 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3595 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3596 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3597 
  3598   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3599 
  3600   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3601   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3602   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3603   show_types                    show_types
  3604   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3605   show_consts                   show_consts
  3606   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3607 
  3608   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3609   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3610   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3611 
  3612   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3613   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3614 
  3615   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3616 
  3617   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3618   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3619   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3620   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3621   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3622 
  3623 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3624 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3625 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3626 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3627 
  3628 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3632   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3633 
  3634 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3635 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3636 float_token.
  3637 
  3638 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3639 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3643 DejaVu Sans.
  3644 
  3645 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3646 
  3647 
  3648 *** Pure ***
  3649 
  3650 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3651 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3652 time.
  3653 
  3654 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3655 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 
  3657 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3658 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3659 
  3660 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3661 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3662 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3663 command already provided this functionality.
  3664 
  3665 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3666 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3667 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3668 without interpretations.
  3669 
  3670 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3671 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3672 
  3673 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3674 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3675 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3676 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3677 
  3678 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3679 'definition' instead.
  3680 
  3681 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3682 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3683 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3684 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3685 
  3686 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3687 constructors.
  3688 
  3689 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3690 the local file system.
  3691 
  3692 
  3693 *** HOL ***
  3694 
  3695 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3696 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3697 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3698 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3699 
  3700   declare [[coercion f]]
  3701 
  3702 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3703 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3704 
  3705   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3706 
  3707 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3708 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3709 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3710 other theories like this:
  3711 
  3712   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3713 
  3714 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3715 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3716 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3717 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3718 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3719 for examples.
  3720 
  3721 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3722 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3725 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3726 
  3727 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3728 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3729 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3730 
  3731 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3732 functorial structure of types.
  3733 
  3734 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3735 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3736 
  3737 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3738 languages.
  3739 
  3740 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3741 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3745 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3748 combinators any longer.
  3749 
  3750 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3751 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3752 
  3753 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3754 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3755 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3756 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3757 
  3758   record 'a foo = ...
  3759   ...
  3760   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3761 
  3762 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3763 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3767 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3768 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3769 
  3770 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3771 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3772 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3773 
  3774 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3775 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3778 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3779 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3780 independently.
  3781 
  3782 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3783 counter example search.
  3784 
  3785 * Sledgehammer:
  3786   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3787     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3788     sledgehammer").
  3789   - Renamed commands:
  3790     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3791     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3792     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3793     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794   - Renamed options:
  3795     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3796     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3797     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3798     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3799     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Nitpick:
  3802   - Renamed options:
  3803     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3804     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3805     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3807   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3808   - Added "whack" option.
  3809   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3810   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3811   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3812   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3813     higher cardinalities.
  3814   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3815 
  3816 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3817 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3818 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3819 
  3820     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3821 
  3822 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3823 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3824 
  3825 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3826 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3827 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3828 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3829 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3830 "smt_solver".
  3831 
  3832 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3833 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3834 
  3835 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3836 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3837 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3838 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3841   - Renamed:
  3842     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3843     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3844     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3845   - Added:
  3846     smt_verbose
  3847     smt_random_seed
  3848     smt_datatypes
  3849     smt_infer_triggers
  3850     smt_monomorph_limit
  3851     cvc3_options
  3852     remote_cvc3_options
  3853     remote_z3_options
  3854     yices_options
  3855 
  3856 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3857 header.
  3858 
  3859 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3860 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3861 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3862 
  3863   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3864 
  3865 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3868 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3873 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3876 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3877 
  3878 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3879 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3882 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3883 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3891 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3894 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3895 for congruent(2)).
  3896 
  3897 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3898 
  3899   types
  3900     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3901     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3902 
  3903   constants
  3904     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3905     True ~> HOL.True
  3906     False ~> HOL.False
  3907     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3908     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3909     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3910     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3911     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3912     The ~> HOL.The
  3913     All ~> HOL.All
  3914     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3915     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3916     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3917     If ~> HOL.If
  3918     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3919     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3920     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3921     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3922     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3923     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3924     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3925     op : ~> Set.member
  3926     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3927 
  3928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3931 
  3932     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3933     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3934     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3935     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3936     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3937     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3938     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3939     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3940 
  3941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * More stylized fact names:
  3944 
  3945   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3946   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3947   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3948   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3949 
  3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3953 
  3954   constants
  3955     null ~> List.null
  3956 
  3957   facts
  3958     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3959     null_empty ~> null_def
  3960 
  3961 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3962 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3963 generation.
  3964 
  3965 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3966 Haskell code.
  3967 
  3968 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3969 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3970 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3973 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3976 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3977 
  3978 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3979 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3980 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3983 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3989 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3990 referred to by its qualified name.
  3991 
  3992   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3993   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3994   product ~>  Enum.product
  3995 
  3996 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3997 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4001 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4002 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4006 sort_key.
  4007 
  4008 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4012 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4013 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4014 
  4015   types
  4016     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4017               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4018               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4019         (depends on your needs)
  4020 
  4021   constants
  4022      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4023      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4024      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4025 
  4026 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4027 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4028 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4029 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4032 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4033 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4034 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4035 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4036 
  4037 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4039 
  4040 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4041 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4042 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4043 
  4044 
  4045 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4046 
  4047 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4048 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4049 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4050 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4051 compatibility.
  4052 
  4053 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4054 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4055 
  4056 
  4057 *** HOLCF ***
  4058 
  4059 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4060 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4061 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4065 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4066 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4067 
  4068   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4069   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4070   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4071 
  4072 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4073 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4074 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4077 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4078 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4079 domain definition now works:
  4080 
  4081   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4082 
  4083 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4084 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4085 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4086 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4087 
  4088   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4089     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4090 
  4091   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4092 
  4093 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4094 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4095 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4098 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4101 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4102 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4103 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4104 
  4105 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4106 
  4107 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4115 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4116 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4117 
  4118 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4119 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4120 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4121 
  4122 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4123 still supported as an input translation.
  4124 
  4125 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4126 
  4127   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4128   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4129   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4130   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4131   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4132   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4133   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4134 
  4135 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4136 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137 
  4138   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4139   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4140   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4141   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4142   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4143   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4144 
  4145 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4146 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4149 
  4150   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4151   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4152   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4153   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4154 
  4155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4158 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4159 
  4160 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4161 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4164   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4165   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4166   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4167   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4168   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4169   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4170   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4171   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4172   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4173   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4174   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4175   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4176   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4177   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4178   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4179   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4180   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4181   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4182   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4183 
  4184 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4187   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4188   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4189   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4190   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4191   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4192   box_less             ~> box_below
  4193   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4194   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4195   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4196   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4197   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4198   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4199   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4200   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4201   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4202   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4203   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4204   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4205   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4206   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4207   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4208   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4209   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4210   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4211   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4212   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4213   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4214   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4215   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4216   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4217   up_less              ~> up_below
  4218   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4219   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4220   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4221   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4222   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4223   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4224   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4225   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4226   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4227   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4228   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4229   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4230   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4231 
  4232 
  4233 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4234 
  4235 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4236 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 
  4239 *** ML ***
  4240 
  4241 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4242 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4243 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4244 
  4245 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4246 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4247 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4248 
  4249 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4250 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4251 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4252 
  4253 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4254 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4255 
  4256 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4257 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4258 
  4259 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4260 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4261 
  4262 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4263 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4264 
  4265 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4266 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4267 almost all situations.
  4268 
  4269 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4270 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4271 Isabelle/ML.
  4272 
  4273 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4274 meaning.
  4275 
  4276 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4277 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4278 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4279 
  4280 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4281 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4282 
  4283 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4284 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4285 
  4286 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4287 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4288 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4289 
  4290 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4291 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4292 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4293 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4294 configuration options.
  4295 
  4296 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4297 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4298 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4299 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4300 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4301 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4302 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4303 
  4304 
  4305 
  4306 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4307 ---------------------------------
  4308 
  4309 *** General ***
  4310 
  4311 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4312 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4313 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4314 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4315 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4316 their full internal name.
  4317 
  4318 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4319 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4320 Some hints on upgrading:
  4321 
  4322   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4323     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4324     which are independent of this issue.
  4325 
  4326   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4327     provides the following special forms:
  4328 
  4329       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4330       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4331       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4332 
  4333     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4334     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4335     extra variables".
  4336 
  4337     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4338     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4339     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4340     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4341     "logic".
  4342 
  4343   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4344     antiquotations:
  4345 
  4346       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4347       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4348       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4349       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4350 
  4351   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4352     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4353     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4354     antiquotations.
  4355 
  4356 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4357 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4358 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4359 diagnose syntax problems.
  4360 
  4361 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4362 
  4363 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4364 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4365 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4366 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4367 
  4368 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4369 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4370 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4371 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4374 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4375 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4376 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4377 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4380 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4381 
  4382 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4383 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4384 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4385 
  4386   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4387 
  4388 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4389 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4390 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4391 
  4392 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4393 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4397 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4398 
  4399 
  4400 *** Pure ***
  4401 
  4402 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4403 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4404 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4405 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4406 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4407 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4408 inspect proof terms.
  4409 
  4410 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4411 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4412 are added internally.  For example:
  4413 
  4414   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4415 
  4416 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4417 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 
  4419 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4422 'class' instead.
  4423 
  4424 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4425 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4429 invariants.
  4430 
  4431 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4432 user space functionality any longer.
  4433 
  4434 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4435 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4437 
  4438 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4439 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4440 
  4441 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4442 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4443 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4444 
  4445 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4446 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4447 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4448 
  4449 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4450 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4451 
  4452 
  4453 *** HOL ***
  4454 
  4455 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4456 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4457 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4458 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4459 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4460 
  4461 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4462 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4463 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4464 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4465 
  4466   fun
  4467     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4468   where
  4469     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4470 
  4471   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4472     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4473 
  4474   quotient_definition
  4475     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4476 
  4477 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4478 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4479 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4480 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4481 
  4482 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4483 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4484 
  4485 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4486 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4487 
  4488 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4492 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4493 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4494 
  4495 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4496 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4497 
  4498 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4500 
  4501 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4503 
  4504 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4505 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4506 
  4507 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4508 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4509 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4510 
  4511   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4512   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4513   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4514   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4515   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4516   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4517   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4518   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4519   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4520   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4521   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4522   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4523   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4524   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4525   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4526   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4527   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4528   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4529   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4530   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4531   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4532   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4533   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4534   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4535   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4536   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4537   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4538   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4539   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4540   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4541 
  4542 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4543 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4544 
  4545 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4546 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4547 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4548 
  4549 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4550 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4551 
  4552 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4553 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554 
  4555 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4556 
  4557 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4558 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4559 
  4560 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4561 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4562 
  4563 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4564 
  4565 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4566 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4567 
  4568 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4569 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4570 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4571 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4574   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4575   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4576   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4580 lattices):
  4581 
  4582     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4583     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4584 
  4585     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4586 
  4587     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4588     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4589     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4590     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4591     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4592     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4593     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4594     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4595     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4596     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4597     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4598     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4599     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4600 
  4601     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4602     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4603     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4604     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4605     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4606     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4607     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4608     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4609     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4610     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4611     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4612     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4613     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4614     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4615     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4616     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4617     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4618     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4619 
  4620   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4621   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4622 
  4623     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4624     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4625     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4626     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4627     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4628 
  4629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Refined field classes:
  4632   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4633     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4634     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4635   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4639   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4640   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4641   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4642     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4643   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4644     equal_neg_zero.
  4645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4648 sets to lattices:
  4649 
  4650   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4651   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4652   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4653   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4654   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4655   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4656   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4657   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4658   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4659   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4660 
  4661 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4662 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4663 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4664 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4665 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4666 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4667 
  4668 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4669 multiset order:
  4670 
  4671   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4672     <= and <;
  4673   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4674     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4675     multiset_order;
  4676   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4677     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4678     generation;
  4679   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4680     if needed.
  4681 
  4682 Renamed:
  4683 
  4684   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4685   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4686   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4687 
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4691 
  4692 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4693 
  4694 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4695 
  4696 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4697 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4698 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700   Constants:
  4701   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4702   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4703   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4704   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4705   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4706   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4707   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4708   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4709   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4710   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4711   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4712   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4713   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4714 
  4715   Lemmas:
  4716   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4717   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4718   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4719   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4720   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4721   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4722   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4723   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4724   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4725   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4726   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4727   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4728   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4729 
  4730 * Sledgehammer:
  4731   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4732     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4733     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4734     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4735     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4736     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4737     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4739   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4740     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4741   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4742     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4743     is still experimental.)
  4744   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4745     full-typed mode.
  4746   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4747 
  4748 * Nitpick:
  4749   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4750   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4751   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4752     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4753   - Added support for quotient types.
  4754   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4755     constructs.
  4756   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4757     "termination" proofs).
  4758   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4759   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4760   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4761   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4762     record getters.
  4763   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4764   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4765   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4766   - Added "atoms" option.
  4767   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4768     problems.
  4769   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4770     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4771     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4773     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4777   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4778   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4779   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4780   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4781   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4782   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4783   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4784   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4785   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786 
  4787 
  4788 *** HOLCF ***
  4789 
  4790 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4791 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4792 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4795 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4796 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4797 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4800 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4801 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4802 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4803 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4806 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4807 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4810 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4813   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4814 
  4815 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4816 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4819   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4820   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4821   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4822   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4823 
  4824 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4825 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4828   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4829   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4830 
  4831 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4832 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4836 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4841 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 
  4844 *** ML ***
  4845 
  4846 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4847 
  4848     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4849     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4850 
  4851     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4852     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4853     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4854     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4855 
  4856     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4857     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4858     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4859 
  4860 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4861 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4862 
  4863 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4864 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4865 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4866 
  4867 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4868 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4869 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4870 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4871 
  4872 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4873 the context or even global references.
  4874 
  4875 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4876 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4877 
  4878 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4879 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4880 
  4881   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4882   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4883   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4884   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4885   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4886   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4887   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4888   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4889   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4890   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4891 
  4892 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4893 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4894 
  4895 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4896 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4897 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4898 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4899 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4900 
  4901 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4902 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4903 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4904 Theory_Data version.
  4905 
  4906 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4907 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4908 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4909 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4910 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4911 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4912 explicitly in rare situations.
  4913 
  4914 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4915 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4917 
  4918 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4919 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4920 
  4921 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4922 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4923 quite rare).
  4924 
  4925 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4926 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4929 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4930 terms.
  4931 
  4932 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4933 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4934 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4935 
  4936 
  4937 *** System ***
  4938 
  4939 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4940 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4941 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4942 
  4943 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4944 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4945 respectively.
  4946 
  4947 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4948 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4949 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4950 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4951 
  4952   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4953 
  4954 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4955 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4956 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4957 component.
  4958 
  4959 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4960 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4961 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4962 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4963 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4964 the user for manual installation.
  4965 
  4966 
  4967 
  4968 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4969 -------------------------------------
  4970 
  4971 *** General ***
  4972 
  4973 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4974 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4975 
  4976 
  4977 *** Pure ***
  4978 
  4979 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4980 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4981 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4982 
  4983 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4984 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4985 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4986 
  4987 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4988 interpretation.
  4989 
  4990 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4991 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4992 
  4993 
  4994 *** Document preparation ***
  4995 
  4996 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4997 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4998 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4999 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5000 
  5001 
  5002 *** HOL ***
  5003 
  5004 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5005 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5006 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5007 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5008 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5009 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5010 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5011 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5012 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5013 
  5014 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5015 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5016 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5017 
  5018 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5019 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5020 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5021 
  5022 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5023 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5024 
  5025 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5026 
  5027 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5028 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5029 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5030 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5031 
  5032 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5033 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5034 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5035 "mirabelle" utility.
  5036 
  5037 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5038 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5039 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5040 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5041 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5042 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5043 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5044 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5045 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5046 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5047 
  5048 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5049 procedure only.
  5050 
  5051 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5052 
  5053 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5054 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5055 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5056 that fail later.
  5057 
  5058 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5059 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5060 
  5061 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5062 the same method as the approximation method.
  5063 
  5064 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5065 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5066 series expansion.
  5067 
  5068 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5069 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5070 
  5071 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5072 reals.
  5073 
  5074 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5075 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5076 
  5077 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5078 fixpoint theorem.
  5079 
  5080 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5081   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5082     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5083   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5084     accordingly
  5085   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5086     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5087   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5088     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5089 
  5090 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5091 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5092 lattice.
  5093 
  5094 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5095 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5096 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5097 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5098 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5099 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5101 
  5102 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5103   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5104     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5105   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5106     le_inf_iff
  5107   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5108     sup_aci)
  5109   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5110   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5111   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5112     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5113     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5114     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5115     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5116     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5117     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5118     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5119     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5120     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5121     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5122   - authentic syntax for
  5123     Set.Pow
  5124     Set.image
  5125   - mere abbreviations:
  5126     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5127     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5128     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5129     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5130     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5131     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5132     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5133     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5134   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5135 
  5136 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5137 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5138 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5139 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5140 
  5141 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5142 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5143 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5146 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5147 
  5148 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5149 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5150 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5151 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5152 
  5153 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5154 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5155 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5156 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5157 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5158 
  5159 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5160 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5162 
  5163 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5164 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5165 
  5166 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5167 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5168 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5169 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5170 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5171 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5172 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5176     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5177     code_post       replaces    code post
  5178     etc.
  5179   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5180 
  5181 * Renamed methods:
  5182     sizechange -> size_change
  5183     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5184   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5187 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5188 
  5189 * Renamed theorems:
  5190     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5191     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5192     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5193     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5194     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5195   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5196 
  5197 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5199 
  5200 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5202 
  5203 
  5204 *** HOLCF ***
  5205 
  5206 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5207 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5208 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5209 
  5210 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5211 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5212 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5213 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5214 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5215 
  5216 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5217 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5218 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5219 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5220 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5221 
  5222 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5223 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5224 constructor are pre-configured.
  5225 
  5226 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5227 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5228 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5229 
  5230 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5231 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5232 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5233 as well.)
  5234 
  5235 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5236 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5237 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5238 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5239 examples.
  5240 
  5241 
  5242 *** ML ***
  5243 
  5244 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5245 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5246 
  5247 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5248 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5249 position, logical grouping etc.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5252 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5253 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5254 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5255 
  5256 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5257 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5258 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5259 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5260 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5261 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5262 
  5263 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5264 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5265 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5266 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5267 experiments with references.
  5268 
  5269 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5270 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5271 
  5272 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5273 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5274 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5275 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5276 
  5277 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5278 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5279 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5280 
  5281 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5282 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5283 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5284 
  5285 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5286 
  5287 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 
  5290 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5291 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5292 
  5293 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5294 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5295 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5296 
  5297 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5298 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5299 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5300 
  5301 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5302 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5303 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5305 
  5306 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5307 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5308 instead of global theory.
  5309 
  5310 
  5311 *** System ***
  5312 
  5313 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5314 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5315 usedir option -q.
  5316 
  5317 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5318 also the system manual.
  5319 
  5320 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5321 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5322 
  5323 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5324 this is always enabled.
  5325 
  5326 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5327 
  5328 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5329 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5330 currently supported on Linux only.
  5331 
  5332 
  5333 
  5334 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5335 --------------------------------
  5336 
  5337 *** General ***
  5338 
  5339 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5340 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5341 
  5342   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5343     "isatool."
  5344 
  5345   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5346     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5347 
  5348   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5349     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5350 
  5351 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5352 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5353 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5354 
  5355 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5356 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5357 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5358 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5359 via "isabelle emacs".
  5360 
  5361 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5362 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5363 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5364 
  5365 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5366 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5367 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5368 
  5369 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5370 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5371 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5372 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5373 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5374 
  5375 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5376 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5377 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5378 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5379 
  5380 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5381 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5382 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5383 
  5384 
  5385 *** Pure ***
  5386 
  5387 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5388 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5389 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5390 
  5391 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5392 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5393 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5394 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5395 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5396 
  5397 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5398 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5399 useful in locale declarations.
  5400 
  5401 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5402 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5403 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5404 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5405 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5406 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5407 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5408 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5409 no longer generated.
  5410 
  5411 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5412 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5413 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5414 
  5415 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5416 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5417 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5418 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5419 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5420 
  5421 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5422 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5423 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5424 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5425 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5426 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5427 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5428 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5429 
  5430 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5431 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5432 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5433 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5434 
  5435 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5436 
  5437 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5438 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5439 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5440 
  5441 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5442 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 
  5444 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5445 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5446 in HOL, write
  5447 
  5448     class foo = ...
  5449 
  5450 instead of
  5451 
  5452     class foo = type + ...
  5453 
  5454 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5455 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5456 
  5457 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5458 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5459 
  5460 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5461 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5462 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5463 
  5464 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5465 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5466 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5467 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5468 directly in regular applications.
  5469 
  5470 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5471 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5472 
  5473 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5474 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5475 
  5476 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5477 theory context.
  5478 
  5479 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5480 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5481 
  5482 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5483 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5484 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5485 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5486 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5487 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5488 
  5489   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5490 
  5491 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5492 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5493 normalization.
  5494 
  5495 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5496 addressing etc.
  5497 
  5498 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5499 
  5500   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5501   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5502 
  5503 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5504 
  5505   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5506      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5507      parts of the code generator framework).
  5508 
  5509   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5510      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5511      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5512 
  5513 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5516 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5517 
  5518 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5519 patterns, e.g.
  5520 
  5521     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5522 
  5523 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5524 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5525 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5526 hyphen:
  5527 
  5528     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5529 
  5530 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5531 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5532 
  5533 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5534 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5535 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5536 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5537 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5538 higher-order unification.
  5539 
  5540 
  5541 *** Document preparation ***
  5542 
  5543 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5544 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5545 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5546 
  5547 
  5548 *** HOL ***
  5549 
  5550 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5551 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5552 
  5553 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5554 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5555 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5556 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5557 Main, as before.
  5558 
  5559 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5560 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5561 
  5562 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5563 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5564 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5565 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5566 
  5567 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5568 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5569 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5570 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5571 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5572 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5573 
  5574 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5575 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5576 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5577 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5578 
  5579 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5580 menu.
  5581 
  5582 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5583 (contains the empty clause).
  5584 
  5585 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5586 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5587 
  5588 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5589 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5590 
  5591 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5592 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5593 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5594 
  5595 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5596 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5597 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5598 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5599 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5600 
  5601 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5602 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5603 
  5604 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5605 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5606 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5607 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5608 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5609 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5610 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5611 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5612 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5613 
  5614 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5615 
  5616 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5617 
  5618 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5619 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5620 
  5621 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5622 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5623 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5624 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5625 
  5626 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5627 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5628 
  5629     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5630     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5631     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5632     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5633     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5634     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5635     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5636     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5637 
  5638 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5639 theory Set.
  5640 
  5641 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5642 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5643 
  5644 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5645 
  5646 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5647 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5648 
  5649 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5650 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5651 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5652 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5653 allowed. For examples see
  5654 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5655 
  5656 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5657 
  5658 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5660 
  5661 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5662 structure:
  5663 
  5664     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5665     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5666     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5667     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5668     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5669     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5670     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5671     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5672     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5673     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5674     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5675     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5676     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5677     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5678     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5679     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5680     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5681     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5682     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5683     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5684     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5685     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5686     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5687     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5688     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5689     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5690     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5691     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5692     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5693     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5694     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5695     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5696     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5697 
  5698     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5699     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5700     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5701     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5702     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5703     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5704     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5705     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5706     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5707     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5708 
  5709     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5710     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5711     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5712     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5713     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5714     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5715 
  5716 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5717 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5718 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5719 
  5720 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5721 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5722 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5723 
  5724 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5725 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5726 
  5727 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5728 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5729 
  5730 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5731 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5732 proofs, e.g.
  5733 
  5734   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5735 
  5736 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5737 
  5738 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5739 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5740 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5743 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5745 
  5746 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5747 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5748 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5750 
  5751 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5752 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5753 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5754 preorder_class.*.
  5755 
  5756 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5757 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5758 
  5759 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5760 
  5761   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5762 
  5763 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5764 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5765 fold_image.
  5766 
  5767 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5768 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5769 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5770 the former will disappear at some point.
  5771 
  5772 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5773 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5774 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5775 
  5776 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5777 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5778 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5779 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5780 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5781 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5782 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5783 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5784 
  5785 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5786 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5787 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5788 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5789 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5790 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5791 
  5792     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5793     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5794     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5795     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5796     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5797     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5798     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5799 
  5800 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5801 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5802 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5803 
  5804 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5805 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5806 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5807 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5808 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5809 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5810 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5811 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5812 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5813 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5814 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5815 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5816 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5817 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5818 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5819 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5820 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5821 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5822 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5823 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5824 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5825 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5826 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5827 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5828 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5829 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5830 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5831 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5832 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5833 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5834 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5835 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5836 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5837 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5838 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5839 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5840 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5841 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5842 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5843 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5844 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5845 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5846 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5847 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5848 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5849 
  5850 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5851 
  5852 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5853 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5854 
  5855 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5856 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5857 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5858 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5859 
  5860 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5861 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5862 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5863 theory RealVector.
  5864 
  5865 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5866 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5867 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5868 and inner products are included.
  5869 
  5870 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5871 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5872 supported.
  5873 
  5874 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5875 first diagonalization argument.
  5876 
  5877 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5878 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5879 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5880 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5881 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5882 
  5883     hide (open) const gcd
  5884     abbreviation gcd where
  5885       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5886     notation (output)
  5887       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5888 
  5889 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5890 
  5891 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5892 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5893 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5894 
  5895 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5896 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5897 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5898 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5899 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5900 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5901 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5902 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5903 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5904 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5905 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5906 cases.
  5907 
  5908 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5909 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5910 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5911 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5912 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5913 
  5914     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5915     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5916     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5917     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5918     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5919 
  5920 
  5921 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5922 
  5923 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5924 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5925 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5926 
  5927 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5928 
  5929 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5930 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5931 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5932 
  5933 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5934 
  5935 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5936 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5937 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5938 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5939 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5940 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5941 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5942 
  5943 
  5944 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5945 
  5946 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5947 
  5948 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5949 theory targets.
  5950 
  5951 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5952 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5953 'inductive' etc.
  5954 
  5955 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5956 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5957 
  5958 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5959 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5960 
  5961 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5962 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5963 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5964 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5965 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5966 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5967 the algorithm W:
  5968 
  5969  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5970  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5971          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5972 
  5973 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5974 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5975 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5976 
  5977 
  5978 *** HOLCF ***
  5979 
  5980 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5981 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5982 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5983 
  5984 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5985 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5986 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5987 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5988 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5989 
  5990 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5991 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5992 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 
  5994 
  5995 *** ZF ***
  5996 
  5997 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5998 
  5999 
  6000 *** ML ***
  6001 
  6002 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6003 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6004 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6005 5.2.1!
  6006 
  6007 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6008 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6009 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6010 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6011 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6012 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6013 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6014 
  6015 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6016 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6017 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6018 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6019 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6020 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6021 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6022 
  6023 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6024 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6025 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6026 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6027 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6028 
  6029 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6030 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6031 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6032 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6033 Method.add_method.
  6034 
  6035 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6036 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6037 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6038 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6039 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6040 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6041 
  6042 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6043 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6044 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6045 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6046 examples.
  6047 
  6048 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6049 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6050 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6051 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6052 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6053 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6054 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6055 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6056 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6057 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6058 
  6059 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6060 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6061 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6062 
  6063 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6064 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6065 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6066 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6067 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6068 resort for legacy applications.
  6069 
  6070 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6071 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6072 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6073 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6074 explicit runtime argument.
  6075 
  6076 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6077 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6078 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6079 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6080 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6083 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6084 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6085 theory state.
  6086 
  6087 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6088 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6089 
  6090   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6091   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6092   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6093   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6094   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6095   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6096   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6097   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6098   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6099   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6100 
  6101 
  6102 *** System ***
  6103 
  6104 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6105 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6106 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6107 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6108 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6109 
  6110 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6111 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6112 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6113 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6114 
  6115 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6116 
  6117 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6118 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6119 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6120 prover operations.
  6121 
  6122 
  6123 
  6124 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6125 -------------------------------
  6126 
  6127 *** General ***
  6128 
  6129 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6130 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6131 
  6132 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6133 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6134 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6135 provides a proper context already.
  6136 
  6137 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6138 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6139 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6140 
  6141 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6142 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6143 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6144 swap theory imports.
  6145 
  6146 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6147 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6148 
  6149 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6150 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6151 white space without escapes.
  6152 
  6153 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6154 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6155 "foo_bar".
  6156 
  6157 
  6158 *** Pure ***
  6159 
  6160 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6161 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6162 
  6163 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6164 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6165 
  6166 (1) unused_thms
  6167      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6168 
  6169 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6170      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6171      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6172 
  6173 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6174      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6175      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6176      their ancestors.
  6177 
  6178 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6179 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6180 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6181 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6182 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6183 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6184 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6185 
  6186 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6187 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6188 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6189 
  6190 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6191 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6192 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6193 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6194 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6195 
  6196 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6197 
  6198 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6199 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6200 update of theories within ML code.
  6201 
  6202 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6203 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6204 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6205 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6206 
  6207 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6208 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6209 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6211 
  6212 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6213 
  6214 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6215 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6216 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6217 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6218 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6219 
  6220 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6221 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6222 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6223 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6224 situations.
  6225 
  6226 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6227 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6228 proof text.
  6229 
  6230 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6231 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6232 
  6233 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6234 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6235 predicates.
  6236 
  6237 
  6238 *** Document preparation ***
  6239 
  6240 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6241 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6242 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6243 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6244 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6245 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6246 
  6247 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6248 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6249 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6250 
  6251 
  6252 *** HOL ***
  6253 
  6254 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6255 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6256 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6257 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6258 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6259 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6260