NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Sep 18 15:59:38 2011 +0200 (2011-09-18)
changeset 44975 f80d918f8ac0
parent 44974 7762718f5e89
child 45013 05031b71a89a
child 45014 0e847655b2d8
permissions -rw-r--r--
tentative announcement based on current NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
     5 ------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
    10 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
    11 
    12   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
    13     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
    14     files for checking).
    15 
    16   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
    17     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
    18     positions.
    19 
    20   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
    21     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
    22     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
    23 
    24   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
    25     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
    26     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
    27 
    28   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
    29     cores.
    30 
    31   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
    32     versions (garbage collection).
    33 
    34 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
    35 including some remaining limitations.
    36 
    37 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    38 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    39 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    40 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    41 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    45 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    46 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    47 
    48 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    49 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    50 usedir option -Q.
    51 
    52 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    53 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    54 
    55   long_names   ~> names_long
    56   short_names  ~> names_short
    57   unique_names ~> names_unique
    58 
    59 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
    60 
    61   declare [[names_unique = false]]
    62 
    63 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
    64 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
    65 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
    66 
    67 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
    68 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
    69 
    70 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
    71   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
    72   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
    73   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
    74     "Classical Reasoner".
    75 
    76 
    77 *** HOL ***
    78 
    79 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
    80 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    81 
    82 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
    83 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
    84 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
    85 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
    86 class complete_linorder.
    87 
    88 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
    89 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
    90 
    91 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary, Sup_binary,
    92 INF_eq, SUP_eq, INF_UNIV_range, SUP_UNIV_range, Int_eq_Inter,
    93 INTER_eq_Inter_image, Inter_def, INT_eq, Un_eq_Union, INF_subset,
    94 UNION_eq_Union_image, Union_def, UN_singleton, UN_eq have been
    95 discarded.
    96 
    97 More consistent and comprehensive names:
    98 
    99   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   100   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   101   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   102   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   103   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   104   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   105   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   106   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   107   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   108   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   109   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   110   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   111   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   112   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   113 
   114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   118 
   119 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   120 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   121 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   122 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   125 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   126 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   130 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   131 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   132 
   133 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   134 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   135 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   138 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   139 
   140 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   141 
   142     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   143     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   144 
   145 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   146 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   149 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   152 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   153 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   154 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   157   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   158   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   159   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   160   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   161   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   162   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   163 
   164 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   165 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   168   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   169   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   170   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   171   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   172   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   173   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   174   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   175   expi_add ~> exp_add
   176   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   177   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   178   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   179   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   180   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   181   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   182   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   183   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   184   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   185   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   186   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   187   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   188   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   189   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   190   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   191   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   192   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   193   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   194   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   195   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   196   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   197   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   198   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   199   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   200   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   201   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   202   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   203   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   204   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   205   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   206   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   207   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   208   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   209   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   210   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   211   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   212   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   213   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   214   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   215   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   216   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   217   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   218   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   219   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   220   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   221   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   222   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   223   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   224   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   225   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   226   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   227   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   228   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   229 
   230 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   231 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   232 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   233 
   234 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   235 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   236 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   237 
   238 * Code generation:
   239 
   240   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   241     characters in the target language.
   242 
   243   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   244     instead.
   245 
   246   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   247 
   248   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   249     reactivated by the following theory command:
   250 
   251       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   252 
   253 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   256 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   257 
   258 * Nitpick:
   259   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   260   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   261   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   262     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * Sledgehammer:
   265   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   266   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   267     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   268   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   269     this can be done within reasonable time.
   270   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   271     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   273     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   274   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   275     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Metis:
   278   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   280     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281 
   282 * Command 'try':
   283   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   284     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   286     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   287 
   288 * Quickcheck:
   289   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   290     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   291   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   292     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   293   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   294     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   295     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   296     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   297   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   298     (formly in HOL/Library).
   299 
   300 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   301 use 'partial_function' instead.
   302 
   303 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   304 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   305 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   306 
   307 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   308 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   312 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   315 arithmetic.
   316 
   317 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   318 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   319 and lattice type classes.
   320 
   321 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   322 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   323 
   324 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   325 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   326 
   327 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   328 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   329 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   332   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   333   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   334   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   335 
   336 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   337 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   338 constants:
   339 
   340   type inat   ~> type enat
   341   Fin         ~> enat
   342   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   343   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   344   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   345 
   346 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   347 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   350 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   351 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   352 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   353 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   354 
   355 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   356 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   357 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   358 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   359 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   360 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   361 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   362 
   363   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   364   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   365   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   366   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   367 
   368 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   369 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   370 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   373   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   374   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   375   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   376   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   377   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   378   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   379   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   380   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   381   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   382   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   383   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   384   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   385   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   386   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   387   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   388   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   389   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   390   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   391   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   392   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   393   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   394   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   395   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   396   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   397   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   398   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   399   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   400   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   401   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   402   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   403   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   404   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   405   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   406   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   407   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   408   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   409   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   410   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   411   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   412   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   413   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   414   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   415   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   416   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   417   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   418   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   419   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   420   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   421   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   422   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   423 
   424 * Session HOL-Probability:
   425   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   426   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   427   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   428   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   429     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   430 
   431 
   432 *** Document preparation ***
   433 
   434 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   435 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   436 same.
   437 
   438 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   439 result.
   440 
   441 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   442 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   443 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   444 
   445 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   446 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   447 
   448 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   449 like this:
   450 
   451   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   452   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   453 
   454 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   455 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   456 layouts.
   457 
   458 
   459 *** ML ***
   460 
   461 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   462 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   463 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   464 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   465 under external program control.
   466 
   467 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   468 data, which requires explicit setup.
   469 
   470 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   471 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   472 (better known as Proof General).
   473 
   474 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   475 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   476 
   477 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   478 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   479 
   480 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   481 (including quotes etc.).
   482 
   483 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   484 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   485 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   486 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   487 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   488 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   489 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   490 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   491 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   492 
   493 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   494 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   495 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   496 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   497 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   498 
   499 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   500 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   501 
   502 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   503 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   504 
   505 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   506 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   507 
   508 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   509 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   510 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   511 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   512 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   513 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   514 proper Proof.context.
   515 
   516 
   517 *** System ***
   518 
   519 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
   520 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
   521 
   522 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
   523 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
   524 
   525 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
   526 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
   527 
   528   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
   529   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
   530   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
   531   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
   532   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
   533 
   534 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
   535 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   538 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   539 example:
   540 
   541   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   542 
   543 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
   544 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   545 
   546 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   547 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   548 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   549 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   550 
   551 
   552 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   553 ----------------------------------
   554 
   555 *** General ***
   556 
   557 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   558 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   559 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   560 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   561 like this:
   562 
   563   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   564 
   565 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   566 
   567 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   568 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   569 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   570 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   571 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   573 
   574 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   575 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   576 the following package declarations:
   577 
   578   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   579   \usepackage{textcomp}
   580 
   581 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   582 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   583 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   584 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   585 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   586 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   587 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   588 
   589 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   590 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   591 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   592 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   593 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   594 
   595 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   596 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   597 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   598 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   599 
   600 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   601 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   602 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   603 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   604 
   605   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   606 
   607   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   608   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   609   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   610   show_types                    show_types
   611   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   612   show_consts                   show_consts
   613   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   614 
   615   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   616   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   617   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   618 
   619   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   620   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   621 
   622   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   623 
   624   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   625   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   626   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   627   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   628   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   629 
   630 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   631 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   632 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   633 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   634 
   635 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   639   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   640 
   641 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   642 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   643 float_token.
   644 
   645 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   646 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   648 
   649 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   650 DejaVu Sans.
   651 
   652 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   653 
   654 
   655 *** Pure ***
   656 
   657 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   658 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   659 time.
   660 
   661 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   662 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   665 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   668 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   669 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   670 command already provided this functionality.
   671 
   672 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   673 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   674 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   675 without interpretations.
   676 
   677 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   678 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   679 
   680 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   681 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   682 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   683 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   684 
   685 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   686 'definition' instead.
   687 
   688 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   689 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   690 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   691 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   692 
   693 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   694 constructors.
   695 
   696 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   697 the local file system.
   698 
   699 
   700 *** HOL ***
   701 
   702 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   703 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   704 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   705 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   706 
   707   declare [[coercion f]]
   708 
   709 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   710 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   711 
   712   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   713 
   714 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   715 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   716 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   717 other theories like this:
   718 
   719   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   720 
   721 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   722 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   723 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   724 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   725 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   726 for examples.
   727 
   728 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   729 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   730 
   731 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   732 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   733 
   734 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   735 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   736 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   737 
   738 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   739 functorial structure of types.
   740 
   741 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   742 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   743 
   744 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   745 languages.
   746 
   747 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   748 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   752 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   755 combinators any longer.
   756 
   757 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   758 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   759 
   760 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   761 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   762 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   763 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   764 
   765   record 'a foo = ...
   766   ...
   767   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   768 
   769 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   770 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   774 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   775 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   776 
   777 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   778 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   779 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   780 
   781 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   782 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   785 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   786 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   787 independently.
   788 
   789 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   790 counter example search.
   791 
   792 * Sledgehammer:
   793   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   794     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   795     sledgehammer").
   796   - Renamed commands:
   797     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   798     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   799     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   800     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801   - Renamed options:
   802     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   803     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   804     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   805     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   806     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * Nitpick:
   809   - Renamed options:
   810     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   811     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   812     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   813   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   814   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   815   - Added "whack" option.
   816   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   817   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   818   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   819   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   820     higher cardinalities.
   821   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   822 
   823 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   824 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   825 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   826 
   827     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   828 
   829 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   830 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   831 
   832 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   833 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   834 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   835 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   836 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   837 "smt_solver".
   838 
   839 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   840 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   841 
   842 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   843 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   844 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   845 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   848   - Renamed:
   849     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   850     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   851     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852   - Added:
   853     smt_verbose
   854     smt_random_seed
   855     smt_datatypes
   856     smt_infer_triggers
   857     smt_monomorph_limit
   858     cvc3_options
   859     remote_cvc3_options
   860     remote_z3_options
   861     yices_options
   862 
   863 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   864 header.
   865 
   866 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   867 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   868 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   869 
   870   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   871 
   872 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   875 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   880 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   883 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   884 
   885 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   886 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   889 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   890 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   898 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   899 
   900 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   901 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   902 for congruent(2)).
   903 
   904 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   905 
   906   types
   907     bool ~> HOL.bool
   908     nat ~> Nat.nat
   909 
   910   constants
   911     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   912     True ~> HOL.True
   913     False ~> HOL.False
   914     op & ~> HOL.conj
   915     op | ~> HOL.disj
   916     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   917     op = ~> HOL.eq
   918     Not ~> HOL.Not
   919     The ~> HOL.The
   920     All ~> HOL.All
   921     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   922     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   923     Let ~> HOL.Let
   924     If ~> HOL.If
   925     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   926     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   927     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   928     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   929     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   930     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   931     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   932     op : ~> Set.member
   933     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   934 
   935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
   938 
   939     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
   940     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
   941     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
   942     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
   943     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
   944     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
   945     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
   946     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
   947 
   948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * More stylized fact names:
   951 
   952   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
   953   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
   954   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
   955   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
   956 
   957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   958 
   959 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
   960 
   961   constants
   962     null ~> List.null
   963 
   964   facts
   965     mem_iff ~> member_def
   966     null_empty ~> null_def
   967 
   968 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
   969 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   970 generation.
   971 
   972 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
   973 Haskell code.
   974 
   975 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
   976 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
   977 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   980 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   983 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
   984 
   985 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   986 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   987 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
   990 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   991 
   992 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
   993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   994 
   995 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
   996 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
   997 referred to by its qualified name.
   998 
   999   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1000   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1001   product ~>  Enum.product
  1002 
  1003 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1004 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1006 
  1007 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1008 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1009 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011 
  1012 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1013 sort_key.
  1014 
  1015 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1017 
  1018 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1019 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1020 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1021 
  1022   types
  1023     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1024               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1025               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1026         (depends on your needs)
  1027 
  1028   constants
  1029      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1030      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1031      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1032 
  1033 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1034 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1035 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1036 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1039 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1040 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1041 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1042 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1048 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1049 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1050 
  1051 
  1052 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1053 
  1054 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1055 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1056 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1057 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1058 compatibility.
  1059 
  1060 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1061 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1062 
  1063 
  1064 *** HOLCF ***
  1065 
  1066 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1067 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1068 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1072 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1073 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1076   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1077   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1078 
  1079 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1080 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1081 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1084 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1085 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1086 domain definition now works:
  1087 
  1088   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1089 
  1090 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1091 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1092 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1093 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1094 
  1095   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1096     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1097 
  1098   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1099 
  1100 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1101 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1102 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1105 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1108 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1109 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1110 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1111 
  1112 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1113 
  1114 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1115 
  1116 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1122 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1123 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1124 
  1125 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1126 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1127 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1130 still supported as an input translation.
  1131 
  1132 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1133 
  1134   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1135   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1136   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1137   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1138   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1139   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1140   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1141 
  1142 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1143 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1144 
  1145   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1146   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1147   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1148   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1149   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1150   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1151 
  1152 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1153 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1154 
  1155 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1156 
  1157   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1158   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1159   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1160   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1161 
  1162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1163 
  1164 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1165 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1166 
  1167 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1168 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1171   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1172   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1173   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1174   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1175   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1176   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1177   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1178   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1179   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1180   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1181   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1182   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1183   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1184   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1185   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1186   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1187   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1188   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1189   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1190 
  1191 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192 
  1193   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1194   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1195   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1196   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1197   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1198   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1199   box_less             ~> box_below
  1200   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1201   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1202   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1203   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1204   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1205   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1206   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1207   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1208   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1209   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1210   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1211   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1212   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1213   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1214   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1215   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1216   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1217   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1218   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1219   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1220   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1221   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1222   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1223   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1224   up_less              ~> up_below
  1225   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1226   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1227   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1228   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1229   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1230   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1231   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1232   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1233   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1234   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1235   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1236   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1237   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1238 
  1239 
  1240 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1241 
  1242 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1243 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1244 
  1245 
  1246 *** ML ***
  1247 
  1248 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1249 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1250 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1251 
  1252 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1253 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1254 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1255 
  1256 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1257 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1258 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1259 
  1260 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1261 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1262 
  1263 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1264 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1265 
  1266 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1267 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1268 
  1269 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1270 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1271 
  1272 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1273 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1274 almost all situations.
  1275 
  1276 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1277 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1278 Isabelle/ML.
  1279 
  1280 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1281 meaning.
  1282 
  1283 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1284 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1285 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1286 
  1287 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1288 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1289 
  1290 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1291 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1292 
  1293 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1294 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1295 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1296 
  1297 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1298 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1299 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1300 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1301 configuration options.
  1302 
  1303 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1304 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1305 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1306 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1307 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1308 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1309 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1310 
  1311 
  1312 
  1313 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1314 ---------------------------------
  1315 
  1316 *** General ***
  1317 
  1318 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1319 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1320 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1321 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1322 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1323 their full internal name.
  1324 
  1325 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1326 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1327 Some hints on upgrading:
  1328 
  1329   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1330     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1331     which are independent of this issue.
  1332 
  1333   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1334     provides the following special forms:
  1335 
  1336       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1337       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1338       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1339 
  1340     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1341     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1342     extra variables".
  1343 
  1344     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1345     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1346     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1347     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1348     "logic".
  1349 
  1350   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1351     antiquotations:
  1352 
  1353       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1354       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1355       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1356       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1357 
  1358   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1359     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1360     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1361     antiquotations.
  1362 
  1363 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1364 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1365 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1366 diagnose syntax problems.
  1367 
  1368 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1369 
  1370 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1371 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1372 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1373 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1374 
  1375 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1376 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1377 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1378 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1379 
  1380 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1381 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1382 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1383 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1384 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1385 
  1386 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1387 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1388 
  1389 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1390 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1391 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1392 
  1393   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1394 
  1395 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1396 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1397 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1398 
  1399 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1400 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1402 
  1403 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1404 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1405 
  1406 
  1407 *** Pure ***
  1408 
  1409 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1410 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1411 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1412 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1413 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1414 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1415 inspect proof terms.
  1416 
  1417 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1418 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1419 are added internally.  For example:
  1420 
  1421   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1422 
  1423 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1424 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1427 
  1428 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1429 'class' instead.
  1430 
  1431 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1432 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1436 invariants.
  1437 
  1438 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1439 user space functionality any longer.
  1440 
  1441 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1442 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1446 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1447 
  1448 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1449 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1450 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1451 
  1452 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1453 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1454 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1455 
  1456 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1457 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 
  1460 *** HOL ***
  1461 
  1462 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1463 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1464 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1465 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1466 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1467 
  1468 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1469 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1470 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1471 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1472 
  1473   fun
  1474     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1475   where
  1476     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1477 
  1478   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1479     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1480 
  1481   quotient_definition
  1482     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1483 
  1484 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1485 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1486 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1487 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1488 
  1489 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1490 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1491 
  1492 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1493 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1494 
  1495 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1499 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1500 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1501 
  1502 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1503 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1507 
  1508 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1512 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1515 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1516 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1517 
  1518   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1519   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1520   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1521   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1522   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1523   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1524   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1525   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1526   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1527   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1528   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1529   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1530   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1531   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1532   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1533   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1534   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1535   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1536   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1537   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1538   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1539   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1540   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1541   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1542   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1543   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1544   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1545   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1546   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1547   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1548 
  1549 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1550 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1551 
  1552 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1553 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1554 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1555 
  1556 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1557 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1558 
  1559 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1560 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1563 
  1564 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1565 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1568 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1573 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1574 
  1575 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1576 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1577 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1578 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1581   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1582   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1583   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585 
  1586 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1587 lattices):
  1588 
  1589     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1590     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1591 
  1592     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1593 
  1594     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1595     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1596     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1597     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1598     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1599     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1600     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1601     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1602     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1603     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1604     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1605     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1606     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1607 
  1608     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1609     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1610     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1611     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1612     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1613     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1614     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1615     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1616     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1617     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1618     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1619     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1620     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1621     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1622     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1623     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1624     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1625     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1626 
  1627   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1628   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1629 
  1630     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1631     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1632     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1633     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1634     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1635 
  1636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * Refined field classes:
  1639   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1640     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1641     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1642   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1646   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1647   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1648   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1649     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1650   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1651     equal_neg_zero.
  1652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1655 sets to lattices:
  1656 
  1657   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1658   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1659   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1660   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1661   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1662   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1663   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1664   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1665   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1666   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1667 
  1668 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1669 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1670 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1671 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1672 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1673 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1676 multiset order:
  1677 
  1678   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1679     <= and <;
  1680   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1681     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1682     multiset_order;
  1683   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1684     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1685     generation;
  1686   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1687     if needed.
  1688 
  1689 Renamed:
  1690 
  1691   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1692   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1693   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1694 
  1695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1696 
  1697 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1698 
  1699 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1700 
  1701 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1702 
  1703 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1704 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1705 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1706 
  1707   Constants:
  1708   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1709   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1710   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1711   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1712   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1713   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1714   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1715   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1716   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1717   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1718   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1719   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1720   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1721 
  1722   Lemmas:
  1723   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1724   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1725   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1726   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1727   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1728   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1729   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1730   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1731   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1732   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1733   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1734   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1735   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1736 
  1737 * Sledgehammer:
  1738   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1739     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1740     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1741     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1742     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1743     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1744     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1746   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1747     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1748   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1749     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1750     is still experimental.)
  1751   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1752     full-typed mode.
  1753   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1754 
  1755 * Nitpick:
  1756   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1757   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1758   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1759     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1760   - Added support for quotient types.
  1761   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1762     constructs.
  1763   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1764     "termination" proofs).
  1765   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1766   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1767   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1768   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1769     record getters.
  1770   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1771   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1772   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1773   - Added "atoms" option.
  1774   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1775     problems.
  1776   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1777     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1778     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1779   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1780     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1784   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1785   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1786   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1787   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1788   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1789   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1790   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1791   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1792   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1793 
  1794 
  1795 *** HOLCF ***
  1796 
  1797 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1798 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1799 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1802 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1803 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1804 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1805 
  1806 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1807 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1808 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1809 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1810 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1813 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1814 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1815 
  1816 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1817 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1820   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1821 
  1822 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1823 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1824 
  1825   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1826   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1827   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1828   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1829   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1830 
  1831 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1832 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1835   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1836   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1837 
  1838 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1839 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1843 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1848 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 
  1851 *** ML ***
  1852 
  1853 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1854 
  1855     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1856     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1857 
  1858     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1859     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1860     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1861     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1862 
  1863     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1864     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1865     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1866 
  1867 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1868 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1869 
  1870 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1871 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1872 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1873 
  1874 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1875 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1876 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1877 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1878 
  1879 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1880 the context or even global references.
  1881 
  1882 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1883 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1884 
  1885 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1886 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1887 
  1888   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1889   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1890   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1891   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1892   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1893   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1894   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1895   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1896   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1897   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1898 
  1899 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1900 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1901 
  1902 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1903 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1904 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1905 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1906 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1907 
  1908 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1909 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1910 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1911 Theory_Data version.
  1912 
  1913 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1914 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1915 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1916 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1917 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1918 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1919 explicitly in rare situations.
  1920 
  1921 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1922 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924 
  1925 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1926 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1927 
  1928 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1929 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1930 quite rare).
  1931 
  1932 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1933 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1936 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1937 terms.
  1938 
  1939 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1940 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1941 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1942 
  1943 
  1944 *** System ***
  1945 
  1946 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1947 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1948 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1949 
  1950 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1951 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1952 respectively.
  1953 
  1954 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1955 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1956 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1957 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1958 
  1959   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1960 
  1961 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1962 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1963 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1964 component.
  1965 
  1966 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1967 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1968 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1969 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1970 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1971 the user for manual installation.
  1972 
  1973 
  1974 
  1975 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1976 -------------------------------------
  1977 
  1978 *** General ***
  1979 
  1980 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1981 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1982 
  1983 
  1984 *** Pure ***
  1985 
  1986 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1987 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1988 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1989 
  1990 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1991 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1992 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1993 
  1994 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1995 interpretation.
  1996 
  1997 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1998 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1999 
  2000 
  2001 *** Document preparation ***
  2002 
  2003 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2004 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2005 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2006 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2007 
  2008 
  2009 *** HOL ***
  2010 
  2011 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2012 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2013 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2014 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2015 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2016 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2017 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2018 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2019 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2020 
  2021 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2022 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2023 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2024 
  2025 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2026 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2027 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2028 
  2029 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2030 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2031 
  2032 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2033 
  2034 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2035 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2036 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2037 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2038 
  2039 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2040 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2041 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2042 "mirabelle" utility.
  2043 
  2044 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2045 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2046 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2047 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2048 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2049 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2050 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2051 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2052 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2053 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2054 
  2055 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2056 procedure only.
  2057 
  2058 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2059 
  2060 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2061 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2062 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2063 that fail later.
  2064 
  2065 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2066 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2067 
  2068 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2069 the same method as the approximation method.
  2070 
  2071 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2072 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2073 series expansion.
  2074 
  2075 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2076 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2077 
  2078 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2079 reals.
  2080 
  2081 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2082 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2083 
  2084 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2085 fixpoint theorem.
  2086 
  2087 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2088   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2089     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2090   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2091     accordingly
  2092   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2093     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2094   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2095     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2096 
  2097 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2098 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2099 lattice.
  2100 
  2101 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2102 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2103 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2104 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2105 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2106 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2110   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2111     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2112   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2113     le_inf_iff
  2114   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2115     sup_aci)
  2116   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2117   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2118   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2119     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2120     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2121     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2122     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2123     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2124     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2125     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2126     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2127     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2128     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2129   - authentic syntax for
  2130     Set.Pow
  2131     Set.image
  2132   - mere abbreviations:
  2133     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2134     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2135     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2136     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2137     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2138     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2139     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2140     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2141   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2142 
  2143 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2144 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2145 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2146 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2147 
  2148 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2149 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2150 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2153 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2156 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2157 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2158 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2161 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2162 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2163 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2164 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2165 
  2166 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2167 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2171 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2174 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2175 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2176 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2177 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2178 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2179 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2181 
  2182 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2183     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2184     code_post       replaces    code post
  2185     etc.
  2186   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Renamed methods:
  2189     sizechange -> size_change
  2190     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2191   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2194 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2195 
  2196 * Renamed theorems:
  2197     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2198     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2199     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2200     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2201     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2202   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210 
  2211 *** HOLCF ***
  2212 
  2213 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2214 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2215 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2216 
  2217 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2218 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2219 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2220 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2221 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2222 
  2223 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2224 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2225 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2226 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2227 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2228 
  2229 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2230 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2231 constructor are pre-configured.
  2232 
  2233 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2234 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2235 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2236 
  2237 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2238 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2239 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2240 as well.)
  2241 
  2242 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2243 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2244 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2245 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2246 examples.
  2247 
  2248 
  2249 *** ML ***
  2250 
  2251 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2252 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2253 
  2254 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2255 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2256 position, logical grouping etc.
  2257 
  2258 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2259 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2260 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2261 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2262 
  2263 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2264 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2265 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2266 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2267 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2268 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2269 
  2270 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2271 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2272 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2273 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2274 experiments with references.
  2275 
  2276 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2277 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2278 
  2279 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2280 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2281 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2282 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2283 
  2284 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2285 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2286 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2287 
  2288 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2289 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2290 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2298 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2299 
  2300 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2301 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2302 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2303 
  2304 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2305 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2306 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2307 
  2308 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2309 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2310 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2314 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2315 instead of global theory.
  2316 
  2317 
  2318 *** System ***
  2319 
  2320 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2321 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2322 usedir option -q.
  2323 
  2324 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2325 also the system manual.
  2326 
  2327 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2328 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2329 
  2330 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2331 this is always enabled.
  2332 
  2333 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2334 
  2335 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2336 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2337 currently supported on Linux only.
  2338 
  2339 
  2340 
  2341 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2342 --------------------------------
  2343 
  2344 *** General ***
  2345 
  2346 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2347 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2348 
  2349   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2350     "isatool."
  2351 
  2352   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2353     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2354 
  2355   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2356     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2357 
  2358 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2359 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2360 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2361 
  2362 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2363 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2364 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2365 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2366 via "isabelle emacs".
  2367 
  2368 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2369 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2370 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2371 
  2372 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2373 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2374 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2375 
  2376 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2377 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2378 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2379 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2380 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2381 
  2382 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2383 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2384 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2385 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2386 
  2387 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2388 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2389 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2390 
  2391 
  2392 *** Pure ***
  2393 
  2394 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2395 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2396 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2397 
  2398 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2399 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2400 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2401 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2402 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2403 
  2404 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2405 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2406 useful in locale declarations.
  2407 
  2408 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2409 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2410 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2411 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2412 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2413 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2414 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2415 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2416 no longer generated.
  2417 
  2418 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2419 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2420 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2421 
  2422 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2423 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2424 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2425 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2426 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2427 
  2428 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2429 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2430 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2431 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2432 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2433 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2434 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2435 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2436 
  2437 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2438 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2439 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2440 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2441 
  2442 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2445 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2446 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2447 
  2448 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2449 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2452 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2453 in HOL, write
  2454 
  2455     class foo = ...
  2456 
  2457 instead of
  2458 
  2459     class foo = type + ...
  2460 
  2461 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2462 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2465 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2466 
  2467 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2468 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2469 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2470 
  2471 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2472 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2473 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2474 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2475 directly in regular applications.
  2476 
  2477 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2478 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2479 
  2480 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2481 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2482 
  2483 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2484 theory context.
  2485 
  2486 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2487 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2488 
  2489 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2490 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2491 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2492 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2493 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2494 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2495 
  2496   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2497 
  2498 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2499 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2500 normalization.
  2501 
  2502 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2503 addressing etc.
  2504 
  2505 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2506 
  2507   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2508   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2509 
  2510 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2511 
  2512   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2513      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2514      parts of the code generator framework).
  2515 
  2516   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2517      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2518      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2519 
  2520 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2523 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2526 patterns, e.g.
  2527 
  2528     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2529 
  2530 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2531 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2532 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2533 hyphen:
  2534 
  2535     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2536 
  2537 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2538 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2539 
  2540 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2541 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2542 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2543 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2544 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2545 higher-order unification.
  2546 
  2547 
  2548 *** Document preparation ***
  2549 
  2550 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2551 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2552 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2553 
  2554 
  2555 *** HOL ***
  2556 
  2557 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2558 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2559 
  2560 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2561 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2562 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2563 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2564 Main, as before.
  2565 
  2566 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2567 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2568 
  2569 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2570 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2571 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2572 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2573 
  2574 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2575 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2576 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2577 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2578 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2579 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2580 
  2581 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2582 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2583 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2584 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2585 
  2586 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2587 menu.
  2588 
  2589 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2590 (contains the empty clause).
  2591 
  2592 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2593 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2594 
  2595 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2596 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2597 
  2598 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2599 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2600 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2603 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2604 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2605 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2606 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2607 
  2608 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2609 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2610 
  2611 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2612 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2613 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2614 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2615 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2616 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2617 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2618 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2619 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2620 
  2621 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2622 
  2623 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2624 
  2625 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2626 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2629 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2630 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2631 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2632 
  2633 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2634 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2635 
  2636     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2637     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2638     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2639     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2640     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2641     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2642     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2643     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2644 
  2645 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2646 theory Set.
  2647 
  2648 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2649 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2650 
  2651 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2652 
  2653 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2654 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2655 
  2656 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2657 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2658 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2659 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2660 allowed. For examples see
  2661 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2662 
  2663 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2664 
  2665 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2667 
  2668 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2669 structure:
  2670 
  2671     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2672     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2673     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2674     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2675     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2676     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2677     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2678     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2679     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2680     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2681     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2682     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2683     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2684     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2685     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2686     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2687     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2688     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2689     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2690     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2691     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2692     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2693     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2694     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2695     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2696     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2697     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2698     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2699     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2700     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2701     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2702     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2703     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2704 
  2705     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2706     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2707     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2708     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2709     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2710     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2711     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2712     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2713     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2714     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2715 
  2716     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2717     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2718     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2719     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2720     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2721     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2722 
  2723 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2724 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2725 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2726 
  2727 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2728 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2729 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2730 
  2731 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2732 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2735 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2736 
  2737 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2738 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2739 proofs, e.g.
  2740 
  2741   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2742 
  2743 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2744 
  2745 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2746 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2747 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2750 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2752 
  2753 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2754 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2755 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2759 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2760 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2761 preorder_class.*.
  2762 
  2763 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2764 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2765 
  2766 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2767 
  2768   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2769 
  2770 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2771 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2772 fold_image.
  2773 
  2774 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2775 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2776 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2777 the former will disappear at some point.
  2778 
  2779 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2780 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2781 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2782 
  2783 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2784 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2785 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2786 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2787 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2788 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2789 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2790 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2791 
  2792 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2793 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2794 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2795 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2796 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2797 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2798 
  2799     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2800     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2801     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2802     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2803     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2804     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2805     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2806 
  2807 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2808 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2809 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2810 
  2811 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2812 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2813 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2814 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2815 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2816 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2817 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2818 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2819 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2820 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2821 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2822 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2823 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2824 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2825 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2826 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2827 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2828 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2829 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2830 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2831 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2832 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2833 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2834 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2835 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2836 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2837 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2838 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2839 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2840 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2841 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2842 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2843 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2844 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2845 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2846 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2847 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2848 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2849 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2850 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2851 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2852 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2853 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2854 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2855 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2856 
  2857 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858 
  2859 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2860 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2861 
  2862 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2863 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2864 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2865 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2866 
  2867 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2868 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2869 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2870 theory RealVector.
  2871 
  2872 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2873 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2874 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2875 and inner products are included.
  2876 
  2877 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2878 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2879 supported.
  2880 
  2881 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2882 first diagonalization argument.
  2883 
  2884 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2885 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2886 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2887 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2888 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2889 
  2890     hide (open) const gcd
  2891     abbreviation gcd where
  2892       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2893     notation (output)
  2894       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2895 
  2896 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2897 
  2898 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2899 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2900 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2903 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2904 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2905 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2906 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2907 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2908 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2909 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2910 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2911 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2912 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2913 cases.
  2914 
  2915 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2916 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2917 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2918 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2919 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2920 
  2921     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2922     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2923     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2924     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2925     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2926 
  2927 
  2928 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2929 
  2930 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2931 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2932 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2933 
  2934 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2935 
  2936 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2937 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2938 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2939 
  2940 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2941 
  2942 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2943 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2944 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2945 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2946 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2947 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2948 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2949 
  2950 
  2951 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2952 
  2953 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2954 
  2955 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2956 theory targets.
  2957 
  2958 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2959 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2960 'inductive' etc.
  2961 
  2962 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2963 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2964 
  2965 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2966 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2967 
  2968 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2969 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2970 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2971 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2972 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2973 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2974 the algorithm W:
  2975 
  2976  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2977  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2978          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2979 
  2980 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2981 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2982 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2983 
  2984 
  2985 *** HOLCF ***
  2986 
  2987 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2988 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2989 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2990 
  2991 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2992 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2993 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2994 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2995 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2998 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2999 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000 
  3001 
  3002 *** ZF ***
  3003 
  3004 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3005 
  3006 
  3007 *** ML ***
  3008 
  3009 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3010 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3011 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3012 5.2.1!
  3013 
  3014 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3015 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3016 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3017 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3018 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3019 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3020 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3021 
  3022 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3023 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3024 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3025 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3026 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3027 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3028 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3029 
  3030 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3031 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3032 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3033 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3034 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3035 
  3036 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3037 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3038 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3039 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3040 Method.add_method.
  3041 
  3042 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3043 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3044 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3045 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3046 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3047 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3048 
  3049 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3050 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3051 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3052 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3053 examples.
  3054 
  3055 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3056 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3057 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3058 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3059 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3060 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3061 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3062 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3063 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3064 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3065 
  3066 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3067 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3068 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3069 
  3070 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3071 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3072 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3073 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3074 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3075 resort for legacy applications.
  3076 
  3077 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3078 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3079 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3080 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3081 explicit runtime argument.
  3082 
  3083 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3084 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3085 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3086 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3087 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3090 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3091 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3092 theory state.
  3093 
  3094 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3095 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3096 
  3097   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3098   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3099   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3100   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3101   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3102   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3103   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3104   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3105   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3106   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3107 
  3108 
  3109 *** System ***
  3110 
  3111 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3112 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3113 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3114 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3115 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3116 
  3117 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3118 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3119 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3120 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3121 
  3122 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3123 
  3124 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3125 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3126 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3127 prover operations.
  3128 
  3129 
  3130 
  3131 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3132 -------------------------------
  3133 
  3134 *** General ***
  3135 
  3136 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3137 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3138 
  3139 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3140 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3141 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3142 provides a proper context already.
  3143 
  3144 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3145 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3146 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3147 
  3148 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3149 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3150 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3151 swap theory imports.
  3152 
  3153 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3154 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3155 
  3156 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3157 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3158 white space without escapes.
  3159 
  3160 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3161 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3162 "foo_bar".
  3163 
  3164 
  3165 *** Pure ***
  3166 
  3167 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3168 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3169 
  3170 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3171 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3172 
  3173 (1) unused_thms
  3174      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3175 
  3176 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3177      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3178      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3179 
  3180 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3181      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3182      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3183      their ancestors.
  3184 
  3185 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3186 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3187 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3188 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3189 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3190 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3191 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3192 
  3193 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3194 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3195 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3196 
  3197 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3198 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3199 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3200 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3201 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3202 
  3203 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3204 
  3205 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3206 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3207 update of theories within ML code.
  3208 
  3209 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3210 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3211 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3212 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3213 
  3214 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3215 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3216 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3220 
  3221 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3222 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3223 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3224 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3225 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3226 
  3227 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3228 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3229 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3230 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3231 situations.
  3232 
  3233 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3234 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3235 proof text.
  3236 
  3237 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3238 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3239 
  3240 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3241 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3242 predicates.
  3243 
  3244 
  3245 *** Document preparation ***
  3246 
  3247 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3248 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3249 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3250 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3251 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3252 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3253 
  3254 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3255 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3256 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3257 
  3258 
  3259 *** HOL ***
  3260 
  3261 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3262 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3263 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3264 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3265 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3266 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3267 
  3268 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3269 with multithreading.
  3270 
  3271 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3272 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3273 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3274 
  3275 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3276 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3277 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3278 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3281 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3282 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3283 and makes them available separately.  See
  3284 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3285 
  3286 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3287 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3288 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3289 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3290 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3291 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3292 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3293 the declared rules.
  3294 
  3295 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3296 
  3297   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3298 
  3299 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3300 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3301 
  3302 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3303 
  3304   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3305 
  3306   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3307     definitions on => and bool.
  3308 
  3309   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3310     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3311     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3312 
  3313       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3314       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3315       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3316       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3317       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3318       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3319       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3320       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3321 
  3322   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3323     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3324     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3325 
  3326   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3327     The proof pattern
  3328 
  3329       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3330       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3331 
  3332     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3333     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3334 
  3335       have "EX S. P S"
  3336       proof
  3337         show "P S" <...>
  3338       qed
  3339 
  3340   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3341     The proof pattern
  3342 
  3343       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3344       also have "S = T" <...>
  3345       finally have "P T" .
  3346 
  3347     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3348     must be replaced by something like
  3349 
  3350       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3351       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3352       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3353 
  3354   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3355     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3356 
  3357       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3358 
  3359     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3360     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3361     type of the form
  3362 
  3363       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3364 
  3365     rather than
  3366 
  3367       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3368 
  3369 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3370 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3371 
  3372 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3375 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3379 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3382 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3385 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3386 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3387 
  3388 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3389 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3390 
  3391   less_trans
  3392   less_linear
  3393   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3394   le_less_trans
  3395   less_le_trans
  3396   less_not_sym
  3397   less_asym
  3398 
  3399 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3400 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3401 and different variable names.
  3402 
  3403 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3404 
  3405 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3406 finite maps.
  3407 
  3408 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3409 
  3410 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3411 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3412 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3413 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3414 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3415 accordingly.
  3416 
  3417 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3418 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3419 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3420 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3421 
  3422 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3423 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3424 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3425 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3426 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3430 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3433 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3434 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3435 
  3436 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3440 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3441 
  3442 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3443 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3446 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3449 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451 
  3452 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3453 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3456 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3457 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3458 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3459 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3460 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3463 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3464 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3465 
  3466 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3467 
  3468 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3469 
  3470 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3471 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3472 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3473 
  3474 
  3475 *** ZF ***
  3476 
  3477 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3478 same session:
  3479 
  3480   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3481   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3482   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3483   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3484   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3485   List      -> List_ZF
  3486   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3487 
  3488 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3489 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3490 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3491 
  3492 
  3493 *** ML ***
  3494 
  3495 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3496 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3497 
  3498 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3499 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3500 
  3501 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3502 
  3503 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3504 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3505 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3506 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3507 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3510 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3511 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3512 
  3513 
  3514 *** System ***
  3515 
  3516 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3517 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3518 
  3519 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3520 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3521 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3522 
  3523 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3524 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3525 
  3526 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3527 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3528 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3529 
  3530 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3531 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3532 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3533 
  3534 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3535 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3536 
  3537 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3538 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3539 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3540 script.
  3541 
  3542 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3543 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3544 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3545 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3546 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3547 
  3548 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3549 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3550 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3551 
  3552 
  3553 
  3554 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3555 -----------------------------------
  3556 
  3557 *** General ***
  3558 
  3559 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3560 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3561 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3562 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3563 
  3564 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3565 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3566 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3569 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3570 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3571 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3574 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3575 quotes.
  3576 
  3577 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3578 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3579 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3580 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3581 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3582 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3583 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3584 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3585 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3586 
  3587 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3588 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3589 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3590 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3591 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3592 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3593 
  3594 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3595 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3596 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3597 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3598 
  3599 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3600 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3601 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3602 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3603 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3604 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3605 
  3606 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3607 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3608 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3609 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3610 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3611 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3612 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3613 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3614 
  3615 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3616 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3617 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3618 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3619 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3620 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3621 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3622 
  3623 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3624 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3625 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3626 
  3627 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3628 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3629 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3630 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3631 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3632 limit is imposed.
  3633 
  3634 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3635 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3636 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3637 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3638 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3639 and scalability.
  3640 
  3641 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3642 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3643 
  3644 
  3645 *** Document preparation ***
  3646 
  3647 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3648 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3649 current context.
  3650 
  3651 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3652 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3653 
  3654 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3655 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3656 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3657 
  3658 
  3659 *** Pure ***
  3660 
  3661 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3662 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3663 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3664 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3665 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3666 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3667 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3668 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3669 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3670 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3671 
  3672 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3673 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3674 sketch:
  3675 
  3676     internal compilation:
  3677         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3678     writing SML code to a file:
  3679         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3680     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3681         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3682     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3683         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3684 
  3685     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3686         method ``eval''
  3687 
  3688 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3689 
  3690 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3691 
  3692     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3693     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3694     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3695     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3696 
  3697 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3698 
  3699     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3700       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3701 
  3702     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3703       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3704 
  3705     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3706       {(target)}+
  3707         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3708 
  3709     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3710       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3711         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3712 
  3713 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3714 
  3715 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3716 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3717 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3718 codegen".
  3719 
  3720 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3721 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3722 annotations).
  3723 
  3724 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3725 syntax.
  3726 
  3727 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3728 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3729 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3730 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3731 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3732 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3733 
  3734 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3735 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3736 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3737 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3738 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3739 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3740 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3741 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3742 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3743 equations, see section "definitions".
  3744 
  3745 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3746 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3747 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3748 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3749 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3750 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3751 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3752 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3753 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3754 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3755 
  3756 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3757 configuration options:
  3758 
  3759   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3760   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3761   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3762   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3763   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3764   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3765   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3766   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3767   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3768 
  3769 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3770 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3771 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3772 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3773 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3774 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3775 order.
  3776 
  3777 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3778 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3779 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3780 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3781 context encountered later on.
  3782 
  3783 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3784 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3785 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3786 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3787 
  3788 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3789 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3790 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3791 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3792 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3793 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3794 
  3795 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3796 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3797 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3798 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3799 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3800 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3801 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3802 more permissive.
  3803 
  3804 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3805 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3806 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3807 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3808 maintainability of proof texts.
  3809 
  3810 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3811 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3812 
  3813   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3814   then guess x and y by clarify
  3815 
  3816 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3817 proof tools being involved here.
  3818 
  3819 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3820 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3821 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3822 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3823 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3824 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3825 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3826 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3827 
  3828 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3829 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3830 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3831 
  3832   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3833   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3834   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3835   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3836 
  3837 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3838 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3839 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3840 
  3841 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3842 both named and unnamed ones.
  3843 
  3844 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3845 
  3846   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3847 
  3848 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3849 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3850 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3851 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3852 
  3853 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3854 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3855 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3856 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3857 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3858 
  3859 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3860 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3861 
  3862 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3863 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3864 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3865 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3866 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3867 originally first one.
  3868 
  3869 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3870 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3871 expected.
  3872 
  3873 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3874 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3875 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3876 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3877 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3878 
  3879   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3880     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3881     obtains x where "P x"
  3882 
  3883   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3884     assumes "A & B"
  3885     obtains A and B
  3886 
  3887   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3888     assumes "A | B"
  3889     obtains
  3890       A
  3891     | B
  3892 
  3893 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3894 explicitly:
  3895 
  3896   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3897     obtains "~ thesis"
  3898 
  3899   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3900     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3901 
  3902 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3903 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3904 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3905 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3906 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3907 case_names).
  3908 
  3909 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3910 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3911 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3912 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3913 
  3914 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3915 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3916 top-level lemma.
  3917 
  3918 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3919 introduction rule (default "that").
  3920 
  3921 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3922 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3923 to occur.
  3924 
  3925 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3926 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3927 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3928 representations independently of name spaces.
  3929 
  3930 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3931 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3932 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3935 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3936 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3937 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3938 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3939 current context.
  3940 
  3941 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3942 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3943 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3944 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3945 
  3946   axiomatization
  3947     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3948     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3949 
  3950   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3951   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3952 
  3953   abbreviation
  3954     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3955     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3956 
  3957 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3958 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3959 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3960 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3961 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3962 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3963 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3964 
  3965 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3966 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3967 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3968 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3969 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3970 
  3971 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3972 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3973 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3974 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3975 
  3976 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3977 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3978 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3979 
  3980   definition "K x _ = x"
  3981 
  3982   inductive conj for A B
  3983   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3984 
  3985 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3986 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3987 abbreviations on output.
  3988 
  3989 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3990 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3991 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3992 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3993 
  3994 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3995 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3996 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3997 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3998 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3999 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4000 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4001 
  4002 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4003 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4004 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4005 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4006 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4007 
  4008 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4009 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4010 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4011 
  4012 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4013 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4014 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4015 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4016 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4017 
  4018   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4019     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4020 
  4021 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4022 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4023 partial_order.
  4024 
  4025 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4026 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4027 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4028 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4029 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4030 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4031 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4032 examples.
  4033 
  4034 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4035 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4036 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4037 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4038 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4039 
  4040 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4041 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4042 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4043 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4044 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4045 
  4046   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4047   (induct set: foo bar)
  4048   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4049   (induct type: foo bar)
  4050 
  4051 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4052 new format.
  4053 
  4054 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4055 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4056 
  4057 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4058 considered a legacy feature.
  4059 
  4060 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4061 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4064 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4065 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4066 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4067   
  4068 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4069 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4070 manipulating the claset.
  4071 
  4072 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4073 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4074 least one premise.
  4075 
  4076 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4077 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4078 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4079 rule steps.
  4080 
  4081 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4082 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4083 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4084 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4085 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4086 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4087 
  4088 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4089 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4090 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4091 
  4092 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4093 the graph browser tool.
  4094 
  4095 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4096 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4097 
  4098 
  4099 *** HOL ***
  4100 
  4101 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4102 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4103 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4104 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4105 multi-threading.
  4106   
  4107 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4108 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4109 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4110 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4111 work with multi-threading.
  4112 
  4113 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4114 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4115 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4116 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4117 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4118 
  4119 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4120 
  4121 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4122 equality.
  4123 
  4124 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4125 the new 'class' package:
  4126 
  4127     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4128     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4129     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4130     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4131     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4132     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4133     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4134     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4135     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4136     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4137     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4138     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4139     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4140     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4141     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4142     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4143     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4144     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4145     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4146     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4147 
  4148 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4149 
  4150 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4151 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4152 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4153 names.
  4154 
  4155 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4156 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4157 
  4158 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4159 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4160 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4161 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4162 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4163 
  4164 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4165 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4166 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4167 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4168 
  4169 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4170 
  4171 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4172 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4173 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4174 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4178 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4181 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4182 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4183 
  4184 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4185 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4186 
  4187 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4188 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4189 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4190 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4191 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4192 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4193 in the current context.
  4194 
  4195 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4196 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4200 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4201 
  4202 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4203 
  4204     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4205     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4206 
  4207     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4208       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4209     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4210     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4211 
  4212     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4213     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4214 
  4215   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4216 
  4217     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4218     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4219     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4220     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4221     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4222     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4223     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4224     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4225     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4226     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4227     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4228     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4229     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4230     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4231     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4232     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4233     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4234     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4235     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4236     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4237     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4238     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4239     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4240     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4241     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4242     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4243     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4244     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4245     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4246     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4247     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4248     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4249     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4250     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4251     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4252 
  4253     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4254     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4255     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4256     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4257     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4258     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4259     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4260     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4261     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4262     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4263     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4264     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4265     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4266     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4267     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4268     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4269     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4270 
  4271     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4272     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4273     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4274     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4275     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4276     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4277     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4278     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4279     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4280     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4281     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4282     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4283     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4284     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4285     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4286     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4287     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4288     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4289     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4290     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4291     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4292     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4293     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4294     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4295     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4296     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4297     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4298     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4299 
  4300     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4301     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4302     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4303     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4304     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4305     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4306 
  4307     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4308     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4309     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4310     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4311 
  4312     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4313     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4314 
  4315     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4316     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4317 
  4318 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4319 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4320 
  4321 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4322 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4323 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4324 "*.size".
  4325 
  4326 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4330 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4331 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4334 
  4335 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4336 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4337 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4338 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4339 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4340 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4341 numerals on all operations.
  4342 
  4343 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4344 
  4345 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4346 
  4347 * Code generator library theories:
  4348   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4349     languages.
  4350   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4351     languages.
  4352   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4353     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4354   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4355   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4356     denominator).
  4357   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4358     representable by rational numbers.
  4359   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4360     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4361     includes Code_Integer.
  4362   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4363     target-language built-in integers.
  4364   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4365     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4366 
  4367 * New package for inductive predicates
  4368 
  4369   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4370 
  4371     inductive
  4372       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4373       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4374     where
  4375       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4376     | ...
  4377 
  4378   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4379 
  4380     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4381 
  4382     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4383     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4384 
  4385     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4386     intros
  4387       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4388       ...
  4389 
  4390   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4391   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4392 
  4393     inductive_set
  4394       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4395       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4396     where
  4397       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4398     | ...
  4399 
  4400   or
  4401 
  4402     inductive_set
  4403       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4404       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4405       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4406     where
  4407       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4408     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4409     | ...
  4410 
  4411   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4412 
  4413   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4414   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4415 
  4416   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4417 
  4418   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4419     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4420     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4421     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4422     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4423 
  4424   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4425     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4426     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4427     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4428     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4429     statements of the form
  4430 
  4431       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4432 
  4433     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4434     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4435 
  4436       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4437 
  4438   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4439 
  4440       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4441         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4442         ==> ... ==> P
  4443 
  4444     for predicates and
  4445 
  4446       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4447         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4448         ==> ... ==> P
  4449 
  4450     for sets rather than
  4451 
  4452       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4453         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4454         ==> ... ==> P
  4455 
  4456     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4457     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4458     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4459 
  4460   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4461     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4462     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4463 
  4464 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4465 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4466 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4467 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4468 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4469 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4470 
  4471 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4472 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4473 
  4474 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4475 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4476 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4477 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4478 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4479 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4480 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4481 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4482 variable.
  4483 
  4484 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4485 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4486 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4487 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4488   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4489   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4490 
  4491 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4492 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4493 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4494 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4495 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4496 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4497 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4498 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4499 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4500 
  4501 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4502 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4503 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4504 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4505 rat, etc.
  4506 
  4507 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4508 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4509 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4510 
  4511 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4512 
  4513 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4514 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4515 
  4516 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4517 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4518 
  4519 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4520 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4521 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4524 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4528 
  4529 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4530 
  4531 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4532 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4533 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4534 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4535 
  4536 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4537 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4538 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4539 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4540 
  4541 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4542 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4543 algebraic operations.
  4544 
  4545 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4552 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4553 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4554 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4555 adapted.
  4556  
  4557 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4558 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4559 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4560 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4561 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4562 
  4563 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4564 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4565 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4566 
  4567 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4568 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4569 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4570 
  4571 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4574 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4575 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4576   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4577       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4578   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4579   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4580   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4581 
  4582 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4583 
  4584 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4585 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4586 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4587 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4588 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4589 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4590 
  4591 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4592 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4593 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4594 
  4595 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4596 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4597 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4601 
  4602 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4603 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4604 
  4605 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4606 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4607 
  4608 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4609 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4610 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4611 
  4612 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4613 True/False.
  4614 
  4615 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4616 
  4617 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4618 
  4619 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4620 ``rule'' method.
  4621 
  4622 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4623 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4624 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4625 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4626 
  4627 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4628 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4629 
  4630 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4631 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4632 
  4633 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4634 Library.
  4635 
  4636 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4637 
  4638 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4639 as greatest fixed-point.
  4640 
  4641 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4642 association lists.
  4643 
  4644 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4645 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4646 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4647 
  4648 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4649 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4650 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4652 behavior.
  4653 
  4654 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4655 
  4656 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4657 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4658 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4659 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4660 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4661 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4662 
  4663 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4664 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4665 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4666 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4667 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4668 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4669 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4670 
  4671 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4672 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4673 
  4674 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4675 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4676 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4677 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4678 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4679 
  4680 
  4681 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4682 
  4683 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4684 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4685 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4686 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4690 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4691 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4692 
  4693 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4694 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4695 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4698 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4699 
  4700 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4701 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4702 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4706   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4707   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4708   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4709   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4710   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4711   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4712   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4713   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4714   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4715   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4716   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4717   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4718   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4719   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4720 
  4721 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4722 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4723 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4724 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4725 
  4726   approx        <-- capprox
  4727   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4728   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4729   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4730   monad         <-- cmonad
  4731   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4732   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4733   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4734   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4735 
  4736 
  4737 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4738 
  4739 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4740 
  4741 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4745 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4748 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4749 of algebraic structures.
  4750 
  4751 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4752 
  4753 
  4754 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4755 
  4756 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4757 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4758 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4759 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4760 
  4761 
  4762 *** ML ***
  4763 
  4764 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4765 (even on SML/NJ).
  4766 
  4767 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4768 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4769 compile-time.  For example:
  4770 
  4771 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4772 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4773 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4774 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4775 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4776 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4777 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4778 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4779 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4780 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4781 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4782 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4783 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4784 ML {* @{context} *}
  4785 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4786 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4787 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4788 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4789 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4790 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4791 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4792 
  4793 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4794 
  4795 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4796 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4797 
  4798 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4799 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4800 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4801 
  4802 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4803 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4804 
  4805 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4806 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4807 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4808 
  4809 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4810 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4811 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4812 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4813 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4814 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4815 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4816 declarations and definitions.
  4817 
  4818 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4819 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4820 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4821 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4822 
  4823 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4824 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4825 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4826 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4829 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4830 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4831 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4832 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4833 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4834 
  4835 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4836 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4837 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4838 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4839 attributes, methods, etc.
  4840 
  4841 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4842 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4843 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4844 fold_map combinators.
  4845 
  4846 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4847 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4848 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4849 derivation.
  4850 
  4851 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4852 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4853 achieve the old behaviour.
  4854 
  4855 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4856 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4857 statements.
  4858 
  4859 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4860 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4861 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4862 
  4863 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4864 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4865 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4866 
  4867   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4868   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4869   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4870 
  4871 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4872 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4873 
  4874 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4875 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4876 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4877 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4878 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4879 
  4880 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4881 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4882 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4883 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4884 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4885 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4886 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4887 in a locale context).
  4888 
  4889 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4890 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4891 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4892 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4893 
  4894 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4895 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4896 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4897 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4898 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4899 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4900 
  4901 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4902 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4903 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4904 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4905 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4906 
  4907   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4908 
  4909 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4910 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4911 this:
  4912 
  4913   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4914 
  4915 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4916 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4917 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4918 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4919 
  4920 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4921 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4922 
  4923 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4924 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4925 
  4926 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4927 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4928 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4929 batch mode.
  4930 
  4931 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4932 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4933 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4934 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4935 
  4936 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4937 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4938 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4939 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4940 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4941 
  4942 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4943 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4944 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4945 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4946 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4947 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4948 
  4949 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4950 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4951 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4955 "Trueprop" etc.
  4956 
  4957 
  4958 *** System ***
  4959 
  4960 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4961 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4962 Isabelle installations.
  4963 
  4964 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4965 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4966 code.
  4967 
  4968 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4969 
  4970 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4971 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4972 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4973 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4974 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4975 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4976 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4977 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4978 Implementation manual.
  4979 
  4980 
  4981 
  4982 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4983 ----------------------------------
  4984 
  4985 *** General ***
  4986 
  4987 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4988 
  4989   theory <name>
  4990   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4991   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4992   begin
  4993 
  4994 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4995 
  4996   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4997 
  4998 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4999 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5000 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5001 
  5002 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5003 relative and absolute paths.
  5004 
  5005 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5006 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5007 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5008 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5009 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5010 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5011 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5012 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5013 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5014 
  5015   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5016 
  5017 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5018 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5019 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5020 
  5021 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5022 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5025 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5026 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5027 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5028 
  5029   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5030   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5031 
  5032 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5033 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5034 faster.
  5035 
  5036 
  5037 *** Document preparation ***
  5038 
  5039 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5040 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5041 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5042 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5043 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5044 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5045 
  5046 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5047 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5048 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5049 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5050 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5051 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5052 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5053 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5054 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5055 \isadroptag.
  5056 
  5057 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5058 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5059 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5060 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5061 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5062 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5063 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5064 specified above.
  5065 
  5066 * Several new antiquotations:
  5067 
  5068   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5069 
  5070   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5071 
  5072   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5073   argument is a known logical constant;
  5074 
  5075   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5076   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5077 
  5078   @{ML text}
  5079 
  5080 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5081 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5082 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5083 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5084 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5085 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5086 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5087 
  5088 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5089 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5090 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5091 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5092 
  5093 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5094 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5095 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5096 
  5097 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5098 a proof context.
  5099 
  5100 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5101 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5102 
  5103 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5104 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5105 
  5106 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5107 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5108 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5109 
  5110 
  5111 *** Pure ***
  5112 
  5113 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5114 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5115 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5116 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5117 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5118 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5119 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5120 
  5121 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5122 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5123 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5124 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5125 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5126 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5127 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5128 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5129 
  5130 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5131 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5132 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5133 
  5134 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5135 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5136 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5137 
  5138 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5139 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5140 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5141 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5143 
  5144 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5145 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5146 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5147 axclasses vs. locales.
  5148 
  5149 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5150 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5151 
  5152 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5153 marks in schematic variable names.
  5154 
  5155 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5156 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5157 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5158 
  5159   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5160     by simp
  5161 
  5162 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5163 
  5164 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5165 annotations as "(00...)".
  5166 
  5167 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5168 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5169 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5170 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5171 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5172 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5173 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5174 
  5175 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5176 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5177 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5178 specifications.
  5179 
  5180 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5181 locally fixed variables as well.
  5182 
  5183 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5184 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5185 Limit.
  5186 
  5187 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5188 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5189 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5190 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5191 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5192 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5193 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5194 
  5195 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5196 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5197 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5198 
  5199 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5200 
  5201 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5202 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5203 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5204 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5205 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5206 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5207 
  5208 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5209 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5210 
  5211 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5212 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5213 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5214 
  5215 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5216 
  5217 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5218 theory development.
  5219 
  5220 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5221 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5222 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5223 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5224 
  5225 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5226 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5227 quoted when used as identifier.
  5228 
  5229 
  5230 *** Locales ***
  5231 
  5232 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5233 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5234 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5235 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5236 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5237 commands is a follows:
  5238 
  5239   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5240   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5241   (3) interpret expr inst
  5242 
  5243 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5244 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5245 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5246 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5247 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5248 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5249 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5250 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5251 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5252 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5253 
  5254 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5255 'interpret' instead.
  5256 
  5257 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5258 parameters.
  5259 
  5260 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5261 redeclaration.
  5262 
  5263 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5264 
  5265 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5266 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5267 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5268 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5269 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5270 
  5271 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5272 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5273 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5274 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5275 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5276 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5277 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5278 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5279 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5280 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5281 
  5282 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5283 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5284 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5285 
  5286 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5287 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5288 
  5289 
  5290 *** Provers ***
  5291 
  5292 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5293 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5294 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5295 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5296 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5297 
  5298 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5299 and quasi orders.
  5300 
  5301 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5302 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5303 
  5304 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5305 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5306 
  5307 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5308 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5309 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 
  5312 *** HOL ***
  5313 
  5314 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5315 
  5316   syntax (epsilon)
  5317     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5318 
  5319 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5320 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5321 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5322 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5323 
  5324 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5325 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5326 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5327 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5328 
  5329 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5330 instead of ":".
  5331 
  5332 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5333 
  5334   Old       New
  5335   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5336   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5337   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5338   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5339   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5340 
  5341 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5342 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5343 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5344 
  5345   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5346   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5347 
  5348 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5349 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5350 interface.
  5351 
  5352 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5353 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5354 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5355 be a tuple pattern.
  5356 
  5357 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5358 
  5359   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5360   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5361   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5362   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5363 
  5364 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5365 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5366 
  5367 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5368 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5369 (insert F x)'.
  5370 
  5371 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5372 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5373 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5374 
  5375 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5376 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5377 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5378 
  5379 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5380 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5381 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5382 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5383 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5384 
  5385 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5386 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5387 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5388 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5389 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5390 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5391 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5392 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5393 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5394 
  5395 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5396 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5397 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5398 quite long.
  5399 
  5400 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5401 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5402 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5403 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5404 
  5405 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5406 type-variables in the term.
  5407 
  5408 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5409 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5410 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5411 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5412 goals than previously.
  5413 
  5414 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5415 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5416 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5417 just like y <= x.
  5418 
  5419 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5420 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5421 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5422 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5423 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5424 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5425 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5426 
  5427 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5428 
  5429 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5430 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5431 
  5432 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5433 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5434 inequalities.
  5435 
  5436 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5437 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5438 
  5439   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5440   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5441   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5442   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5443   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5444   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5445   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5446   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5447   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5448   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5449   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5450 
  5451 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5452      
  5453      zero_le_square
  5454      not_square_less_zero 
  5455 
  5456   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5457   
  5458      realpow_zero_zero
  5459      realpow_two
  5460      realpow_less
  5461      zero_le_power
  5462      realpow_two_le
  5463      abs_realpow_two
  5464      realpow_two_abs     
  5465 
  5466 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5467 
  5468 * Theory List:
  5469 
  5470 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5471 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5472 
  5473   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5474   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5475   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5476   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5477 
  5478 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5479 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5480 
  5481 
  5482 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5483 
  5484 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5485 integers in the reals.
  5486 
  5487 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5488 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5489 
  5490   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5491   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5492   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5493   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5494   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5495 
  5496 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5497 
  5498 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5499 
  5500 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5501 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5502 
  5503   hypreal = real star
  5504   hypnat = nat star
  5505   hcomplex = complex star
  5506 
  5507 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5508 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5509 
  5510   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5511 
  5512   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5513   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5514   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5515   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5516   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5517 
  5518   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5519   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5520   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5521   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5522   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5523 
  5524 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5525 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5526 
  5527   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5528   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5529   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5530   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5531   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5532   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5533   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5534   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5535   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5536   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5537   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5538   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5539   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5540   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5541   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5542   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5543   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5544   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5545   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5546   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5547   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5548   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5549   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5550   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5551 
  5552 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5553 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5554 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5555 
  5556   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5557   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5558   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5559   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5560   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5561   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5562   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5563   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5564   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5565   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5566     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5567   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5568   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5569   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5570   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5571   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5572   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5573   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5574   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5575   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5576   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5577   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5578   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5579   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5580   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5581   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5582   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5583   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5584   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5585   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5586   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5587   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5588   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5589   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5590   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5591   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5592   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5593   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5594   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5595   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5596   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5597   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5598   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5599   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5600   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5601   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5602   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5603   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5604   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5605   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5606   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5607   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5608   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5609   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5610 
  5611   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5612   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5613   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5614   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5615   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5616   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5617   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5618   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5619   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5620   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5621   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5622 
  5623   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5624   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5625   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5626   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5627   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5628   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5629   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5630   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5631   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5632   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5633   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5634   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5635   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5636   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5637   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5638   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5639   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5640   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5641   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5642   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5643   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5644 
  5645 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5646 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5647 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5648 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5649 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5650 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5651 
  5652 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5653 
  5654 
  5655 *** HOLCF ***
  5656 
  5657 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5658 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5659 type-inference.
  5660 
  5661 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5662 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5663 instead of exponential time).
  5664 
  5665 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5666 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5667 
  5668   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5669 
  5670 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5671 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5672 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5673 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5674 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5675 syntax and examples.
  5676 
  5677 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5678 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5679 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5680 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5681 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5682 
  5683 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5684 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5685 
  5686   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5687   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5688   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5689   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5690   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5691   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5692 
  5693 
  5694 *** ZF ***
  5695 
  5696 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5697 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5698 of a homomorphism).
  5699 
  5700 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5701 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5702 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5703 
  5704 
  5705 *** Cube ***
  5706 
  5707 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5708 theories.
  5709 
  5710 
  5711 *** ML ***
  5712 
  5713 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5714 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5715 
  5716 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5717 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5718 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5719 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5720 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5721 
  5722 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5723 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5724 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5725 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5726 
  5727 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5728 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5729 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5730 
  5731     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5732     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5733     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5734     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5735     seq fs = List.app fs
  5736     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5737     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5738 
  5739 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5740 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5741 
  5742   x |> f                f #> g
  5743   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5744 
  5745 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5746 
  5747   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5748   infix 2 ?;
  5749   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5750   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5751 
  5752 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5753 infix operators.
  5754 
  5755 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5756 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5757 example:
  5758 
  5759   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5760     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5761 
  5762   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5763     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5764 
  5765   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5766     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5767 
  5768   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5769     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5770 
  5771 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5772 available:
  5773 
  5774   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5775   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5776   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5777   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5778 
  5779 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5780 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5781 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5782 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5783 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5784 
  5785   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5786   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5787   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5788 
  5789 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5790 
  5791   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5792   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5793 
  5794 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5795 Naive rewrites:
  5796 
  5797   make_keylist = AList.make
  5798   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5799 
  5800 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5801   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5802 
  5803     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5804     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5805 
  5806 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5807   Naive rewrites:
  5808 
  5809     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5810     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5811 
  5812 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5813 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5814 lists.
  5815 
  5816 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5817 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5818 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5819 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5820 
  5821 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5822 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5823 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5824 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5825 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5826 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5827 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5828 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5829 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5830 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5831 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5832 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5833 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5834 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5835 Output.raw have no effect.
  5836 
  5837 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5838 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5839 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5840 
  5841 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5842 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5843 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5844 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5845 
  5846 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5847 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5848 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5849 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5850 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5851 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5852 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5853 
  5854 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5855 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5856 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5857 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5858 
  5859 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5860 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5861 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5862 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5863 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5864 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5865 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5866 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5867 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5868 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5869 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5870 
  5871 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5872 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5873 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5874 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5875 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5876 with earlier declarations.
  5877 
  5878 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5879 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5880 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5881 
  5882 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5883 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5884 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5885 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5886 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5887 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5888 
  5889   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5890     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5891 
  5892   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5893     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5894 
  5895   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5896     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5897     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5898     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5899 
  5900 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5901 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5902 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5903 
  5904 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5905 
  5906 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5907 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5908 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5909 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5910 
  5911 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5912 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5913 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5914 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5915 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5916 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5917 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5918 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5919 
  5920 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5921 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5922 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5923 
  5924 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5925 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5926 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5927 
  5928 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5929 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5930 
  5931   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5932   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5933   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5934   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5935 
  5936 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5937 
  5938 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5939 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5940 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5941 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5942 (both increase the runtime).
  5943 
  5944 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5945 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5946 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5947 
  5948 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5949 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5950 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5951 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5952 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5953 for further details.
  5954 
  5955 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5956 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5957 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5958 scripts for the time being.
  5959 
  5960 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5961 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5962 
  5963   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5964   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5965 
  5966 
  5967 *** System ***
  5968 
  5969 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5970 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5971 
  5972 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5973 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5974 
  5975 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5976 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5977 
  5978 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5979 distribution being used.
  5980 
  5981 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5982 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5983 theories.
  5984 
  5985 
  5986 
  5987 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5988 --------------------------------
  5989 
  5990 *** General ***
  5991 
  5992 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5993   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5994 
  5995 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5996   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5997   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5998   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5999   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  6000   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  6001   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  6002   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  6003   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  6004   existing theory and ML files.
  6005 
  6006 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  6007 
  6008 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  6009   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  6010   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  6011   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  6012 
  6013 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  6014   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  6015   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  6016   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  6017 
  6018 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  6019   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  6020   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  6021 
  6022 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  6023   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  6024   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  6025   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  6026   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  6027 
  6028 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  6029   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  6030 
  6031 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  6032   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  6033   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  6034 
  6035 
  6036 *** Isar ***
  6037 
  6038 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  6039   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  6040   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  6041     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  6042     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  6043     emulations.
  6044   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  6045     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  6046     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  6047 
  6048 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  6049   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  6050     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  6051     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  6052   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  6053 
  6054 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  6055   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  6056   and derived forms.
  6057 
  6058 * Locales:
  6059   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  6060     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  6061     "_axioms") in the premise.
  6062     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  6063   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  6064     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  6065   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  6066     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  6067   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  6068         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  6069     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  6070     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  6071     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  6072     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  6073     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  6074       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  6075     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  6076     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  6077     with "locale (open)".
  6078       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  6079 
  6080 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  6081   (Isar) contexts.
  6082 
  6083 
  6084 *** HOL ***
  6085 
  6086 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  6087   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  6088   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  6089   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  6090   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  6091 
  6092 * Simplifier:
  6093   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  6094     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  6095     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  6096     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  6097     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  6098   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  6099     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  6100     is solved by simplification already.
  6101 
  6102 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  6103     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  6104 
  6105 * Numerics:
  6106   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  6107     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  6108   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  6109     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  6110   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  6111     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  6112     exponentiation).
  6113 
  6114 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  6115 
  6116 * Records:
  6117   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  6118     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  6119     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  6120   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  6121     (not enabled by default).
  6122   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  6123     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  6124   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  6125 
  6126 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  6127   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  6128   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  6129 
  6130 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  6131 
  6132 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  6133 
  6134 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  6135   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  6136 
  6137 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  6138   matrix theory to linear programming.
  6139 
  6140 * Unions and Intersections:
  6141   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  6142   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  6143   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  6144   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  6145 
  6146 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  6147   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  6148   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  6149   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  6150 
  6151 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  6152   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  6153 
  6154 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  6155   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  6156 
  6157 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  6158   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  6159   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  6160 
  6161 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  6162   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  6163   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  6164   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  6165   for examples.
  6166 
  6167 
  6168 *** HOLCF ***
  6169 
  6170 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  6171 
  6172 
  6173 
  6174 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  6175 ------------------------------
  6176 
  6177 *** General ***
  6178 
  6179 * Provers/simplifier:
  6180 
  6181   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  6182     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  6183     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  6184     the order of assumptions.
  6185 
  6186     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6187 
  6188     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  6189        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  6190 
  6191         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  6192 
  6193        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  6194 
  6195         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  6196 
  6197        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  6198        kind of problem.
  6199 
  6200     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  6201        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  6202        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  6203        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  6204        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  6205        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  6206        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  6207 
  6208   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  6209 
  6210   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  6211     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  6212     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  6213     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  6214     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  6215     the simplifier would diverge.
  6216 
  6217   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  6218 
  6219   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  6220     congruence is ignored.
  6221 
  6222 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  6223   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  6224   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  6225 
  6226 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  6227 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  6228    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  6229 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  6230 
  6231 * Pure: Yo