NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Jan 26 13:49:48 2013 +0100 (2013-01-26)
changeset 51056 fbcc2d314635
parent 51050 7d0c5799e16c
child 51063 3544f5eb1ee6
permissions -rw-r--r--
clarified NEWS on isabelle build and mkroot;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
     5 -----------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
    38 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    42 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    43 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    44 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    45 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    46 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    47 
    48 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    49 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    50 
    51 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    52 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    53 
    54 
    55 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    56 
    57 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    58 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    59 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    60 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    61 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    62 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    63 
    64 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    65 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    66 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    67 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    68 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    69 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    70 
    71 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    72 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    73 browser on demand.
    74 
    75 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    76 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    77 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    78 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    79 
    80 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    81 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    82 
    83 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    84 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    85 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    86 potentially infinite message streams.
    87 
    88 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    89 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    90 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    91 schemes.
    92 
    93 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    94 symbols.
    95 
    96 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
    97 
    98 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    99 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   100 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   101 
   102 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   103 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   104 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   105 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   106 
   107 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   108 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   109 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   110 
   111 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   112 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   113 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   114 Isabelle distribution.
   115 
   116 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   117 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   118 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   119 
   120 
   121 *** Pure ***
   122 
   123 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   124 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   125 
   126 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   127 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   128 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   131 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   132 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   133 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   134 with some care where this is really required.
   135 
   136 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   137 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   138 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   139 
   140   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   141 
   142 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   143 a Hasse diagram.
   144 
   145 
   146 *** HOL ***
   147 
   148 * Sledgehammer:
   149 
   150   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   151     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   152   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   153   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   154   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   155   - Renamed options:
   156       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   157       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   158       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   159       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   160 
   161 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   162 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   163 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   164 
   165 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 * Lifting:
   169   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   170   - quot_del attribute
   171   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   172 
   173 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   174 expressions.
   175 
   176 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   177 pointfree expressions.
   178 
   179 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   180 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   181 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   182 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   186 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   187 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   188 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   189 accordingly.
   190 
   191 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   192 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   195 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196 
   197 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   200 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   201 
   202 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   203 
   204 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   205 
   206   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   207   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   208 
   209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   212 
   213   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   214   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   215 
   216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   219 
   220   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   221     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   222     output f x converges to G.
   223 
   224   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   225     infinity (at_bot).
   226 
   227   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   228     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   229 
   230   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   231     at_top".
   232 
   233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   236 lattice type classes.
   237 
   238 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   239 
   240     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   241     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   242 
   243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   246 changes as follows.
   247 
   248   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   249 
   250       prefix ~> prefixeq
   251       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   252 
   253   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   254     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   255     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   256     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   257 
   258   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   259     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   260     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   261 
   262   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   263     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   264     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   265     Library/Prefix_Order.
   266 
   267   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   268     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   269 
   270       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   271       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   272       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   273       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   274       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   275       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   276       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   277       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   278       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   279       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   280       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   281       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   282       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   283       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   284       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   285       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   286 
   287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   290 
   291 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   292 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   293 
   294 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   295 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   296 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   297 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   298 
   299   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   300   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   301   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   302   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   303   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   304   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   305   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   306   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   307   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   308   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   309 
   310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311 
   312 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   313 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   314 Data").
   315 
   316 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   317 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   318 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   319 code.
   320 
   321 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   322 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   323 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   327 
   328 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   329 
   330 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   331 
   332   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   333   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   334 
   335 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   336 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   337 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   338 
   339   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   340 
   341     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   342     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   343     cart_base i  removed
   344     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   345 
   346   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   347 
   348   Renamed lemmas:
   349 
   350     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   351     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   352     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   353     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   354     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   355     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   356     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   357     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   358     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   359     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   360 
   361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * HOL/Probability:
   364 
   365   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   366 
   367   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   368     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   369     (borel_measurable_induct).
   370 
   371   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   372     projective family).
   373 
   374 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   375 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   376 
   377 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   378 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   379 datatypes.
   380 
   381 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   382 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   383 
   384 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   385 trees for the code generator.
   386 
   387 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   388 Lifting/Transfer.
   389 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 
   395 *** Document preparation ***
   396 
   397 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   398 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   399 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   400 
   401 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   402 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   403 
   404 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   405 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   406 document/root.tex.
   407 
   408 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   409 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 
   412 *** ML ***
   413 
   414 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   415 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   416 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   417 
   418 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   419 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   420 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   421 
   422 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   423 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   424 necessarily printing visible text.
   425 
   426 
   427 *** System ***
   428 
   429 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   430 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   431 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   432 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   433 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   434 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   435 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   436 
   437 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   438 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   439 
   440   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   441 
   442 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   443 
   444 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   445 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   446 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   447 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   448 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   449 
   450 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   451 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   452 
   453 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   454 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   455 
   456 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   458 
   459 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   460 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   461 version of Isabelle.
   462 
   463 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   464 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   465 
   466 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   467 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   468 for home-made settings.
   469 
   470 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   471 
   472 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   473 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   474 configuration.
   475 
   476 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   477 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   478 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   479 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   480 bundled as Isabelle component.
   481 
   482 
   483 
   484 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   485 ------------------------------
   486 
   487 *** General ***
   488 
   489 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   490 
   491   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   492     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   493   - markup for bound variables
   494   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   495   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   496   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   497     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   498 
   499 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   500 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   501 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   502 
   503 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   504 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   505 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   506 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   507 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   508 
   509   context
   510     fixes x y z :: 'a
   511     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   512   begin
   513 
   514   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   515 
   516   end
   517 
   518   thm my_trans
   519 
   520 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   521 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   522 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   523 
   524 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   525 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   526 
   527 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   528 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   529 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   530 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   531 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   532 
   533 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   534 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   535 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   536 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   537 indices of schematic variables.
   538 
   539 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   540 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   541 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   542 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   543 etc. was exploited.
   544 
   545 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   546 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   547 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   548 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   549 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   550 of the material of that old tutorial.
   551 
   552 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   553 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   554 manual.
   555 
   556 
   557 *** Pure ***
   558 
   559 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   560 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   561 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   562 
   563 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   564 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   565 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   566 undocumented feature.)
   567 
   568 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   569 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   570 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   571 
   572   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   573 
   574   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   575     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   576 
   577 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   578 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   579 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   580 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   581 
   582 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   583 
   584     num ~> num_token
   585     xnum ~> xnum_token
   586     xstr ~> str_token
   587 
   588 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   589 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   590 position information via constraints).
   591 
   592 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   593 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   594 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   595 
   596 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   597 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   598 
   599 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   600 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   601 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   604 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   607 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   608 
   609   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   610 
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   614 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   617 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   618 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   619 
   620 
   621 *** HOL ***
   622 
   623 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   624 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   625 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   626 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   627 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   628 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   629 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   630 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   631 possible.
   632 
   633 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   634 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   635 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   636 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   637 
   638 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   639 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   642 
   643 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   644 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   645 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   646 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   647 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   648 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   649 
   650   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   651     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   652 
   653   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   654     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   655     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   656 
   657   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   658     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   659 
   660   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   661     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   662     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   663 
   664   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   665     Redefine using other integer operations.
   666 
   667 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   668 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   669 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   670 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   671 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   672 
   673   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   674     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   675     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   676     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   677     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   678 
   679     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   680     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   681 
   682   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   683     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   684     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   685     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   686     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   687     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   688     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   689     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   690 
   691   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   692     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   693     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   694     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   695 
   696   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   697     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   698     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   699     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   700 
   701   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   702     from type nat to type int.
   703 
   704 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   705 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   706 
   707   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   708     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   709     type.  Example syntax:
   710 
   711     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   712       is List.insert
   713 
   714     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   715     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   716     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   717     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   718     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   719     by the package.
   720 
   721   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   722     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   723     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   724     code generation for each constant.
   725 
   726   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   727     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   728     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   729     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   730     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   731 
   732   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   733     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   734     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   735 
   736 * Quotient package:
   737 
   738   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   739     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   740 
   741   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   742     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   743 
   744   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   745     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   746     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   749     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   752 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   753 
   754 * Quickcheck:
   755 
   756   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   757     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   758     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   759     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   760     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   761 
   762     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   763     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   764     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   765 
   766     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   767     continues searching for genuine ones.
   768 
   769     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   770     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   771     show genuine counterexamples.
   772 
   773   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   774     value generators for a given type and operations.
   775 
   776     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   777     constructors of that type.
   778 
   779   - Support for multisets.
   780 
   781   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   782 
   783   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   784     conjectures in a locale context.
   785 
   786 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   787 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   788 
   789 * Sledgehammer:
   790   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   791     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   792   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   793   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   794     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   795   - Sped up the minimizer.
   796   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   797   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   798   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   799 
   800 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   801 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   802 
   803 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   804 
   805 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   808 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   809 
   810   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   811 
   812 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   813 a list and a nat.
   814 
   815 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   816 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   817 
   818 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   819 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   820 default.
   821 
   822 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   823 
   824   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   825 
   826 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   827 
   828 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   829 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   830 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   831 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   832 one_case.
   833 
   834 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   835 the result of the fact expression.
   836 
   837 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   838 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   839 of some relation theorems:
   840 
   841   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   842   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   843   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   844   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   845   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   846   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   847 
   848 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   849 
   850 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   851 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   852 
   853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   856 to match the constant's name:
   857 
   858   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   859   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   860   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   861   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   862   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   863   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   864   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   865   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   866   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   867   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   868   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   869   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   870   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   871   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   872   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   873   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   874   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   875   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   876   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   877   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   878   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   879   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   880   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   881   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   882 
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   886 and corresponding theorem names:
   887 
   888   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   889 
   890   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   891 
   892   - Renamed theorems:
   893 
   894     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   895     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   896     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   897     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   898     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   899     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   900     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   901     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   902     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   903     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   904     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   905     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   906     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   907     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   908     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   909     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   910     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   911     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   912     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   913     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   914     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   915     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   916     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   917 
   918     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   919 
   920     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   921 
   922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923 
   924 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   925 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   926 
   927   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   928   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   929   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   930   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   931   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   932   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   933   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   934   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   935   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   936   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   937   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   938   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   939   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   940   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   941   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   942   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   943   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   944   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   945   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   946   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   947   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   948 
   949 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   950 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   955 
   956   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   957   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   958   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   959   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   960   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   961   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   962   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   963   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   964   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   965   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   966   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   967   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   968   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   969   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   970   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   971   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   972   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   973   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   974 
   975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   978 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   979 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   980 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   981 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   982 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   983 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   984 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   985 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   986 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   987 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   988 
   989 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   990 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   991 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   992 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   993 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   994 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   995 
   996 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   997 through option types.
   998 
   999 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1000 relations.
  1001 
  1002 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1005 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1006 
  1007   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1008   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1009   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1010   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1011   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1012   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1013   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1014   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1015   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1016   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1017   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1018   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1019   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1020   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1021   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1022   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1023   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1024   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1025   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1026   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1027   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1028   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1029   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1030   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1031   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1032   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1033   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1034   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1035   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1036   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1037   zless_le ~> less_le
  1038   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1039   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1040   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1041 
  1042 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1043 
  1044   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1045 
  1046 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1047 
  1048 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1049 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1050 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1051 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1055 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1056 
  1057 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1058 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1059 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1060 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1061 follows:
  1062 
  1063   Operations:
  1064   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1065   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1066   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1067   del -> rbt_del
  1068   delete -> rbt_delete
  1069   ins -> rbt_ins
  1070   insert -> rbt_insert
  1071   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1072   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1073   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1074   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1075   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1076   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1077   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1078   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1079   union -> rbt_union
  1080   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1081   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1082 
  1083   Lemmas:
  1084   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1085   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1086   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1087   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1088   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1089   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1090   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1091   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1092   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1093   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1094   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1095   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1096   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1097   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1098   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1099   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1100   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1101   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1102   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1103   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1104   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1105   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1106   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1107   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1108   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1109   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1110   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1111   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1112   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1113   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1114   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1115   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1116   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1117   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1118   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1119   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1120   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1121   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1122   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1123   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1124   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1125   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1126   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1127   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1128   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1129   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1130   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1131   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1132   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1133   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1134   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1135   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1136   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1137   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1138   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1139   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1140   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1141   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1142   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1143   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1144   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1145   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1146   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1147   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1148   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1149   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1150   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1151   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1152   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1153   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1154   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1155   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1156   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1157   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1158   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1159   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1160   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1161   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1162   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1163   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1164   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1165   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1166   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1167 
  1168 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1169 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1170 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172   Changed Operations:
  1173   float_abs -> abs
  1174   float_nprt -> nprt
  1175   float_pprt -> pprt
  1176   pow2 -> use powr
  1177   round_down -> float_round_down
  1178   round_up -> float_round_up
  1179   scale -> exponent
  1180 
  1181   Removed Operations:
  1182   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1183 
  1184   Renamed Lemmas:
  1185   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1186   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1187   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1188   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1189   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1190   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1191   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1192   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1193   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1194   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1195   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1196   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1197   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1198   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1199   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1200   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1201   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1202   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1203   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1204   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1205   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1206   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1207   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1208   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1209   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1210   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1211   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1212   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1213   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1214   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1215   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1216   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1217   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1218   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1219   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1220   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1221 
  1222   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1223   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1224   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1225   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1226   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1227   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1228   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1229   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1230   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1231   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1232 
  1233 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1234 association lists with distinct keys.
  1235 
  1236 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1237 annotated commands.
  1238 
  1239 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1240 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1241 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1242 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1243 
  1244 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1245 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1246 instead.
  1247 
  1248   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1249   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1250   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1251   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1252   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1253   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1254   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1255   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1256   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1257   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1258   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1259   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1260   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1261   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1262   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1263   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1264   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1265   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1266   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1267   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1268   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1269   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1270   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1271   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1272   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1273   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1274   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1275   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1276   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1277   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1278   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1279   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1280   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1281   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1282   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1283   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1284   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1285   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1286   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1287   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1288   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1289 
  1290 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1291 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1292 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1293 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1294 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1295 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1296 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1297 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1298 
  1299 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1300 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1301 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1302 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1303 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1304 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1305 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1306 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1307 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1308 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1309 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1310 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1311 
  1312   Renamed constants:
  1313   measure -> emeasure
  1314   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1315   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1316   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1317   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1318 
  1319   Removed locales:
  1320   completeable_measure_space
  1321   finite_measure_space
  1322   finite_prob_space
  1323   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1324   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1325   finite_sigma_algebra
  1326   measure_space
  1327   pair_finite_prob_space
  1328   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1329   pair_finite_space
  1330   pair_sigma_algebra
  1331   product_sigma_algebra
  1332 
  1333   Removed constants:
  1334   conditional_space
  1335   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1336   image_space
  1337   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1338   pair_measure_generator
  1339   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1340   subvimage
  1341 
  1342   Replacement theorems:
  1343   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1344   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1345   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1346   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1347   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1348   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1349   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1350   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1351   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1352   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1353   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1354   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1355   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1356   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1357   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1358   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1359   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1360   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1361   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1362   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1363   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1364   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1365   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1366   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1367   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1368   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1369   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1370   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1371   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1372   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1373   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1374   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1375   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1376   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1377   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1378   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1379   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1380   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1381   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1382   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1383   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1384   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1385   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1386   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1387   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1388   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1389   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1390   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1391   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1392   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1393   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1394   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1395   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1396   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1397   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1398   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1399   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1400   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1401   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1402   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1403   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1404   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1405   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1406   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1407   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1408   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1409   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1410   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1411   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1412   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1413   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1414   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1415   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1416   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1417   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1418   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1419   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1420   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1421   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1422   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1423   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1424   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1425   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1426   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1427   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1428   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1429   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1430   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1431   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1432   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1433   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1434   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1435   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1436   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1437   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1438   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1439   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1440   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1441   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1442   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1443   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1444   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1445   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1446   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1447   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1448   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1449   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1450   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1451   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1452   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1453   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1454   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1455   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1456   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1457   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1458   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1459   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1460   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1461   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1462   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1463   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1464   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1465   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1466   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1467   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1468   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1469   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1470   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1471 
  1472 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1473 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1474 
  1475 
  1476 *** FOL ***
  1477 
  1478 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1479 
  1480 
  1481 *** ZF ***
  1482 
  1483 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1484 analysis.
  1485 
  1486 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1487 
  1488 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 
  1491 *** ML ***
  1492 
  1493 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1494 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1495 
  1496 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1497 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1498 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1499 
  1500 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1501 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1502 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1503 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1504 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1505 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1506 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1507 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1508 
  1509 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1510 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1511 
  1512 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1513 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1514 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1515 
  1516 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1517 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1520 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1521 context as well.
  1522 
  1523 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1524 
  1525   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1526   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1527   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1528   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1529   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1530   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1531   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1532   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1533   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1534   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1535   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1536   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1537 
  1538 
  1539 *** System ***
  1540 
  1541 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1542 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1543 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1544 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1545 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1546 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1547 the generic user home was intended.
  1548 
  1549 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1550 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1551 
  1552 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1553 (not just JRE).
  1554 
  1555 
  1556 
  1557 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1558 ------------------------------------
  1559 
  1560 *** General ***
  1561 
  1562 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1563 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1564 
  1565   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1566     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1567     files for checking).
  1568 
  1569   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1570     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1571     positions.
  1572 
  1573   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1574     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1575     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1576 
  1577   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1578     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1579     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1580 
  1581   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1582     cores.
  1583 
  1584   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1585     versions (garbage collection).
  1586 
  1587 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1588 including some remaining limitations.
  1589 
  1590 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1591 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1592 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1593 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1594 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1596 
  1597 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1598 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1599 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1600 
  1601 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1602 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1603 usedir option -Q.
  1604 
  1605 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1606 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1607 
  1608   long_names   ~> names_long
  1609   short_names  ~> names_short
  1610   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1611 
  1612 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1613 
  1614   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1615 
  1616 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1617 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1618 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1619 
  1620 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1621 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1622 
  1623 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1624   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1625   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1626   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1627     "Classical Reasoner".
  1628 
  1629 
  1630 *** HOL ***
  1631 
  1632 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1633 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1636 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1637 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1638 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1639 class complete_linorder.
  1640 
  1641 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1642 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1643 
  1644 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1645 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1646 
  1647   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1648   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1649   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1650   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1651   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1652   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1653   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1654   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1655   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1656   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1657   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1658 
  1659 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1660 
  1661   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1662   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1663   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1664   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1665   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1666   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1667   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1668   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1669   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1670   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1671   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1672   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1673   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1674   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1675   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1676   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1677 
  1678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1684 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1685 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1686 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1689 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1690 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1694 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1695 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1696 
  1697 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1698 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1699 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1700 
  1701 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1702 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1703 
  1704 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1705 
  1706     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1707     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1708 
  1709 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1710 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1713 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1716 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1717 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1718 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1721   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1722   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1723   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1724   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1725   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1726   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1727 
  1728 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1729 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1732   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1733   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1734   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1735   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1736   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1737   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1738   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1739   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1740   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1741   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1742   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1743   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1744   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1745   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1746   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1747   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1748   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1749   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1750   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1751   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1752   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1753   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1754   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1755   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1756   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1757   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1758   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1759   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1760   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1761   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1762   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1763   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1764   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1765   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1766   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1767   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1768   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1769   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1770   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1771   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1772   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1773   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1774   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1775   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1776   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1777   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1778   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1779   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1780   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1781   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1782   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1783   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1784   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1785   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1786   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1787   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1788   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1789   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1790   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1791   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1792   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1793   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1794   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1795   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1796   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1797   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1798   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1799   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1800   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1801   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1802   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1803   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1804   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1805   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1806   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1807   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1808   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1809   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1810   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1811   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1812   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1813 
  1814 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1815 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1816 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1817 
  1818 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1819 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1820 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1821 
  1822 * Code generation:
  1823 
  1824   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1825     characters in the target language.
  1826 
  1827   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1828     instead.
  1829 
  1830   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1831 
  1832   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1833     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1834 
  1835       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1836 
  1837 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1840 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1841 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1842 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1843 syntax.
  1844 
  1845 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1846 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1847 
  1848 * Nitpick:
  1849   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1850   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1851   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1852     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1853 
  1854 * Sledgehammer:
  1855   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1856   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1857     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1858   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1859     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1860   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1861     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1863     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1864   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1865     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867 * Metis:
  1868   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1870     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872 * Command 'try':
  1873   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1874     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1876     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1877 
  1878 * Quickcheck:
  1879   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1880     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1881   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1882     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1883   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1884     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1885     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1886     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1887   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1888     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1889 
  1890 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1891 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1892 
  1893 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1894 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1895 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1896 
  1897 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1898 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1902 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1905 arithmetic.
  1906 
  1907 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1908 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1909 and lattice type classes.
  1910 
  1911 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1912 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1913 
  1914 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1915 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1916 
  1917 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1918 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1919 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920 
  1921   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1922   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1923   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1924   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1925 
  1926 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1927 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1928 constants:
  1929 
  1930   type inat   ~> type enat
  1931   Fin         ~> enat
  1932   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1933   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1934   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1935 
  1936 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1937 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938 
  1939 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1940 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1941 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1942 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1943 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1944 
  1945 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1946 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1947 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1948 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1949 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1950 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1951 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1952 
  1953   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1954   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1955   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1956   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1957 
  1958 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1959 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1960 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1963   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1964   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1965   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1966   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1967   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1968   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1969   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1970   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1971   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1972   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1973   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1974   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1975   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1976   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1977   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1978   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1979   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1980   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1981   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1982   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1983   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1984   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1985   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1986   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1987   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1988   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1989   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1990   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1991   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1992   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1993   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1994   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1995   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1996   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1997   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1998   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1999   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2000   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2001   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2002   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2003   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2004   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2005   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2006   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2007   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2008   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2009   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2010   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2011   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2012   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2013 
  2014 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2015   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2016   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2017   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2018   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2019     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2024   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2025   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2026   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2027   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2028   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2029   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2030   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2031   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2032   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2033   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2034   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2035   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2036   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2037   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2038   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2039   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2040   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2041   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2042   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2043   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2044   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2045   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2046   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2047   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2048 
  2049 
  2050 *** Document preparation ***
  2051 
  2052 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2053 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2054 same.
  2055 
  2056 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2057 result.
  2058 
  2059 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2060 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2061 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2062 
  2063 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2064 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2065 
  2066 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2067 like this:
  2068 
  2069   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2070   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2071 
  2072 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2073 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2074 layouts.
  2075 
  2076 
  2077 *** ML ***
  2078 
  2079 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2080 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2081 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2082 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2083 under external program control.
  2084 
  2085 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2086 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2087 
  2088 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2089 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2090 (better known as Proof General).
  2091 
  2092 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2093 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2094 
  2095 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2096 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2097 
  2098 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2099 (including quotes etc.).
  2100 
  2101 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2102 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2103 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2104 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2105 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2106 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2107 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2108 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2109 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2110 
  2111 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2112 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2113 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2114 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2115 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2116 
  2117 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2118 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2119 
  2120 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2121 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2122 
  2123 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2124 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2125 
  2126 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2127 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2128 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2129 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2130 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2131 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2132 proper Proof.context.
  2133 
  2134 
  2135 *** System ***
  2136 
  2137 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2138 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2139 
  2140 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2141 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2142 
  2143 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2144 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2145 
  2146   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2147   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2148   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2149   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2150   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2151 
  2152 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2153 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2156 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2157 example:
  2158 
  2159   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2160 
  2161 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2162 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2163 
  2164 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2165 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2166 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2167 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2168 
  2169 
  2170 
  2171 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2172 ----------------------------------
  2173 
  2174 *** General ***
  2175 
  2176 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2177 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2178 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2179 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2180 like this:
  2181 
  2182   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2183 
  2184 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2185 
  2186 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2187 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2188 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2189 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2190 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2191 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2192 
  2193 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2194 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2195 the following package declarations:
  2196 
  2197   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2198   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2199 
  2200 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2201 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2202 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2203 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2204 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2205 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2206 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2207 
  2208 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2209 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2210 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2211 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2212 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2213 
  2214 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2215 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2216 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2217 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2218 
  2219 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2220 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2221 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2222 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2223 
  2224   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2225 
  2226   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2227   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2228   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2229   show_types                    show_types
  2230   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2231   show_consts                   show_consts
  2232   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2233 
  2234   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2235   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2236   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2237 
  2238   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2239   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2240 
  2241   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2242 
  2243   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2244   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2245   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2246   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2247   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2248 
  2249 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2250 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2251 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2252 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2253 
  2254 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2258   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2259 
  2260 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2261 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2262 float_token.
  2263 
  2264 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2265 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2269 DejaVu Sans.
  2270 
  2271 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2272 
  2273 
  2274 *** Pure ***
  2275 
  2276 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2277 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2278 time.
  2279 
  2280 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2281 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2282 
  2283 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2284 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 
  2286 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2287 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2288 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2289 command already provided this functionality.
  2290 
  2291 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2292 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2293 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2294 without interpretations.
  2295 
  2296 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2297 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2298 
  2299 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2300 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2301 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2302 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2303 
  2304 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2305 'definition' instead.
  2306 
  2307 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2308 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2309 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2310 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2311 
  2312 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2313 constructors.
  2314 
  2315 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2316 the local file system.
  2317 
  2318 
  2319 *** HOL ***
  2320 
  2321 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2322 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2323 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2324 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2325 
  2326   declare [[coercion f]]
  2327 
  2328 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2329 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2330 
  2331   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2332 
  2333 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2334 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2335 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2336 other theories like this:
  2337 
  2338   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2339 
  2340 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2341 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2342 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2343 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2344 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2345 for examples.
  2346 
  2347 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2348 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2351 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2352 
  2353 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2354 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2355 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2356 
  2357 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2358 functorial structure of types.
  2359 
  2360 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2361 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2362 
  2363 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2364 languages.
  2365 
  2366 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2367 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2371 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2374 combinators any longer.
  2375 
  2376 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2377 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2378 
  2379 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2380 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2381 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2382 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2383 
  2384   record 'a foo = ...
  2385   ...
  2386   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2387 
  2388 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2389 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2393 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2394 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2395 
  2396 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2397 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2398 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2399 
  2400 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2401 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2404 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2405 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2406 independently.
  2407 
  2408 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2409 counter example search.
  2410 
  2411 * Sledgehammer:
  2412   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2413     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2414     sledgehammer").
  2415   - Renamed commands:
  2416     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2417     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2418     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2419     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2420   - Renamed options:
  2421     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2422     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2423     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2424     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2425     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2426 
  2427 * Nitpick:
  2428   - Renamed options:
  2429     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2430     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2431     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2433   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2434   - Added "whack" option.
  2435   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2436   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2437   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2438   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2439     higher cardinalities.
  2440   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2441 
  2442 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2443 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2444 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2445 
  2446     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2447 
  2448 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2449 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2450 
  2451 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2452 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2453 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2454 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2455 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2456 "smt_solver".
  2457 
  2458 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2459 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2460 
  2461 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2462 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2463 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2464 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2467   - Renamed:
  2468     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2469     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2470     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471   - Added:
  2472     smt_verbose
  2473     smt_random_seed
  2474     smt_datatypes
  2475     smt_infer_triggers
  2476     smt_monomorph_limit
  2477     cvc3_options
  2478     remote_cvc3_options
  2479     remote_z3_options
  2480     yices_options
  2481 
  2482 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2483 header.
  2484 
  2485 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2486 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2487 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2488 
  2489   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2490 
  2491 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2494 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2495 
  2496 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2497 
  2498 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2499 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2502 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2503 
  2504 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2505 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2508 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2509 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2517 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2518 
  2519 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2520 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2521 for congruent(2)).
  2522 
  2523 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2524 
  2525   types
  2526     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2527     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2528 
  2529   constants
  2530     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2531     True ~> HOL.True
  2532     False ~> HOL.False
  2533     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2534     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2535     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2536     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2537     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2538     The ~> HOL.The
  2539     All ~> HOL.All
  2540     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2541     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2542     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2543     If ~> HOL.If
  2544     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2545     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2546     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2547     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2548     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2549     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2550     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2551     op : ~> Set.member
  2552     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2553 
  2554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2557 
  2558     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2559     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2560     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2561     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2562     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2563     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2564     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2565     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2566 
  2567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * More stylized fact names:
  2570 
  2571   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2572   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2573   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2574   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2575 
  2576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2579 
  2580   constants
  2581     null ~> List.null
  2582 
  2583   facts
  2584     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2585     null_empty ~> null_def
  2586 
  2587 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2588 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2589 generation.
  2590 
  2591 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2592 Haskell code.
  2593 
  2594 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2595 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2596 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2599 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2602 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2603 
  2604 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2605 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2606 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2609 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2615 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2616 referred to by its qualified name.
  2617 
  2618   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2619   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2620   product ~>  Enum.product
  2621 
  2622 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2623 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2627 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2628 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2632 sort_key.
  2633 
  2634 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2638 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2639 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2640 
  2641   types
  2642     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2643               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2644               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2645         (depends on your needs)
  2646 
  2647   constants
  2648      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2649      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2650      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2651 
  2652 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2653 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2654 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2655 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2658 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2659 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2660 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2661 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2667 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2668 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2669 
  2670 
  2671 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2672 
  2673 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2674 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2675 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2676 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2677 compatibility.
  2678 
  2679 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2680 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2681 
  2682 
  2683 *** HOLCF ***
  2684 
  2685 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2686 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2687 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689 
  2690 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2691 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2692 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2695   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2696   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2697 
  2698 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2699 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2700 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2703 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2704 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2705 domain definition now works:
  2706 
  2707   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2708 
  2709 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2710 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2711 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2712 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2713 
  2714   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2715     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2716 
  2717   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2718 
  2719 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2720 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2721 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2724 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2727 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2728 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2729 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2730 
  2731 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2732 
  2733 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2739 
  2740 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2741 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2742 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2743 
  2744 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2745 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2746 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2749 still supported as an input translation.
  2750 
  2751 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2752 
  2753   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2754   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2755   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2756   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2757   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2758   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2759   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2760 
  2761 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2762 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763 
  2764   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2765   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2766   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2767   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2768   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2769   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2770 
  2771 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2772 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2775 
  2776   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2777   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2778   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2779   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2780 
  2781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2782 
  2783 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2784 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2787 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2790   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2791   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2792   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2793   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2794   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2795   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2796   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2797   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2798   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2799   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2800   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2801   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2802   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2803   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2804   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2805   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2806   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2807   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2808   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2809 
  2810 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811 
  2812   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2813   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2814   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2815   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2816   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2817   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2818   box_less             ~> box_below
  2819   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2820   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2821   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2822   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2823   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2824   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2825   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2826   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2827   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2828   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2829   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2830   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2831   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2832   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2833   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2834   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2835   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2836   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2837   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2838   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2839   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2840   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2841   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2842   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2843   up_less              ~> up_below
  2844   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2845   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2846   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2847   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2848   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2849   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2850   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2851   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2852   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2853   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2854   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2855   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2856   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2857 
  2858 
  2859 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2860 
  2861 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2862 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 
  2865 *** ML ***
  2866 
  2867 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2868 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2869 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2870 
  2871 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2872 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2873 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2874 
  2875 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2876 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2877 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2878 
  2879 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2880 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2881 
  2882 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2883 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2884 
  2885 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2886 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2887 
  2888 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2889 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2890 
  2891 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2892 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2893 almost all situations.
  2894 
  2895 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2896 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2897 Isabelle/ML.
  2898 
  2899 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2900 meaning.
  2901 
  2902 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2903 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2904 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2905 
  2906 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2907 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2908 
  2909 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2910 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2911 
  2912 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2913 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2914 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2915 
  2916 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2917 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2918 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2919 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2920 configuration options.
  2921 
  2922 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2923 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2924 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2925 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2926 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2927 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2928 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2929 
  2930 
  2931 
  2932 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2933 ---------------------------------
  2934 
  2935 *** General ***
  2936 
  2937 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2938 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2939 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2940 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2941 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2942 their full internal name.
  2943 
  2944 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2945 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2946 Some hints on upgrading:
  2947 
  2948   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2949     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2950     which are independent of this issue.
  2951 
  2952   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2953     provides the following special forms:
  2954 
  2955       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2956       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2957       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2958 
  2959     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2960     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2961     extra variables".
  2962 
  2963     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2964     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2965     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2966     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2967     "logic".
  2968 
  2969   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2970     antiquotations:
  2971 
  2972       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2973       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2974       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2975       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2976 
  2977   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2978     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2979     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2980     antiquotations.
  2981 
  2982 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2983 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2984 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2985 diagnose syntax problems.
  2986 
  2987 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2988 
  2989 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2990 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2991 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2992 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2993 
  2994 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2995 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2996 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2997 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3000 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3001 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3002 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3003 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3006 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3007 
  3008 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3009 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3010 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3011 
  3012   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3013 
  3014 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3015 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3016 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3017 
  3018 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3019 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3023 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3024 
  3025 
  3026 *** Pure ***
  3027 
  3028 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3029 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3030 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3031 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3032 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3033 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3034 inspect proof terms.
  3035 
  3036 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3037 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3038 are added internally.  For example:
  3039 
  3040   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3041 
  3042 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3043 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3044 
  3045 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3048 'class' instead.
  3049 
  3050 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3051 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3055 invariants.
  3056 
  3057 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3058 user space functionality any longer.
  3059 
  3060 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3061 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3065 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3066 
  3067 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3068 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3069 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3070 
  3071 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3072 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3073 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3074 
  3075 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3076 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 
  3079 *** HOL ***
  3080 
  3081 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3082 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3083 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3084 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3085 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3086 
  3087 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3088 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3089 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3090 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3091 
  3092   fun
  3093     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3094   where
  3095     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3096 
  3097   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3098     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3099 
  3100   quotient_definition
  3101     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3102 
  3103 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3104 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3105 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3106 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3107 
  3108 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3109 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3110 
  3111 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3112 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3113 
  3114 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3118 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3119 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3120 
  3121 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3122 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3131 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3134 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3135 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3138   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3139   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3140   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3141   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3142   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3143   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3144   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3145   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3146   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3147   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3148   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3149   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3150   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3151   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3152   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3153   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3154   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3155   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3156   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3157   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3158   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3159   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3160   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3161   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3162   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3163   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3164   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3165   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3166   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3167 
  3168 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3169 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3170 
  3171 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3172 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3173 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3174 
  3175 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3176 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3177 
  3178 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3179 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3182 
  3183 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3184 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3187 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3190 
  3191 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3192 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3193 
  3194 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3195 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3196 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3197 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3200   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3201   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3202   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3204 
  3205 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3206 lattices):
  3207 
  3208     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3209     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3210 
  3211     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3212 
  3213     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3214     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3215     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3216     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3217     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3218     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3219     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3220     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3221     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3222     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3223     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3224     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3225     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3226 
  3227     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3228     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3229     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3230     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3231     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3232     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3233     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3234     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3235     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3236     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3237     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3238     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3239     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3240     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3241     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3242     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3243     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3244     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3245 
  3246   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3247   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3248 
  3249     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3250     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3251     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3252     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3253     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3254 
  3255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Refined field classes:
  3258   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3259     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3260     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3261   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3265   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3266   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3267   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3268     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3269   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3270     equal_neg_zero.
  3271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3274 sets to lattices:
  3275 
  3276   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3277   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3278   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3279   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3280   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3281   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3282   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3283   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3284   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3285   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3286 
  3287 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3288 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3289 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3290 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3291 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3292 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3295 multiset order:
  3296 
  3297   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3298     <= and <;
  3299   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3300     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3301     multiset_order;
  3302   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3303     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3304     generation;
  3305   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3306     if needed.
  3307 
  3308 Renamed:
  3309 
  3310   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3311   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3312   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3313 
  3314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3317 
  3318 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3319 
  3320 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3321 
  3322 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3323 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3324 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326   Constants:
  3327   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3328   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3329   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3330   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3331   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3332   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3333   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3334   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3335   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3336   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3337   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3338   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3339   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3340 
  3341   Lemmas:
  3342   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3343   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3344   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3345   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3346   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3347   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3348   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3349   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3350   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3351   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3352   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3353   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3354   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3355 
  3356 * Sledgehammer:
  3357   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3358     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3359     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3360     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3361     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3362     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3363     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3365   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3366     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3367   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3368     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3369     is still experimental.)
  3370   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3371     full-typed mode.
  3372   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3373 
  3374 * Nitpick:
  3375   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3376   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3377   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3378     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3379   - Added support for quotient types.
  3380   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3381     constructs.
  3382   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3383     "termination" proofs).
  3384   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3385   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3386   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3387   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3388     record getters.
  3389   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3390   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3391   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3392   - Added "atoms" option.
  3393   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3394     problems.
  3395   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3396     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3397     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3399     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3403   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3404   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3405   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3406   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3407   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3408   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3409   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3410   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3411   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413 
  3414 *** HOLCF ***
  3415 
  3416 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3417 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3418 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3421 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3422 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3423 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3426 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3427 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3428 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3429 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3432 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3433 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3436 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3439   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3440 
  3441 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3442 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3445   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3446   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3447   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3448   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3449 
  3450 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3451 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3452 
  3453   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3454   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3455   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3456 
  3457 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3458 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3462 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3467 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469 
  3470 *** ML ***
  3471 
  3472 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3473 
  3474     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3475     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3476 
  3477     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3478     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3479     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3480     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3481 
  3482     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3483     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3484     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3485 
  3486 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3487 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3488 
  3489 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3490 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3491 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3492 
  3493 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3494 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3495 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3496 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3497 
  3498 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3499 the context or even global references.
  3500 
  3501 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3502 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3503 
  3504 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3505 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3506 
  3507   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3508   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3509   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3510   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3511   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3512   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3513   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3514   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3515   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3516   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3517 
  3518 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3519 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3520 
  3521 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3522 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3523 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3524 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3525 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3526 
  3527 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3528 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3529 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3530 Theory_Data version.
  3531 
  3532 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3533 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3534 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3535 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3536 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3537 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3538 explicitly in rare situations.
  3539 
  3540 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3541 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3545 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3548 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3549 quite rare).
  3550 
  3551 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3552 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3555 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3556 terms.
  3557 
  3558 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3559 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3560 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3561 
  3562 
  3563 *** System ***
  3564 
  3565 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3566 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3567 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3568 
  3569 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3570 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3571 respectively.
  3572 
  3573 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3574 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3575 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3576 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3577 
  3578   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3579 
  3580 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3581 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3582 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3583 component.
  3584 
  3585 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3586 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3587 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3588 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3589 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3590 the user for manual installation.
  3591 
  3592 
  3593 
  3594 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3595 -------------------------------------
  3596 
  3597 *** General ***
  3598 
  3599 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3600 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3601 
  3602 
  3603 *** Pure ***
  3604 
  3605 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3606 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3607 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3608 
  3609 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3610 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3611 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3612 
  3613 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3614 interpretation.
  3615 
  3616 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3617 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 
  3620 *** Document preparation ***
  3621 
  3622 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3623 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3624 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3625 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3626 
  3627 
  3628 *** HOL ***
  3629 
  3630 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3631 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3632 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3633 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3634 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3635 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3636 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3637 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3638 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3639 
  3640 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3641 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3642 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3643 
  3644 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3645 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3646 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3647 
  3648 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3649 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3650 
  3651 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3652 
  3653 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3654 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3655 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3656 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3657 
  3658 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3659 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3660 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3661 "mirabelle" utility.
  3662 
  3663 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3664 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3665 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3666 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3667 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3668 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3669 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3670 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3671 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3672 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3673 
  3674 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3675 procedure only.
  3676 
  3677 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3678 
  3679 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3680 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3681 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3682 that fail later.
  3683 
  3684 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3685 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3686 
  3687 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3688 the same method as the approximation method.
  3689 
  3690 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3691 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3692 series expansion.
  3693 
  3694 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3695 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3696 
  3697 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3698 reals.
  3699 
  3700 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3701 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3702 
  3703 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3704 fixpoint theorem.
  3705 
  3706 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3707   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3708     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3709   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3710     accordingly
  3711   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3712     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3713   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3714     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3715 
  3716 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3717 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3718 lattice.
  3719 
  3720 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3721 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3722 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3723 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3724 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3725 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3729   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3730     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3731   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3732     le_inf_iff
  3733   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3734     sup_aci)
  3735   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3736   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3737   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3738     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3739     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3740     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3741     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3742     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3743     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3744     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3745     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3746     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3747     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3748   - authentic syntax for
  3749     Set.Pow
  3750     Set.image
  3751   - mere abbreviations:
  3752     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3753     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3754     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3755     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3756     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3757     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3758     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3759     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3760   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3761 
  3762 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3763 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3764 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3765 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3766 
  3767 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3768 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3769 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3772 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3775 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3776 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3777 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3780 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3781 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3782 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3783 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3784 
  3785 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3786 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3790 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3793 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3794 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3795 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3796 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3797 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3798 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3802     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3803     code_post       replaces    code post
  3804     etc.
  3805   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Renamed methods:
  3808     sizechange -> size_change
  3809     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3810   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3813 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3814 
  3815 * Renamed theorems:
  3816     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3817     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3818     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3819     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3820     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3821   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822 
  3823 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 
  3830 *** HOLCF ***
  3831 
  3832 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3833 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3834 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3835 
  3836 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3837 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3838 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3839 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3840 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3841 
  3842 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3843 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3844 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3845 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3846 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3847 
  3848 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3849 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3850 constructor are pre-configured.
  3851 
  3852 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3853 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3854 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3855 
  3856 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3857 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3858 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3859 as well.)
  3860 
  3861 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3862 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3863 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3864 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3865 examples.
  3866 
  3867 
  3868 *** ML ***
  3869 
  3870 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3871 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3872 
  3873 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3874 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3875 position, logical grouping etc.
  3876 
  3877 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3878 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3879 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3880 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3881 
  3882 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3883 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3884 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3885 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3886 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3887 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3888 
  3889 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3890 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3891 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3892 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3893 experiments with references.
  3894 
  3895 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3896 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3897 
  3898 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3899 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3900 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3901 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3902 
  3903 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3904 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3905 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3906 
  3907 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3908 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3909 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3915 
  3916 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3917 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3918 
  3919 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3920 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3921 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3922 
  3923 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3924 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3925 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3928 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3929 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3933 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3934 instead of global theory.
  3935 
  3936 
  3937 *** System ***
  3938 
  3939 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3940 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3941 usedir option -q.
  3942 
  3943 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3944 also the system manual.
  3945 
  3946 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3947 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3948 
  3949 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3950 this is always enabled.
  3951 
  3952 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3953 
  3954 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3955 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3956 currently supported on Linux only.
  3957 
  3958 
  3959 
  3960 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3961 --------------------------------
  3962 
  3963 *** General ***
  3964 
  3965 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3966 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3967 
  3968   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3969     "isatool."
  3970 
  3971   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3972     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3973 
  3974   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3975     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3976 
  3977 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3978 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3979 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3980 
  3981 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3982 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3983 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3984 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3985 via "isabelle emacs".
  3986 
  3987 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3988 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3989 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3990 
  3991 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3992 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3993 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3994 
  3995 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3996 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3997 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3998 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3999 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4000 
  4001 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4002 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4003 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4004 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4005 
  4006 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4007 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4008 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4009 
  4010 
  4011 *** Pure ***
  4012 
  4013 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4014 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4015 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4016 
  4017 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4018 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4019 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4020 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4021 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4022 
  4023 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4024 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4025 useful in locale declarations.
  4026 
  4027 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4028 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4029 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4030 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4031 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4032 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4033 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4034 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4035 no longer generated.
  4036 
  4037 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4038 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4039 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4040 
  4041 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4042 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4043 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4044 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4045 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4046 
  4047 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4049 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4050 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4051 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4052 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4053 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4054 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4055 
  4056 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4057 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4058 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4059 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4060 
  4061 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4064 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4065 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4066 
  4067 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4068 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4071 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4072 in HOL, write
  4073 
  4074     class foo = ...
  4075 
  4076 instead of
  4077 
  4078     class foo = type + ...
  4079 
  4080 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4081 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082 
  4083 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4084 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4085 
  4086 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4087 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4088 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4089 
  4090 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4091 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4092 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4093 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4094 directly in regular applications.
  4095 
  4096 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4097 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4098 
  4099 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4100 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4101 
  4102 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4103 theory context.
  4104 
  4105 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4106 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4109 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4110 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4111 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4112 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4113 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4114 
  4115   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4116 
  4117 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4118 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4119 normalization.
  4120 
  4121 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4122 addressing etc.
  4123 
  4124 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4125 
  4126   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4127   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4128 
  4129 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4130 
  4131   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4132      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4133      parts of the code generator framework).
  4134 
  4135   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4136      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4137      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4138 
  4139 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4142 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4143 
  4144 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4145 patterns, e.g.
  4146 
  4147     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4148 
  4149 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4150 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4151 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4152 hyphen:
  4153 
  4154     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4155 
  4156 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4157 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4158 
  4159 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4160 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4161 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4162 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4163 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4164 higher-order unification.
  4165 
  4166 
  4167 *** Document preparation ***
  4168 
  4169 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4170 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4171 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4172 
  4173 
  4174 *** HOL ***
  4175 
  4176 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4177 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4178 
  4179 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4180 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4181 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4182 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4183 Main, as before.
  4184 
  4185 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4186 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4187 
  4188 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4189 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4190 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4191 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4192 
  4193 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4194 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4195 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4196 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4197 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4198 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4199 
  4200 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4201 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4202 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4203 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4204 
  4205 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4206 menu.
  4207 
  4208 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4209 (contains the empty clause).
  4210 
  4211 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4212 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4213 
  4214 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4215 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4216 
  4217 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4218 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4219 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4222 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4223 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4224 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4225 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4226 
  4227 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4228 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4229 
  4230 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4231 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4232 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4233 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4234 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4235 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4236 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4237 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4238 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4239 
  4240 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4241 
  4242 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4243 
  4244 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4245 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4248 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4249 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4250 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4251 
  4252 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4253 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4254 
  4255     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4256     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4257     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4258     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4259     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4260     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4261     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4262     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4263 
  4264 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4265 theory Set.
  4266 
  4267 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4268 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4269 
  4270 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4271 
  4272 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4273 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4274 
  4275 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4276 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4277 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4278 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4279 allowed. For examples see
  4280 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4281 
  4282 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4283 
  4284 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4288 structure:
  4289 
  4290     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4291     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4292     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4293     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4294     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4295     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4296     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4297     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4298     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4299     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4300     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4301     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4302     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4303     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4304     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4305     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4306     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4307     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4308     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4309     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4310     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4311     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4312     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4313     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4314     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4315     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4316     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4317     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4318     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4319     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4320     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4321     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4322     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4323 
  4324     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4325     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4326     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4327     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4328     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4329     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4330     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4331     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4332     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4333     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4334 
  4335     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4336     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4337     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4338     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4339     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4340     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4341 
  4342 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4343 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4344 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4345 
  4346 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4347 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4348 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4349 
  4350 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4351 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4352 
  4353 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4354 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4355 
  4356 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4357 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4358 proofs, e.g.
  4359 
  4360   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4361 
  4362 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4363 
  4364 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4365 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4366 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4369 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4373 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4374 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376 
  4377 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4378 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4379 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4380 preorder_class.*.
  4381 
  4382 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4383 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4384 
  4385 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4386 
  4387   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4388 
  4389 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4390 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4391 fold_image.
  4392 
  4393 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4394 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4395 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4396 the former will disappear at some point.
  4397 
  4398 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4399 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4400 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4401 
  4402 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4403 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4404 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4405 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4406 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4407 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4408 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4409 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4410 
  4411 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4412 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4413 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4414 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4415 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4416 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4417 
  4418     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4419     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4420     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4421     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4422     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4423     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4424     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4425 
  4426 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4427 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4428 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4429 
  4430 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4431 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4432 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4433 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4434 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4435 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4436 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4437 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4438 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4439 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4440 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4441 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4442 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4443 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4444 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4445 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4446 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4447 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4448 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4449 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4450 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4451 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4452 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4453 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4454 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4455 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4456 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4457 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4458 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4459 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4460 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4461 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4462 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4463 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4464 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4465 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4466 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4467 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4468 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4469 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4470 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4471 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4472 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4473 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4474 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4475 
  4476 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4477 
  4478 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4479 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4480 
  4481 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4482 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4483 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4484 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4485 
  4486 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4487 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4488 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4489 theory RealVector.
  4490 
  4491 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4492 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4493 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4494 and inner products are included.
  4495 
  4496 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4497 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4498 supported.
  4499 
  4500 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4501 first diagonalization argument.
  4502 
  4503 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4504 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4505 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4506 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4507 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4508 
  4509     hide (open) const gcd
  4510     abbreviation gcd where
  4511       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4512     notation (output)
  4513       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4514 
  4515 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4516 
  4517 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4518 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4519 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4522 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4523 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4524 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4525 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4526 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4527 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4528 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4529 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4530 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4531 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4532 cases.
  4533 
  4534 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4535 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4536 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4537 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4538 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4539 
  4540     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4541     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4542     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4543     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4544     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4545 
  4546 
  4547 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4548 
  4549 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4550 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4551 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4552 
  4553 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4554 
  4555 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4556 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4557 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4558 
  4559 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4560 
  4561 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4562 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4563 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4564 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4565 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4566 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4567 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4568 
  4569 
  4570 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4571 
  4572 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4573 
  4574 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4575 theory targets.
  4576 
  4577 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4578 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4579 'inductive' etc.
  4580 
  4581 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4582 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4583 
  4584 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4585 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4586 
  4587 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4588 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4589 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4590 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4591 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4592 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4593 the algorithm W:
  4594 
  4595  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4596  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4597          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4598 
  4599 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4600 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4601 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4602 
  4603 
  4604 *** HOLCF ***
  4605 
  4606 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4607 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4608 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4609 
  4610 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4611 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4612 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4613 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4614 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4617 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4618 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 
  4621 *** ZF ***
  4622 
  4623 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4624 
  4625 
  4626 *** ML ***
  4627 
  4628 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4629 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4630 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4631 5.2.1!
  4632 
  4633 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4634 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4635 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4636 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4637 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4638 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4639 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4640 
  4641 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4642 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4643 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4644 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4645 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4646 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4647 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4648 
  4649 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4650 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4651 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4652 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4653 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4654 
  4655 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4656 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4657 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4658 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4659 Method.add_method.
  4660 
  4661 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4662 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4663 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4664 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4665 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4666 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4667 
  4668 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4669 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4670 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4671 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4672 examples.
  4673 
  4674 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4675 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4676 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4677 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4678 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4679 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4680 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4681 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4682 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4683 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4684 
  4685 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4686 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4687 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4688 
  4689 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4690 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4691 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4692 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4693 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4694 resort for legacy applications.
  4695 
  4696 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4697 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4698 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4699 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4700 explicit runtime argument.
  4701 
  4702 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4703 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4704 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4705 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4706 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 
  4708 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4709 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4710 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4711 theory state.
  4712 
  4713 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4714 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4715 
  4716   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4717   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4718   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4719   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4720   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4721   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4722   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4723   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4724   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4725   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4726 
  4727 
  4728 *** System ***
  4729 
  4730 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4731 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4732 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4733 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4734 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4735 
  4736 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4737 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4738 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4739 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4740 
  4741 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4742 
  4743 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4744 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4745 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4746 prover operations.
  4747 
  4748 
  4749 
  4750 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4751 -------------------------------
  4752 
  4753 *** General ***
  4754 
  4755 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4756 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4757 
  4758 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4759 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4760 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4761 provides a proper context already.
  4762 
  4763 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4764 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4765 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4766 
  4767 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4768 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4769 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4770 swap theory imports.
  4771 
  4772 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4773 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4774 
  4775 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4776 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4777 white space without escapes.
  4778 
  4779 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4780 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4781 "foo_bar".
  4782 
  4783 
  4784 *** Pure ***
  4785 
  4786 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4787 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4788 
  4789 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4790 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4791 
  4792 (1) unused_thms
  4793      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4794 
  4795 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4796      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4797      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4798 
  4799 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4800      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4801      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4802      their ancestors.
  4803 
  4804 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4805 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4806 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4807 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4808 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4809 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4810 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4811 
  4812 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4813 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4814 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4815 
  4816 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4817 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4818 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4819 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4820 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4821 
  4822 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4823 
  4824 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4825 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4826 update of theories within ML code.
  4827 
  4828 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4830 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4831 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4832 
  4833 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4834 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4835 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4839 
  4840 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4841 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4842 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4843 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4844 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4845 
  4846 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4847 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4848 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4849 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4850 situations.
  4851 
  4852 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4853 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4854 proof text.
  4855 
  4856 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4857 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4858 
  4859 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4860 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4861 predicates.
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 *** Document preparation ***
  4865 
  4866 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4867 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4868 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4869 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4870 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4871 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4872 
  4873 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4874 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4875 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4876 
  4877 
  4878 *** HOL ***
  4879 
  4880 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4881 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4882 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4883 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4884 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4885 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4886 
  4887 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4888 with multithreading.
  4889 
  4890 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4891 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4892 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4893 
  4894 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4895 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4896 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4897 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4898 
  4899 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4900 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4901 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4902 and makes them available separately.  See
  4903 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4904 
  4905 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4906 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4907 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4908 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4909 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4910 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4911 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4912 the declared rules.
  4913 
  4914 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4915 
  4916   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4917 
  4918 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4919 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4920 
  4921 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4922 
  4923   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4924 
  4925   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4926     definitions on => and bool.
  4927 
  4928   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4929     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4930     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4931 
  4932       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4933       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4934       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4935       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4936       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4937       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4938       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4939       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4940 
  4941   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4942     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4943     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4944 
  4945   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4946     The proof pattern
  4947 
  4948       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4949       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4950 
  4951     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4952     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4953 
  4954       have "EX S. P S"
  4955       proof
  4956         show "P S" <...>
  4957       qed
  4958 
  4959   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4960     The proof pattern
  4961 
  4962       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4963       also have "S = T" <...>
  4964       finally have "P T" .
  4965 
  4966     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4967     must be replaced by something like
  4968 
  4969       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4970       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4971       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4972 
  4973   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4974     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4975 
  4976       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4977 
  4978     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4979     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4980     type of the form
  4981 
  4982       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4983 
  4984     rather than
  4985 
  4986       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4987 
  4988 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4989 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4990 
  4991 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4992 
  4993 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4994 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4996 
  4997 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4998 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4999 
  5000 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5001 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5004 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5005 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5008 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5009 
  5010   less_trans
  5011   less_linear
  5012   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5013   le_less_trans
  5014   less_le_trans
  5015   less_not_sym
  5016   less_asym
  5017 
  5018 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5019 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5020 and different variable names.
  5021 
  5022 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5023 
  5024 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5025 finite maps.
  5026 
  5027 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5028 
  5029 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5030 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5031 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5032 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5033 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5034 accordingly.
  5035 
  5036 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5037 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5038 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5039 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5040 
  5041 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5042 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5043 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5044 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5045 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5049 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5052 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5053 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5054 
  5055 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5059 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5060 
  5061 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5062 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5063 
  5064 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5065 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066 
  5067 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5068 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5070 
  5071 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5072 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5073 
  5074 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5075 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5076 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5077 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5078 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5079 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5080 
  5081 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5082 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5083 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5084 
  5085 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5086 
  5087 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5088 
  5089 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5090 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5091 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5092 
  5093 
  5094 *** ZF ***
  5095 
  5096 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5097 same session:
  5098 
  5099   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5100   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5101   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5102   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5103   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5104   List      -> List_ZF
  5105   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5106 
  5107 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5108 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5109 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5110 
  5111 
  5112 *** ML ***
  5113 
  5114 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5115 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5116 
  5117 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5118 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5119 
  5120 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5121 
  5122 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5123 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5124 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5125 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5126 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5129 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5130 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5131 
  5132 
  5133 *** System ***
  5134 
  5135 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5136 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5137 
  5138 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5139 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5140 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5141 
  5142 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5143 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5144 
  5145 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5146 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5147 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5148 
  5149 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5150 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5151 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5152 
  5153 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5154 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5155 
  5156 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5157 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5158 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5159 script.
  5160 
  5161 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5162 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5163 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5164 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5165 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5166 
  5167 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5168 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5169 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5170 
  5171 
  5172 
  5173 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5174 -----------------------------------
  5175 
  5176 *** General ***
  5177 
  5178 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5179 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5180 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5181 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5182 
  5183 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5184 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5185 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5186 
  5187 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5188 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5189 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5190 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5191 
  5192 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5193 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5194 quotes.
  5195 
  5196 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5197 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5198 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5199 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5200 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5201 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5202 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5203 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5204 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5205 
  5206 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5207 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5208 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5209 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5210 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5211 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5212 
  5213 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5214 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5215 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5216 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5217 
  5218 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5219 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5220 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5221 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5222 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5223 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5224 
  5225 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5226 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5227 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5228 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5229 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5230 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5231 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5232 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5233 
  5234 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5235 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5236 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5237 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5238 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5239 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5240 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5241 
  5242 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5243 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5244 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5245 
  5246 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5247 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5248 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5249 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5250 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5251 limit is imposed.
  5252 
  5253 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5254 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5255 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5256 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5257 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5258 and scalability.
  5259 
  5260 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5261 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5262 
  5263 
  5264 *** Document preparation ***
  5265 
  5266 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5267 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5268 current context.
  5269 
  5270 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5271 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5272 
  5273 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5274 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5275 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5276 
  5277 
  5278 *** Pure ***
  5279 
  5280 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5281 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5282 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5283 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5284 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5285 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5286 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5287 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5288 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5289 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5290 
  5291 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5292 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5293 sketch:
  5294 
  5295     internal compilation:
  5296         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5297     writing SML code to a file:
  5298         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5299     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5300         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5301     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5302         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5303 
  5304     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5305         method ``eval''
  5306 
  5307 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5308 
  5309 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5310 
  5311     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5312     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5313     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5314     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5315 
  5316 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5317 
  5318     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5319       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5320 
  5321     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5322       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5323 
  5324     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5325       {(target)}+
  5326         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5327 
  5328     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5329       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5330         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5331 
  5332 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5333 
  5334 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5335 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5336 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5337 codegen".
  5338 
  5339 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5340 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5341 annotations).
  5342 
  5343 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5344 syntax.
  5345 
  5346 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5347 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5348 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5349 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5350 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5351 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5352 
  5353 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5354 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5355 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5356 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5357 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5358 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5359 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5360 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5361 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5362 equations, see section "definitions".
  5363 
  5364 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5365 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5366 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5367 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5368 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5369 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5370 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5371 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5372 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5373 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5374 
  5375 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5376 configuration options:
  5377 
  5378   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5379   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5380   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5381   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5382   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5383   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5384   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5385   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5386   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5387 
  5388 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5389 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5390 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5391 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5392 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5393 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5394 order.
  5395 
  5396 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5397 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5398 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5399 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5400 context encountered later on.
  5401 
  5402 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5403 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5404 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5405 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5406 
  5407 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5408 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5409 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5410 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5411 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5412 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5413 
  5414 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5415 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5416 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5417 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5418 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5419 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5420 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5421 more permissive.
  5422 
  5423 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5424 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5425 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5426 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5427 maintainability of proof texts.
  5428 
  5429 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5430 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5431 
  5432   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5433   then guess x and y by clarify
  5434 
  5435 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5436 proof tools being involved here.
  5437 
  5438 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5439 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5440 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5441 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5442 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5443 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5444 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5445 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5446 
  5447 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5448 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5449 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5450 
  5451   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5452   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5453   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5454   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5455 
  5456 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5457 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5458 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5459 
  5460 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5461 both named and unnamed ones.
  5462 
  5463 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5464 
  5465   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5466 
  5467 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5468 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5469 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5470 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5471 
  5472 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5473 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5474 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5475 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5476 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5477 
  5478 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5479 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5480 
  5481 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5482 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5483 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5484 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5485 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5486 originally first one.
  5487 
  5488 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5489 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5490 expected.
  5491 
  5492 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5493 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5494 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5495 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5496 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5497 
  5498   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5499     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5500     obtains x where "P x"
  5501 
  5502   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5503     assumes "A & B"
  5504     obtains A and B
  5505 
  5506   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5507     assumes "A | B"
  5508     obtains
  5509       A
  5510     | B
  5511 
  5512 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5513 explicitly:
  5514 
  5515   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5516     obtains "~ thesis"
  5517 
  5518   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5519     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5520 
  5521 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5522 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5523 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5524 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5525 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5526 case_names).
  5527 
  5528 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5529 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5530 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5531 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5532 
  5533 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5534 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5535 top-level lemma.
  5536 
  5537 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5538 introduction rule (default "that").
  5539 
  5540 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5541 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5542 to occur.
  5543 
  5544 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5545 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5546 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5547 representations independently of name spaces.
  5548 
  5549 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5550 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5551 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5552 
  5553 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5554 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5555 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5556 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5557 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5558 current context.
  5559 
  5560 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5561 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5562 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5563 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5564 
  5565   axiomatization
  5566     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5567     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5568 
  5569   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5570   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5571 
  5572   abbreviation
  5573     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5574     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5575 
  5576 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5577 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5578 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5579 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5580 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5581 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5582 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5583 
  5584 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5585 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5586 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5587 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5588 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5589 
  5590 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5591 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5592 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5593 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5594 
  5595 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5596 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5597 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5598 
  5599   definition "K x _ = x"
  5600 
  5601   inductive conj for A B
  5602   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5603 
  5604 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5605 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5606 abbreviations on output.
  5607 
  5608 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5609 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5610 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5611 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5612 
  5613 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5614 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5615 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5616 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5617 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5618 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5619 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5620 
  5621 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5622 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5623 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5624 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5625 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5626 
  5627 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5628 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5629 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5630 
  5631 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5632 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5633 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5634 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5635 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5636 
  5637   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5638     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5639 
  5640 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5641 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5642 partial_order.
  5643 
  5644 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5645 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5646 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5647 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5648 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5649 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5650 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5651 examples.
  5652 
  5653 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5654 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5655 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5656 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5657 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5658 
  5659 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5660 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5661 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5662 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5663 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5664 
  5665   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5666   (induct set: foo bar)
  5667   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5668   (induct type: foo bar)
  5669 
  5670 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5671 new format.
  5672 
  5673 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5674 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5675 
  5676 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5677 considered a legacy feature.
  5678 
  5679 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5680 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5681 
  5682 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5683 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5684 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5685 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5686   
  5687 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5688 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5689 manipulating the claset.
  5690 
  5691 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5692 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5693 least one premise.
  5694 
  5695 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5696 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5697 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5698 rule steps.
  5699 
  5700 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5701 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5702 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5703 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5704 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5705 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5706 
  5707 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5708 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5709 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5710 
  5711 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5712 the graph browser tool.
  5713 
  5714 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5715 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5716 
  5717 
  5718 *** HOL ***
  5719 
  5720 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5721 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5722 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5723 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5724 multi-threading.
  5725   
  5726 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5727 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5728 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5729 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5730 work with multi-threading.
  5731 
  5732 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5733 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5734 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5735 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5736 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5737 
  5738 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5739 
  5740 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5741 equality.
  5742 
  5743 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5744 the new 'class' package:
  5745 
  5746     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5747     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5748     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5749     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5750     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5751     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5752     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5753     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5754     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5755     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5756     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5757     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5758     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5759     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5760     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5761     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5762     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5763     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5764     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5765     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5766 
  5767 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5768 
  5769 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5770 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5771 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5772 names.
  5773 
  5774 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5775 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5776 
  5777 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5778 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5779 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5780 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5781 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5782 
  5783 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5784 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5785 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5786 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5787 
  5788 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5789 
  5790 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5791 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5792 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5793 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5795 
  5796 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5797 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5798 
  5799 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5800 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5801 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5802 
  5803 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5804 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5805 
  5806 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5807 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5808 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5809 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5810 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5811 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5812 in the current context.
  5813 
  5814 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5815 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5817 
  5818 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5819 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5820 
  5821 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5822 
  5823     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5824     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5825 
  5826     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5827       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5828     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5829     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5830 
  5831     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5832     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5833 
  5834   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5835 
  5836     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5837     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5838     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5839     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5840     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5841     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5842     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5843     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5844     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5845     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5846     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5847     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5848     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5849     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5850     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5851     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5852     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5853     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5854     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5855     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5856     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5857     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5858     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5859     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5860     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5861     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5862     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5863     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5864     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5865     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5866     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5867     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5868     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5869     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5870     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5871 
  5872     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5873     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5874     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5875     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5876     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5877     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5878     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5879     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5880     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5881     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5882     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5883     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5884     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5885     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5886     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5887     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5888     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5889 
  5890     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5891     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5892     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5893     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5894     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5895     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5896     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5897     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5898     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5899     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5900     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5901     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5902     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5903     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5904     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5905     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5906     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5907     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5908     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5909     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5910     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5911     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5912     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5913     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5914     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5915     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5916     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5917     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5918 
  5919     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5920     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5921     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5922     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5923     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5924     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5925 
  5926     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5927     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5928     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5929     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5930 
  5931     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5932     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5933 
  5934     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5935     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5936 
  5937 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5938 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5939 
  5940 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5941 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5942 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5943 "*.size".
  5944 
  5945 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5949 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5950 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5955 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5956 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5957 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5958 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5959 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5960 numerals on all operations.
  5961 
  5962 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5963 
  5964 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5965 
  5966 * Code generator library theories:
  5967   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5968     languages.
  5969   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5970     languages.
  5971   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5972     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5973   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5974   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5975     denominator).
  5976   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5977     representable by rational numbers.
  5978   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5979     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5980     includes Code_Integer.
  5981   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5982     target-language built-in integers.
  5983   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5984     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5985 
  5986 * New package for inductive predicates
  5987 
  5988   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5989 
  5990     inductive
  5991       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5992       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5993     where
  5994       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5995     | ...
  5996 
  5997   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5998 
  5999     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6000 
  6001     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6002     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6003 
  6004     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6005     intros
  6006       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6007       ...
  6008 
  6009   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6010   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6011 
  6012     inductive_set
  6013       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6014       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6015     where
  6016       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6017     | ...
  6018 
  6019   or
  6020 
  6021     inductive_set
  6022       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6023       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6024       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6025     where
  6026       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6027     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6028     | ...
  6029 
  6030   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6031 
  6032   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6033   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6034 
  6035   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6036 
  6037   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6038     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6039     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6040     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6041     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6042 
  6043   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6044     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6045     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6046     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6047     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6048     statements of the form
  6049 
  6050       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6051 
  6052     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6053     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6054 
  6055       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6056 
  6057   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6058 
  6059       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6060         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6061         ==> ... ==> P
  6062 
  6063     for predicates and
  6064 
  6065       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6066         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6067         ==> ... ==> P
  6068 
  6069     for sets rather than
  6070 
  6071       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6072         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6073         ==> ... ==> P
  6074 
  6075     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6076     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6077     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6078 
  6079   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6080     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6081     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6082 
  6083 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6084 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6085 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6086 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6087 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6088 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6089 
  6090 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6091 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6092 
  6093 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6094 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6095 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6096 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6097 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6098 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6099 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6100 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6101 variable.
  6102 
  6103 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6104 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6105 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6106 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6107   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6108   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6109 
  6110 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6111 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6112 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6113 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6114 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6115 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6116 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6117 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6118 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6119 
  6120 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6121 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6122 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6123 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6124 rat, etc.
  6125 
  6126 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6127 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6128 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6129 
  6130 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6131 
  6132 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6133 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6134 
  6135 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6136 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6137 
  6138 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6139 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6140 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6141 
  6142 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6143 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6147 
  6148 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6149 
  6150 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6151 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6152 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6153 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6154 
  6155 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6156 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6157 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6158 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6159 
  6160 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6161 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6162 algebraic operations.
  6163 
  6164 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6166 
  6167 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6169 
  6170 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6171 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6172 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6173 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6174 adapted.
  6175  
  6176 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6177 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6178 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6179 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6180 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6181 
  6182 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6183 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6184 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6185 
  6186 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6187 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6188 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6189 
  6190 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6191 
  6192 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6193 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6194 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6195   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6196       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6197   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6198   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6199   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6200 
  6201 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6202 
  6203 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6204 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6205 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6206 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6207 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6208 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6209 
  6210 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6211 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6212 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6213 
  6214 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6215 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6216 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6218 
  6219 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6220 
  6221 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6222 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6223 
  6224 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6225 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6226 
  6227 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6228 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6229 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6230 
  6231 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6232 True/False.
  6233 
  6234 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6235 
  6236 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6237 
  6238 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6239 ``rule'' method.
  6240 
  6241 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6242 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences