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NEWS

author | haftmann |

Fri Aug 10 17:04:24 2007 +0200 (2007-08-10) | |

changeset 24218 | fbf1646b267c |

parent 24213 | 71c57c5099d6 |

child 24234 | 4714e04fb8e9 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

ClassPackage renamed to Class

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

10 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

11 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

12 legacy features will disappear eventually.

14 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

15 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

16 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

18 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

19 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

20 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

21 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

23 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

24 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

25 quotes.

27 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

28 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

29 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

30 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

31 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

32 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

33 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

34 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

35 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

37 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

38 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

39 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

40 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

41 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

42 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

44 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

45 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

46 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader no

47 longer maintains dependencies on such files.

49 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

50 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

51 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

52 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

53 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

54 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

55 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

57 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

58 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

59 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

61 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

62 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

63 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

64 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

65 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

66 limit is imposed.

68 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

69 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

70 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

71 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

72 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

73 and scalability.

75 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

76 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

79 *** Document preparation ***

81 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

82 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

83 current context.

85 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

86 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

88 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

89 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

90 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

94 *** Pure ***

96 * code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now referred

97 to by usual term syntax (including optional type annotations).

99 * code generator:

100 - Isar 'definition's, 'constdef's and primitive instance definitions are added

101 explicitly to the table of defining equations

102 - primitive definitions are not used as defining equations by default any longer

103 - defining equations are now definitly restricted to meta "==" and object

104 equality "="

105 - HOL theories have been adopted accordingly

107 * class_package.ML offers a combination of axclasses and locales to

108 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. See

109 HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples.

111 * Yet another code generator framework allows to generate executable

112 code for ML and Haskell (including "class"es). A short usage sketch:

114 internal compilation:

115 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

116 writing SML code to a file:

117 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

118 writing OCaml code to a file:

119 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

120 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

121 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

123 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL/Main.

125 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

127 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

128 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

129 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

130 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

132 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

134 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

135 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

137 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

138 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

140 code_instance <and-list of instances>

141 {(target)}+

142 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

144 code_class <and_list of classes>

145 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

146 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

148 code_instance and code_class only apply to target Haskell.

150 See HOL theories and HOL/ex/Codegenerator*.thy for usage examples.

151 Doc/Isar/Advanced/Codegen/ provides a tutorial.

153 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

154 syntax.

156 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

157 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

158 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

159 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

160 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

161 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

163 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

164 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

165 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

166 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

167 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

168 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

169 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

170 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

171 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

172 equations, see section "definitions".

174 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

175 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

176 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

177 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

178 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

179 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

180 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

181 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

182 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

183 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

185 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

186 configuration options:

188 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

189 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

190 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

191 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

192 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

193 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

194 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

195 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

196 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

198 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

199 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see

200 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

201 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

202 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

203 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

204 order.

206 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

207 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

208 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

209 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

210 context encountered later on.

212 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

213 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

214 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

215 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

217 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

218 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

219 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

220 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

221 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

222 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

224 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

225 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

226 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

227 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

228 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

229 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

230 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

231 more permissive.

233 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

234 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

235 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

236 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

237 maintainability of proof texts.

239 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

240 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

242 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

243 then guess x and y by clarify

245 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

246 proof tools being involved here.

248 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

249 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

250 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

251 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

252 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

253 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

254 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

255 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

257 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

258 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

259 certain special cases of literal facts:

261 have "A" by fact == note `A`

262 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

263 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

264 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

266 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

267 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

268 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

270 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

271 both named and unnamed ones.

273 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

275 def x == "t" and y == "u"

277 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

278 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

279 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

280 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

282 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

283 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

284 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

285 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

286 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

288 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

289 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

290 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

291 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

292 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

293 originally first one.

295 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

296 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

297 expected.

299 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

300 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

301 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

302 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

303 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

305 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

306 assumes "EX x. P x"

307 obtains x where "P x"

309 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

310 assumes "A & B"

311 obtains A and B

313 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

314 assumes "A | B"

315 obtains

316 A

317 | B

319 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

320 explicitly:

322 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

323 obtains "~ thesis"

325 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

326 obtains "thesis ==> something"

328 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

329 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

330 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

331 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

332 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

333 case_names).

335 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

336 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

337 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

338 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

340 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

341 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

342 top-level lemma.

344 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

345 introduction rule (default "that").

347 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

348 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

349 to occur.

351 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

352 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

353 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

354 representations independently of name spaces.

356 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

357 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

358 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

360 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

361 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

362 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic

363 representation of given constants retrieved from the context.

365 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

366 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

367 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

368 isar-ref manual. Examples:

370 axiomatization

371 eq (infix "===" 50) where

372 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

374 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

375 definition g where "g x = f x x"

377 abbreviation

378 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

379 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

381 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

382 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

383 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

384 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

385 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

386 HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

387 entities from a monomorphic theory.

389 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

390 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

391 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

392 'translations' in common applications.

394 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

395 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

396 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

397 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

399 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

400 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

401 abbreviations on output.

403 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling:

404 - use of locales "var" and "struct" no longer necessary;

405 - parameter renamings are no longer required to be injective.

406 This enables, for example, to define a locale for endomorphisms thus:

407 locale endom = homom mult mult h.

409 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

410 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

411 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

412 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

413 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

414 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

415 `unfold_locales'; see below.

417 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

418 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

419 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

420 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

421 unfold predicates to assumptions.

423 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

424 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

425 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

427 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

428 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

429 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

430 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

431 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

433 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

434 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

436 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a definition

437 specification element in the context of locale partial_order.

439 * Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support

440 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

441 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

442 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

443 obsolete anyway). The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced

444 techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets

445 work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).

447 (1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain

448 parameters:

450 lemma

451 fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a

452 assumes a: "A n x"

453 shows "P n x"

454 using a -- {* make induct insert fact a *}

455 proof (induct n arbitrary: x) -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}

456 case 0

457 show ?case sorry

458 next

459 case (Suc n)

460 note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}

461 note `A (Suc n) x` -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}

462 show ?case sorry

463 qed

465 (2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain

466 form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"

467 together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get

468 sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):

470 lemma

471 fixes a :: "'a => nat"

472 assumes a: "A (a x)"

473 shows "P (a x)"

474 using a

475 proof (induct n == "a x" arbitrary: x)

476 ...

478 See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this

479 particular technique.

481 (3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtains' or

482 'obtain') by induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic

483 encodings:

485 lemma

486 fixes n :: nat

487 obtains x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"

488 proof (induct n arbitrary: thesis)

489 case 0

490 obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry

491 then show thesis by (rule 0)

492 next

493 case (Suc n)

494 obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)

495 obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry

496 then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)

497 qed

499 Here the 'arbitrary: thesis' specification essentially modifies the

500 scope of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole

501 existence statement through the induction as expected.

503 * Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

504 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually

505 provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar

506 (e.g. inductive sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to

507 specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

509 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

510 (induct set: foo bar)

511 (induct type: foo bar)

513 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

514 new format.

516 * Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

517 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

518 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are

519 nested accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured

520 explicitly. For example:

522 lemma

523 fixes n :: nat

524 shows "P n" and "Q n"

525 proof (induct n)

526 case 0 case 1

527 show "P 0" sorry

528 next

529 case 0 case 2

530 show "Q 0" sorry

531 next

532 case (Suc n) case 1

533 note `P n` and `Q n`

534 show "P (Suc n)" sorry

535 next

536 case (Suc n) case 2

537 note `P n` and `Q n`

538 show "Q (Suc n)" sorry

539 qed

541 The split into subcases may be deferred as follows -- this is

542 particularly relevant for goal statements with local premises.

544 lemma

545 fixes n :: nat

546 shows "A n ==> P n" and "B n ==> Q n"

547 proof (induct n)

548 case 0

549 {

550 case 1

551 note `A 0`

552 show "P 0" sorry

553 next

554 case 2

555 note `B 0`

556 show "Q 0" sorry

557 }

558 next

559 case (Suc n)

560 note `A n ==> P n` and `B n ==> Q n`

561 {

562 case 1

563 note `A (Suc n)`

564 show "P (Suc n)" sorry

565 next

566 case 2

567 note `B (Suc n)`

568 show "Q (Suc n)" sorry

569 }

570 qed

572 If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement

573 needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using

574 lists of propositions separated by 'and':

576 lemma

577 shows "a : A ==> P1 a"

578 "a : A ==> P2 a"

579 and "b : B ==> Q1 b"

580 "b : B ==> Q2 b"

581 "b : B ==> Q3 b"

582 proof (induct set: A B)

584 * Provers/induct: support coinduction as well. See

585 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

587 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

588 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

590 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

591 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

592 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

593 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

595 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

596 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

597 manipulating the claset.

599 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

600 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

601 least one premise.

603 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

604 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

605 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

606 rule steps.

608 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

609 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

610 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

611 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

612 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

613 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

615 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

616 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

617 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

619 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

620 the graph browser tool.

622 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses entities with internal name

623 (trailing "_") by default; use '!' option for full details.

626 *** HOL ***

628 * Code generator library theories:

629 * Pretty_Int represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

630 languages.

631 * Pretty_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

632 languages.

633 * Pretty_Char_chr like Pretty_Char, but also offers treatment of character

634 codes; includes Pretty_Int.

635 * Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

636 * Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

637 denominator).

638 * Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

639 representable by rational numbers.

640 * Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

641 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

642 includes Pretty_Int.

643 * ML_String provides an additional datatype ml_string; in the HOL default

644 setup, strings in HOL are mapped to lists of HOL characters in SML; values

645 of type ml_string are mapped to strings in SML.

646 * ML_Int provides an additional datatype ml_int which is mapped to to SML

647 built-in integers.

649 * New package for inductive predicates

651 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

653 inductive

654 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

655 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

656 where

657 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

658 | ...

660 rather than

662 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

664 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

665 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

667 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

668 intros

669 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

670 ...

672 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

673 sets to be defined with the new package via

675 inductive_set

676 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

677 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

678 where

679 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

680 | ...

682 or

684 inductive_set

685 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

686 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

687 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

688 where

689 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

690 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

691 | ...

693 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

695 Many examples can be found in the subdirectories Auth, Bali, Induct,

696 or MicroJava.

698 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

700 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

701 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly introduced

702 sets or predicates must be specified together with the introduction

703 rules after the "where" keyword (see example above), rather than before

704 the actual inductive definition.

706 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now quantified

707 in the order of their occurrence in the introduction rules, rather than

708 in alphabetical order. Since this may break some proofs, these proofs

709 either have to be repaired, e.g. by reordering the variables

710 a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar "case" statements of the form

712 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

714 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

715 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

717 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

719 - The format of the elimination rules is now

721 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

722 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

723 ==> ... ==> P

725 for predicates and

727 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

728 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

729 ==> ... ==> P

731 for sets rather than

733 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

734 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

735 ==> ... ==> P

737 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples (e.g. using case_tac

738 or simplification with the split_paired_all rule) before the above elimination

739 rule is applicable.

741 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive sets or

742 predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The list of rules

743 "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

745 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

746 resolution prover. Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. See

747 also http://gilith.com/software/metis/

749 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

750 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

751 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

752 wait for the automatic provers to return.

754 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including "_") and

755 take their order into account, like in functional programming.

756 Internally, this is translated into nested case-expressions; missing cases

757 are added and mapped to the predefined constant "undefined". In complicated

758 cases printing may no longer show the original input but the internal

759 form. Lambda-abstractions allow the same form of pattern matching:

760 "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an abbreviation for

761 "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new variable.

763 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

764 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification rules

765 for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did previously.

766 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY)

767 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

768 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

770 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

771 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and

772 the tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the

773 method for a specific type involves instantiating the locale and

774 possibly adding declarations for computation on the coefficients.

775 The method is already instantiated for natural numbers and for the

776 axiomatic class of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by

777 Chaieb and Wenzel at CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles

778 underlying this architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

780 * constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML antiquotations

781 @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to circumvent

782 possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

784 * Constant renames due to introduction of canonical name prefixing for

785 class package:

787 HOL.abs ~> HOL.minus_class.abs

788 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

789 Nat.power ~> Nat.power_class.power

790 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

791 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

792 FixedPoint.Inf ~> FixedPoint.complete_lattice_class.Inf

794 * Rudimentary class target mechanism involves constant renames:

796 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

797 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

798 FixedPoint.Sup ~> FixedPoint.complete_lattice_class.Sup

800 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary"

802 * new constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined"

804 * new class "default" with associated constant "default"

806 * new function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

807 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

809 * new (input only) syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension, eg

810 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y]

811 For details see List.thy.

813 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x : xs. P] to

814 [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list comprehension syntax,

815 and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY

817 * Lemma "set_take_whileD" renamed to "set_takeWhileD"

819 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps)

820 for manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies

821 with all denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations)

822 or positive/negative (in inequations).

824 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

825 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and ring_distribs.

826 Removed lemmas field_xyz in Ring_and_Field

827 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.

828 INCOMPATIBILITY.

830 * Library/Pretty_Int.thy: maps HOL numerals on target language integer literals

831 when generating code.

833 * Library/Pretty_Char.thy: maps HOL characters on target language character literals

834 when generating code.

836 * Library/Commutative_Ring.thy: switched from recdef to function package;

837 constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for algebraic operations.

839 * Some steps towards more uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

841 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

842 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

844 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

845 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

846 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

847 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

849 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

850 for "inf" and "sup" operations.

852 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

854 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

855 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

856 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

857 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

858 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

859 le_meetI ~> le_infI

860 join_leI ~> le_supI

861 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

862 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

863 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

864 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

865 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

866 join_comm ~> sup_commute

867 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

868 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

869 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

870 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

871 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

872 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

873 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

874 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

875 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

876 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

877 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

878 join_aci ~> sup_aci

879 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

880 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

881 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

882 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

883 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

884 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

885 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

886 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

887 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

888 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

890 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

891 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

892 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

893 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

894 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

895 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

896 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

897 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

898 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

899 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

900 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

901 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

902 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

903 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

904 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

905 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

906 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

908 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

909 mono_join ~> mono_sup

910 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

911 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

912 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

913 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

914 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

915 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

916 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

917 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

918 meet1I ~> inf1I

919 meet2I ~> inf2I

920 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

921 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

922 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

923 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

924 meet1E ~> inf1E

925 meet2E ~> inf2E

926 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

927 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

928 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

929 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

930 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

931 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

932 join1CI ~> sup1CI

933 join2CI ~> sup2CI

934 join1E ~> sup1E

935 join2E ~> sup2E

937 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

938 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

939 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

940 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

941 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

942 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

944 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

945 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

947 meet_min ~> inf_min

948 join_max ~> sup_max

950 * Classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

951 "cases" renamed ro "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to

952 avoid clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

954 * Classes "order" and "linorder":

955 potential INCOMPATIBILITY: order of proof goals in order/linorder instance

956 proofs changed.

958 * Dropped lemma duplicate def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

959 INCOMPATIBILITY.

961 * Dropped lemma duplicate if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

962 INCOMPATIBILITY.

964 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

965 type "'a::size ==> bool"

967 * Renamed constants "Divides.op div", "Divides.op mod" and "Divides.op

968 dvd" to "Divides.div_class.div", "Divides.div_class.mod" and "Divides.dvd". INCOMPATIBILITY.

970 * Added method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes

971 termination relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures

972 -- 'function' package.

974 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

975 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

976 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

977 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

978 adapted.

980 * axclass "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and

981 0 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do

982 not inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a

983 theorem there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of

984 semiring_0, there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

986 * axclass "recpower" was generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

987 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: If you use recpower and need

988 commutativity or a semiring property, add the corresponding classes.

990 * Unified locale partial_order with class definition (cf. theory

991 Orderings), added parameter ``less''. INCOMPATIBILITY.

993 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

994 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong. On

995 Isar level, use abbreviations instead.

997 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.memberl" INCOMPATIBILITY:

998 rarely occuring name references (e.g. ``List.op mem.simps'') require

999 renaming (e.g. ``List.memberl.simps'').

1001 * Renamed constants "0" to "HOL.zero_class.zero" and "1" to "HOL.one_class.one".

1002 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1004 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic equality.

1006 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

1007 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

1008 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

1010 - new constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

1011 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

1012 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

1013 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

1014 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

1016 See HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

1018 * New top level command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a

1019 term that may contain free variables. For example ``normal_form

1020 "rev[a,b,c]"'' produces ``[b,c,a]'' (without proof). This command is

1021 suitable for heavy-duty computations because the functions are

1022 compiled to ML first.

1024 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

1025 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

1026 "A = B" (with priority 50).

1028 * Renamed constants in HOL.thy and Orderings.thy:

1029 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

1030 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

1031 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

1032 abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

1033 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

1034 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

1035 op <= ~> HOL.ord_class.less_eq

1037 Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

1039 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus", "times",

1040 "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for "+", "-" and "*"

1041 may go wrong.

1042 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1044 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

1045 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1047 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

1048 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

1049 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows that

1050 this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

1051 distribution).

1052 INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

1054 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

1055 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and so on.

1056 INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names. Consider use

1057 of const_name ML antiquotations.

1059 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

1060 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

1061 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".

1063 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

1065 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

1066 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1068 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

1069 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

1071 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

1072 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc"). For backward

1073 compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".

1075 * "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to True/False by

1076 simp.

1078 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as ``simp''.

1080 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

1082 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

1083 ``rule'' method.

1085 * Reimplemented methods ``sat'' and ``satx'', with several

1086 improvements: goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==>

1087 False", equivalences (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable

1088 names of the form "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant

1089 speedup.

1091 * Methods ``sat'' and ``satx'' can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

1092 zChaff is still supported as well.

1094 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

1095 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

1097 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

1098 Library.

1100 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

1102 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

1103 as greatest fixed-point.

1105 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

1106 association lists.

1108 * Added proof method ``evaluation'' for efficiently solving a goal

1109 (i.e. a boolean expression) by compiling it to ML. The goal is

1110 "proved" (via an oracle) if it evaluates to True.

1112 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

1113 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the simplifier

1114 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY. Set

1115 fast_arith_split_limit to 0 to obtain the old behavior.

1117 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

1119 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

1120 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

1121 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

1122 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

1123 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

1124 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

1126 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

1127 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

1128 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

1129 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

1130 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

1131 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

1132 subgoal. An Example is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

1134 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example

1135 is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

1138 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1140 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

1142 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

1143 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1145 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

1146 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1148 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

1149 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

1150 of algebraic structures.

1152 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

1155 *** HOL-Complex ***

1157 * Theory Real: new method ferrack implements quantifier elimination

1158 for linear arithmetic over the reals. The quantifier elimination

1159 feature is used only for decision, for compatibility with arith. This

1160 means a goal is either solved or left unchanged, no simplification.

1162 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

1163 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

1164 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

1165 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

1166 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1168 * Real: New axiomatic classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

1169 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

1170 and norm :: 'a => real.

1172 * Real: New constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects

1173 from reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set

1174 is now defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1176 * Real: ML code generation is supported now and hence also quickcheck.

1177 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

1179 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

1180 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

1181 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

1182 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1184 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1185 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1186 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1187 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

1188 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1189 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1190 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1191 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1192 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1193 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1194 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

1195 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1196 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

1197 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

1198 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

1200 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

1201 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

1202 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

1203 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1205 approx <-- capprox

1206 HFinite <-- CFinite

1207 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

1208 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

1209 monad <-- cmonad

1210 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

1211 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

1212 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

1213 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

1216 *** ML ***

1218 * Generic arithmetic modules: Tools/integer.ML, Tools/rat.ML, Tools/float.ML

1220 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

1221 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

1222 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really

1223 need to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

1225 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

1226 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

1227 compile-time. For example:

1229 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

1230 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

1231 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

1232 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

1233 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

1234 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

1235 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

1236 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

1237 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

1238 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

1239 ML {* @{context} *}

1240 ML {* @{theory} *}

1241 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

1242 ML {* @{simpset} *}

1243 ML {* @{claset} *}

1244 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

1246 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

1248 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

1249 Toplevel.debug enabled.

1251 * Pure/library:

1253 val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list

1254 val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd

1256 The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously*

1257 transforms a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of

1258 list of values of the appropriate type". Compare this with "map" which

1259 would *not* apply its argument function simulatanously but in

1260 sequence; "fold_burrow" has an additional context.

1262 * Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for

1263 simultanous mapping and folding:

1265 val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list

1266 val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c

1268 * Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library

1269 treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been

1270 given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar

1271 functions for alists, tables, etc:

1273 val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a

1274 val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list

1275 val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b

1277 Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln

1278 used to.

1280 * Pure/library: added general ``divide_and_conquer'' combinator on

1281 lists.

1283 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

1284 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

1285 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

1287 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

1288 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

1289 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

1291 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

1292 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

1294 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

1295 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory)

1296 vs. local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

1297 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

1298 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also

1299 structure Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

1300 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

1301 declarations and definitions.

1303 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

1304 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

1305 logic, but only for type inference.) IMPORTANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

1306 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1308 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

1309 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

1310 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

1311 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

1312 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supercede

1313 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

1315 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

1316 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

1317 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

1318 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

1319 attributes, methods, etc.

1321 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

1322 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

1323 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

1324 fold_map combinators.

1326 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

1327 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

1328 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

1329 derivation.

1331 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

1332 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

1333 achieve the old behaviour.

1335 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

1336 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

1337 statements.

1339 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

1340 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

1341 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

1343 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

1344 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

1345 some popular functions from term.ML:

1347 Term.variant -> Name.variant

1348 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list (*canonical argument order*)

1349 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

1351 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

1352 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

1354 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

1355 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

1356 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

1357 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

1358 various freeze_thaw operations.

1360 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

1361 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

1362 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

1363 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

1364 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

1365 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

1366 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

1367 in a locale context).

1369 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

1370 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

1371 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

1372 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

1373 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

1375 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

1377 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

1378 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

1379 this:

1381 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

1383 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

1384 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

1385 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

1386 -- use plain ERROR instead.

1388 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

1389 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

1391 * Isar: installed ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context,

1392 subject to ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

1394 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

1395 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

1396 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

1397 batch mode.

1399 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

1400 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

1401 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

1402 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

1403 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

1405 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

1406 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

1407 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

1408 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

1409 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

1410 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

1412 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

1413 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

1414 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

1415 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1417 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

1418 "Trueprop" etc.

1421 *** System ***

1423 * settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap

1424 locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.

1425 This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.

1427 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

1428 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

1429 code.

1431 * Experimental support for multithreading, using Poly/ML 5.1 (internal

1432 version from CVS). The theory loader exploits parallelism when

1433 processing independent theories, following the header specifications.

1434 The maximum number of worker threads is specified via usedir option -M

1435 or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. User-code needs to

1436 observe certain guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A

1437 in the Isar Implementation manual.

1440 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

1441 ----------------------------------

1443 *** General ***

1445 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

1447 theory <name>

1448 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

1449 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

1450 begin

1452 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

1454 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

1456 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

1457 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

1458 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

1460 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

1461 relative and absolute paths.

1463 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

1464 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

1465 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

1466 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

1467 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

1468 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

1469 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

1470 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

1471 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

1473 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

1475 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

1476 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

1477 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

1479 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

1480 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1482 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

1483 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

1484 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

1485 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

1487 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

1488 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

1490 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

1491 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

1492 faster.

1495 *** Document preparation ***

1497 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

1498 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

1499 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

1500 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

1501 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

1502 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

1504 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

1505 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

1506 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

1507 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

1508 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

1509 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

1510 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

1511 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

1512 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

1513 \isadroptag.

1515 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

1516 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

1517 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

1518 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

1519 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

1520 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

1521 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

1522 specified above.

1524 * Several new antiquotations:

1526 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

1528 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

1530 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

1531 argument is a known logical constant;

1533 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

1534 theorem applying a "style" to it

1536 @{ML text}

1538 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

1539 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

1540 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

1541 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

1542 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

1543 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

1544 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

1546 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

1547 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

1548 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

1549 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

1551 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

1552 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

1553 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

1555 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

1556 a proof context.

1558 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

1559 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

1561 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

1562 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

1564 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

1565 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

1566 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

1569 *** Pure ***

1571 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

1572 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

1573 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

1574 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

1575 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

1576 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

1577 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

1579 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

1580 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

1581 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

1582 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

1583 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

1584 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

1585 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

1586 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

1588 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

1589 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

1590 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

1592 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

1593 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

1594 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

1596 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

1597 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

1598 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

1599 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

1600 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1602 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

1603 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

1604 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

1605 axclasses vs. locales.

1607 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

1608 instead of base 26 numbers.

1610 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

1611 marks in schematic variable names.

1613 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

1614 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

1615 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

1617 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

1618 by simp

1620 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

1622 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

1623 annotations as "(00...)".

1625 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

1626 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

1627 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

1628 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

1629 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

1630 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

1631 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

1633 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

1634 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

1635 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

1636 specifications.

1638 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

1639 locally fixed variables as well.

1641 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

1642 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

1643 Limit.

1645 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

1646 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

1647 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

1648 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

1649 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

1650 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

1651 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

1653 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

1654 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

1655 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

1657 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1659 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

1660 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

1661 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

1662 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

1663 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

1664 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

1666 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

1667 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

1669 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

1670 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

1671 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

1673 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

1675 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

1676 theory development.

1678 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

1679 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

1680 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

1681 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

1683 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

1684 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

1685 quoted when used as identifier.

1688 *** Locales ***

1690 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

1691 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

1692 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

1693 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

1694 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

1695 commands is a follows:

1697 (1) interpretation expr inst

1698 (2) interpretation target < expr

1699 (3) interpret expr inst

1701 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

1702 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

1703 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

1704 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

1705 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

1706 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

1707 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

1708 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

1709 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

1710 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

1712 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

1713 'interpret' instead.

1715 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

1716 parameters.

1718 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

1719 redeclaration.

1721 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

1723 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

1724 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

1725 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

1726 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

1727 to attribute arguments as expected.

1729 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

1730 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

1731 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

1732 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

1733 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

1734 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

1735 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

1736 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

1737 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

1738 values to argument tokens explicitly.

1740 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

1741 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

1742 theorem statement in rare situations.

1744 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

1745 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

1748 *** Provers ***

1750 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

1751 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

1752 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

1753 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

1754 still available as 'simplesubst'.

1756 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

1757 and quasi orders.

1759 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

1760 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

1762 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

1763 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

1765 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

1766 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

1767 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1770 *** HOL ***

1772 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

1774 syntax (epsilon)

1775 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

1777 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

1778 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

1779 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

1780 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1782 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

1783 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

1784 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

1785 support corresponding Isar calculations.

1787 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

1788 instead of ":".

1790 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

1792 Old New

1793 {..n(} {..<n}

1794 {)n..} {n<..}

1795 {m..n(} {m..<n}

1796 {)m..n} {m<..n}

1797 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

1799 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

1800 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

1801 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

1803 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

1804 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

1806 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

1807 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

1808 interface.

1810 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

1811 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

1812 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

1813 be a tuple pattern.

1815 Some new syntax forms are available:

1817 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

1818 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

1819 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

1820 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

1822 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

1823 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

1825 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

1826 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

1827 (insert F x)'.

1829 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

1830 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

1831 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

1833 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

1834 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

1835 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

1837 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

1838 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

1839 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

1840 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

1841 in unstructured proof scripts.

1843 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

1844 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

1845 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

1846 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

1847 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

1848 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

1849 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

1850 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

1851 <record_name>_ext_type.

1853 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

1854 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

1855 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

1856 quite long.

1858 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

1859 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

1860 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

1861 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

1863 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

1864 type-variables in the term.

1866 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

1867 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

1868 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

1869 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

1870 goals than previously.

1872 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

1873 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

1874 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

1875 just like y <= x.

1877 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

1878 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

1879 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

1880 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

1881 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

1882 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

1883 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

1885 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

1887 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

1888 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

1890 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

1891 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

1892 inequalities.

1894 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1895 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1897 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

1898 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

1899 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

1900 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

1901 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

1902 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

1903 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

1904 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

1905 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

1906 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

1907 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

1909 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

1911 zero_le_square

1912 not_square_less_zero

1914 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

1916 realpow_zero_zero

1917 realpow_two

1918 realpow_less

1919 zero_le_power

1920 realpow_two_le

1921 abs_realpow_two

1922 realpow_two_abs

1924 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

1926 * Theory List:

1928 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1929 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1931 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

1932 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

1933 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

1934 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

1936 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

1937 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

1940 *** HOL-Complex ***

1942 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

1943 integers in the reals.

1945 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1946 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1948 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

1949 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1950 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1951 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1952 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1954 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

1956 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

1958 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

1959 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

1961 hypreal = real star

1962 hypnat = nat star

1963 hcomplex = complex star

1965 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

1966 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1968 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

1970 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

1971 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

1972 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

1973 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

1974 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

1976 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

1977 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

1978 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

1979 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

1980 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

1982 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

1983 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1985 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

1986 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

1987 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

1988 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

1989 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

1990 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

1991 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

1992 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

1993 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

1994 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

1995 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

1996 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

1997 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

1998 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

1999 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

2000 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

2001 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

2002 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

2003 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

2004 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

2005 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

2006 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

2007 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

2008 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

2010 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

2011 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

2012 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2014 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

2015 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

2016 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

2017 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

2018 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

2019 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

2020 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

2021 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

2022 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

2023 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

2024 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

2025 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

2026 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

2027 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

2028 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

2029 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

2030 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

2031 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

2032 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

2033 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

2034 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

2035 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

2036 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

2037 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2038 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2039 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

2040 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

2041 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

2042 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

2043 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

2044 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

2045 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

2046 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

2047 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

2048 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

2049 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

2050 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

2051 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

2052 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

2053 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

2054 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

2055 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

2056 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

2057 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

2058 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

2059 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

2060 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

2061 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

2062 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

2063 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

2064 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

2065 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

2066 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

2067 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

2069 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

2070 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

2071 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

2072 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

2073 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

2074 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

2075 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

2076 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

2077 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

2078 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

2079 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

2081 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

2082 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

2083 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

2084 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

2085 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

2086 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

2087 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

2088 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

2089 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

2090 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

2091 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

2092 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

2093 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

2094 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

2095 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

2096 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

2097 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

2098 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

2099 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

2100 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

2101 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

2103 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

2104 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

2105 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

2106 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

2107 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

2108 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

2110 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

2113 *** HOLCF ***

2115 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

2116 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

2117 type-inference.

2119 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

2120 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

2121 instead of exponential time).

2123 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

2124 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

2126 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

2128 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

2129 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

2130 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

2131 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

2132 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2133 syntax and examples.

2135 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

2136 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

2137 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

2138 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

2139 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

2141 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

2142 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2144 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

2145 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

2146 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

2147 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

2148 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

2149 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

2152 *** ZF ***

2154 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

2155 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

2156 of a homomorphism).

2158 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

2159 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

2160 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

2163 *** Cube ***

2165 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

2166 theories.

2169 *** ML ***

2171 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

2172 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

2174 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

2175 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

2176 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

2177 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

2178 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

2180 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

2181 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

2182 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

2183 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

2185 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

2186 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

2187 suggests how one can translate existing code:

2189 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

2190 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

2191 last_elem xs = List.last xs

2192 flat xss = List.concat xss

2193 seq fs = List.app fs

2194 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

2195 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

2197 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

2198 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

2200 x |> f f #> g

2201 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

2203 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

2205 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

2206 infix 2 ?;

2207 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

2208 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

2210 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

2211 infix operators.

2213 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

2214 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

2215 example:

2217 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

2218 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

2220 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

2221 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

2223 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

2224 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

2226 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

2227 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

2229 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

2230 available:

2232 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

2233 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

2234 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

2235 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

2237 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2238 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

2239 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

2240 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

2241 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

2243 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

2244 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

2245 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

2247 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2249 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

2250 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

2252 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

2253 Naive rewrites:

2255 make_keylist = AList.make

2256 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

2258 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

2259 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

2261 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

2262 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

2264 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

2265 Naive rewrites:

2267 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

2268 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

2270 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

2271 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

2272 lists.

2274 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

2275 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

2276 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

2277 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

2279 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

2280 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

2281 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

2282 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

2283 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

2284 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

2285 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

2286 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

2287 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

2288 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

2289 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

2290 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

2291 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

2292 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

2293 Output.raw have no effect.

2295 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

2296 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

2297 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

2299 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

2300 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

2301 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

2302 internal and external process view of file names are different.

2304 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

2305 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

2306 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

2307 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

2308 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

2309 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

2310 Library.sort_strings on result).

2312 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

2313 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

2314 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

2315 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

2317 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

2318 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

2319 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

2320 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

2321 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

2322 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

2323 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

2324 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

2325 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

2326 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

2327 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

2329 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

2330 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

2331 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

2332 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

2333 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

2334 with earlier declarations.

2336 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

2337 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

2338 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2340 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

2341 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

2342 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

2343 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

2344 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

2345 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

2347 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

2348 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

2350 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

2351 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

2353 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

2354 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

2355 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

2356 Theory.merge, etc.)

2358 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

2359 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

2360 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

2362 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

2364 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

2365 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

2366 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

2367 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

2369 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

2370 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

2371 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

2372 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

2373 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

2374 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

2375 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

2376 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

2378 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

2379 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

2380 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2382 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

2383 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

2384 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

2386 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

2387 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

2389 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2390 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2391 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2392 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2394 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

2396 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

2397 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

2398 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

2399 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

2400 (both increase the runtime).

2402 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

2403 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

2404 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

2406 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

2407 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

2408 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

2409 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

2410 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

2411 for further details.

2413 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

2414 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

2415 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

2416 scripts for the time being.

2418 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

2419 generated HTML files. For example:

2421 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

2422 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

2425 *** System ***

2427 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

2428 isabelle, isatool etc.).

2430 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

2431 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

2433 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

2434 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

2436 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

2437 distribution being used.

2439 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

2440 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

2441 theories.

2445 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

2446 --------------------------------

2448 *** General ***

2450 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

2451 Replaces linorder.ML.

2453 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

2454 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

2455 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

2456 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

2457 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

2458 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

2459 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

2460 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

2461 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

2462 existing theory and ML files.

2464 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

2466 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

2467 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

2468 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

2469 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

2471 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

2472 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

2473 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

2474 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

2476 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

2477 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

2478 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

2480 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

2481 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

2482 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

2483 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

2484 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

2486 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

2487 (i.e. intersections of classes),

2489 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

2490 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

2491 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

2494 *** Isar ***

2496 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

2497 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

2498 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

2499 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

2500 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

2501 emulations.

2502 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

2503 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

2504 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

2506 * Attributes "where" and "of":

2507 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

2508 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

2509 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

2510 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

2512 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

2513 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

2514 and derived forms.

2516 * Locales:

2517 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

2518 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

2519 "_axioms") in the premise.

2520 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

2521 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

2522 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

2523 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

2524 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

2525 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

2526 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

2527 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

2528 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

2529 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

2530 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

2531 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

2532 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

2533 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

2534 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

2535 with "locale (open)".

2536 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

2538 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

2539 (Isar) contexts.

2542 *** HOL ***

2544 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

2545 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

2546 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

2547 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

2548 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

2550 * Simplifier:

2551 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

2552 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

2553 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

2554 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

2555 to solve goals from the assumptions.

2556 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

2557 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

2558 is solved by simplification already.

2560 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

2561 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

2563 * Numerics:

2564 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

2565 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

2566 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

2567 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

2568 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

2569 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

2570 exponentiation).

2572 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

2574 * Records:

2575 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

2576 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

2577 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

2578 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

2579 (not enabled by default).

2580 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

2581 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

2582 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

2584 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

2585 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

2586 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

2588 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

2590 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

2592 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

2593 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

2595 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

2596 matrix theory to linear programming.

2598 * Unions and Intersections:

2599 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

2600 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

2601 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

2602 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

2604 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

2605 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

2606 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

2607 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

2609 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

2610 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

2612 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

2613 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

2615 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

2616 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

2617 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

2619 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

2620 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

2621 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

2622 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

2623 for examples.

2626 *** HOLCF ***

2628 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

2632 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

2633 ------------------------------

2635 *** General ***

2637 * Provers/simplifier:

2639 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

2640 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

2641 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

2642 the order of assumptions.

2644 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2646 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

2647 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

2649 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

2651 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

2653 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

2655 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

2656 kind of problem.

2658 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

2659 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

2660 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

2661 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

2662 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

2663 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

2664 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

2666 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

2668 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

2669 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

2670 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

2671 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

2672 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

2673 the simplifier would diverge.

2675 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

2677 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

2678 congruence is ignored.

2680 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

2681 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

2682 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

2684 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

2685 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

2686 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

2687 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

2689 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

2690 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

2691 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

2692 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

2693 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

2694 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

2695 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

2697 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

2698 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

2699 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

2700 assumption failed.

2702 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

2703 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

2704 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

2705 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

2706 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

2707 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

2708 on the old view without predicates;

2710 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

2711 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

2712 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

2714 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

2715 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

2716 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

2717 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

2718 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

2719 be given (the default is 40);

2721 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

2722 (batch-mode only);

2724 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

2725 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

2726 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

2728 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

2729 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

2730 for slight decrease in efficiency;

2732 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

2733 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

2735 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

2736 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

2739 *** HOL ***

2741 * arith(_tac)

2743 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

2744 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

2745 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

2746 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

2748 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

2750 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

2751 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

2752 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

2754 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

2755 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

2757 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

2758 are distributed over a sum of terms;

2760 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

2761 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

2762 "<=", "<" and "=").

2764 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

2765 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

2767 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

2768 definition;

2770 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

2771 Finite_Set);

2773 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

2774 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

2776 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

2777 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

2779 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

2780 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

2781 of the empty set.

2783 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

2784 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

2785 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

2786 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

2788 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

2790 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

2791 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

2792 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

2794 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

2796 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

2797 Fleuriot);

2799 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

2801 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

2802 Gray and Kramer);

2804 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

2806 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

2807 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

2809 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

2810 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

2811 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

2812 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

2813 assignment, exceptions.

2816 *** ZF ***

2818 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

2819 universe, etc.);

2821 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

2824 *** ML ***

2826 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

2827 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

2828 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

2830 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

2832 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

2833 up simprocs;

2836 *** Document preparation ***

2838 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

2839 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

2840 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

2842 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

2843 other packages

2845 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

2846 broke \Rightarrow)

2848 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

2849 textcomp package)

2853 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

2854 --------------------------------

2856 *** Document preparation ***

2858 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

2859 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

2860 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

2861 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

2862 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

2863 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

2865 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

2866 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

2867 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

2869 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

2870 blocks after section headings;

2872 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

2873 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

2875 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

2876 better in printed text;

2878 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

2879 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

2880 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

2882 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

2883 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

2884 location;

2887 *** Isar ***

2889 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

2890 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

2891 "case (Suc n)");

2892 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

2893 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

2894 instantiation of cases;

2895 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

2896 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

2897 rules without further ado;

2898 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

2899 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

2900 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

2901 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

2902 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

2903 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

2904 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

2905 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

2906 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

2907 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

2908 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

2909 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

2910 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

2911 below);

2912 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

2913 success (no backtracking);

2914 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

2915 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

2916 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

2917 General versions);

2918 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

2919 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

2921 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

2922 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

2923 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

2924 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

2925 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

2926 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

2927 fails:

2929 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

2931 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

2932 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

2934 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

2935 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

2936 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

2937 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

2938 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

2939 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

2940 some examples;

2942 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

2943 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

2944 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

2945 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

2946 qualified by the locale name);

2948 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

2949 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

2950 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

2951 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

2952 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

2954 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

2955 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

2956 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

2957 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

2958 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

2960 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

2962 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

2963 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

2964 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

2966 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

2968 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

2970 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

2972 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

2973 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

2974 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

2976 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

2977 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

2978 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

2979 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

2980 proof *scripts*;

2982 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

2983 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

2984 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

2985 especially important for locales);

2987 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

2988 mode;

2990 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

2991 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

2992 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

2993 situations;

2995 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

2996 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

2998 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

2999 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

3000 discontinued;

3002 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

3003 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

3004 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

3006 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

3007 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

3008 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

3009 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

3010 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

3011 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

3012 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3014 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

3015 of introduction rules;

3017 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

3018 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

3019 conditional rules;

3021 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

3023 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

3024 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

3026 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

3027 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

3029 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

3030 wf_induct_rule;

3033 *** HOL ***

3035 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

3036 follows:

3038 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

3039 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

3041 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

3042 binary representation internally;

3044 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

3045 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

3047 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

3048 are some hints on converting existing sources:

3050 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

3051 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

3052 to be spaced properly;

3054 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

3055 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

3057 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

3059 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

3061 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

3062 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

3064 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

3066 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

3067 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

3068 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

3069 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

3070 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

3072 * HOL/record package improvements:

3073 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

3074 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

3075 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

3076 declared as simp by default;

3077 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

3078 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

3079 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

3080 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3081 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3082 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

3083 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

3084 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

3085 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

3086 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

3088 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

3089 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

3090 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

3091 via 'generate_code' theory section;

3093 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

3095 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

3096 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

3097 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

3099 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

3100 (beware of argument permutation!);

3102 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

3104 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

3106 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

3107 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3108 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

3110 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

3111 in this (rare) case use:

3113 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

3114 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

3116 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

3117 MAY FAIL;

3119 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

3120 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

3121 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

3122 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

3124 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

3125 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

3126 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

3128 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

3129 expressions;

3131 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

3132 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3134 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3135 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

3136 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

3138 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

3140 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

3141 the "cases" method);

3143 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

3144 Florian Kammller);

3146 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

3147 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

3148 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

3150 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

3152 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

3155 *** HOLCF ***

3157 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

3158 operations;

3160 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

3161 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

3163 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

3164 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

3165 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

3167 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

3170 *** ZF ***

3172 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

3173 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

3174 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

3175 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

3177 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

3178 your theory on Main_ZFC;

3180 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

3181 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

3183 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

3184 typeless version of the formalism;

3186 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

3187 format;

3189 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

3190 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

3191 new-style theory format;

3193 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

3196 *** General ***

3198 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

3199 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

3200 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

3201 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

3203 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

3204 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

3206 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

3207 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

3208 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

3209 properly;

3211 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

3212 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

3214 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

3215 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

3216 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

3217 type variable);

3219 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

3220 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

3221 "type_brackets";

3223 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

3224 tokens into AST constants;

3226 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

3227 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

3228 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

3230 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

3231 practice);

3233 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

3234 addSafter;

3236 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

3237 as well;

3239 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

3240 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

3241 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

3242 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

3243 support requires further installations, e.g. from

3244 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

3246 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

3248 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

3249 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

3251 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

3252 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

3254 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

3255 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

3256 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

3258 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

3259 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

3260 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

3261 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

3262 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

3264 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

3265 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

3266 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

3267 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

3269 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

3270 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

3271 terminal);

3275 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

3276 -----------------------------------

3278 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3280 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

3281 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

3282 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

3284 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

3285 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

3286 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

3287 'split_rule (complete)';

3289 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

3290 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

3292 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

3294 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

3295 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

3296 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

3298 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

3299 operation;

3301 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

3303 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

3305 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

3306 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

3307 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

3309 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

3310 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

3313 *** Document preparation ***

3315 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

3316 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

3317 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

3318 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

3319 type-writer);

3321 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

3322 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

3324 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

3325 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

3327 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

3328 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

3329 definitions);

3331 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

3332 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

3333 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

3334 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

3336 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

3337 fonts;

3339 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

3340 generation;

3342 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

3345 *** Isar ***

3347 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

3348 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

3349 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

3350 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

3351 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

3353 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

3354 rules as well;

3356 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

3357 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

3358 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

3359 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

3361 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

3362 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

3364 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

3365 statements as well;

3367 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

3369 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

3370 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

3372 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

3373 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

3375 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

3377 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

3379 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

3380 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

3382 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

3383 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

3384 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

3386 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

3387 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

3388 the result to be shown in each case;

3390 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

3392 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

3395 *** HOL ***

3397 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

3398 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

3399 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

3400 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

3401 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

3403 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

3404 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

3405 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

3407 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

3408 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

3409 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

3410 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

3411 literature;

3413 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

3414 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

3415 operator \<Sum>;

3417 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

3418 HOL/subset.thy);

3420 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

3421 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

3422 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

3424 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

3425 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

3427 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

3428 rules with string literals);

3430 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

3431 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

3432 functions for the reals;

3434 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

3437 *** CTT ***

3439 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

3440 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

3442 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

3443 and Arith);

3446 *** General ***

3448 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

3449 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

3450 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

3451 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

3453 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

3454 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

3456 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

3457 as assumptions as well;

3459 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

3461 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

3465 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

3466 ----------------------------------

3468 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3470 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

3471 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

3472 issue the following ML commands:

3474 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

3475 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

3477 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

3478 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

3480 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

3482 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

3483 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

3485 select_equality -> some_equality

3486 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

3487 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

3488 selectI2 -> someI2

3489 selectI -> someI

3490 select1_equality -> some1_equality

3491 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

3492 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

3494 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

3496 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

3497 instead);

3499 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

3500 f.simps instead of f.rules;

3502 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

3504 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

3505 sometimes be needed;

3507 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

3509 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

3511 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

3512 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

3513 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

3515 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

3516 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

3518 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

3519 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

3521 syntax (symbols)

3522 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

3523 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

3525 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3527 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

3528 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

3529 internally;

3531 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

3532 changed from A/r to A//r;

3534 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

3535 proofs;

3537 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

3538 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

3540 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3541 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

3542 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

3543 "rule del";

3545 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

3547 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

3549 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

3550 lib/texinputs);

3553 *** Document preparation ***

3555 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

3556 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

3557 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

3558 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

3560 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

3561 including proper document sources;

3563 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

3564 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

3565 of isatool usedir;

3567 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

3568 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

3569 LaTeX debugging;

3571 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

3573 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

3574 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

3575 graph for 'all sessions';

3577 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

3578 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

3579 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

3582 *** Isar ***

3584 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

3585 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

3586 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

3588 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

3589 generalized existence reasoning;

3591 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

3592 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

3593 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

3594 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

3595 premises;

3597 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

3598 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

3599 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

3600 to theorems as "tags";

3602 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

3603 class/type/const name spaces;

3605 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

3606 indicate potential overloading;

3608 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

3610 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

3611 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

3613 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

3614 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

3615 with the version in Provers/classical;

3617 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

3618 case name 'antecedent';

3620 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

3621 to the current context is now done automatically);

3623 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

3624 for definining proof methods in ML;

3626 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3627 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3628 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

3629 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

3631 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

3632 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

3634 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

3635 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

3636 well (including splits);

3638 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

3639 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

3641 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

3642 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

3644 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

3645 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

3646 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

3648 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

3649 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

3650 calculations;

3652 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

3653 method anyway;

3655 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

3656 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

3657 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

3659 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

3660 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

3661 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

3662 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

3664 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

3666 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

3668 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

3669 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

3670 proof states;

3672 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

3673 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

3674 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

3676 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

3677 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

3678 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

3679 (for HOL datatypes);

3681 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

3682 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

3683 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

3685 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

3687 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

3688 should instead use individual commands for printing items

3689 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

3691 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

3694 *** HOL ***

3696 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

3697 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

3698 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

3699 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

3700 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

3701 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

3703 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

3704 Clemens Ballarin;

3706 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

3707 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

3708 Rasmussen;

3710 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

3711 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

3712 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

3713 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

3714 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

3715 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

3717 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

3718 von Oheimb;

3720 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

3721 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

3723 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

3725 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

3726 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

3727 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

3729 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

3730 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

3731 well; admit "r" as field name;

3733 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

3734 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

3736 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

3737 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

3739 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

3740 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

3741 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

3742 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

3743 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

3744 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

3745 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

3747 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

3748 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

3749 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

3751 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

3752 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

3753 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

3755 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

3756 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

3757 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

3758 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

3759 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

3761 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

3762 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

3763 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

3764 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

3765 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

3766 each equation;

3768 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

3769 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

3770 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

3771 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

3773 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

3774 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

3776 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

3778 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

3779 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

3780 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

3782 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3784 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

3785 main HOL, but was unused);

3787 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

3788 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

3790 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

3791 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

3792 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

3793 bogus);

3796 *** ZF ***

3798 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

3799 expressions over nat and int;

3801 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

3802 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

3803 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

3805 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

3806 using the function intify;

3808 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

3809 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

3811 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

3812 simplification;

3814 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

3815 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

3818 *** General ***

3820 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

3821 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

3823 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

3824 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

3826 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

3827 explicit make_elim);

3829 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

3830 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3831 use instead the strong form,

3832 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3833 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

3834 from destruct-rules;

3836 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

3837 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

3839 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

3841 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

3842 for hiding of names;

3844 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

3845 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

3846 situations;

3848 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

3849 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

3850 Poly/ML);

3852 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

3853 useful for remote X11);

3855 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

3857 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

3858 order;

3860 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

3861 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

3863 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

3864 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

3866 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

3867 overloading (usually false);

3869 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

3870 results;

3874 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

3875 --------------------------------

3877 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

3879 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

3880 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

3881 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

3883 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

3885 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

3886 complement;

3888 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

3890 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

3891 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

3893 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

3894 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

3896 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

3897 to constants declared in the same theory;

3899 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

3900 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

3901 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

3903 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

3905 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

3906 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

3907 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

3908 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

3909 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

3910 where the string argument is only a comment.

3913 *** Proof tools ***

3915 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

3916 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

3917 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

3918 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

3920 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

3921 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

3922 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

3923 matching.

3926 *** General ***

3928 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

3929 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

3930 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

3931 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

3932 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

3933 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

3935 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

3936 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

3937 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

3938 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

3939 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

3941 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

3942 Isabelle/Isar;

3944 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

3945 using the graph browser tool;

3947 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

3949 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

3950 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

3951 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

3952 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

3953 isatool doc ref);

3955 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

3956 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

3958 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

3959 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

3961 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

3962 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

3963 Isabelle;

3965 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

3967 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

3968 empty;

3970 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

3971 long arrows);

3973 * new print_mode "HTML";

3975 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

3976 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

3978 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

3979 mode and goal output format:

3981 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

3982 244c244

3983 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

3984 ---

3985 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

3986 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

3987 181c181

3988 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

3989 ---

3990 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

3992 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

3994 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

3996 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

3997 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

3998 result still apply;

4000 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

4001 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

4004 *** HOL ***

4006 ** HOL arithmetic **

4008 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

4009 int:

4011 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

4012 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

4013 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

4014 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

4015 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

4016 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

4017 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

4018 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

4020 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

4021 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

4022 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

4023 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

4024 simplifier.

4026 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

4027 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

4028 int(m) < int(n)'.

4030 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

4031 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

4032 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

4033 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

4034 type constraints;

4036 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

4037 arguments;

4039 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

4040 are now available;

4042 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

4043 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

4044 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

4045 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

4046 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

4047 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

4049 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

4052 ** HOL misc **

4054 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

4055 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

4057 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

4058 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

4060 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

4061 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

4062 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

4063 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

4065 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

4066 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

4067 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

4068 "mono" attribute);

4070 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

4071 (using function types) such as

4073 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

4075 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

4076 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

4077 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

4078 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

4080 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

4081 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

4083 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4084 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4086 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

4087 names rather than an ML expression;

4089 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

4090 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

4091 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

4092 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

4094 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4095 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

4096 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

4098 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

4099 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

4100 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

4102 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

4103 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

4105 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

4106 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

4107 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

4109 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

4111 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

4112 thus available for user theories;

4114 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

4115 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

4116 time;

4118 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

4119 several times and then mp;

4122 *** LK ***

4124 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

4125 formulas;

4127 * the simplifier is now installed

4129 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

4131 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

4134 *** ZF ***

4136 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

4137 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4139 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

4140 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4142 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

4144 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

4145 constructors;

4147 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

4148 type-checking rules;

4150 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

4151 to the claset;

4153 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

4154 if(P,x,y);

4157 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4159 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

4161 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

4162 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

4164 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

4166 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

4167 printing empty lines;

4169 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

4170 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

4171 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

4172 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

4174 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

4175 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

4176 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

4178 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

4179 now of type real instead of int;

4181 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

4182 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

4183 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

4184 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

4186 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

4187 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

4188 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

4189 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

4190 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

4194 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

4195 ----------------------------------

4197 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4199 * several changes of automated proof tools;

4201 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

4202 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

4204 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

4205 called `inj_on';

4207 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

4208 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

4209 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

4211 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

4212 required);

4214 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

4215 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

4216 now taken as an integer constant.

4218 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

4221 *** Proof tools ***

4223 * Simplifier:

4224 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

4225 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

4226 simplify.

4227 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

4228 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

4229 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

4230 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

4231 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

4233 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

4234 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

4235 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

4236 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

4237 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

4238 one (emitting a warning).

4239 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

4240 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

4241 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

4242 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

4243 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

4245 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

4246 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

4247 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

4248 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

4249 by Force_tac;

4251 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

4252 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

4254 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

4255 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

4256 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

4257 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

4258 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

4259 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

4260 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

4261 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

4262 split_all_tac for record fields.

4264 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

4265 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

4266 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

4267 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

4269 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

4270 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

4271 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

4272 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

4273 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

4274 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

4275 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

4276 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

4277 t is the name of the datatype).

4279 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

4280 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

4281 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

4282 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

4285 *** General ***

4287 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

4288 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

4289 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

4290 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

4291 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

4292 (backup your sources first!);

4294 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

4295 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

4297 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

4298 definitions that have local scope;

4300 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

4302 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

4303 (e.g. package initialization);

4305 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

4306 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

4308 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

4309 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

4311 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

4313 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

4315 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

4317 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

4320 *** HOL ***

4322 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

4324 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

4325 definitions such as

4327 inductive EVEN ODD

4328 intrs

4329 null "0 : EVEN"

4330 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

4331 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

4333 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

4334 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

4335 correctly (also ZF);

4337 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

4338 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

4339 contained in "induct";

4342 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

4343 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

4345 datatype

4346 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4347 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4348 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4349 | NUM 'a

4350 and

4351 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4352 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4353 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4355 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

4357 datatype

4358 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

4359 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

4361 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

4362 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

4364 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

4365 <function_name>.simps.

4367 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4369 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

4370 ancestor.

4371 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

4372 generic induct_tac instead.

4373 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

4374 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

4375 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

4376 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

4377 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

4378 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

4379 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

4380 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

4381 sort constraints.

4382 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

4383 of recursive argument.

4385 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

4386 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

4389 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

4390 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

4391 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

4392 support is as follows:

4394 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

4395 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

4397 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

4398 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

4400 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

4401 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

4403 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

4404 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

4405 the name of your record type.

4407 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

4409 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

4411 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

4412 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

4413 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

4414 solve record problems automatically.

4417 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

4418 default; theory Main includes everything;

4420 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

4422 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

4424 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

4426 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

4428 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

4429 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

4430 with add/delsplits);

4432 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

4433 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

4434 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

4435 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

4436 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

4437 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

4438 %u.f();

4440 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

4441 makes more sense);

4443 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4444 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4445 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4447 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

4448 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

4449 literature);

4451 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

4452 the well-founded relation;

4454 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

4455 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

4456 release ONLY.

4458 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

4459 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

4460 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4462 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

4464 * HOL/List:

4465 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

4466 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

4467 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

4468 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

4469 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

4470 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

4472 * HOL/Arith:

4473 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

4474 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

4475 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

4476 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

4478 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

4479 instead of "inverse";

4481 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

4482 of the multiset ordering;

4484 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

4485 (not included by default);

4487 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

4489 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

4490 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

4492 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4493 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4494 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4497 *** ZF ***

4499 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

4500 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

4502 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4503 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4504 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4506 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

4507 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

4508 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4510 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

4512 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4513 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4514 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4516 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

4517 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

4520 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4522 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

4523 also src/Pure/README;

4525 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

4526 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

4527 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

4528 print_data function becomes basically useless;

4530 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

4531 are qualified by default;

4533 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

4534 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

4535 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

4537 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

4538 cterm -> thm;

4540 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

4541 subgoal;

4543 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

4545 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

4546 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

4547 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

4548 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

4549 for example;

4553 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

4554 --------------------------------

4556 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4558 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

4559 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

4561 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

4562 simpset / simpset_ref;

4564 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

4565 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

4567 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

4569 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

4572 *** General Changes ***

4574 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

4575 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

4576 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

4577 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

4578 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

4579 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

4580 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

4581 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

4582 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

4583 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

4584 section;

4586 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

4587 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

4588 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

4589 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

4590 to patch your ML files accordingly;

4592 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

4593 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

4594 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

4596 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

4597 conditional equations;

4599 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

4601 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

4602 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

4603 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

4604 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

4606 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

4607 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

4609 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

4610 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

4612 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

4613 show_types);

4615 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

4617 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

4619 * removed old README and Makefiles;

4621 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

4623 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

4625 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

4626 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

4628 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

4629 (which abbreviates $HOME);

4631 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

4632 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

4633 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

4635 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

4636 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

4639 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4641 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

4642 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

4643 splitting it into several subgoals;

4645 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

4648 *** Simplifier ***

4650 * added simplification meta rules:

4651 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

4653 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

4654 logics (again);

4656 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

4658 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

4659 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

4660 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

4663 *** Syntax ***

4665 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

4667 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

4669 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

4671 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

4674 *** HOL ***

4676 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4677 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4679 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

4681 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

4682 protocol TLS;

4684 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

4686 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

4687 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

4688 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

4689 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

4690 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

4691 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

4693 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

4694 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

4695 are rewritten to

4696 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

4697 and those of the form

4698 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

4699 are rewritten to

4700 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

4702 * HOL/datatype

4703 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

4705 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4706 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

4707 ...

4708 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4709 )

4711 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

4713 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4714 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

4715 ...

4716 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4717 )

4718 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

4719 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

4720 split_list_case and split_option_case.

4722 * HOL/Arithmetic:

4723 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

4724 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

4725 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

4726 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

4727 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

4728 `standard'.

4730 * HOL/Lists:

4731 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

4732 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

4733 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

4735 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

4737 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

4738 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

4740 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

4741 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

4742 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

4745 *** HOLCF ***

4747 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

4749 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

4750 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

4752 * domain package:

4753 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

4754 . creates hierachical name space,

4755 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

4756 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

4757 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

4758 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

4759 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

4760 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

4762 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

4764 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

4765 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

4768 *** FOL and ZF ***

4770 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4771 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4773 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

4774 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

4778 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

4779 ------------------------------

4781 *** General Changes ***

4783 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

4784 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

4786 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

4788 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

4790 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

4791 messages and clean internal interface;

4793 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

4794 setting goals_limit);

4797 *** Syntax ***

4799 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

4800 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

4802 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

4803 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

4804 "symbols" syntax table;

4806 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

4807 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

4808 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

4809 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

4810 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

4812 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

4813 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

4814 version of xterm);

4816 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

4818 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

4819 access type of constant);

4822 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4824 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

4825 some limitations. Blast_tac...

4826 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

4827 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

4828 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

4829 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

4830 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

4831 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

4832 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

4834 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

4835 assumptions;

4837 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

4838 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

4839 (and access functions for it);

4841 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

4842 + functions for handling clasimpsets

4843 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

4844 safe steps.

4845 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

4846 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

4847 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

4849 *** Simplifier ***

4851 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

4852 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

4853 redex);

4855 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

4857 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

4859 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

4860 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

4861 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

4862 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

4865 *** HOL ***

4867 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

4868 also for type `nat';

4870 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

4871 datatypes and also for type `nat';

4873 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

4875 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

4876 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

4878 * primrec now also works with type nat;

4880 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

4881 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

4883 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

4884 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

4886 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

4887 infinite lists;

4889 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

4891 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

4892 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

4894 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

4896 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

4898 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

4900 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

4902 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

4903 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

4904 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

4905 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

4906 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

4907 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

4908 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

4909 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

4910 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

4913 *** ZF ***

4915 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

4916 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

4917 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

4921 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

4922 ---------------------------------

4924 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

4926 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

4928 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

4929 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

4930 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

4931 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

4933 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

4935 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

4936 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

4938 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

4940 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

4941 examples on HOL/Auth);

4943 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

4944 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4946 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

4947 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

4951 New in Isabelle94-6

4952 -------------------

4954 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

4955 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

4957 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

4959 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

4961 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

4963 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

4965 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

4969 New in Isabelle94-5

4970 -------------------

4972 * reduced space requirements;

4974 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

4976 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

4978 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

4980 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

4984 New in Isabelle94-4

4985 -------------------

4987 * greatly reduced space requirements;

4989 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

4991 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

4992 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

4994 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

4995 Axiom of Choice;

4997 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

4999 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

5000 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

5002 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

5004 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

5005 translates to the operator "split";

5009 New in Isabelle94-3

5010 -------------------

5012 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

5013 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

5014 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

5016 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

5017 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

5018 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

5020 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

5022 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

5023 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

5025 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

5026 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

5028 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

5029 of the Axiom of Choice;

5033 New in Isabelle94-2

5034 -------------------

5036 * Significantly faster resolution;

5038 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

5039 freely;

5041 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

5042 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

5044 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

5045 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

5046 (theory_of_thm);

5048 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

5050 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

5051 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

5053 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

5054 have been removed;

5056 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

5058 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

5060 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

5061 types;

5063 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72:

5064 $Id$