src/Tools/Code/code_ml.ML
author wenzelm
Thu, 21 Jan 2021 18:18:19 +0100
changeset 73142 0398f18ec76c
parent 72511 460d743010bc
permissions -rw-r--r--
proper hostname;

(*  Title:      Tools/Code/code_ml.ML
    Author:     Florian Haftmann, TU Muenchen

Serializer for SML and OCaml.
*)

signature CODE_ML =
sig
  val target_SML: string
  val target_OCaml: string
end;

structure Code_ML : CODE_ML =
struct

open Basic_Code_Symbol;
open Basic_Code_Thingol;
open Code_Printer;

infixr 5 @@;
infixr 5 @|;


(** generic **)

val target_SML = "SML";
val target_OCaml = "OCaml";

datatype ml_binding =
    ML_Function of string * (typscheme * ((iterm list * iterm) * (thm option * bool)) list)
  | ML_Instance of (string * class) * { class: class, tyco: string, vs: (vname * sort) list,
        superinsts: (class * dict list list) list,
        inst_params: ((string * (const * int)) * (thm * bool)) list,
        superinst_params: ((string * (const * int)) * (thm * bool)) list };

datatype ml_stmt =
    ML_Exc of string * (typscheme * int)
  | ML_Val of ml_binding
  | ML_Funs of (Code_Namespace.export * ml_binding) list * Code_Symbol.T list
  | ML_Datas of (string * (vname list * ((string * vname list) * itype list) list)) list
  | ML_Class of string * (vname * ((class * class) list * (string * itype) list));

fun print_product _ [] = NONE
  | print_product print [x] = SOME (print x)
  | print_product print xs = (SOME o enum " *" "" "") (map print xs);

fun tuplify _ _ [] = NONE
  | tuplify print fxy [x] = SOME (print fxy x)
  | tuplify print _ xs = SOME (enum "," "(" ")" (map (print NOBR) xs));


(** SML serializer **)

fun print_sml_char c =
  if c = "\\"
  then "\\092" (*produce strings suitable for both SML as well as Isabelle/ML*)
  else if Symbol.is_ascii c
  then ML_Syntax.print_symbol_char c
  else error "non-ASCII byte in SML string literal";

val print_sml_string = quote o translate_string print_sml_char;

fun print_sml_stmt tyco_syntax const_syntax reserved is_constr deresolve =
  let
    val deresolve_const = deresolve o Constant;
    val deresolve_classrel = deresolve o Class_Relation;
    val deresolve_inst = deresolve o Class_Instance;
    fun print_tyco_expr (sym, []) = (str o deresolve) sym
      | print_tyco_expr (sym, [ty]) =
          concat [print_typ BR ty, (str o deresolve) sym]
      | print_tyco_expr (sym, tys) =
          concat [enum "," "(" ")" (map (print_typ BR) tys), (str o deresolve) sym]
    and print_typ fxy (tyco `%% tys) = (case tyco_syntax tyco
         of NONE => print_tyco_expr (Type_Constructor tyco, tys)
          | SOME (_, print) => print print_typ fxy tys)
      | print_typ fxy (ITyVar v) = str ("'" ^ v);
    fun print_dicttyp (class, ty) = print_tyco_expr (Type_Class class, [ty]);
    fun print_typscheme_prefix (vs, p) = enum " ->" "" ""
      (map_filter (fn (v, sort) =>
        (print_product (fn class => print_dicttyp (class, ITyVar v)) sort)) vs @| p);
    fun print_typscheme (vs, ty) = print_typscheme_prefix (vs, print_typ NOBR ty);
    fun print_dicttypscheme (vs, class_ty) = print_typscheme_prefix (vs, print_dicttyp class_ty);
    fun print_classrels fxy [] ps = brackify fxy ps
      | print_classrels fxy [classrel] ps = brackify fxy [(str o deresolve_classrel) classrel, brackify BR ps]
      | print_classrels fxy classrels ps =
          brackify fxy [enum " o" "(" ")" (map (str o deresolve_classrel) classrels), brackify BR ps]
    fun print_dict is_pseudo_fun fxy (Dict (classrels, x)) =
      print_classrels fxy classrels (print_plain_dict is_pseudo_fun fxy x)
    and print_plain_dict is_pseudo_fun fxy (Dict_Const (inst, dss)) =
          ((str o deresolve_inst) inst ::
            (if is_pseudo_fun (Class_Instance inst) then [str "()"]
            else map_filter (print_dicts is_pseudo_fun BR) dss))
      | print_plain_dict is_pseudo_fun fxy (Dict_Var { var, index, length, ... }) =
          [str (if length = 1 then Name.enforce_case true var ^ "_"
            else Name.enforce_case true var ^ string_of_int (index + 1) ^ "_")]
    and print_dicts is_pseudo_fun = tuplify (print_dict is_pseudo_fun);
    val print_dict_args = map_filter (fn (v, sort) => print_dicts (K false) BR
      (map_index (fn (i, _) => Dict ([],
         Dict_Var { var = v, index = i, length = length sort, class = nth sort i, unique = true })) sort));
    fun print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (IConst const) =
          print_app is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (const, [])
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (IVar NONE) =
          str "_"
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (IVar (SOME v)) =
          str (lookup_var vars v)
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (t as t1 `$ t2) =
          (case Code_Thingol.unfold_const_app t
           of SOME app => print_app is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy app
            | NONE => brackify fxy [print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t1,
                print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars BR t2])
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (t as _ `|=> _) =
          let
            val (binds, t') = Code_Thingol.unfold_pat_abs t;
            fun print_abs (pat, ty) =
              print_bind is_pseudo_fun some_thm NOBR pat
              #>> (fn p => concat [str "fn", p, str "=>"]);
            val (ps, vars') = fold_map print_abs binds vars;
          in brackets (ps @ [print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars' NOBR t']) end
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (ICase case_expr) =
          (case Code_Thingol.unfold_const_app (#primitive case_expr)
           of SOME (app as ({ sym = Constant const, ... }, _)) =>
                if is_none (const_syntax const)
                then print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy case_expr
                else print_app is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy app
            | NONE => print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy case_expr)
    and print_app_expr is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars (app as ({ sym, dicts = dss, dom = dom, ... }, ts)) =
      if is_constr sym then
        let val k = length dom in
          if k < 2 orelse length ts = k
          then (str o deresolve) sym
            :: the_list (tuplify (print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars) BR ts)
          else [print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars BR (Code_Thingol.eta_expand k app)]
        end
      else if is_pseudo_fun sym
        then (str o deresolve) sym @@ str "()"
      else (str o deresolve) sym :: map_filter (print_dicts is_pseudo_fun BR) dss
        @ map (print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars BR) ts
    and print_app is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars = gen_print_app (print_app_expr is_pseudo_fun)
      (print_term is_pseudo_fun) const_syntax some_thm vars
    and print_bind is_pseudo_fun = gen_print_bind (print_term is_pseudo_fun)
    and print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy { clauses = [], ... } =
          (concat o map str) ["raise", "Fail", "\"empty case\""]
      | print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (case_expr as { clauses = [_], ... }) =
          let
            val (binds, body) = Code_Thingol.unfold_let (ICase case_expr);
            fun print_match ((pat, _), t) vars =
              vars
              |> print_bind is_pseudo_fun some_thm NOBR pat
              |>> (fn p => semicolon [str "val", p, str "=",
                    print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t])
            val (ps, vars') = fold_map print_match binds vars;
          in
            Pretty.chunks [
              Pretty.block [str "let", Pretty.fbrk, Pretty.chunks ps],
              Pretty.block [str "in", Pretty.fbrk, print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars' NOBR body],
              str "end"
            ]
          end
      | print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy { term = t, typ = ty, clauses = clause :: clauses, ... } =
          let
            fun print_select delim (pat, body) =
              let
                val (p, vars') = print_bind is_pseudo_fun some_thm NOBR pat vars;
              in
                concat [str delim, p, str "=>", print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars' NOBR body]
              end;
          in
            brackets (
              str "case"
              :: print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t
              :: print_select "of" clause
              :: map (print_select "|") clauses
            )
          end;
    fun print_val_decl print_typscheme (sym, typscheme) = concat
      [str "val", str (deresolve sym), str ":", print_typscheme typscheme];
    fun print_datatype_decl definer (tyco, (vs, cos)) =
      let
        fun print_co ((co, _), []) = str (deresolve_const co)
          | print_co ((co, _), tys) = concat [str (deresolve_const co), str "of",
              enum " *" "" "" (map (print_typ (INFX (2, X))) tys)];
      in
        concat (
          str definer
          :: print_tyco_expr (Type_Constructor tyco, map ITyVar vs)
          :: str "="
          :: separate (str "|") (map print_co cos)
        )
      end;
    fun print_def is_pseudo_fun needs_typ definer
          (ML_Function (const, (vs_ty as (vs, ty), eq :: eqs))) =
          let
            fun print_eqn definer ((ts, t), (some_thm, _)) =
              let
                val vars = reserved
                  |> intro_base_names_for (is_none o const_syntax)
                       deresolve (t :: ts)
                  |> intro_vars ((fold o Code_Thingol.fold_varnames)
                       (insert (op =)) ts []);
                val prolog = if needs_typ then
                  concat [str definer, (str o deresolve_const) const, str ":", print_typ NOBR ty]
                    else (concat o map str) [definer, deresolve_const const];
              in
                concat (
                  prolog
                  :: (if is_pseudo_fun (Constant const) then [str "()"]
                      else print_dict_args vs
                        @ map (print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars BR) ts)
                  @ str "="
                  @@ print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t
                )
              end
            val shift = if null eqs then I else
              map (Pretty.block o single o Pretty.block o single);
          in pair
            (print_val_decl print_typscheme (Constant const, vs_ty))
            ((Pretty.block o Pretty.fbreaks o shift) (
              print_eqn definer eq
              :: map (print_eqn "|") eqs
            ))
          end
      | print_def is_pseudo_fun _ definer
          (ML_Instance (inst as (tyco, class), { vs, superinsts, inst_params, ... })) =
          let
            fun print_super_instance (super_class, x) =
              concat [
                (str o Long_Name.base_name o deresolve_classrel) (class, super_class),
                str "=",
                print_dict is_pseudo_fun NOBR (Dict ([], Dict_Const ((tyco, super_class), x)))
              ];
            fun print_classparam_instance ((classparam, (const, _)), (thm, _)) =
              concat [
                (str o Long_Name.base_name o deresolve_const) classparam,
                str "=",
                print_app (K false) (SOME thm) reserved NOBR (const, [])
              ];
          in pair
            (print_val_decl print_dicttypscheme
              (Class_Instance inst, (vs, (class, tyco `%% map (ITyVar o fst) vs))))
            (concat (
              str definer
              :: (str o deresolve_inst) inst
              :: (if is_pseudo_fun (Class_Instance inst) then [str "()"]
                  else print_dict_args vs)
              @ str "="
              :: enum "," "{" "}"
                (map print_super_instance superinsts
                  @ map print_classparam_instance inst_params)
              :: str ":"
              @@ print_dicttyp (class, tyco `%% map (ITyVar o fst) vs)
            ))
          end;
    fun print_stmt _ (ML_Exc (const, (vs_ty, n))) = pair
          [print_val_decl print_typscheme (Constant const, vs_ty)]
          ((semicolon o map str) (
            (if n = 0 then "val" else "fun")
            :: deresolve_const const
            :: replicate n "_"
            @ "="
            :: "raise"
            :: "Fail"
            @@ print_sml_string const
          ))
      | print_stmt _ (ML_Val binding) =
          let
            val (sig_p, p) = print_def (K false) true "val" binding
          in pair
            [sig_p]
            (semicolon [p])
          end
      | print_stmt _ (ML_Funs ((export, binding) :: exports_bindings, pseudo_funs)) =
          let
            val print_def' = print_def (member (op =) pseudo_funs) false;
            fun print_pseudo_fun sym = concat [
                str "val",
                (str o deresolve) sym,
                str "=",
                (str o deresolve) sym,
                str "();"
              ];
            val (sig_ps, (ps, p)) = (apsnd split_last o split_list)
              (print_def' "fun" binding :: map (print_def' "and" o snd) exports_bindings);
            val pseudo_ps = map print_pseudo_fun pseudo_funs;
          in pair
            (map_filter (fn (export, p) => if Code_Namespace.not_private export then SOME p else NONE)
              ((export :: map fst exports_bindings) ~~ sig_ps))
            (Pretty.chunks (ps @ semicolon [p] :: pseudo_ps))
          end
     | print_stmt _ (ML_Datas [(tyco, (vs, []))]) =
          let
            val ty_p = print_tyco_expr (Type_Constructor tyco, map ITyVar vs);
          in
            pair
            [concat [str "type", ty_p]]
            (semicolon [str "datatype", ty_p, str "=", str "EMPTY__"])
          end
     | print_stmt export (ML_Datas (data :: datas)) = 
          let
            val decl_ps = print_datatype_decl "datatype" data
              :: map (print_datatype_decl "and") datas;
            val (ps, p) = split_last decl_ps;
          in pair
            (if Code_Namespace.is_public export
              then decl_ps
              else map (fn (tyco, (vs, _)) =>
                concat [str "type", print_tyco_expr (Type_Constructor tyco, map ITyVar vs)])
                (data :: datas))
            (Pretty.chunks (ps @| semicolon [p]))
          end
     | print_stmt export (ML_Class (class, (v, (classrels, classparams)))) =
          let
            fun print_field s p = concat [str s, str ":", p];
            fun print_proj s p = semicolon
              (map str ["val", s, "=", "#" ^ s, ":"] @| p);
            fun print_super_class_decl (classrel as (_, super_class)) =
              print_val_decl print_dicttypscheme
                (Class_Relation classrel, ([(v, [class])], (super_class, ITyVar v)));
            fun print_super_class_field (classrel as (_, super_class)) =
              print_field (deresolve_classrel classrel) (print_dicttyp (super_class, ITyVar v));
            fun print_super_class_proj (classrel as (_, super_class)) =
              print_proj (deresolve_classrel classrel)
                (print_dicttypscheme ([(v, [class])], (super_class, ITyVar v)));
            fun print_classparam_decl (classparam, ty) =
              print_val_decl print_typscheme
                (Constant classparam, ([(v, [class])], ty));
            fun print_classparam_field (classparam, ty) =
              print_field (deresolve_const classparam) (print_typ NOBR ty);
            fun print_classparam_proj (classparam, ty) =
              print_proj (deresolve_const classparam)
                (print_typscheme ([(v, [class])], ty));
          in pair
            (concat [str "type", print_dicttyp (class, ITyVar v)]
              :: (if Code_Namespace.is_public export
                 then map print_super_class_decl classrels
                   @ map print_classparam_decl classparams
                 else []))
            (Pretty.chunks (
              concat [
                str "type",
                print_dicttyp (class, ITyVar v),
                str "=",
                enum "," "{" "};" (
                  map print_super_class_field classrels
                  @ map print_classparam_field classparams
                )
              ]
              :: map print_super_class_proj classrels
              @ map print_classparam_proj classparams
            ))
          end;
  in print_stmt end;

fun print_sml_module name decls body =
  Pretty.chunks2 (
    Pretty.chunks [
      str ("structure " ^ name ^ " : sig"),
      (indent 2 o Pretty.chunks) decls,
      str "end = struct"
    ]
    :: body
    @| str ("end; (*struct " ^ name ^ "*)")
  );

val literals_sml = Literals {
  literal_string = print_sml_string,
  literal_numeral = fn k => "(" ^ string_of_int k ^ " : IntInf.int)",
  literal_list = enum "," "[" "]",
  infix_cons = (7, "::")
};


(** OCaml serializer **)

val print_ocaml_string =
  let
    fun chr i =
      let
        val xs = string_of_int i;
        val ys = replicate_string (3 - length (raw_explode xs)) "0";
      in "\\" ^ ys ^ xs end;
    fun char c =
      let
        val i = ord c;
        val s =
          if i >= 128 then error "non-ASCII byte in OCaml string literal"
          else if i < 32 orelse i = 34 orelse i = 39 orelse i = 92 orelse i > 126
          then chr i else c
      in s end;
  in quote o translate_string char end;

fun print_ocaml_stmt tyco_syntax const_syntax reserved is_constr deresolve =
  let
    val deresolve_const = deresolve o Constant;
    val deresolve_classrel = deresolve o Class_Relation;
    val deresolve_inst = deresolve o Class_Instance;
    fun print_tyco_expr (sym, []) = (str o deresolve) sym
      | print_tyco_expr (sym, [ty]) =
          concat [print_typ BR ty, (str o deresolve) sym]
      | print_tyco_expr (sym, tys) =
          concat [enum "," "(" ")" (map (print_typ BR) tys), (str o deresolve) sym]
    and print_typ fxy (tyco `%% tys) = (case tyco_syntax tyco
         of NONE => print_tyco_expr (Type_Constructor tyco, tys)
          | SOME (_, print) => print print_typ fxy tys)
      | print_typ fxy (ITyVar v) = str ("'" ^ v);
    fun print_dicttyp (class, ty) = print_tyco_expr (Type_Class class, [ty]);
    fun print_typscheme_prefix (vs, p) = enum " ->" "" ""
      (map_filter (fn (v, sort) =>
        (print_product (fn class => print_dicttyp (class, ITyVar v)) sort)) vs @| p);
    fun print_typscheme (vs, ty) = print_typscheme_prefix (vs, print_typ NOBR ty);
    fun print_dicttypscheme (vs, class_ty) = print_typscheme_prefix (vs, print_dicttyp class_ty);
    val print_classrels =
      fold_rev (fn classrel => fn p => Pretty.block [p, str ".", (str o deresolve_classrel) classrel])
    fun print_dict is_pseudo_fun fxy (Dict (classrels, x)) =
      print_plain_dict is_pseudo_fun fxy x
      |> print_classrels classrels
    and print_plain_dict is_pseudo_fun fxy (Dict_Const (inst, dss)) =
          brackify BR ((str o deresolve_inst) inst ::
            (if is_pseudo_fun (Class_Instance inst) then [str "()"]
            else map_filter (print_dicts is_pseudo_fun BR) dss))
      | print_plain_dict is_pseudo_fun fxy (Dict_Var { var, index, length, ... }) =
          str (if length = 1 then "_" ^ Name.enforce_case true var
            else "_" ^ Name.enforce_case true var ^ string_of_int (index + 1))
    and print_dicts is_pseudo_fun = tuplify (print_dict is_pseudo_fun);
    val print_dict_args = map_filter (fn (v, sort) => print_dicts (K false) BR
      (map_index (fn (i, _) => Dict ([],
         Dict_Var { var = v, index = i, length = length sort, class = nth sort i, unique = true })) sort));
    fun print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (IConst const) =
          print_app is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (const, [])
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (IVar NONE) =
          str "_"
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (IVar (SOME v)) =
          str (lookup_var vars v)
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (t as t1 `$ t2) =
          (case Code_Thingol.unfold_const_app t
           of SOME app => print_app is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy app
            | NONE => brackify fxy [print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t1,
                print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars BR t2])
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (t as _ `|=> _) =
          let
            val (binds, t') = Code_Thingol.unfold_pat_abs t;
            val (ps, vars') = fold_map (print_bind is_pseudo_fun some_thm BR o fst) binds vars;
          in brackets (str "fun" :: ps @ str "->" @@ print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars' NOBR t') end
      | print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (ICase case_expr) =
          (case Code_Thingol.unfold_const_app (#primitive case_expr)
           of SOME (app as ({ sym = Constant const, ... }, _)) =>
                if is_none (const_syntax const)
                then print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy case_expr
                else print_app is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy app
            | NONE => print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy case_expr)
    and print_app_expr is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars (app as ({ sym, dicts = dss, dom = dom, ... }, ts)) =
      if is_constr sym then
        let val k = length dom in
          if length ts = k
          then (str o deresolve) sym
            :: the_list (tuplify (print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars) BR ts)
          else [print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars BR (Code_Thingol.eta_expand k app)]
        end
      else if is_pseudo_fun sym
        then (str o deresolve) sym @@ str "()"
      else (str o deresolve) sym :: map_filter (print_dicts is_pseudo_fun BR) dss
        @ map (print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars BR) ts
    and print_app is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars = gen_print_app (print_app_expr is_pseudo_fun)
      (print_term is_pseudo_fun) const_syntax some_thm vars
    and print_bind is_pseudo_fun = gen_print_bind (print_term is_pseudo_fun)
    and print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy { clauses = [], ... } =
          (concat o map str) ["failwith", "\"empty case\""]
      | print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy (case_expr as { clauses = [_], ... }) =
          let
            val (binds, body) = Code_Thingol.unfold_let (ICase case_expr);
            fun print_let ((pat, _), t) vars =
              vars
              |> print_bind is_pseudo_fun some_thm NOBR pat
              |>> (fn p => concat
                  [str "let", p, str "=", print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t, str "in"])
            val (ps, vars') = fold_map print_let binds vars;
          in
            brackets [Pretty.chunks ps, print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars' NOBR body]
          end
      | print_case is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars fxy { term = t, typ = ty, clauses = clause :: clauses, ... } =
          let
            fun print_select delim (pat, body) =
              let
                val (p, vars') = print_bind is_pseudo_fun some_thm NOBR pat vars;
              in concat [str delim, p, str "->", print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars' NOBR body] end;
          in
            brackets (
              str "match"
              :: print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t
              :: print_select "with" clause
              :: map (print_select "|") clauses
            )
          end;
    fun print_val_decl print_typscheme (sym, typscheme) = concat
      [str "val", str (deresolve sym), str ":", print_typscheme typscheme];
    fun print_datatype_decl definer (tyco, (vs, cos)) =
      let
        fun print_co ((co, _), []) = str (deresolve_const co)
          | print_co ((co, _), tys) = concat [str (deresolve_const co), str "of",
              enum " *" "" "" (map (print_typ (INFX (2, X))) tys)];
      in
        concat (
          str definer
          :: print_tyco_expr (Type_Constructor tyco, map ITyVar vs)
          :: str "="
          :: separate (str "|") (map print_co cos)
        )
      end;
    fun print_def is_pseudo_fun needs_typ definer
          (ML_Function (const, (vs_ty as (vs, ty), eqs))) =
          let
            fun print_eqn ((ts, t), (some_thm, _)) =
              let
                val vars = reserved
                  |> intro_base_names_for (is_none o const_syntax)
                      deresolve (t :: ts)
                  |> intro_vars ((fold o Code_Thingol.fold_varnames)
                      (insert (op =)) ts []);
              in concat [
                (Pretty.block o commas)
                  (map (print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR) ts),
                str "->",
                print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t
              ] end;
            fun print_eqns is_pseudo [((ts, t), (some_thm, _))] =
                  let
                    val vars = reserved
                      |> intro_base_names_for (is_none o const_syntax)
                          deresolve (t :: ts)
                      |> intro_vars ((fold o Code_Thingol.fold_varnames)
                          (insert (op =)) ts []);
                  in
                    concat (
                      (if is_pseudo then [str "()"]
                        else map (print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars BR) ts)
                      @ str "="
                      @@ print_term is_pseudo_fun some_thm vars NOBR t
                    )
                  end
              | print_eqns _ ((eq as (([_], _), _)) :: eqs) =
                  Pretty.block (
                    str "="
                    :: Pretty.brk 1
                    :: str "function"
                    :: Pretty.brk 1
                    :: print_eqn eq
                    :: maps (append [Pretty.fbrk, str "|", Pretty.brk 1]
                          o single o print_eqn) eqs
                  )
              | print_eqns _ (eqs as eq :: eqs') =
                  let
                    val vars = reserved
                      |> intro_base_names_for (is_none o const_syntax)
                           deresolve (map (snd o fst) eqs)
                    val dummy_parms = (map str o aux_params vars o map (fst o fst)) eqs;
                  in
                    Pretty.block (
                      Pretty.breaks dummy_parms
                      @ Pretty.brk 1
                      :: str "="
                      :: Pretty.brk 1
                      :: str "match"
                      :: Pretty.brk 1
                      :: (Pretty.block o commas) dummy_parms
                      :: Pretty.brk 1
                      :: str "with"
                      :: Pretty.brk 1
                      :: print_eqn eq
                      :: maps (append [Pretty.fbrk, str "|", Pretty.brk 1]
                           o single o print_eqn) eqs'
                    )
                  end;
            val prolog = if needs_typ then
              concat [str definer, (str o deresolve_const) const, str ":", print_typ NOBR ty]
                else (concat o map str) [definer, deresolve_const const];
          in pair
            (print_val_decl print_typscheme (Constant const, vs_ty))
            (concat (
              prolog
              :: print_dict_args vs
              @| print_eqns (is_pseudo_fun (Constant const)) eqs
            ))
          end
      | print_def is_pseudo_fun _ definer
          (ML_Instance (inst as (tyco, class), { vs, superinsts, inst_params, ... })) =
          let
            fun print_super_instance (super_class, x) =
              concat [
                (str o deresolve_classrel) (class, super_class),
                str "=",
                print_dict is_pseudo_fun NOBR (Dict ([], Dict_Const ((tyco, super_class), x)))
              ];
            fun print_classparam_instance ((classparam, (const, _)), (thm, _)) =
              concat [
                (str o deresolve_const) classparam,
                str "=",
                print_app (K false) (SOME thm) reserved NOBR (const, [])
              ];
          in pair
            (print_val_decl print_dicttypscheme
              (Class_Instance inst, (vs, (class, tyco `%% map (ITyVar o fst) vs))))
            (concat (
              str definer
              :: (str o deresolve_inst) inst
              :: (if is_pseudo_fun (Class_Instance inst) then [str "()"]
                  else print_dict_args vs)
              @ str "="
              @@ brackets [
                enum_default "()" ";" "{" "}" (map print_super_instance superinsts
                  @ map print_classparam_instance inst_params),
                str ":",
                print_dicttyp (class, tyco `%% map (ITyVar o fst) vs)
              ]
            ))
          end;
     fun print_stmt _ (ML_Exc (const, (vs_ty, n))) = pair
          [print_val_decl print_typscheme (Constant const, vs_ty)]
          ((doublesemicolon o map str) (
            "let"
            :: deresolve_const const
            :: replicate n "_"
            @ "="
            :: "failwith"
            @@ print_ocaml_string const
          ))
      | print_stmt _ (ML_Val binding) =
          let
            val (sig_p, p) = print_def (K false) true "let" binding
          in pair
            [sig_p]
            (doublesemicolon [p])
          end
      | print_stmt _ (ML_Funs ((export, binding) :: exports_bindings, pseudo_funs)) =
          let
            val print_def' = print_def (member (op =) pseudo_funs) false;
            fun print_pseudo_fun sym = concat [
                str "let",
                (str o deresolve) sym,
                str "=",
                (str o deresolve) sym,
                str "();;"
              ];
            val (sig_ps, (ps, p)) = (apsnd split_last o split_list)
              (print_def' "let rec" binding :: map (print_def' "and" o snd) exports_bindings);
            val pseudo_ps = map print_pseudo_fun pseudo_funs;
          in pair
            (map_filter (fn (export, p) => if Code_Namespace.not_private export then SOME p else NONE)
              ((export :: map fst exports_bindings) ~~ sig_ps))
            (Pretty.chunks (ps @ doublesemicolon [p] :: pseudo_ps))
          end
     | print_stmt _ (ML_Datas [(tyco, (vs, []))]) =
          let
            val ty_p = print_tyco_expr (Type_Constructor tyco, map ITyVar vs);
          in
            pair
            [concat [str "type", ty_p]]
            (doublesemicolon [str "type", ty_p, str "=", str "EMPTY__"])
          end
     | print_stmt export (ML_Datas (data :: datas)) = 
          let
            val decl_ps = print_datatype_decl "type" data
              :: map (print_datatype_decl "and") datas;
            val (ps, p) = split_last decl_ps;
          in pair
            (if Code_Namespace.is_public export
              then decl_ps
              else map (fn (tyco, (vs, _)) =>
                concat [str "type", print_tyco_expr (Type_Constructor tyco, map ITyVar vs)])
                (data :: datas))
            (Pretty.chunks (ps @| doublesemicolon [p]))
          end
     | print_stmt export (ML_Class (class, (v, (classrels, classparams)))) =
          let
            fun print_field s p = concat [str s, str ":", p];
            fun print_super_class_field (classrel as (_, super_class)) =
              print_field (deresolve_classrel classrel) (print_dicttyp (super_class, ITyVar v));
            fun print_classparam_decl (classparam, ty) =
              print_val_decl print_typscheme
                (Constant classparam, ([(v, [class])], ty));
            fun print_classparam_field (classparam, ty) =
              print_field (deresolve_const classparam) (print_typ NOBR ty);
            val w = "_" ^ Name.enforce_case true v;
            fun print_classparam_proj (classparam, _) =
              (concat o map str) ["let", deresolve_const classparam, w, "=",
                w ^ "." ^ deresolve_const classparam ^ ";;"];
            val type_decl_p = concat [
                str "type",
                print_dicttyp (class, ITyVar v),
                str "=",
                enum_default "unit" ";" "{" "}" (
                  map print_super_class_field classrels
                  @ map print_classparam_field classparams
                )
              ];
          in pair
           (if Code_Namespace.is_public export
              then type_decl_p :: map print_classparam_decl classparams
              else if null classrels andalso null classparams
              then [type_decl_p] (*work around weakness in export calculation*)
              else [concat [str "type", print_dicttyp (class, ITyVar v)]])
            (Pretty.chunks (
              doublesemicolon [type_decl_p]
              :: map print_classparam_proj classparams
            ))
          end;
  in print_stmt end;

fun print_ocaml_module name decls body =
  Pretty.chunks2 (
    Pretty.chunks [
      str ("module " ^ name ^ " : sig"),
      (indent 2 o Pretty.chunks) decls,
      str "end = struct"
    ]
    :: body
    @| str ("end;; (*struct " ^ name ^ "*)")
  );

val literals_ocaml = let
  fun numeral_ocaml k = if k < 0
    then "(Z.neg " ^ numeral_ocaml (~ k) ^ ")"
    else if k <= 1073741823
      then "(Z.of_int " ^ string_of_int k ^ ")"
      else "(Z.of_string " ^ quote (string_of_int k) ^ ")"
in Literals {
  literal_string = print_ocaml_string,
  literal_numeral = numeral_ocaml,
  literal_list = enum ";" "[" "]",
  infix_cons = (6, "::")
} end;



(** SML/OCaml generic part **)

fun ml_program_of_program ctxt module_name reserved identifiers =
  let
    fun namify_const upper base (nsp_const, nsp_type) =
      let
        val (base', nsp_const') = Name.variant (Name.enforce_case upper base) nsp_const
      in (base', (nsp_const', nsp_type)) end;
    fun namify_type base (nsp_const, nsp_type) =
      let
        val (base', nsp_type') = Name.variant (Name.enforce_case false base) nsp_type
      in (base', (nsp_const, nsp_type')) end;
    fun namify_stmt (Code_Thingol.Fun _) = namify_const false
      | namify_stmt (Code_Thingol.Datatype _) = namify_type
      | namify_stmt (Code_Thingol.Datatypecons _) = namify_const true
      | namify_stmt (Code_Thingol.Class _) = namify_type
      | namify_stmt (Code_Thingol.Classrel _) = namify_const false
      | namify_stmt (Code_Thingol.Classparam _) = namify_const false
      | namify_stmt (Code_Thingol.Classinst _) = namify_const false;
    fun ml_binding_of_stmt (sym as Constant const, (export, Code_Thingol.Fun ((tysm as (vs, ty), raw_eqs), _))) =
          let
            val eqs = filter (snd o snd) raw_eqs;
            val (eqs', some_sym) = if null (filter_out (null o snd) vs) then case eqs
               of [(([], t), some_thm)] => if (not o null o fst o Code_Thingol.unfold_fun) ty
                  then ([(([IVar (SOME "x")], t `$ IVar (SOME "x")), some_thm)], NONE)
                  else (eqs, SOME (sym, member (op =) (Code_Thingol.add_constsyms t []) sym))
                | _ => (eqs, NONE)
              else (eqs, NONE)
          in ((export, ML_Function (const, (tysm, eqs'))), some_sym) end
      | ml_binding_of_stmt (sym as Class_Instance inst, (export, Code_Thingol.Classinst (stmt as { vs, ... }))) =
          ((export, ML_Instance (inst, stmt)),
            if forall (null o snd) vs then SOME (sym, false) else NONE)
      | ml_binding_of_stmt (sym, _) =
          error ("Binding block containing illegal statement: " ^ 
            Code_Symbol.quote ctxt sym)
    fun modify_fun (sym, (export, stmt)) =
      let
        val ((export', binding), some_value_sym) = ml_binding_of_stmt (sym, (export, stmt));
        val ml_stmt = case binding
         of ML_Function (const, ((vs, ty), [])) =>
              ML_Exc (const, ((vs, ty),
                (length o filter_out (null o snd)) vs + (length o fst o Code_Thingol.unfold_fun) ty))
          | _ => case some_value_sym
             of NONE => ML_Funs ([(export', binding)], [])
              | SOME (sym, true) => ML_Funs ([(export, binding)], [sym])
              | SOME (sym, false) => ML_Val binding
      in SOME (export, ml_stmt) end;
    fun modify_funs stmts = single (SOME
      (Code_Namespace.Opaque, ML_Funs (map_split ml_binding_of_stmt stmts |> (apsnd o map_filter o Option.map) fst)))
    fun modify_datatypes stmts =
      let
        val datas = map_filter
          (fn (Type_Constructor tyco, (export, Code_Thingol.Datatype stmt)) => SOME (export, (tyco, stmt)) | _ => NONE) stmts
      in
        if null datas then [] (*for abstract types wrt. code_reflect*)
        else datas
          |> split_list
          |> apfst Code_Namespace.join_exports
          |> apsnd ML_Datas
          |> SOME
          |> single
      end;
    fun modify_class stmts =
      the_single (map_filter
        (fn (Type_Class class, (export, Code_Thingol.Class stmt)) => SOME (export, (class, stmt)) | _ => NONE) stmts)
      |> apsnd ML_Class
      |> SOME
      |> single;
    fun modify_stmts ([stmt as (_, (_, stmt' as Code_Thingol.Fun _))]) =
          if Code_Thingol.is_case stmt' then [] else [modify_fun stmt]
      | modify_stmts ((stmts as (_, (_, Code_Thingol.Fun _)) :: _)) =
          modify_funs (filter_out (Code_Thingol.is_case o snd o snd) stmts)
      | modify_stmts ((stmts as (_, (_, Code_Thingol.Datatypecons _)) :: _)) =
          modify_datatypes stmts
      | modify_stmts ((stmts as (_, (_, Code_Thingol.Datatype _)) :: _)) =
          modify_datatypes stmts
      | modify_stmts ((stmts as (_, (_, Code_Thingol.Class _)) :: _)) =
          modify_class stmts
      | modify_stmts ((stmts as (_, (_, Code_Thingol.Classrel _)) :: _)) =
          modify_class stmts
      | modify_stmts ((stmts as (_, (_, Code_Thingol.Classparam _)) :: _)) =
          modify_class stmts
      | modify_stmts ([stmt as (_, (_, Code_Thingol.Classinst _))]) =
          [modify_fun stmt]
      | modify_stmts ((stmts as (_, (_, Code_Thingol.Classinst _)) :: _)) =
          modify_funs stmts
      | modify_stmts stmts = error ("Illegal mutual dependencies: " ^
          (Library.commas o map (Code_Symbol.quote ctxt o fst)) stmts);
  in
    Code_Namespace.hierarchical_program ctxt {
      module_name = module_name, reserved = reserved, identifiers = identifiers,
      empty_nsp = (reserved, reserved), namify_module = pair, namify_stmt = namify_stmt,
      cyclic_modules = false, class_transitive = true,
      class_relation_public = true, empty_data = (),
      memorize_data = K I, modify_stmts = modify_stmts }
  end;

fun serialize_ml print_ml_module print_ml_stmt ml_extension ctxt
    { module_name, reserved_syms, identifiers, includes,
      class_syntax, tyco_syntax, const_syntax } program exports =
  let

    (* build program *)
    val { deresolver, hierarchical_program = ml_program } =
      ml_program_of_program ctxt module_name (Name.make_context reserved_syms)
        identifiers exports program;

    (* print statements *)
    fun print_stmt prefix_fragments (_, (export, stmt)) = print_ml_stmt
      tyco_syntax const_syntax (make_vars reserved_syms)
      (Code_Thingol.is_constr program) (deresolver prefix_fragments) export stmt
      |> apfst (fn decl => if Code_Namespace.not_private export then SOME decl else NONE);

    (* print modules *)
    fun print_module _ base _ xs =
      let
        val (raw_decls, body) = split_list xs;
        val decls = maps these raw_decls
      in (NONE, print_ml_module base decls body) end;

    (* serialization *)
    val p = Pretty.chunks2 (map snd includes
      @ map snd (Code_Namespace.print_hierarchical {
        print_module = print_module, print_stmt = print_stmt,
        lift_markup = apsnd } ml_program));
  in
    (Code_Target.Singleton (ml_extension, p), try (deresolver []))
  end;

val serializer_sml : Code_Target.serializer =
  Code_Target.parse_args (Scan.succeed ()) #> K (serialize_ml print_sml_module print_sml_stmt "ML");

val serializer_ocaml : Code_Target.serializer =
  Code_Target.parse_args (Scan.succeed ()) #> K (serialize_ml print_ocaml_module print_ocaml_stmt "ocaml");


(** Isar setup **)

fun fun_syntax print_typ fxy [ty1, ty2] =
  brackify_infix (1, R) fxy (
    print_typ (INFX (1, X)) ty1,
    str "->",
    print_typ (INFX (1, R)) ty2
  );

val _ = Theory.setup
  (Code_Target.add_language
    (target_SML, {serializer = serializer_sml, literals = literals_sml,
      check = {env_var = "",
        make_destination = fn p => p + Path.explode "ROOT.ML",
        make_command = fn _ =>
          "isabelle process -e 'datatype ref = datatype Unsynchronized.ref' -f 'ROOT.ML' -l Pure"},
      evaluation_args = []})
  #> Code_Target.add_language
    (target_OCaml, {serializer = serializer_ocaml, literals = literals_ocaml,
      check = {env_var = "ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND",
        make_destination = fn p => p + Path.explode "ROOT.ml"
          (*extension demanded by OCaml compiler*),
        make_command = fn _ =>
          "\"$ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND\" ocamlopt -w pu -package zarith -linkpkg ROOT.ml </dev/null"},
      evaluation_args = []})
  #> Code_Target.set_printings (Type_Constructor ("fun",
    [(target_SML, SOME (2, fun_syntax)), (target_OCaml, SOME (2, fun_syntax))]))
  #> fold (Code_Target.add_reserved target_SML) ML_Syntax.reserved_names
  #> fold (Code_Target.add_reserved target_SML)
      ["ref" (*rebinding is illegal*), "o" (*dictionary projections use it already*),
        "Fail", "div", "mod" (*standard infixes*), "IntInf"]
  #> fold (Code_Target.add_reserved target_OCaml) [
      "and", "as", "assert", "begin", "class",
      "constraint", "do", "done", "downto", "else", "end", "exception",
      "external", "false", "for", "fun", "function", "functor", "if",
      "in", "include", "inherit", "initializer", "lazy", "let", "match", "method",
      "module", "mutable", "new", "object", "of", "open", "or", "private", "rec",
      "sig", "struct", "then", "to", "true", "try", "type", "val",
      "virtual", "when", "while", "with"
    ]
  #> fold (Code_Target.add_reserved target_OCaml) ["failwith", "mod", "Z"]);

end; (*struct*)