(* Title: HOL/Library/ContNonDenum.thy
Author: Benjamin Porter, Monash University, NICTA, 2005
Author: Johannes Hölzl, TU München
*)
header {* Non-denumerability of the Continuum. *}
theory ContNotDenum
imports Complex_Main Countable_Set
begin
subsection {* Abstract *}
text {* The following document presents a proof that the Continuum is
uncountable. It is formalised in the Isabelle/Isar theorem proving
system.
{\em Theorem:} The Continuum @{text "\"} is not denumerable. In other
words, there does not exist a function @{text "f: \ \ \"} such that f is
surjective.
{\em Outline:} An elegant informal proof of this result uses Cantor's
Diagonalisation argument. The proof presented here is not this
one. First we formalise some properties of closed intervals, then we
prove the Nested Interval Property. This property relies on the
completeness of the Real numbers and is the foundation for our
argument. Informally it states that an intersection of countable
closed intervals (where each successive interval is a subset of the
last) is non-empty. We then assume a surjective function @{text
"f: \ \ \"} exists and find a real x such that x is not in the range of f
by generating a sequence of closed intervals then using the NIP. *}
theorem real_non_denum: "\ (\f :: nat \ real. surj f)"
proof
assume "\f::nat \ real. surj f"
then obtain f :: "nat \ real" where "surj f" ..
txt {* First we construct a sequence of nested intervals, ignoring @{term "range f"}. *}
have "\a b c::real. a < b \ (\ka kb. ka < kb \ {ka..kb} \ {a..b} \ c \ {ka..kb})"
using assms
by (auto simp add: not_le cong: conj_cong)
(metis dense le_less_linear less_linear less_trans order_refl)
then obtain i j where ij:
"\a b c::real. a < b \ i a b c < j a b c"
"\a b c. a < b \ {i a b c .. j a b c} \ {a .. b}"
"\a b c. a < b \ c \ {i a b c .. j a b c}"
by metis
def ivl \ "rec_nat (f 0 + 1, f 0 + 2) (\n x. (i (fst x) (snd x) (f n), j (fst x) (snd x) (f n)))"
def I \ "\n. {fst (ivl n) .. snd (ivl n)}"
have ivl[simp]:
"ivl 0 = (f 0 + 1, f 0 + 2)"
"\n. ivl (Suc n) = (i (fst (ivl n)) (snd (ivl n)) (f n), j (fst (ivl n)) (snd (ivl n)) (f n))"
unfolding ivl_def by simp_all
txt {* This is a decreasing sequence of non-empty intervals. *}
{ fix n have "fst (ivl n) < snd (ivl n)"
by (induct n) (auto intro!: ij) }
note less = this
have "decseq I"
unfolding I_def decseq_Suc_iff ivl fst_conv snd_conv by (intro ij allI less)
txt {* Now we apply the finite intersection property of compact sets. *}
have "I 0 \ (\i. I i) \ {}"
proof (rule compact_imp_fip_image)
fix S :: "nat set" assume fin: "finite S"
have "{} \ I (Max (insert 0 S))"
unfolding I_def using less[of "Max (insert 0 S)"] by auto
also have "I (Max (insert 0 S)) \ (\i\insert 0 S. I i)"
using fin decseqD[OF `decseq I`, of _ "Max (insert 0 S)"] by (auto simp: Max_ge_iff)
also have "(\i\insert 0 S. I i) = I 0 \ (\i\S. I i)"
by auto
finally show "I 0 \ (\i\S. I i) \ {}"
by auto
qed (auto simp: I_def)
then obtain x where "\n. x \ I n"
by blast
moreover from `surj f` obtain j where "x = f j"
by blast
ultimately have "f j \ I (Suc j)"
by blast
with ij(3)[OF less] show False
unfolding I_def ivl fst_conv snd_conv by auto
qed
lemma uncountable_UNIV_real: "uncountable (UNIV::real set)"
using real_non_denum unfolding uncountable_def by auto
lemma bij_betw_open_intervals:
fixes a b c d :: real
assumes "a < b" "c < d"
shows "\f. bij_betw f {a<..** "\a b c d x::real. (d - c)/(b - a) * (x - a) + c"
{ fix a b c d x :: real assume *: "a < b" "c < d" "a < x" "x < b"
moreover from * have "(d - c) * (x - a) < (d - c) * (b - a)"
by (intro mult_strict_left_mono) simp_all
moreover from * have "0 < (d - c) * (x - a) / (b - a)"
by simp
ultimately have "f a b c d x < d" "c < f a b c d x"
by (simp_all add: f_def field_simps) }
with assms have "bij_betw (f a b c d) {a<..**