doc-src/System/Thy/Basics.thy
author wenzelm
Mon Sep 15 16:42:00 2008 +0200 (2008-09-15 ago)
changeset 28215 a1cfc43ac47d
child 28223 eee194395fdc
permissions -rw-r--r--
converted basics.tex to theory file;
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(* $Id$ *)
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theory Basics
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imports Pure
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begin
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chapter {* The Isabelle system environment *}
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text {*
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  This manual describes Isabelle together with related tools and user
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  interfaces as seen from an outside (system oriented) view.  See also
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  the \emph{Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual}~\cite{isabelle-isar-ref}
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  and the \emph{Isabelle Reference Manual}~\cite{isabelle-ref} for the
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  actual Isabelle commands and related functions.
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  \medskip The Isabelle system environment emerges from a few general
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  concepts.
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  \begin{itemize}
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  \item The \emph{Isabelle settings mechanism} provides environment variables to
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  all Isabelle programs (including tools and user interfaces).
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  \item The \emph{Isabelle tools wrapper} (@{executable_def isatool})
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  provides a generic startup platform for Isabelle related utilities.
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  Thus tools automatically benefit from the settings mechanism.
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  \item The raw \emph{Isabelle process} (@{executable_def isabelle} or
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  @{executable_def "isabelle-process"}) runs logic sessions either
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  interactively or in batch mode.  In particular, this view abstracts
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  over the invocation of the actual ML system to be used.
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  \item The \emph{Isabelle interface wrapper} (@{executable_def
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  Isabelle} or @{executable_def "isabelle-interface"}) provides some
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  abstraction over the actual user interface to be used.  The de-facto
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  standard interface for Isabelle is Proof~General
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  \cite{proofgeneral}.
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  \end{itemize}
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  \medskip The beginning user would probably just run the default user
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  interface (by invoking the capital @{executable Isabelle}).  This
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  assumes that the system has already been installed, of course.  In
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  case you have to do this yourself, see the @{verbatim INSTALL} file
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  in the top-level directory of the distribution of how to proceed;
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  binary packages for various system components are available as well.
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*}
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section {* Isabelle settings \label{sec:settings} *}
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text {*
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  The Isabelle system heavily depends on the \emph{settings
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  mechanism}\indexbold{settings}.  Essentially, this is a statically
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  scoped collection of environment variables, such as @{setting
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  ISABELLE_HOME}, @{setting ML_SYSTEM}, @{setting ML_HOME}.  These
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  variables are \emph{not} intended to be set directly from the shell,
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  though.  Isabelle employs a somewhat more sophisticated scheme of
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  \emph{settings files} --- one for site-wide defaults, another for
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  additional user-specific modifications.  With all configuration
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  variables in at most two places, this scheme is more maintainable
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  and user-friendly than global shell environment variables.
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  In particular, we avoid the typical situation where prospective
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  users of a software package are told to put several things into
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  their shell startup scripts, before being able to actually run the
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  program. Isabelle requires none such administrative chores of its
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  end-users --- the executables can be invoked straight away.
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  Occasionally, users would still want to put the Isabelle @{verbatim
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  bin} directory into their shell's search path, but this is not
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  required.
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*}
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subsection {* Building the environment *}
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text {*
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  Whenever any of the Isabelle executables is run, their settings
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  environment is put together as follows.
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  \begin{enumerate}
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  \item The special variable @{setting_def ISABELLE_HOME} is
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  determined automatically from the location of the binary that has
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  been run.
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  You should not try to set @{setting ISABELLE_HOME} manually. Also
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  note that the Isabelle executables either have to be run from their
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  original location in the distribution directory, or via the
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  executable objects created by the @{tool install} utility (see
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  \secref{sec:tool-install}).  Just doing a plain copy of the
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  @{verbatim bin} files will not work!
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  \item The file @{verbatim "$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/settings"} ist run as
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  a shell script with the auto-export option for variables enabled.
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  This file holds a rather long list of shell variable assigments,
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  thus providing the site-wide default settings.  The Isabelle
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  distribution already contains a global settings file with sensible
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  defaults for most variables.  When installing the system, only a few
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  of these may have to be adapted (probably @{setting ML_SYSTEM}
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  etc.).
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  \item The file @{verbatim "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings"} (if it
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  exists) is run in the same way as the site default settings. Note
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  that the variable @{setting ISABELLE_HOME_USER} has already been set
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  before --- usually to @{verbatim "~/isabelle"}.
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  Thus individual users may override the site-wide defaults.  See also
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  file @{verbatim "etc/user-settings.sample"} in the distribution.
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  Typically, a user settings file would contain only a few lines, just
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  the assigments that are really changed.  One should definitely
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  \emph{not} start with a full copy the basic @{verbatim
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  "$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/settings"}. This could cause very annoying
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  maintainance problems later, when the Isabelle installation is
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  updated or changed otherwise.
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  \end{enumerate}
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  Note that settings files are actually full GNU bash scripts. So one
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  may use complex shell commands, such as @{verbatim "if"} or
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  @{verbatim "case"} statements to set variables depending on the
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  system architecture or other environment variables.  Such advanced
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  features should be added only with great care, though. In
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  particular, external environment references should be kept at a
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  minimum.
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  \medskip A few variables are somewhat special:
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  \begin{itemize}
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  \item @{setting_def ISABELLE} and @{setting_def ISATOOL} are set
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  automatically to the absolute path names of the @{executable
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  "isabelle-process"} and @{executable isatool} executables,
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  respectively.
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  \item @{setting_def ISABELLE_OUTPUT} will have the identifiers of
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  the Isabelle distribution (cf.\ @{setting ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER}) and
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  the ML system (cf.\ @{setting ML_IDENTIFIER}) appended automatically
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  to its value.
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  \end{itemize}
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  \medskip The Isabelle settings scheme is conceptually simple, but
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  not completely trivial.  For debugging purposes, the resulting
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  environment may be inspected with the @{tool getenv} utility, see
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  \secref{sec:tool-getenv}.
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*}
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subsection{* Common variables *}
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text {*
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  This is a reference of common Isabelle settings variables. Note that
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  the list is somewhat open-ended. Third-party utilities or interfaces
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  may add their own selection. Variables that are special in some
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  sense are marked with @{text "\<^sup>*"}.
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  \begin{description}
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_HOME}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] is the
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  location of the top-level Isabelle distribution directory. This is
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  automatically determined from the Isabelle executable that has been
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  invoked.  Do not attempt to set @{setting ISABELLE_HOME} yourself
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  from the shell.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_HOME_USER}] is the user-specific
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  counterpart of @{setting ISABELLE_HOME}. The default value is
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  @{verbatim "~/isabelle"}, under rare circumstances this may be
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  changed in the global setting file.  Typically, the @{setting
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  ISABELLE_HOME_USER} directory mimics @{setting ISABELLE_HOME} to
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  some extend. In particular, site-wide defaults may be overridden by
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  a private @{verbatim "etc/settings"}.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE}@{text "\<^sup>*"}, @{setting
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  ISATOOL}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] are automatically set to the full path
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  names of the @{executable "isabelle-process"} and @{executable
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  isatool} executables, respectively.  Thus other tools and scripts
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  need not assume that the Isabelle @{verbatim bin} directory is on
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  the current search path of the shell.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] refers
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  to the name of this Isabelle distribution, e.g.\ ``@{verbatim
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  Isabelle2008}''.
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  \item[@{setting_def ML_SYSTEM}, @{setting_def ML_HOME},
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  @{setting_def ML_OPTIONS}, @{setting_def ML_PLATFORM}, @{setting_def
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  ML_IDENTIFIER}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] specify the underlying ML system
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  to be used for Isabelle.  There is only a fixed set of admissable
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  @{setting ML_SYSTEM} names (see the @{verbatim "etc/settings"} file
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  of the distribution).
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  The actual compiler binary will be run from the directory @{setting
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  ML_HOME}, with @{setting ML_OPTIONS} as first arguments on the
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  command line.  The optional @{setting ML_PLATFORM} may specify the
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  binary format of ML heap images, which is useful for cross-platform
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  installations.  The value of @{setting ML_IDENTIFIER} is
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  automatically obtained by composing the values of @{setting
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  ML_SYSTEM}, @{setting ML_PLATFORM} and the Isabelle version values.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_PATH}] is a list of directories
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  (separated by colons) where Isabelle logic images may reside.  When
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  looking up heaps files, the value of @{setting ML_IDENTIFIER} is
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  appended to each component internally.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_OUTPUT}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] is a
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  directory where output heap files should be stored by default. The
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  ML system and Isabelle version identifier is appended here, too.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO}] is the directory where
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  theory browser information (HTML text, graph data, and printable
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  documents) is stored (see also \secref{sec:info}).  The default
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  value is @{verbatim "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/browser_info"}.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_LOGIC}] specifies the default logic to
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  load if none is given explicitely by the user.  The default value is
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  @{verbatim HOL}.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR}] specifies the default
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  line editor for @{verbatim "isatool tty"} (see also
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  \secref{sec:tool-tty}).
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS}] is implicitly prefixed
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  to the command line of any @{verbatim "isatool usedir"} invocation
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  (see also \secref{sec:tool-usedir}). This typically contains
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  compilation options for object-logics --- @{tool usedir} is the
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  basic utility for managing logic sessions (cf.\ the @{verbatim
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  IsaMakefile}s in the distribution).
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT}] specifies a shell command
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  for producing a source file identification, based on the actual
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  content instead of the full physical path and date stamp (which is
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  the default). A typical identification would produce a ``digest'' of
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  the text, using a cryptographic hash function like SHA-1, for
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  example.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_LATEX}, @{setting_def
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  ISABELLE_PDFLATEX}, @{setting_def ISABELLE_BIBTEX}, @{setting_def
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  ISABELLE_DVIPS}] refer to {\LaTeX} related tools for Isabelle
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  document preparation (see also \secref{sec:tool-latex}).
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_TOOLS}] is a colon separated list of
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  directories that are scanned by @{executable isatool} for external
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  utility programs (see also \secref{sec:isatool}).
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_DOCS}] is a colon separated list of
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  directories with documentation files.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT}] specifies the preferred
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  document format, typically @{verbatim dvi} or @{verbatim pdf}.
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  \item[@{setting_def DVI_VIEWER}] specifies the command to be used
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  for displaying @{verbatim dvi} files.
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  \item[@{setting_def PDF_VIEWER}] specifies the command to be used
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  for displaying @{verbatim pdf} files.
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  \item[@{setting_def PRINT_COMMAND}] specifies the standard printer
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  spool command, which is expected to accept @{verbatim ps} files.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_TMP_PREFIX}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] is the
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  prefix from which any running @{executable isabelle} process derives
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  an individual directory for temporary files.  The default is
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  somewhere in @{verbatim "/tmp"}.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_INTERFACE}] is an identifier that
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  specifies the actual user interface that the capital @{executable
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  Isabelle} or @{executable "isabelle-interface"} should invoke.  See
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  \secref{sec:interface} for more details.
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  \end{description}
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*}
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section {* The Isabelle tools wrapper \label{sec:isatool} *}
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text {*
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  All Isabelle related utilities are called via a common wrapper ---
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  \ttindex{isatool}:
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\begin{ttbox}
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Usage: isatool TOOL [ARGS ...]
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  Start Isabelle utility program TOOL with ARGS. Pass "-?" to TOOL
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  for more specific help.
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  Available tools are:
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    browser - Isabelle graph browser
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    \dots
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\end{ttbox}
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  In principle, Isabelle tools are ordinary executable scripts that
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  are run within the Isabelle settings environment, see
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  \secref{sec:settings}.  The set of available tools is collected by
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  @{executable isatool} from the directories listed in the @{setting
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  ISABELLE_TOOLS} setting.  Do not try to call the scripts directly
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  from the shell.  Neither should you add the tool directories to your
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  shell's search path!
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*}
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subsubsection {* Examples *}
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text {*
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  Show the list of available documentation of the current Isabelle
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  installation like this:
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\begin{ttbox}
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  isatool doc
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\end{ttbox}
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  View a certain document as follows:
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\begin{ttbox}
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  isatool doc isar-ref
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\end{ttbox}
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  Create an Isabelle session derived from HOL (see also
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  \secref{sec:tool-mkdir} and \secref{sec:tool-make}):
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\begin{ttbox}
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  isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make
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\end{ttbox}
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  Note that @{verbatim "isatool mkdir"} is usually only invoked once;
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  existing sessions (including document output etc.) are then updated
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  by @{verbatim "isatool make"} alone.
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*}
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section {* The raw Isabelle process *}
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text {*
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  The @{executable_ref isabelle} (or @{executable_ref
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  "isabelle-process"}) executable runs bare-bones Isabelle logic
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  sessions --- either interactively or in batch mode.  It provides an
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  abstraction over the underlying ML system, and over the actual heap
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  file locations.  Its usage is:
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\begin{ttbox}
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Usage: isabelle [OPTIONS] [INPUT] [OUTPUT]
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  Options are:
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    -C           tell ML system to copy output image
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    -I           startup Isar interaction mode
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    -P           startup Proof General interaction mode
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    -S           secure mode -- disallow critical operations
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    -W OUTPUT    startup process wrapper, with messages going to OUTPUT stream
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    -X           startup PGIP interaction mode
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    -c           tell ML system to compress output image
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    -e MLTEXT    pass MLTEXT to the ML session
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    -f           pass 'Session.finish();' to the ML session
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    -m MODE      add print mode for output
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    -q           non-interactive session
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    -r           open heap file read-only
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    -u           pass 'use"ROOT.ML";' to the ML session
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    -w           reset write permissions on OUTPUT
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  INPUT (default "\$ISABELLE_LOGIC") and OUTPUT specify in/out heaps.
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  These are either names to be searched in the Isabelle path, or
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  actual file names (containing at least one /).
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  If INPUT is "RAW_ML_SYSTEM", just start the bare bones ML system.
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\end{ttbox}
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  Input files without path specifications are looked up in the
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  @{setting ISABELLE_PATH} setting, which may consist of multiple
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  components separated by colons --- these are tried in the given
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  order with the value of @{setting ML_IDENTIFIER} appended
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  internally.  In a similar way, base names are relative to the
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  directory specified by @{setting ISABELLE_OUTPUT}.  In any case,
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  actual file locations may also be given by including at least one
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  slash (@{verbatim "/"}) in the name (hint: use @{verbatim "./"} to
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  refer to the current directory).
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*}
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subsection {* Options *}
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text {*
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  If the input heap file does not have write permission bits set, or
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  the @{verbatim "-r"} option is given explicitely, then the session
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  started will be read-only.  That is, the ML world cannot be
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  committed back into the image file.  Otherwise, a writable session
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  enables commits into either the input file, or into another output
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  heap file (if that is given as the second argument on the command
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  line).
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  The read-write state of sessions is determined at startup only, it
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  cannot be changed intermediately. Also note that heap images may
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  require considerable amounts of disk space (approximately
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  50--200~MB). Users are responsible for themselves to dispose their
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  heap files when they are no longer needed.
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-w"} option makes the output heap file
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  read-only after terminating.  Thus subsequent invocations cause the
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  logic image to be read-only automatically.
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-c"} option tells the underlying ML system
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  to compress the output heap (fully transparently).  On Poly/ML for
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  example, the image is garbage collected and all stored values are
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  maximally shared, resulting in up to @{text "50%"} less disk space
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  consumption.
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-C"} option tells the ML system to produce
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  a completely self-contained output image, probably including a copy
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  of the ML runtime system itself.
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  \medskip Using the @{verbatim "-e"} option, arbitrary ML code may be
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  passed to the Isabelle session from the command line. Multiple
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  @{verbatim "-e"}'s are evaluated in the given order. Strange things
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  may happen when errorneous ML code is provided. Also make sure that
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  the ML commands are terminated properly by semicolon.
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-u"} option is a shortcut for @{verbatim
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  "-e"} passing ``@{verbatim "use \"ROOT.ML\";"}'' to the ML session.
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  The @{verbatim "-f"} option passes ``@{verbatim "Session.finish ();"}'',
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  which is intended mainly for administrative purposes.
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-m"} option adds identifiers of print modes
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  to be made active for this session. Typically, this is used by some
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  user interface, e.g.\ to enable output of proper mathematical
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  symbols.
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  \medskip Isabelle normally enters an interactive top-level loop
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  (after processing the @{verbatim "-e"} texts). The @{verbatim "-q"}
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  option inhibits interaction, thus providing a pure batch mode
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  facility.
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-I"} option makes Isabelle enter Isar
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  interaction mode on startup, instead of the primitive ML top-level.
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  The @{verbatim "-P"} option configures the top-level loop for
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  interaction with the Proof General user interface, and the
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  @{verbatim "-X"} option enables XML-based PGIP communication.  The
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  @{verbatim "-W"} option makes Isabelle enter a special process
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  wrapper for interaction via an external program; the protocol is a
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  stripped-down version of Proof General the interaction mode.
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-S"} option makes the Isabelle process more
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  secure by disabling some critical operations, notably runtime
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  compilation and evaluation of ML source code.
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*}
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subsection {* Examples *}
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text {*
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  Run an interactive session of the default object-logic (as specified
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  by the @{setting ISABELLE_LOGIC} setting) like this:
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\begin{ttbox}
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isabelle
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\end{ttbox}
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  Usually @{setting ISABELLE_LOGIC} refers to one of the standard
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  logic images, which are read-only by default.  A writable session
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  --- based on @{verbatim FOL}, but output to @{verbatim Foo} (in the
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  directory specified by the @{verbatim ISABELLE_OUTPUT} setting) ---
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  may be invoked as follows:
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\begin{ttbox}
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isabelle FOL Foo
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\end{ttbox}
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  Ending this session normally (e.g.\ by typing control-D) dumps the
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  whole ML system state into @{verbatim Foo}. Be prepared for several
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  tens of megabytes.
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  The @{verbatim Foo} session may be continued later (still in
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  writable state) by:
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\begin{ttbox}
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isabelle Foo
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\end{ttbox}
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  A read-only @{verbatim Foo} session may be started by:
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\begin{ttbox}
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isabelle -r Foo
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\end{ttbox}
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  \medskip Note that manual session management like this does
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  \emph{not} provide proper setup for theory presentation.  This would
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  require the @{tool usedir} utility, see \secref{sec:tool-usedir}.
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  \bigskip The next example demonstrates batch execution of
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  Isabelle. We print a certain theorem of @{verbatim FOL}:
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\begin{ttbox}
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isabelle -e "prth allE;" -q -r FOL
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\end{ttbox}
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  Note that the output text will be interspersed with additional junk
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  messages by the ML runtime environment.
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*}
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section {* The Isabelle interface wrapper \label{sec:interface} *}
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text {*
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  Isabelle is a generic theorem prover, even w.r.t.\ its user
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  interface.  The @{executable_ref Isabelle} (or @{executable_ref
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  "isabelle-interface"}) executable provides a uniform way for
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  end-users to invoke a certain interface; which one to start is
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  determined by the @{setting_ref ISABELLE_INTERFACE} setting
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  variable, which should give a full path specification to the actual
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  executable.  Also note that the @{tool install} utility provides
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  some options to install desktop environment icons (see
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  \secref{sec:tool-install}).
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  Presently, the most prominent Isabelle interface is Proof
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  General~\cite{proofgeneral}\index{user interface!Proof General}.
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  The Proof General distribution includes an interface wrapper script
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  for the regular Isar toplevel, see @{verbatim
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  "ProofGeneral/isar/interface"}.  The canonical settings for
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  Isabelle/Isar are as follows:
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\begin{ttbox}
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ISABELLE_INTERFACE=\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral/isar/interface
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PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS=""
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\end{ttbox}
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  Thus @{executable Isabelle} would automatically invoke Emacs with
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  proper setup of the Proof General Lisp packages.  There are some
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  options available, such as @{verbatim "-l"} for passing the logic
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  image to be used by default, or @{verbatim "-m"} to tune the
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  standard print mode.  The @{verbatim "-I"} option allows to switch
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  between the Isar and ML view, independently of the interface script
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  being used.
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  \medskip Note that the world may be also seen the other way round:
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  Emacs may be started first (with proper setup of Proof General
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  mode), and @{executable isabelle} run from within.  This requires
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  further Emacs Lisp configuration, see the Proof General
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  documentation \cite{proofgeneral} for more information.
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*}
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end