src/Pure/library.ML
author wenzelm
Thu Nov 24 21:15:20 2011 +0100 (2011-11-24 ago)
changeset 45626 b4f374a45668
parent 44617 5db68864a967
child 46779 4f298836018b
permissions -rw-r--r--
more abstract datatype stamp, which avoids pointless allocation of mutable cells;
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(*  Title:      Pure/library.ML
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    Author:     Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
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Basic library: functions, pairs, booleans, lists, integers,
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strings, lists as sets, orders, current directory, misc.
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See also General/basics.ML for the most fundamental concepts.
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*)
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infix 2 ?
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infix 3 o oo ooo oooo
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infix 4 ~~ upto downto
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infix orf andf
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signature BASIC_LIBRARY =
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sig
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  (*functions*)
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  val undefined: 'a -> 'b
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  val I: 'a -> 'a
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  val K: 'a -> 'b -> 'a
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  val curry: ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'a -> 'b -> 'c
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  val uncurry: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a * 'b -> 'c
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  val ? : bool * ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  val oo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'b
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  val ooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'b
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  val oooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'b
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  val funpow: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  val funpow_yield: int -> ('a -> 'b * 'a) -> 'a -> 'b list * 'a
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  (*user errors*)
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  exception ERROR of string
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  val error: string -> 'a
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  val cat_error: string -> string -> 'a
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  val assert_all: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> ('a -> string) -> unit
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  (*pairs*)
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  val pair: 'a -> 'b -> 'a * 'b
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  val rpair: 'a -> 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val fst: 'a * 'b -> 'a
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  val snd: 'a * 'b -> 'b
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  val eq_fst: ('a * 'c -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val eq_snd: ('b * 'd -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val eq_pair: ('a * 'c -> bool) -> ('b * 'd -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val swap: 'a * 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val apfst: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apsnd: ('a -> 'b) -> 'c * 'a -> 'c * 'b
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  val pairself: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'a -> 'b * 'b
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  (*booleans*)
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  val equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val not_equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val orf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val andf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val exists: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val forall: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val setmp_CRITICAL: 'a Unsynchronized.ref -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  val setmp_thread_data: 'a Universal.tag -> 'a -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  (*lists*)
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  val single: 'a -> 'a list
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  val the_single: 'a list -> 'a
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  val singleton: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val yield_singleton: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'c) -> 'a -> 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apply: ('a -> 'a) list -> 'a -> 'a
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  val perhaps_apply: ('a -> 'a option) list -> 'a -> 'a option
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  val perhaps_loop: ('a -> 'a option) -> 'a -> 'a option
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  val foldl1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val foldr1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val flat: 'a list list -> 'a list
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  val unflat: 'a list list -> 'b list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow_options: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a option list -> 'b option list
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  val burrow_fst: ('a list -> 'b list) -> ('a * 'c) list -> ('b * 'c) list
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  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
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  val maps: ('a -> 'b list) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val filter: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val filter_out: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val map_filter: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val take: int -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val drop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val chop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val chop_while: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a
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  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_drop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_list: 'a list list -> int -> 'a list
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  val map_index: (int * 'a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
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  val map_range: (int -> 'a) -> int -> 'a list
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  val split_last: 'a list -> 'a list * 'a
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  val find_index: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> int
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  val find_first: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a option
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  val get_index: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> (int * 'b) option
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  val get_first: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b option
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  val eq_list: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> bool
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  val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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  val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val fold_rev2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val forall2: ('a -> 'b -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> bool
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  val zip_options: 'a list -> 'b option list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val ~~ : 'a list * 'b list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val map_split: ('a -> 'b * 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list * 'c list
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  val split_list: ('a * 'b) list -> 'a list * 'b list
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  val map_product: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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  val fold_product: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val map_transpose: ('a list -> 'b) -> 'a list list -> 'b list
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  val separate: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val surround: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val replicate: int -> 'a -> 'a list
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  val is_prefix: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> bool
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  val take_prefix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val chop_prefix: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'a list * ('a list * 'b list)
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  val take_suffix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val prefixes1: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val prefixes: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val suffixes1: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val suffixes: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  (*integers*)
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  val upto: int * int -> int list
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  val downto: int * int -> int list
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  val radixpand: int * int -> int list
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  val radixstring: int * string * int -> string
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  val string_of_int: int -> string
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  val signed_string_of_int: int -> string
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  val string_of_indexname: string * int -> string
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  val read_radix_int: int -> string list -> int * string list
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  val read_int: string list -> int * string list
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  val oct_char: string -> string
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  (*strings*)
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  val nth_string: string -> int -> string
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  val fold_string: (string -> 'a -> 'a) -> string -> 'a -> 'a
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  val exists_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val forall_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val first_field: string -> string -> (string * string) option
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  val enclose: string -> string -> string -> string
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  val unenclose: string -> string
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  val quote: string -> string
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  val space_implode: string -> string list -> string
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  val commas: string list -> string
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  val commas_quote: string list -> string
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  val cat_lines: string list -> string
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  val space_explode: string -> string -> string list
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  val split_lines: string -> string list
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  val prefix_lines: string -> string -> string
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  val prefix: string -> string -> string
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  val suffix: string -> string -> string
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  val unprefix: string -> string -> string
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  val unsuffix: string -> string -> string
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  val replicate_string: int -> string -> string
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  val translate_string: (string -> string) -> string -> string
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  val match_string: string -> string -> bool
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  (*reals*)
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  val string_of_real: real -> string
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  val signed_string_of_real: real -> string
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  val smart_string_of_real: real -> string
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  (*lists as sets -- see also Pure/General/ord_list.ML*)
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  val member: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'b -> bool
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  val insert: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val remove: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val update: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val union: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val subtract: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val inter: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'b list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val merge: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val subset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val eq_set: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> bool
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  val distinct: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val has_duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  (*lists as multisets*)
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  val remove1: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val combine: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val submultiset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  (*orders*)
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  val is_equal: order -> bool
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  val rev_order: order -> order
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  val make_ord: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a * 'a -> order
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  val bool_ord: bool * bool -> order
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  val int_ord: int * int -> order
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  val string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val fast_string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val option_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a option * 'b option -> order
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  val prod_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> ('c * 'd -> order) -> ('a * 'c) * ('b * 'd) -> order
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  val dict_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val list_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val sort: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_distinct: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_strings: string list -> string list
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  val sort_wrt: ('a -> string) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val tag_list: int -> 'a list -> (int * 'a) list
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  val untag_list: (int * 'a) list -> 'a list
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  val order_list: (int * 'a) list -> 'a list
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  (*random numbers*)
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  exception RANDOM
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  val random: unit -> real
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  val random_range: int -> int -> int
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  val one_of: 'a list -> 'a
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  val frequency: (int * 'a) list -> 'a
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  (*misc*)
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  val divide_and_conquer: ('a -> 'a list * ('b list -> 'b)) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val divide_and_conquer': ('a -> 'b -> ('a list * ('c list * 'b -> 'c * 'b)) * 'b) ->
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    'a -> 'b -> 'c * 'b
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  val partition_eq: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val partition_list: (int -> 'a -> bool) -> int -> int -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val legacy_gensym: string -> string
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  type serial = int
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  val serial: unit -> serial
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  val serial_string: unit -> string
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  eqtype stamp
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  val stamp: unit -> stamp
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  structure Object: sig type T = exn end
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  val cd: string -> unit
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  val pwd: unit -> string
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  val getenv: string -> string
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  val getenv_strict: string -> string
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end;
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signature LIBRARY =
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sig
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  include BASIC_LIBRARY
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  val foldl: ('a * 'b -> 'a) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a
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  val foldr: ('a * 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list * 'b -> 'b
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  val foldl_map: ('a * 'b -> 'a * 'c) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a * 'c list
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end;
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structure Library: LIBRARY =
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struct
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(* functions *)
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fun undefined _ = raise Match;
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fun I x = x;
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fun K x = fn _ => x;
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fun curry f x y = f (x, y);
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fun uncurry f (x, y) = f x y;
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(*conditional application*)
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fun b ? f = fn x => if b then f x else x;
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(*composition with multiple args*)
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fun (f oo g) x y = f (g x y);
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fun (f ooo g) x y z = f (g x y z);
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fun (f oooo g) x y z w = f (g x y z w);
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(*function exponentiation: f (... (f x) ...) with n applications of f*)
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fun funpow (0 : int) _ = I
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  | funpow n f = f #> funpow (n - 1) f;
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fun funpow_yield (0 : int) _ x = ([], x)
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  | funpow_yield n f x = x |> f ||>> funpow_yield (n - 1) f |>> op ::;
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(* user errors *)
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exception ERROR of string;
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fun error msg = raise ERROR msg;
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fun cat_error "" msg = error msg
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  | cat_error msg1 msg2 = error (msg1 ^ "\n" ^ msg2);
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fun assert_all pred list msg =
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  let
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    fun ass [] = ()
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      | ass (x :: xs) = if pred x then ass xs else error (msg x);
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  in ass list end;
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(* pairs *)
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fun pair x y = (x, y);
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fun rpair x y = (y, x);
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fun fst (x, y) = x;
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fun snd (x, y) = y;
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fun eq_fst eq ((x1, _), (x2, _)) = eq (x1, x2);
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fun eq_snd eq ((_, y1), (_, y2)) = eq (y1, y2);
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fun eq_pair eqx eqy ((x1, y1), (x2, y2)) = eqx (x1, x2) andalso eqy (y1, y2);
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fun swap (x, y) = (y, x);
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fun apfst f (x, y) = (f x, y);
wenzelm@233
   293
fun apsnd f (x, y) = (x, f y);
wenzelm@4212
   294
fun pairself f (x, y) = (f x, f y);
wenzelm@233
   295
wenzelm@233
   296
wenzelm@21395
   297
(* booleans *)
wenzelm@233
   298
wenzelm@21395
   299
(*polymorphic equality*)
wenzelm@233
   300
fun equal x y = x = y;
wenzelm@233
   301
fun not_equal x y = x <> y;
wenzelm@233
   302
wenzelm@21395
   303
(*combining predicates*)
wenzelm@16721
   304
fun p orf q = fn x => p x orelse q x;
wenzelm@16721
   305
fun p andf q = fn x => p x andalso q x;
wenzelm@233
   306
wenzelm@25752
   307
val exists = List.exists;
wenzelm@25752
   308
val forall = List.all;
clasohm@0
   309
wenzelm@19644
   310
wenzelm@380
   311
(* flags *)
wenzelm@380
   312
wenzelm@32966
   313
fun setmp_CRITICAL flag value f x =
wenzelm@39616
   314
  NAMED_CRITICAL "setmp" (fn () => Unsynchronized.setmp flag value f x);
wenzelm@23932
   315
wenzelm@25797
   316
fun setmp_thread_data tag orig_data data f x =
wenzelm@26079
   317
  uninterruptible (fn restore_attributes => fn () =>
wenzelm@26079
   318
    let
wenzelm@28122
   319
      val _ = Thread.setLocal (tag, data);
wenzelm@26079
   320
      val result = Exn.capture (restore_attributes f) x;
wenzelm@28122
   321
      val _ = Thread.setLocal (tag, orig_data);
wenzelm@26079
   322
    in Exn.release result end) ();
wenzelm@25797
   323
wenzelm@19644
   324
wenzelm@21395
   325
wenzelm@233
   326
(** lists **)
wenzelm@233
   327
wenzelm@5285
   328
fun single x = [x];
wenzelm@233
   329
wenzelm@20882
   330
fun the_single [x] = x
wenzelm@20882
   331
  | the_single _ = raise Empty;
wenzelm@20882
   332
wenzelm@20882
   333
fun singleton f x = the_single (f [x]);
wenzelm@19273
   334
haftmann@25061
   335
fun yield_singleton f x = f [x] #>> the_single;
haftmann@25061
   336
wenzelm@5904
   337
fun apply [] x = x
wenzelm@5904
   338
  | apply (f :: fs) x = apply fs (f x);
wenzelm@5904
   339
wenzelm@25058
   340
fun perhaps_apply funs arg =
wenzelm@25058
   341
  let
wenzelm@25058
   342
    fun app [] res = res
wenzelm@25058
   343
      | app (f :: fs) (changed, x) =
wenzelm@25058
   344
          (case f x of
wenzelm@25058
   345
            NONE => app fs (changed, x)
wenzelm@25058
   346
          | SOME x' => app fs (true, x'));
wenzelm@25058
   347
  in (case app funs (false, arg) of (false, _) => NONE | (true, arg') => SOME arg') end;
wenzelm@25058
   348
wenzelm@25058
   349
fun perhaps_loop f arg =
wenzelm@25058
   350
  let
wenzelm@25058
   351
    fun loop (changed, x) =
wenzelm@25058
   352
      (case f x of
wenzelm@25058
   353
        NONE => (changed, x)
wenzelm@25058
   354
      | SOME x' => loop (true, x'));
wenzelm@25058
   355
  in (case loop (false, arg) of (false, _) => NONE | (true, arg') => SOME arg') end;
wenzelm@25058
   356
wenzelm@233
   357
wenzelm@21395
   358
(* fold -- old versions *)
haftmann@16691
   359
wenzelm@233
   360
(*the following versions of fold are designed to fit nicely with infixes*)
clasohm@0
   361
wenzelm@233
   362
(*  (op @) (e, [x1, ..., xn])  ===>  ((e @ x1) @ x2) ... @ xn
wenzelm@233
   363
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
wenzelm@233
   364
fun foldl (f: 'a * 'b -> 'a) : 'a * 'b list -> 'a =
wenzelm@233
   365
  let fun itl (e, [])  = e
wenzelm@233
   366
        | itl (e, a::l) = itl (f(e, a), l)
wenzelm@233
   367
  in  itl end;
wenzelm@233
   368
wenzelm@233
   369
(*  (op @) ([x1, ..., xn], e)  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (xn @ e))
wenzelm@233
   370
    for operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
wenzelm@233
   371
fun foldr f (l, e) =
wenzelm@233
   372
  let fun itr [] = e
wenzelm@233
   373
        | itr (a::l) = f(a, itr l)
wenzelm@233
   374
  in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   375
berghofe@25681
   376
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>  ((x1 @ x2) @ x3) ... @ xn
berghofe@25681
   377
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
berghofe@25681
   378
fun foldl1 f [] = raise Empty
berghofe@25681
   379
  | foldl1 f (x :: xs) = foldl f (x, xs);
berghofe@25681
   380
wenzelm@233
   381
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (x[n-1] @ xn))
wenzelm@233
   382
    for n > 0, operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
paulson@20443
   383
fun foldr1 f [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@20510
   384
  | foldr1 f l =
paulson@20443
   385
      let fun itr [x] = x
wenzelm@20510
   386
            | itr (x::l) = f(x, itr l)
paulson@20443
   387
      in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   388
wenzelm@16705
   389
fun foldl_map f =
wenzelm@16705
   390
  let
wenzelm@16705
   391
    fun fold_aux (x, []) = (x, [])
wenzelm@16705
   392
      | fold_aux (x, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@16705
   393
          let
wenzelm@16705
   394
            val (x', y') = f (x, y);
wenzelm@16705
   395
            val (x'', ys') = fold_aux (x', ys);
wenzelm@16705
   396
          in (x'', y' :: ys') end;
wenzelm@16705
   397
  in fold_aux end;
wenzelm@16705
   398
wenzelm@233
   399
wenzelm@233
   400
(* basic list functions *)
wenzelm@233
   401
wenzelm@20510
   402
fun eq_list eq (list1, list2) =
wenzelm@42403
   403
  pointer_eq (list1, list2) orelse
wenzelm@42403
   404
    let
wenzelm@42403
   405
      fun eq_lst (x :: xs, y :: ys) = eq (x, y) andalso eq_lst (xs, ys)
wenzelm@42403
   406
        | eq_lst _ = true;
wenzelm@42403
   407
    in length list1 = length list2 andalso eq_lst (list1, list2) end;
haftmann@20348
   408
wenzelm@19483
   409
fun maps f [] = []
wenzelm@19483
   410
  | maps f (x :: xs) = f x @ maps f xs;
wenzelm@19483
   411
haftmann@25538
   412
val filter = List.filter;
haftmann@25538
   413
fun filter_out f = filter (not o f);
haftmann@25538
   414
val map_filter = List.mapPartial;
haftmann@25538
   415
haftmann@33955
   416
fun take (0: int) xs = []
haftmann@33955
   417
  | take _ [] = []
haftmann@34059
   418
  | take n (x :: xs) = x :: take (n - 1) xs;
haftmann@33955
   419
haftmann@33955
   420
fun drop (0: int) xs = xs
haftmann@33955
   421
  | drop _ [] = []
haftmann@34059
   422
  | drop n (x :: xs) = drop (n - 1) xs;
haftmann@33955
   423
wenzelm@24593
   424
fun chop (0: int) xs = ([], xs)
wenzelm@23220
   425
  | chop _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@23220
   426
  | chop n (x :: xs) = chop (n - 1) xs |>> cons x;
wenzelm@19011
   427
haftmann@39811
   428
fun chop_while P [] = ([], [])
haftmann@39811
   429
  | chop_while P (ys as x :: xs) =
haftmann@39811
   430
      if P x then chop_while P xs |>> cons x else ([], ys);
nipkow@4713
   431
wenzelm@233
   432
(*return nth element of a list, where 0 designates the first element;
wenzelm@18461
   433
  raise Subscript if list too short*)
haftmann@18011
   434
fun nth xs i = List.nth (xs, i);
wenzelm@233
   435
wenzelm@43278
   436
fun nth_list xss i = nth xss i handle General.Subscript => [];
wenzelm@18461
   437
haftmann@18011
   438
fun nth_map 0 f (x :: xs) = f x :: xs
haftmann@18011
   439
  | nth_map n f (x :: xs) = x :: nth_map (n - 1) f xs
wenzelm@24593
   440
  | nth_map (_: int) _ [] = raise Subscript;
wenzelm@11773
   441
haftmann@24846
   442
fun nth_drop n xs =
haftmann@24846
   443
  List.take (xs, n) @ List.drop (xs, n + 1);
haftmann@24846
   444
haftmann@18514
   445
fun map_index f =
haftmann@18514
   446
  let
wenzelm@24593
   447
    fun mapp (_: int) [] = []
wenzelm@24593
   448
      | mapp i (x :: xs) = f (i, x) :: mapp (i + 1) xs
haftmann@18514
   449
  in mapp 0 end;
haftmann@18514
   450
haftmann@21118
   451
fun fold_index f =
haftmann@21118
   452
  let
wenzelm@24593
   453
    fun fold_aux (_: int) [] y = y
wenzelm@24593
   454
      | fold_aux i (x :: xs) y = fold_aux (i + 1) xs (f (i, x) y);
haftmann@21118
   455
  in fold_aux 0 end;
haftmann@21118
   456
haftmann@33063
   457
fun map_range f i =
haftmann@33063
   458
  let
wenzelm@33073
   459
    fun mapp (k: int) =
haftmann@33063
   460
      if k < i then f k :: mapp (k + 1) else [];
haftmann@33063
   461
  in mapp 0 end;
haftmann@33063
   462
wenzelm@3762
   463
(*rear decomposition*)
skalberg@15570
   464
fun split_last [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@3762
   465
  | split_last [x] = ([], x)
wenzelm@3762
   466
  | split_last (x :: xs) = apfst (cons x) (split_last xs);
wenzelm@3762
   467
ballarin@29209
   468
(*find position of first element satisfying a predicate*)
wenzelm@4212
   469
fun find_index pred =
wenzelm@24593
   470
  let fun find (_: int) [] = ~1
wenzelm@4212
   471
        | find n (x :: xs) = if pred x then n else find (n + 1) xs;
wenzelm@4212
   472
  in find 0 end;
wenzelm@3762
   473
wenzelm@4212
   474
(*find first element satisfying predicate*)
paulson@22593
   475
val find_first = List.find;
wenzelm@233
   476
wenzelm@4916
   477
(*get first element by lookup function*)
skalberg@15531
   478
fun get_first _ [] = NONE
wenzelm@4916
   479
  | get_first f (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@4916
   480
      (case f x of
skalberg@15531
   481
        NONE => get_first f xs
wenzelm@4916
   482
      | some => some);
wenzelm@4916
   483
haftmann@19233
   484
fun get_index f =
haftmann@19233
   485
  let
wenzelm@24593
   486
    fun get (_: int) [] = NONE
wenzelm@19461
   487
      | get i (x :: xs) =
haftmann@19233
   488
          case f x
wenzelm@19461
   489
           of NONE => get (i + 1) xs
haftmann@19233
   490
            | SOME y => SOME (i, y)
haftmann@19233
   491
  in get 0 end;
haftmann@19233
   492
skalberg@15531
   493
val flat = List.concat;
wenzelm@233
   494
wenzelm@12136
   495
fun unflat (xs :: xss) ys =
wenzelm@19424
   496
      let val (ps, qs) = chop (length xs) ys
nipkow@13629
   497
      in ps :: unflat xss qs end
wenzelm@12136
   498
  | unflat [] [] = []
wenzelm@40722
   499
  | unflat _ _ = raise ListPair.UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@12136
   500
wenzelm@21479
   501
fun burrow f xss = unflat xss (f (flat xss));
haftmann@18359
   502
wenzelm@24864
   503
fun burrow_options f os = map (try hd) (burrow f (map the_list os));
wenzelm@24864
   504
haftmann@18549
   505
fun fold_burrow f xss s =
haftmann@18549
   506
  apfst (unflat xss) (f (flat xss) s);
haftmann@18359
   507
wenzelm@233
   508
(*separate s [x1, x2, ..., xn]  ===>  [x1, s, x2, s, ..., s, xn]*)
wenzelm@233
   509
fun separate s (x :: (xs as _ :: _)) = x :: s :: separate s xs
wenzelm@233
   510
  | separate _ xs = xs;
wenzelm@233
   511
wenzelm@25980
   512
fun surround s (x :: xs) = s :: x :: surround s xs
wenzelm@25980
   513
  | surround s [] = [s];
wenzelm@25980
   514
wenzelm@233
   515
(*make the list [x, x, ..., x] of length n*)
wenzelm@24593
   516
fun replicate (n: int) x =
wenzelm@233
   517
  let fun rep (0, xs) = xs
wenzelm@233
   518
        | rep (n, xs) = rep (n - 1, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   519
  in
skalberg@15570
   520
    if n < 0 then raise Subscript
wenzelm@233
   521
    else rep (n, [])
wenzelm@233
   522
  end;
wenzelm@233
   523
wenzelm@4248
   524
wenzelm@25549
   525
(* direct product *)
wenzelm@25549
   526
haftmann@25538
   527
fun map_product f _ [] = []
haftmann@25538
   528
  | map_product f [] _ = []
haftmann@25538
   529
  | map_product f (x :: xs) ys = map (f x) ys @ map_product f xs ys;
wenzelm@233
   530
haftmann@25538
   531
fun fold_product f _ [] z = z
haftmann@25538
   532
  | fold_product f [] _ z = z
haftmann@25538
   533
  | fold_product f (x :: xs) ys z = z |> fold (f x) ys |> fold_product f xs ys;
wenzelm@233
   534
wenzelm@25549
   535
wenzelm@25549
   536
(* lists of pairs *)
wenzelm@233
   537
haftmann@18330
   538
fun map2 _ [] [] = []
haftmann@18330
   539
  | map2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = f x y :: map2 f xs ys
wenzelm@40722
   540
  | map2 _ _ _ = raise ListPair.UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@380
   541
wenzelm@23220
   542
fun fold2 f [] [] z = z
wenzelm@23220
   543
  | fold2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) z = fold2 f xs ys (f x y z)
wenzelm@40722
   544
  | fold2 f _ _ _ = raise ListPair.UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@380
   545
wenzelm@40721
   546
fun fold_rev2 f [] [] z = z
wenzelm@40721
   547
  | fold_rev2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) z = f x y (fold_rev2 f xs ys z)
wenzelm@40722
   548
  | fold_rev2 f _ _ _ = raise ListPair.UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@40721
   549
haftmann@40564
   550
fun forall2 P [] [] = true
haftmann@40564
   551
  | forall2 P (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = P x y andalso forall2 P xs ys
wenzelm@40733
   552
  | forall2 P _ _ = raise ListPair.UnequalLengths;
haftmann@40564
   553
haftmann@25943
   554
fun map_split f [] = ([], [])
haftmann@25943
   555
  | map_split f (x :: xs) =
haftmann@25943
   556
      let
haftmann@25943
   557
        val (y, w) = f x;
haftmann@25943
   558
        val (ys, ws) = map_split f xs;
haftmann@25943
   559
      in (y :: ys, w :: ws) end;
haftmann@25943
   560
wenzelm@19799
   561
fun zip_options (x :: xs) (SOME y :: ys) = (x, y) :: zip_options xs ys
wenzelm@19799
   562
  | zip_options (_ :: xs) (NONE :: ys) = zip_options xs ys
wenzelm@19799
   563
  | zip_options _ [] = []
wenzelm@40722
   564
  | zip_options [] _ = raise ListPair.UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@4956
   565
wenzelm@233
   566
(*combine two lists forming a list of pairs:
wenzelm@233
   567
  [x1, ..., xn] ~~ [y1, ..., yn]  ===>  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]*)
wenzelm@233
   568
fun [] ~~ [] = []
wenzelm@233
   569
  | (x :: xs) ~~ (y :: ys) = (x, y) :: (xs ~~ ys)
wenzelm@40722
   570
  | _ ~~ _ = raise ListPair.UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@233
   571
wenzelm@233
   572
(*inverse of ~~; the old 'split':
wenzelm@233
   573
  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]  ===>  ([x1, ..., xn], [y1, ..., yn])*)
skalberg@15570
   574
val split_list = ListPair.unzip;
wenzelm@233
   575
haftmann@28347
   576
fun burrow_fst f xs = split_list xs |>> f |> op ~~;
haftmann@28347
   577
wenzelm@233
   578
wenzelm@233
   579
(* prefixes, suffixes *)
wenzelm@233
   580
haftmann@18441
   581
fun is_prefix _ [] _ = true
haftmann@18441
   582
  | is_prefix eq (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = eq (x, y) andalso is_prefix eq xs ys
haftmann@18441
   583
  | is_prefix eq _ _ = false;
wenzelm@233
   584
wenzelm@233
   585
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., x(i-1)], [xi, ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   586
   where xi is the first element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   587
fun take_prefix (pred : 'a -> bool)  (xs: 'a list) : 'a list * 'a list =
wenzelm@233
   588
  let fun take (rxs, []) = (rev rxs, [])
wenzelm@255
   589
        | take (rxs, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@255
   590
            if  pred x  then  take(x :: rxs, xs)  else  (rev rxs, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   591
  in  take([], xs)  end;
wenzelm@233
   592
haftmann@20108
   593
fun chop_prefix eq ([], ys) = ([], ([], ys))
haftmann@20108
   594
  | chop_prefix eq (xs, []) = ([], (xs, []))
wenzelm@23220
   595
  | chop_prefix eq (xs as x :: xs', ys as y :: ys') =
haftmann@20108
   596
      if eq (x, y) then
haftmann@20108
   597
        let val (ps', xys'') = chop_prefix eq (xs', ys')
wenzelm@23220
   598
        in (x :: ps', xys'') end
haftmann@20108
   599
      else ([], (xs, ys));
haftmann@20108
   600
wenzelm@233
   601
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., xi], [x(i+1), ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   602
   where xi is the last element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   603
fun take_suffix _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@233
   604
  | take_suffix pred (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   605
      (case take_suffix pred xs of
wenzelm@233
   606
        ([], sffx) => if pred x then ([], x :: sffx) else ([x], sffx)
wenzelm@233
   607
      | (prfx, sffx) => (x :: prfx, sffx));
wenzelm@233
   608
wenzelm@12249
   609
fun prefixes1 [] = []
wenzelm@12249
   610
  | prefixes1 (x :: xs) = map (cons x) ([] :: prefixes1 xs);
wenzelm@12249
   611
wenzelm@19011
   612
fun prefixes xs = [] :: prefixes1 xs;
wenzelm@19011
   613
wenzelm@12249
   614
fun suffixes1 xs = map rev (prefixes1 (rev xs));
wenzelm@19011
   615
fun suffixes xs = [] :: suffixes1 xs;
wenzelm@233
   616
wenzelm@23220
   617
wenzelm@23220
   618
wenzelm@233
   619
(** integers **)
wenzelm@233
   620
wenzelm@233
   621
(* lists of integers *)
wenzelm@233
   622
wenzelm@233
   623
(*make the list [from, from + 1, ..., to]*)
wenzelm@24593
   624
fun ((i: int) upto j) =
wenzelm@21859
   625
  if i > j then [] else i :: (i + 1 upto j);
wenzelm@233
   626
wenzelm@233
   627
(*make the list [from, from - 1, ..., to]*)
wenzelm@24593
   628
fun ((i: int) downto j) =
wenzelm@21859
   629
  if i < j then [] else i :: (i - 1 downto j);
wenzelm@233
   630
wenzelm@233
   631
wenzelm@233
   632
(* convert integers to strings *)
wenzelm@233
   633
wenzelm@233
   634
(*expand the number in the given base;
wenzelm@233
   635
  example: radixpand (2, 8) gives [1, 0, 0, 0]*)
wenzelm@233
   636
fun radixpand (base, num) : int list =
wenzelm@233
   637
  let
wenzelm@233
   638
    fun radix (n, tail) =
wenzelm@233
   639
      if n < base then n :: tail
wenzelm@233
   640
      else radix (n div base, (n mod base) :: tail)
wenzelm@233
   641
  in radix (num, []) end;
wenzelm@233
   642
wenzelm@233
   643
(*expands a number into a string of characters starting from "zerochar";
wenzelm@233
   644
  example: radixstring (2, "0", 8) gives "1000"*)
wenzelm@233
   645
fun radixstring (base, zerochar, num) =
wenzelm@233
   646
  let val offset = ord zerochar;
wenzelm@233
   647
      fun chrof n = chr (offset + n)
wenzelm@233
   648
  in implode (map chrof (radixpand (base, num))) end;
wenzelm@233
   649
wenzelm@233
   650
wenzelm@41492
   651
local
wenzelm@41492
   652
  val zero = ord "0";
wenzelm@41494
   653
  val small = 10000: int;
wenzelm@41492
   654
  val small_table = Vector.tabulate (small, Int.toString);
wenzelm@41492
   655
in
wenzelm@41492
   656
wenzelm@41492
   657
fun string_of_int i =
wenzelm@41492
   658
  if i < 0 then Int.toString i
wenzelm@41492
   659
  else if i < 10 then chr (zero + i)
wenzelm@41492
   660
  else if i < small then Vector.sub (small_table, i)
wenzelm@41492
   661
  else Int.toString i;
wenzelm@41492
   662
wenzelm@41492
   663
end;
wenzelm@233
   664
wenzelm@21942
   665
fun signed_string_of_int i =
wenzelm@21942
   666
  if i < 0 then "-" ^ string_of_int (~ i) else string_of_int i;
wenzelm@21942
   667
wenzelm@23220
   668
fun string_of_indexname (a, 0) = a
wenzelm@23220
   669
  | string_of_indexname (a, i) = a ^ "_" ^ string_of_int i;
wenzelm@233
   670
wenzelm@233
   671
wenzelm@14826
   672
(* read integers *)
wenzelm@14826
   673
wenzelm@24630
   674
fun read_radix_int radix cs =
wenzelm@20095
   675
  let
wenzelm@20095
   676
    val zero = ord "0";
wenzelm@20095
   677
    val limit = zero + radix;
wenzelm@20095
   678
    fun scan (num, []) = (num, [])
wenzelm@20095
   679
      | scan (num, c :: cs) =
wenzelm@20095
   680
        if zero <= ord c andalso ord c < limit then
wenzelm@24630
   681
          scan (radix * num + (ord c - zero), cs)
wenzelm@20095
   682
        else (num, c :: cs);
wenzelm@24630
   683
  in scan (0, cs) end;
wenzelm@14826
   684
wenzelm@24630
   685
val read_int = read_radix_int 10;
wenzelm@14826
   686
wenzelm@40627
   687
fun oct_char s = chr (#1 (read_radix_int 8 (raw_explode s)));
wenzelm@14826
   688
wenzelm@14826
   689
wenzelm@14826
   690
wenzelm@233
   691
(** strings **)
wenzelm@233
   692
wenzelm@16188
   693
(* functions tuned for strings, avoiding explode *)
wenzelm@6312
   694
haftmann@18011
   695
fun nth_string str i =
wenzelm@6959
   696
  (case try String.substring (str, i, 1) of
skalberg@15531
   697
    SOME s => s
skalberg@15570
   698
  | NONE => raise Subscript);
wenzelm@6312
   699
wenzelm@16188
   700
fun fold_string f str x0 =
wenzelm@6282
   701
  let
wenzelm@6282
   702
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@16188
   703
    fun iter (x, i) =
wenzelm@16188
   704
      if i < n then iter (f (String.substring (str, i, 1)) x, i + 1) else x;
wenzelm@16188
   705
  in iter (x0, 0) end;
wenzelm@6282
   706
wenzelm@14968
   707
fun exists_string pred str =
wenzelm@14968
   708
  let
wenzelm@14968
   709
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@14968
   710
    fun ex i = i < n andalso (pred (String.substring (str, i, 1)) orelse ex (i + 1));
wenzelm@14968
   711
  in ex 0 end;
wenzelm@6312
   712
wenzelm@16188
   713
fun forall_string pred = not o exists_string (not o pred);
wenzelm@16188
   714
wenzelm@28025
   715
fun first_field sep str =
wenzelm@28022
   716
  let
wenzelm@28025
   717
    val n = size sep;
wenzelm@28022
   718
    val len = size str;
wenzelm@28022
   719
    fun find i =
wenzelm@28022
   720
      if i + n > len then NONE
wenzelm@28025
   721
      else if String.substring (str, i, n) = sep then SOME i
wenzelm@28022
   722
      else find (i + 1);
wenzelm@28025
   723
  in
wenzelm@28025
   724
    (case find 0 of
wenzelm@28025
   725
      NONE => NONE
wenzelm@28025
   726
    | SOME i => SOME (String.substring (str, 0, i), String.extract (str, i + n, NONE)))
wenzelm@28025
   727
  end;
wenzelm@28022
   728
lcp@512
   729
(*enclose in brackets*)
lcp@512
   730
fun enclose lpar rpar str = lpar ^ str ^ rpar;
wenzelm@6642
   731
fun unenclose str = String.substring (str, 1, size str - 2);
wenzelm@255
   732
wenzelm@233
   733
(*simple quoting (does not escape special chars)*)
lcp@512
   734
val quote = enclose "\"" "\"";
wenzelm@233
   735
wenzelm@233
   736
fun space_implode a bs = implode (separate a bs);
wenzelm@233
   737
wenzelm@255
   738
val commas = space_implode ", ";
wenzelm@380
   739
val commas_quote = commas o map quote;
wenzelm@255
   740
wenzelm@255
   741
val cat_lines = space_implode "\n";
wenzelm@233
   742
wenzelm@4212
   743
(*space_explode "." "h.e..l.lo" = ["h", "e", "", "l", "lo"]*)
wenzelm@3832
   744
fun space_explode _ "" = []
paulson@21899
   745
  | space_explode sep s = String.fields (fn c => str c = sep) s;
wenzelm@3832
   746
wenzelm@3832
   747
val split_lines = space_explode "\n";
wenzelm@3832
   748
wenzelm@14826
   749
fun prefix_lines "" txt = txt
wenzelm@14826
   750
  | prefix_lines prfx txt = txt |> split_lines |> map (fn s => prfx ^ s) |> cat_lines;
wenzelm@14826
   751
wenzelm@18681
   752
fun prefix prfx s = prfx ^ s;
wenzelm@16188
   753
fun suffix sffx s = s ^ sffx;
wenzelm@5285
   754
wenzelm@18681
   755
fun unprefix prfx s =
wenzelm@18681
   756
  if String.isPrefix prfx s then String.substring (s, size prfx, size s - size prfx)
wenzelm@18681
   757
  else raise Fail "unprefix";
wenzelm@18681
   758
wenzelm@16188
   759
fun unsuffix sffx s =
wenzelm@17061
   760
  if String.isSuffix sffx s then String.substring (s, 0, size s - size sffx)
wenzelm@17061
   761
  else raise Fail "unsuffix";
wenzelm@5285
   762
wenzelm@24593
   763
fun replicate_string (0: int) _ = ""
wenzelm@10951
   764
  | replicate_string 1 a = a
wenzelm@10951
   765
  | replicate_string k a =
wenzelm@10951
   766
      if k mod 2 = 0 then replicate_string (k div 2) (a ^ a)
wenzelm@10951
   767
      else replicate_string (k div 2) (a ^ a) ^ a;
wenzelm@10951
   768
haftmann@31250
   769
fun translate_string f = String.translate (f o String.str);
haftmann@31250
   770
kleing@29882
   771
(*crude matching of str against simple glob pat*)
kleing@29882
   772
fun match_string pat str =
kleing@29882
   773
  let
kleing@29882
   774
    fun match [] _ = true
kleing@29882
   775
      | match (p :: ps) s =
kleing@29882
   776
          size p <= size s andalso
kleing@29882
   777
            (case try (unprefix p) s of
kleing@29882
   778
              SOME s' => match ps s'
kleing@29882
   779
            | NONE => match (p :: ps) (String.substring (s, 1, size s - 1)));
kleing@29882
   780
  in match (space_explode "*" pat) str end;
wenzelm@23220
   781
wenzelm@35976
   782
wenzelm@41516
   783
(** reals **)
wenzelm@41516
   784
wenzelm@41516
   785
val string_of_real = Real.fmt (StringCvt.GEN NONE);
wenzelm@41516
   786
wenzelm@41516
   787
fun signed_string_of_real x =
wenzelm@41516
   788
  if x < 0.0 then "-" ^ string_of_real (~ x) else string_of_real x;
wenzelm@41516
   789
wenzelm@41516
   790
fun smart_string_of_real x =
wenzelm@41516
   791
  let
wenzelm@41516
   792
    val s = signed_string_of_real x;
wenzelm@41516
   793
  in
wenzelm@41516
   794
    (case space_explode "." s of
wenzelm@41516
   795
      [a, b] => if forall_string (fn c => c = "0") b then a else s
wenzelm@41516
   796
    | _ => s)
wenzelm@41516
   797
  end;
wenzelm@41516
   798
wenzelm@41516
   799
wenzelm@35976
   800
wenzelm@16492
   801
(** lists as sets -- see also Pure/General/ord_list.ML **)
wenzelm@233
   802
wenzelm@26439
   803
(* canonical operations *)
wenzelm@26439
   804
wenzelm@18923
   805
fun member eq list x =
wenzelm@18923
   806
  let
wenzelm@18923
   807
    fun memb [] = false
wenzelm@18923
   808
      | memb (y :: ys) = eq (x, y) orelse memb ys;
wenzelm@18923
   809
  in memb list end;
berghofe@1576
   810
wenzelm@18923
   811
fun insert eq x xs = if member eq xs x then xs else x :: xs;
wenzelm@18923
   812
fun remove eq x xs = if member eq xs x then filter_out (fn y => eq (x, y)) xs else xs;
wenzelm@24049
   813
fun update eq x xs = cons x (remove eq x xs);
wenzelm@233
   814
haftmann@33049
   815
fun inter eq xs = filter (member eq xs);
haftmann@33049
   816
haftmann@33042
   817
fun union eq = fold (insert eq);
wenzelm@19301
   818
fun subtract eq = fold (remove eq);
wenzelm@19301
   819
wenzelm@30572
   820
fun merge eq (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@30572
   821
  if pointer_eq (xs, ys) then xs
wenzelm@30572
   822
  else if null xs then ys
wenzelm@30572
   823
  else fold_rev (insert eq) ys xs;
clasohm@0
   824
wenzelm@26439
   825
haftmann@33050
   826
(* subset and set equality *)
haftmann@33050
   827
haftmann@33038
   828
fun subset eq (xs, ys) = forall (member eq ys) xs;
berghofe@1576
   829
haftmann@33038
   830
fun eq_set eq (xs, ys) =
haftmann@20348
   831
  eq_list eq (xs, ys) orelse
haftmann@33038
   832
    (subset eq (xs, ys) andalso subset (eq o swap) (ys, xs));
wenzelm@19301
   833
wenzelm@265
   834
wenzelm@233
   835
(*makes a list of the distinct members of the input; preserves order, takes
wenzelm@233
   836
  first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@19046
   837
fun distinct eq lst =
wenzelm@233
   838
  let
wenzelm@233
   839
    fun dist (rev_seen, []) = rev rev_seen
wenzelm@233
   840
      | dist (rev_seen, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@18923
   841
          if member eq rev_seen x then dist (rev_seen, xs)
wenzelm@233
   842
          else dist (x :: rev_seen, xs);
wenzelm@19046
   843
  in dist ([], lst) end;
wenzelm@233
   844
wenzelm@255
   845
(*returns a list containing all repeated elements exactly once; preserves
wenzelm@255
   846
  order, takes first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@18966
   847
fun duplicates eq lst =
wenzelm@255
   848
  let
wenzelm@255
   849
    fun dups (rev_dups, []) = rev rev_dups
wenzelm@255
   850
      | dups (rev_dups, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@18923
   851
          if member eq rev_dups x orelse not (member eq xs x) then
wenzelm@255
   852
            dups (rev_dups, xs)
wenzelm@255
   853
          else dups (x :: rev_dups, xs);
wenzelm@18966
   854
  in dups ([], lst) end;
wenzelm@255
   855
wenzelm@16878
   856
fun has_duplicates eq =
wenzelm@16878
   857
  let
wenzelm@16878
   858
    fun dups [] = false
wenzelm@16878
   859
      | dups (x :: xs) = member eq xs x orelse dups xs;
wenzelm@16878
   860
  in dups end;
wenzelm@16878
   861
wenzelm@255
   862
haftmann@32352
   863
(* matrices *)
haftmann@32352
   864
haftmann@32352
   865
fun map_transpose f xss =
haftmann@32352
   866
  let
wenzelm@40722
   867
    val n =
wenzelm@40722
   868
      (case distinct (op =) (map length xss) of
wenzelm@40722
   869
        [] => 0
haftmann@32352
   870
      | [n] => n
wenzelm@40722
   871
      | _ => raise ListPair.UnequalLengths);
haftmann@33206
   872
  in map_range (fn m => f (map (fn xs => nth xs m) xss)) n end;
haftmann@32352
   873
haftmann@32352
   874
wenzelm@23220
   875
nipkow@22142
   876
(** lists as multisets **)
nipkow@22142
   877
haftmann@33078
   878
fun remove1 eq x [] = []
haftmann@33078
   879
  | remove1 eq x (y :: ys) = if eq (x, y) then ys else y :: remove1 eq x ys;
nipkow@22142
   880
haftmann@33078
   881
fun combine eq xs ys = fold (remove1 eq) ys xs @ ys;
wenzelm@233
   882
haftmann@33079
   883
fun submultiset _ ([], _)  = true
haftmann@33079
   884
  | submultiset eq (x :: xs, ys) = member eq ys x andalso submultiset eq (xs, remove1 eq x ys);
haftmann@33079
   885
clasohm@0
   886
clasohm@0
   887
wenzelm@2506
   888
(** orders **)
wenzelm@2506
   889
wenzelm@18966
   890
fun is_equal EQUAL = true
wenzelm@18966
   891
  | is_equal _ = false;
wenzelm@18966
   892
wenzelm@4445
   893
fun rev_order LESS = GREATER
wenzelm@4445
   894
  | rev_order EQUAL = EQUAL
wenzelm@4445
   895
  | rev_order GREATER = LESS;
wenzelm@4445
   896
wenzelm@4479
   897
(*assume rel is a linear strict order*)
wenzelm@4445
   898
fun make_ord rel (x, y) =
wenzelm@4445
   899
  if rel (x, y) then LESS
wenzelm@4445
   900
  else if rel (y, x) then GREATER
wenzelm@4445
   901
  else EQUAL;
wenzelm@4445
   902
wenzelm@25224
   903
fun bool_ord (false, true) = LESS
wenzelm@25224
   904
  | bool_ord (true, false) = GREATER
wenzelm@25224
   905
  | bool_ord _ = EQUAL;
wenzelm@25224
   906
wenzelm@15051
   907
val int_ord = Int.compare;
wenzelm@15051
   908
val string_ord = String.compare;
wenzelm@2506
   909
wenzelm@16676
   910
fun fast_string_ord (s1, s2) =
wenzelm@43793
   911
  if pointer_eq (s1, s2) then EQUAL
wenzelm@43793
   912
  else (case int_ord (size s1, size s2) of EQUAL => string_ord (s1, s2) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@16676
   913
wenzelm@16492
   914
fun option_ord ord (SOME x, SOME y) = ord (x, y)
wenzelm@16492
   915
  | option_ord _ (NONE, NONE) = EQUAL
wenzelm@16492
   916
  | option_ord _ (NONE, SOME _) = LESS
wenzelm@16492
   917
  | option_ord _ (SOME _, NONE) = GREATER;
wenzelm@16492
   918
wenzelm@4343
   919
(*lexicographic product*)
wenzelm@4343
   920
fun prod_ord a_ord b_ord ((x, y), (x', y')) =
wenzelm@4343
   921
  (case a_ord (x, x') of EQUAL => b_ord (y, y') | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
   922
wenzelm@4343
   923
(*dictionary order -- in general NOT well-founded!*)
wenzelm@16984
   924
fun dict_ord elem_ord (x :: xs, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@16984
   925
      (case elem_ord (x, y) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord)
wenzelm@16984
   926
  | dict_ord _ ([], []) = EQUAL
wenzelm@4343
   927
  | dict_ord _ ([], _ :: _) = LESS
wenzelm@16984
   928
  | dict_ord _ (_ :: _, []) = GREATER;
wenzelm@4343
   929
wenzelm@4343
   930
(*lexicographic product of lists*)
wenzelm@4343
   931
fun list_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@16676
   932
  (case int_ord (length xs, length ys) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
   933
wenzelm@2506
   934
wenzelm@4621
   935
(* sorting *)
wenzelm@4621
   936
wenzelm@18427
   937
(*quicksort -- stable, i.e. does not reorder equal elements*)
wenzelm@18427
   938
fun quicksort unique ord =
wenzelm@4621
   939
  let
wenzelm@16878
   940
    fun qsort [] = []
wenzelm@16878
   941
      | qsort (xs as [_]) = xs
wenzelm@18427
   942
      | qsort (xs as [x, y]) =
wenzelm@18427
   943
          (case ord (x, y) of
wenzelm@18427
   944
            LESS => xs
wenzelm@18427
   945
          | EQUAL => if unique then [x] else xs
wenzelm@18427
   946
          | GREATER => [y, x])
wenzelm@16878
   947
      | qsort xs =
haftmann@18011
   948
          let val (lts, eqs, gts) = part (nth xs (length xs div 2)) xs
wenzelm@16878
   949
          in qsort lts @ eqs @ qsort gts end
wenzelm@4621
   950
    and part _ [] = ([], [], [])
wenzelm@4621
   951
      | part pivot (x :: xs) = add (ord (x, pivot)) x (part pivot xs)
wenzelm@4621
   952
    and add LESS x (lts, eqs, gts) = (x :: lts, eqs, gts)
wenzelm@18427
   953
      | add EQUAL x (lts, [], gts) = (lts, [x], gts)
wenzelm@18427
   954
      | add EQUAL x (res as (lts, eqs, gts)) = if unique then res else (lts, x :: eqs, gts)
wenzelm@4621
   955
      | add GREATER x (lts, eqs, gts) = (lts, eqs, x :: gts);
wenzelm@4621
   956
  in qsort end;
wenzelm@4621
   957
wenzelm@18427
   958
fun sort ord = quicksort false ord;
wenzelm@18427
   959
fun sort_distinct ord = quicksort true ord;
wenzelm@18427
   960
wenzelm@4621
   961
val sort_strings = sort string_ord;
wenzelm@44617
   962
fun sort_wrt key xs = sort (string_ord o pairself key) xs;
wenzelm@4621
   963
wenzelm@4621
   964
wenzelm@30558
   965
(* items tagged by integer index *)
wenzelm@30558
   966
wenzelm@30558
   967
(*insert tags*)
wenzelm@30558
   968
fun tag_list k [] = []
haftmann@30570
   969
  | tag_list k (x :: xs) = (k:int, x) :: tag_list (k + 1) xs;
wenzelm@30558
   970
wenzelm@30558
   971
(*remove tags and suppress duplicates -- list is assumed sorted!*)
wenzelm@30558
   972
fun untag_list [] = []
wenzelm@30558
   973
  | untag_list [(k: int, x)] = [x]
wenzelm@30558
   974
  | untag_list ((k, x) :: (rest as (k', x') :: _)) =
wenzelm@30558
   975
      if k = k' then untag_list rest
wenzelm@30558
   976
      else x :: untag_list rest;
wenzelm@30558
   977
wenzelm@30558
   978
(*return list elements in original order*)
wenzelm@30558
   979
fun order_list list = untag_list (sort (int_ord o pairself fst) list);
wenzelm@30558
   980
wenzelm@30558
   981
wenzelm@2506
   982
berghofe@14106
   983
(** random numbers **)
berghofe@14106
   984
berghofe@14106
   985
exception RANDOM;
berghofe@14106
   986
berghofe@14618
   987
fun rmod x y = x - y * Real.realFloor (x / y);
berghofe@14106
   988
berghofe@14106
   989
local
berghofe@14106
   990
  val a = 16807.0;
berghofe@14106
   991
  val m = 2147483647.0;
wenzelm@32737
   992
  val random_seed = Unsynchronized.ref 1.0;
berghofe@14106
   993
in
berghofe@14106
   994
wenzelm@23922
   995
fun random () = CRITICAL (fn () =>
wenzelm@23922
   996
  let val r = rmod (a * ! random_seed) m
wenzelm@23922
   997
  in (random_seed := r; r) end);
berghofe@14106
   998
berghofe@14106
   999
end;
berghofe@14106
  1000
berghofe@14106
  1001
fun random_range l h =
berghofe@14106
  1002
  if h < l orelse l < 0 then raise RANDOM
berghofe@14106
  1003
  else l + Real.floor (rmod (random ()) (real (h - l + 1)));
berghofe@14106
  1004
haftmann@18011
  1005
fun one_of xs = nth xs (random_range 0 (length xs - 1));
berghofe@14106
  1006
berghofe@14106
  1007
fun frequency xs =
berghofe@14106
  1008
  let
berghofe@14106
  1009
    val sum = foldl op + (0, map fst xs);
wenzelm@17756
  1010
    fun pick n ((k: int, x) :: xs) =
berghofe@14106
  1011
      if n <= k then x else pick (n - k) xs
berghofe@14106
  1012
  in pick (random_range 1 sum) xs end;
berghofe@14106
  1013
berghofe@14106
  1014
wenzelm@23220
  1015
wenzelm@4621
  1016
(** misc **)
wenzelm@233
  1017
wenzelm@19644
  1018
fun divide_and_conquer decomp x =
wenzelm@19644
  1019
  let val (ys, recomb) = decomp x
wenzelm@19644
  1020
  in recomb (map (divide_and_conquer decomp) ys) end;
wenzelm@19644
  1021
wenzelm@32978
  1022
fun divide_and_conquer' decomp x s =
wenzelm@32978
  1023
  let val ((ys, recomb), s') = decomp x s
wenzelm@32978
  1024
  in recomb (fold_map (divide_and_conquer' decomp) ys s') end;
wenzelm@32978
  1025
clasohm@0
  1026
wenzelm@233
  1027
(*Partition a list into buckets  [ bi, b(i+1), ..., bj ]
clasohm@0
  1028
   putting x in bk if p(k)(x) holds.  Preserve order of elements if possible.*)
clasohm@0
  1029
fun partition_list p i j =
wenzelm@37851
  1030
  let
wenzelm@37851
  1031
    fun part (k: int) xs =
wenzelm@37851
  1032
      if k > j then
wenzelm@37851
  1033
        (case xs of
wenzelm@37851
  1034
          [] => []
wenzelm@37851
  1035
        | _ => raise Fail "partition_list")
wenzelm@37851
  1036
      else
wenzelm@37851
  1037
        let val (ns, rest) = List.partition (p k) xs
wenzelm@37851
  1038
        in ns :: part (k + 1) rest end;
wenzelm@37851
  1039
  in part (i: int) end;
clasohm@0
  1040
wenzelm@37851
  1041
fun partition_eq (eq: 'a * 'a -> bool) =
wenzelm@19691
  1042
  let
wenzelm@19691
  1043
    fun part [] = []
wenzelm@19691
  1044
      | part (x :: ys) =
wenzelm@19691
  1045
          let val (xs, xs') = List.partition (fn y => eq (x, y)) ys
wenzelm@37851
  1046
          in (x :: xs) :: part xs' end;
wenzelm@19691
  1047
  in part end;
wenzelm@19691
  1048
wenzelm@19691
  1049
clasohm@0
  1050
wenzelm@43559
  1051
(* generating identifiers -- often fresh *)
clasohm@0
  1052
wenzelm@22369
  1053
local
wenzelm@22369
  1054
(*Maps 0-61 to A-Z, a-z, 0-9; exclude _ or ' to avoid clash with internal/unusual indentifiers*)
wenzelm@22582
  1055
fun gensym_char i =
paulson@22368
  1056
  if i<26 then chr (ord "A" + i)
paulson@22368
  1057
  else if i<52 then chr (ord "a" + i - 26)
wenzelm@22369
  1058
  else chr (ord "0" + i - 52);
paulson@4063
  1059
wenzelm@22369
  1060
val char_vec = Vector.tabulate (62, gensym_char);
wenzelm@22369
  1061
fun newid n = implode (map (fn i => Vector.sub (char_vec, i)) (radixpand (62, n)));
wenzelm@4284
  1062
wenzelm@32737
  1063
val gensym_seed = Unsynchronized.ref (0: int);
paulson@2003
  1064
wenzelm@22369
  1065
in
wenzelm@43559
  1066
  fun legacy_gensym pre =
wenzelm@43559
  1067
    pre ^ newid (NAMED_CRITICAL "legacy_gensym" (fn () => Unsynchronized.inc gensym_seed));
wenzelm@22369
  1068
end;
paulson@4063
  1069
paulson@4063
  1070
wenzelm@45626
  1071
(* serial numbers and abstract stamps *)
wenzelm@16439
  1072
wenzelm@16439
  1073
type serial = int;
wenzelm@25702
  1074
val serial = Multithreading.serial;
wenzelm@19512
  1075
val serial_string = string_of_int o serial;
wenzelm@19512
  1076
wenzelm@45626
  1077
datatype stamp = Stamp of serial;
wenzelm@45626
  1078
fun stamp () = Stamp (serial ());
wenzelm@45626
  1079
wenzelm@16535
  1080
wenzelm@16535
  1081
(* generic objects *)
wenzelm@16535
  1082
wenzelm@16535
  1083
(*note that the builtin exception datatype may be extended by new
wenzelm@16535
  1084
  constructors at any time*)
wenzelm@16535
  1085
structure Object = struct type T = exn end;
wenzelm@16535
  1086
wenzelm@43603
  1087
wenzelm@43603
  1088
(* current directory *)
wenzelm@43603
  1089
wenzelm@43603
  1090
val cd = OS.FileSys.chDir;
wenzelm@43603
  1091
val pwd = OS.FileSys.getDir;
wenzelm@43603
  1092
wenzelm@43603
  1093
wenzelm@43603
  1094
(* getenv *)
wenzelm@43603
  1095
wenzelm@43603
  1096
fun getenv x =
wenzelm@43603
  1097
  (case OS.Process.getEnv x of
wenzelm@43603
  1098
    NONE => ""
wenzelm@43603
  1099
  | SOME y => y);
wenzelm@43603
  1100
wenzelm@43603
  1101
fun getenv_strict x =
wenzelm@43603
  1102
  (case getenv x of
wenzelm@43603
  1103
    "" => error ("Undefined Isabelle environment variable: " ^ quote x)
wenzelm@43603
  1104
  | y => y);
wenzelm@43603
  1105
clasohm@1364
  1106
end;
clasohm@1364
  1107
wenzelm@32188
  1108
structure Basic_Library: BASIC_LIBRARY = Library;
wenzelm@32188
  1109
open Basic_Library;
wenzelm@40722
  1110
wenzelm@40722
  1111
datatype legacy = UnequalLengths;