NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Feb 27 12:45:19 2013 +0100 (2013-02-27 ago)
changeset 51293 05b1bbae748d
parent 51238 20234cf043d1
child 51295 71fc3776c453
permissions -rw-r--r--
discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 
    14 *** HOL ***
    15 
    16 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
    17 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
    18 
    19 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
    20 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
    21 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
    22 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
    23 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
    27 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
    28 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
    29 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    30 
    31 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    32 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    33 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
    34 
    35 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
    36 
    37     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
    38     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
    39 
    40 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Sledgehammer:
    43 
    44   - Renamed option:
    45       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
    46 
    47 
    48 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
    49 -----------------------------------
    50 
    51 *** General ***
    52 
    53 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    54 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    55 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    56 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    57 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    58 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    59 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    60 
    61 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    62 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    63 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    64 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    65 
    66 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    67 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    68 
    69 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    70 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    71 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    72 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    73 dependencies properly.
    74 
    75 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    76 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    77 
    78 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    79 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    80 
    81 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
    82 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    83 and "class ... context ...".
    84 
    85 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    86 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    87 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    88 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    89 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    90 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    91 
    92 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    93 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    94 
    95 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    96 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    97 
    98 
    99 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   100 
   101 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   102 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   103 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   104 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   105 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   106 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   107 
   108 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   109 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   110 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   111 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   112 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   113 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   114 
   115 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   116 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   117 browser on demand.
   118 
   119 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   120 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   121 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   122 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   123 
   124 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   125 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   126 
   127 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   128 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   129 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   130 potentially infinite message streams.
   131 
   132 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   133 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   134 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   135 schemes.
   136 
   137 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   138 symbols.
   139 
   140 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   141 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   142 
   143 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   144 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   145 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   146 
   147 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   148 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   149 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   150 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   151 
   152 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   153 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   154 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   155 
   156 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   157 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   158 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   159 Isabelle distribution.
   160 
   161 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   162 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   163 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   164 
   165 
   166 *** Pure ***
   167 
   168 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   169 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   170 
   171 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   172 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   173 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   176 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   177 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   178 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   179 with some care where this is really required.
   180 
   181 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   182 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   183 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   184 
   185   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   186 
   187 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   188 a Hasse diagram.
   189 
   190 
   191 *** HOL ***
   192 
   193 * Sledgehammer:
   194 
   195   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   196     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   197   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   198   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   199   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   200   - Renamed options:
   201       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   202       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   203       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   204       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   205 
   206 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   207 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   208 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   209 
   210 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   212 
   213 * Lifting:
   214   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   215   - quot_del attribute
   216   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   217 
   218 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   219 expressions.
   220 
   221 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   222 pointfree expressions.
   223 
   224 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   225 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   226 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   227 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   231 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   232 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   233 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   234 accordingly.
   235 
   236 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   237 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238 
   239 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   240 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   245 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   246 
   247 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   248 
   249 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   250 
   251   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   252   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   253 
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   257 
   258   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   259   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   260 
   261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262 
   263 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   264 
   265   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   266     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   267     output f x converges to G.
   268 
   269   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   270     infinity (at_bot).
   271 
   272   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   273     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   274 
   275   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   276     at_top".
   277 
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   281 lattice type classes.
   282 
   283 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   284 
   285     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   286     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   287 
   288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289 
   290 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   291 changes as follows.
   292 
   293   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   294 
   295       prefix ~> prefixeq
   296       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   297 
   298   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   299     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   300     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   301     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   302 
   303   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   304     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   305     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   306 
   307   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   308     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   309     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   310     Library/Prefix_Order.
   311 
   312   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   313     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   314 
   315       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   316       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   317       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   318       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   319       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   320       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   321       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   322       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   323       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   324       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   325       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   326       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   327       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   328       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   329       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   330       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   331 
   332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   335 
   336 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   337 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   338 
   339 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   340 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   341 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   342 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   343 
   344   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   345   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   346   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   347   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   348   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   349   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   350   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   351   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   352   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   353   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   354 
   355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   358 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   359 Data").
   360 
   361 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   362 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   363 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   364 code.
   365 
   366 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   367 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   368 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   370 
   371 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   372 
   373 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   374 
   375 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   376 
   377   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   378   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   379 
   380 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   381 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   382 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   383 
   384   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   385 
   386     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   387     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   388     cart_base i  removed
   389     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   390 
   391   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   392 
   393   Renamed lemmas:
   394 
   395     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   396     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   397     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   398     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   399     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   400     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   401     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   402     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   403     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   404     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   405 
   406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   407 
   408 * HOL/Probability:
   409 
   410   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   411 
   412   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   413     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   414     (borel_measurable_induct).
   415 
   416   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   417     projective family).
   418 
   419 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   420 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   421 
   422 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   423 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   424 datatypes.
   425 
   426 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   427 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   428 
   429 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   430 trees for the code generator.
   431 
   432 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   433 Lifting/Transfer.
   434 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 
   440 *** Document preparation ***
   441 
   442 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   443 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   444 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   445 
   446 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   447 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   448 
   449 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   450 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   451 document/root.tex.
   452 
   453 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   454 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 
   457 *** ML ***
   458 
   459 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   460 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   461 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   462 
   463 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   464 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   465 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   466 
   467 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   468 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   469 necessarily printing visible text.
   470 
   471 
   472 *** System ***
   473 
   474 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   475 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   476 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   477 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   478 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   479 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   480 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   481 
   482 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   483 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   484 
   485   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   486 
   487 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   488 
   489 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   490 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   491 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   492 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   493 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   494 
   495 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   496 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   497 
   498 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   499 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   500 
   501 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 
   504 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   505 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   506 version of Isabelle.
   507 
   508 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   509 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   510 
   511 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   512 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   513 for home-made settings.
   514 
   515 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   516 
   517 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   518 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   519 configuration.
   520 
   521 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   522 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   523 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   524 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   525 bundled as Isabelle component.
   526 
   527 
   528 
   529 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   530 ------------------------------
   531 
   532 *** General ***
   533 
   534 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   535 
   536   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   537     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   538   - markup for bound variables
   539   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   540   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   541   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   542     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   543 
   544 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   545 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   546 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   547 
   548 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   549 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   550 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   551 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   552 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   553 
   554   context
   555     fixes x y z :: 'a
   556     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   557   begin
   558 
   559   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   560 
   561   end
   562 
   563   thm my_trans
   564 
   565 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   566 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   567 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   568 
   569 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   570 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   571 
   572 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   573 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   574 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   575 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   576 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   577 
   578 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   579 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   580 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   581 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   582 indices of schematic variables.
   583 
   584 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   585 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   586 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   587 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   588 etc. was exploited.
   589 
   590 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   591 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   592 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   593 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   594 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   595 of the material of that old tutorial.
   596 
   597 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   598 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   599 manual.
   600 
   601 
   602 *** Pure ***
   603 
   604 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   605 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   606 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   607 
   608 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   609 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   610 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   611 undocumented feature.)
   612 
   613 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   614 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   615 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   616 
   617   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   618 
   619   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   620     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   621 
   622 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   623 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   624 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   625 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   626 
   627 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   628 
   629     num ~> num_token
   630     xnum ~> xnum_token
   631     xstr ~> str_token
   632 
   633 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   634 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   635 position information via constraints).
   636 
   637 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   638 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   639 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   642 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   643 
   644 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   645 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   646 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   649 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   652 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   653 
   654   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   655 
   656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   659 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   660 
   661 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   662 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   663 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   664 
   665 
   666 *** HOL ***
   667 
   668 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   669 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   670 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   671 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   672 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   673 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   674 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   675 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   676 possible.
   677 
   678 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   679 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   680 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   681 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   682 
   683 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   684 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   687 
   688 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   689 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   690 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   691 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   692 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   693 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   694 
   695   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   696     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   697 
   698   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   699     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   700     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   701 
   702   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   703     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   704 
   705   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   706     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   707     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   708 
   709   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   710     Redefine using other integer operations.
   711 
   712 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   713 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   714 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   715 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   716 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   717 
   718   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   719     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   720     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   721     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   722     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   723 
   724     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   725     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   726 
   727   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   728     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   729     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   730     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   731     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   732     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   733     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   734     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   735 
   736   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   737     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   738     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   739     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   740 
   741   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   742     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   743     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   744     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   745 
   746   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   747     from type nat to type int.
   748 
   749 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   750 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   751 
   752   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   753     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   754     type.  Example syntax:
   755 
   756     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   757       is List.insert
   758 
   759     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   760     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   761     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   762     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   763     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   764     by the package.
   765 
   766   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   767     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   768     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   769     code generation for each constant.
   770 
   771   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   772     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   773     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   774     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   775     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   776 
   777   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   778     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   779     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   780 
   781 * Quotient package:
   782 
   783   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   784     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   785 
   786   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   787     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   788 
   789   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   790     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   791     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   794     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   797 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   798 
   799 * Quickcheck:
   800 
   801   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   802     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   803     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   804     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   805     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   806 
   807     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   808     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   809     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   810 
   811     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   812     continues searching for genuine ones.
   813 
   814     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   815     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   816     show genuine counterexamples.
   817 
   818   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   819     value generators for a given type and operations.
   820 
   821     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   822     constructors of that type.
   823 
   824   - Support for multisets.
   825 
   826   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   827 
   828   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   829     conjectures in a locale context.
   830 
   831 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   832 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   833 
   834 * Sledgehammer:
   835   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   836     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   837   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   838   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   839     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   840   - Sped up the minimizer.
   841   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   842   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   843   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   844 
   845 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   846 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   847 
   848 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   849 
   850 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   853 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   854 
   855   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   856 
   857 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   858 a list and a nat.
   859 
   860 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   861 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   862 
   863 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   864 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   865 default.
   866 
   867 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   868 
   869   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   870 
   871 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   872 
   873 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   874 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   875 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   876 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   877 one_case.
   878 
   879 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   880 the result of the fact expression.
   881 
   882 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   883 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   884 of some relation theorems:
   885 
   886   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   887   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   888   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   889   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   890   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   891   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   892 
   893 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   894 
   895 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   896 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   897 
   898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   899 
   900 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   901 to match the constant's name:
   902 
   903   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   904   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   905   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   906   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   907   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   908   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   909   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   910   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   911   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   912   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   913   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   914   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   915   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   916   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   917   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   918   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   919   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   920   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   921   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   922   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   923   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   924   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   925   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   926   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   927 
   928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   929 
   930 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   931 and corresponding theorem names:
   932 
   933   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   934 
   935   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   936 
   937   - Renamed theorems:
   938 
   939     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   940     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   941     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   942     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   943     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   944     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   945     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   946     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   947     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   948     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   949     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   950     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   951     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   952     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   953     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   954     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   955     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   956     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   957     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   958     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   959     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   960     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   961     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   962 
   963     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   964 
   965     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   966 
   967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   971 
   972   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   973   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   974   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   975   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   976   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   977   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   978   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   979   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   980   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   981   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   982   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   983   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   984   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   985   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   986   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   987   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   988   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   989   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   990   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   991   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   992   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   993 
   994 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   995 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1000 
  1001   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1002   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1003   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1004   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1005   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1006   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1007   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1008   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1009   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1010   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1011   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1012   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1013   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1014   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1015   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1016   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1017   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1018   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1019 
  1020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1023 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1024 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1025 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1026 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1027 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1028 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1029 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1030 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1031 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1032 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1033 
  1034 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1035 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1036 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1037 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1038 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1039 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1040 
  1041 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1042 through option types.
  1043 
  1044 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1045 relations.
  1046 
  1047 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1048 
  1049 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1050 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1051 
  1052   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1053   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1054   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1055   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1056   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1057   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1058   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1059   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1060   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1061   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1062   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1063   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1064   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1065   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1066   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1067   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1068   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1069   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1070   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1071   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1072   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1073   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1074   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1075   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1076   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1077   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1078   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1079   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1080   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1081   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1082   zless_le ~> less_le
  1083   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1084   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1085   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1086 
  1087 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1088 
  1089   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1090 
  1091 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1092 
  1093 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1094 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1095 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1096 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1100 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1101 
  1102 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1103 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1104 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1105 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1106 follows:
  1107 
  1108   Operations:
  1109   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1110   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1111   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1112   del -> rbt_del
  1113   delete -> rbt_delete
  1114   ins -> rbt_ins
  1115   insert -> rbt_insert
  1116   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1117   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1118   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1119   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1120   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1121   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1122   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1123   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1124   union -> rbt_union
  1125   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1126   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1127 
  1128   Lemmas:
  1129   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1130   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1131   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1132   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1133   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1134   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1135   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1136   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1137   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1138   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1139   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1140   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1141   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1142   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1143   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1144   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1145   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1146   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1147   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1148   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1149   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1150   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1151   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1152   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1153   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1154   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1155   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1156   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1157   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1158   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1159   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1160   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1161   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1162   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1163   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1164   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1165   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1166   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1167   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1168   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1169   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1170   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1171   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1172   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1173   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1174   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1175   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1176   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1177   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1178   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1179   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1180   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1181   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1182   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1183   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1184   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1185   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1186   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1187   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1188   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1189   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1190   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1191   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1192   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1193   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1194   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1195   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1196   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1197   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1198   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1199   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1200   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1201   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1202   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1203   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1204   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1205   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1206   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1207   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1208   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1209   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1210   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1211   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1212 
  1213 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1214 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1215 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217   Changed Operations:
  1218   float_abs -> abs
  1219   float_nprt -> nprt
  1220   float_pprt -> pprt
  1221   pow2 -> use powr
  1222   round_down -> float_round_down
  1223   round_up -> float_round_up
  1224   scale -> exponent
  1225 
  1226   Removed Operations:
  1227   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1228 
  1229   Renamed Lemmas:
  1230   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1231   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1232   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1233   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1234   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1235   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1236   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1237   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1238   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1239   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1240   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1241   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1242   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1243   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1244   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1245   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1246   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1247   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1248   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1249   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1250   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1251   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1252   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1253   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1254   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1255   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1256   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1257   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1258   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1259   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1260   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1261   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1262   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1263   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1264   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1265   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1266 
  1267   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1268   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1269   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1270   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1271   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1272   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1273   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1274   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1275   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1276   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1277 
  1278 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1279 association lists with distinct keys.
  1280 
  1281 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1282 annotated commands.
  1283 
  1284 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1285 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1286 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1287 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1290 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1291 instead.
  1292 
  1293   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1294   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1295   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1296   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1297   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1298   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1299   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1300   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1301   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1302   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1303   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1304   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1305   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1306   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1307   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1308   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1309   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1310   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1311   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1312   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1313   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1314   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1315   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1316   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1317   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1318   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1319   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1320   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1321   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1322   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1323   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1324   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1325   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1326   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1327   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1328   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1329   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1330   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1331   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1332   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1333   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1334 
  1335 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1336 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1337 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1338 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1339 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1340 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1341 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1342 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1343 
  1344 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1345 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1346 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1347 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1348 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1349 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1350 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1351 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1352 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1353 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1354 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1355 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357   Renamed constants:
  1358   measure -> emeasure
  1359   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1360   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1361   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1362   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1363 
  1364   Removed locales:
  1365   completeable_measure_space
  1366   finite_measure_space
  1367   finite_prob_space
  1368   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1369   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1370   finite_sigma_algebra
  1371   measure_space
  1372   pair_finite_prob_space
  1373   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1374   pair_finite_space
  1375   pair_sigma_algebra
  1376   product_sigma_algebra
  1377 
  1378   Removed constants:
  1379   conditional_space
  1380   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1381   image_space
  1382   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1383   pair_measure_generator
  1384   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1385   subvimage
  1386 
  1387   Replacement theorems:
  1388   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1389   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1390   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1391   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1392   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1393   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1394   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1395   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1396   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1397   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1398   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1399   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1400   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1401   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1402   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1403   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1404   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1405   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1406   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1407   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1408   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1409   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1410   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1411   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1412   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1413   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1414   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1415   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1416   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1417   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1418   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1419   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1420   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1421   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1422   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1423   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1424   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1425   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1426   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1427   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1428   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1429   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1430   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1431   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1432   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1433   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1434   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1435   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1436   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1437   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1438   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1439   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1440   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1441   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1442   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1443   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1444   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1445   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1446   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1447   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1448   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1449   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1450   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1451   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1452   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1453   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1454   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1455   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1456   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1457   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1458   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1459   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1460   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1461   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1462   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1463   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1464   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1465   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1466   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1467   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1468   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1469   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1470   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1471   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1472   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1473   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1474   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1475   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1476   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1477   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1478   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1479   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1480   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1481   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1482   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1483   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1484   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1485   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1486   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1487   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1488   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1489   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1490   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1491   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1492   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1493   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1494   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1495   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1496   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1497   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1498   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1499   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1500   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1501   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1502   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1503   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1504   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1505   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1506   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1507   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1508   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1509   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1510   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1511   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1512   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1513   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1514   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1515   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1516 
  1517 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1518 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1519 
  1520 
  1521 *** FOL ***
  1522 
  1523 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1524 
  1525 
  1526 *** ZF ***
  1527 
  1528 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1529 analysis.
  1530 
  1531 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1532 
  1533 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 
  1536 *** ML ***
  1537 
  1538 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1539 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1540 
  1541 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1542 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1543 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1544 
  1545 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1546 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1547 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1548 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1549 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1550 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1552 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1553 
  1554 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1555 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1556 
  1557 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1558 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1559 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1560 
  1561 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1562 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1563 
  1564 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1565 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1566 context as well.
  1567 
  1568 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1569 
  1570   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1571   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1572   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1573   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1574   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1575   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1576   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1577   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1578   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1579   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1580   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1581   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1582 
  1583 
  1584 *** System ***
  1585 
  1586 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1587 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1588 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1589 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1590 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1591 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1592 the generic user home was intended.
  1593 
  1594 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1595 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1596 
  1597 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1598 (not just JRE).
  1599 
  1600 
  1601 
  1602 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1603 ------------------------------------
  1604 
  1605 *** General ***
  1606 
  1607 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1608 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1609 
  1610   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1611     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1612     files for checking).
  1613 
  1614   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1615     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1616     positions.
  1617 
  1618   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1619     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1620     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1621 
  1622   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1623     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1624     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1625 
  1626   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1627     cores.
  1628 
  1629   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1630     versions (garbage collection).
  1631 
  1632 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1633 including some remaining limitations.
  1634 
  1635 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1636 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1637 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1638 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1639 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1643 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1644 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1645 
  1646 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1647 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1648 usedir option -Q.
  1649 
  1650 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1651 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1652 
  1653   long_names   ~> names_long
  1654   short_names  ~> names_short
  1655   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1656 
  1657 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1658 
  1659   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1660 
  1661 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1662 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1663 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1664 
  1665 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1666 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1667 
  1668 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1669   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1670   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1671   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1672     "Classical Reasoner".
  1673 
  1674 
  1675 *** HOL ***
  1676 
  1677 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1678 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1681 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1682 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1683 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1684 class complete_linorder.
  1685 
  1686 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1687 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1688 
  1689 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1690 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1691 
  1692   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1693   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1694   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1695   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1696   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1697   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1698   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1699   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1700   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1701   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1702   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1703 
  1704 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1705 
  1706   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1707   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1708   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1709   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1710   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1711   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1712   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1713   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1714   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1715   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1716   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1717   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1718   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1719   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1720   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1721   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1722 
  1723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1729 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1730 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1731 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1734 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1735 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1739 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1740 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1741 
  1742 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1743 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1744 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1747 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1748 
  1749 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1750 
  1751     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1752     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1753 
  1754 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1755 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1758 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1761 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1762 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1763 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1766   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1767   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1768   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1769   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1770   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1771   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1772 
  1773 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1774 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1777   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1778   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1779   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1780   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1781   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1782   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1783   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1784   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1785   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1786   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1787   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1788   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1789   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1790   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1791   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1792   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1793   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1794   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1795   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1796   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1797   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1798   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1799   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1800   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1801   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1802   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1803   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1804   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1805   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1806   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1807   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1808   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1809   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1810   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1811   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1812   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1813   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1814   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1815   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1816   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1817   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1818   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1819   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1820   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1821   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1822   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1823   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1824   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1825   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1826   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1827   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1828   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1829   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1830   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1831   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1832   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1833   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1834   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1835   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1836   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1837   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1838   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1839   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1840   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1841   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1842   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1843   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1844   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1845   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1846   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1847   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1848   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1849   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1850   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1851   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1852   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1853   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1854   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1855   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1856   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1857   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1858 
  1859 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1860 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1861 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1862 
  1863 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1864 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1865 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1866 
  1867 * Code generation:
  1868 
  1869   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1870     characters in the target language.
  1871 
  1872   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1873     instead.
  1874 
  1875   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1876 
  1877   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1878     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1879 
  1880       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1881 
  1882 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1883 
  1884 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1885 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1886 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1887 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1888 syntax.
  1889 
  1890 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1891 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1892 
  1893 * Nitpick:
  1894   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1895   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1896   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1897     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1898 
  1899 * Sledgehammer:
  1900   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1901   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1902     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1903   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1904     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1905   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1906     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1908     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1909   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1910     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1911 
  1912 * Metis:
  1913   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1915     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1916 
  1917 * Command 'try':
  1918   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1919     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1921     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1922 
  1923 * Quickcheck:
  1924   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1925     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1926   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1927     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1928   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1929     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1930     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1931     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1932   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1933     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1934 
  1935 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1936 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1937 
  1938 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1939 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1940 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1941 
  1942 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1943 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1947 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1948 
  1949 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1950 arithmetic.
  1951 
  1952 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1953 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1954 and lattice type classes.
  1955 
  1956 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1957 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1958 
  1959 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1960 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1961 
  1962 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1963 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1964 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1965 
  1966   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1967   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1968   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1969   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1970 
  1971 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1972 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1973 constants:
  1974 
  1975   type inat   ~> type enat
  1976   Fin         ~> enat
  1977   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1978   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1979   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1980 
  1981 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1982 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1985 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1986 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1987 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1988 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1989 
  1990 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1991 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1992 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1993 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1994 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1995 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1996 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1997 
  1998   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1999   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2000   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2001   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2002 
  2003 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2004 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2005 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2006 
  2007   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2008   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2009   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2010   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2011   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2012   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2013   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2014   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2015   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2016   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2017   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2018   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2019   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2020   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2021   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2022   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2023   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2024   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2025   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2026   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2027   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2028   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2029   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2030   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2031   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2032   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2033   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2034   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2035   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2036   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2037   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2038   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2039   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2040   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2041   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2042   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2043   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2044   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2045   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2046   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2047   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2048   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2049   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2050   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2051   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2052   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2053   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2054   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2055   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2056   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2057   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2058 
  2059 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2060   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2061   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2062   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2063   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2064     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067 
  2068   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2069   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2070   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2071   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2072   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2073   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2074   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2075   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2076   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2077   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2078   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2079   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2080   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2081   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2082   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2083   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2084   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2085   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2086   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2087   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2088   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2089   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2090   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2091   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2092   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2093 
  2094 
  2095 *** Document preparation ***
  2096 
  2097 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2098 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2099 same.
  2100 
  2101 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2102 result.
  2103 
  2104 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2105 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2106 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2107 
  2108 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2109 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2110 
  2111 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2112 like this:
  2113 
  2114   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2115   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2116 
  2117 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2118 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2119 layouts.
  2120 
  2121 
  2122 *** ML ***
  2123 
  2124 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2125 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2126 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2127 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2128 under external program control.
  2129 
  2130 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2131 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2132 
  2133 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2134 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2135 (better known as Proof General).
  2136 
  2137 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2138 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2139 
  2140 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2141 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2142 
  2143 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2144 (including quotes etc.).
  2145 
  2146 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2147 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2148 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2149 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2150 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2151 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2152 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2153 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2154 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2155 
  2156 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2157 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2158 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2159 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2160 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2161 
  2162 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2163 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2164 
  2165 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2166 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2167 
  2168 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2169 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2170 
  2171 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2172 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2173 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2174 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2175 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2176 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2177 proper Proof.context.
  2178 
  2179 
  2180 *** System ***
  2181 
  2182 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2183 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2184 
  2185 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2186 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2187 
  2188 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2189 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2190 
  2191   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2192   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2193   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2194   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2195   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2196 
  2197 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2198 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2201 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2202 example:
  2203 
  2204   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2205 
  2206 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2207 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2208 
  2209 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2210 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2211 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2212 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2213 
  2214 
  2215 
  2216 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2217 ----------------------------------
  2218 
  2219 *** General ***
  2220 
  2221 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2222 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2223 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2224 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2225 like this:
  2226 
  2227   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2228 
  2229 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2230 
  2231 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2232 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2233 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2234 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2235 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2236 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2237 
  2238 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2239 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2240 the following package declarations:
  2241 
  2242   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2243   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2244 
  2245 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2246 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2247 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2248 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2249 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2250 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2251 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2252 
  2253 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2254 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2255 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2256 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2257 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2258 
  2259 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2260 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2261 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2262 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2263 
  2264 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2265 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2266 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2267 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2268 
  2269   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2270 
  2271   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2272   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2273   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2274   show_types                    show_types
  2275   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2276   show_consts                   show_consts
  2277   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2278 
  2279   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2280   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2281   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2282 
  2283   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2284   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2285 
  2286   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2287 
  2288   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2289   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2290   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2291   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2292   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2293 
  2294 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2295 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2296 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2297 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2298 
  2299 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2303   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2304 
  2305 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2306 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2307 float_token.
  2308 
  2309 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2310 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2314 DejaVu Sans.
  2315 
  2316 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2317 
  2318 
  2319 *** Pure ***
  2320 
  2321 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2322 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2323 time.
  2324 
  2325 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2326 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2329 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2332 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2333 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2334 command already provided this functionality.
  2335 
  2336 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2337 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2338 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2339 without interpretations.
  2340 
  2341 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2342 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2343 
  2344 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2345 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2346 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2347 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2348 
  2349 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2350 'definition' instead.
  2351 
  2352 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2353 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2354 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2355 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2356 
  2357 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2358 constructors.
  2359 
  2360 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2361 the local file system.
  2362 
  2363 
  2364 *** HOL ***
  2365 
  2366 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2367 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2368 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2369 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2370 
  2371   declare [[coercion f]]
  2372 
  2373 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2374 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2375 
  2376   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2377 
  2378 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2379 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2380 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2381 other theories like this:
  2382 
  2383   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2384 
  2385 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2386 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2387 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2388 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2389 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2390 for examples.
  2391 
  2392 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2393 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2396 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2397 
  2398 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2399 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2400 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2401 
  2402 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2403 functorial structure of types.
  2404 
  2405 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2406 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2407 
  2408 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2409 languages.
  2410 
  2411 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2412 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2414 
  2415 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2416 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2417 
  2418 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2419 combinators any longer.
  2420 
  2421 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2422 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2423 
  2424 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2425 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2426 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2427 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2428 
  2429   record 'a foo = ...
  2430   ...
  2431   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2432 
  2433 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2434 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436 
  2437 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2438 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2439 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2440 
  2441 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2442 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2443 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2444 
  2445 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2446 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2449 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2450 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2451 independently.
  2452 
  2453 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2454 counter example search.
  2455 
  2456 * Sledgehammer:
  2457   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2458     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2459     sledgehammer").
  2460   - Renamed commands:
  2461     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2462     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2463     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2464     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465   - Renamed options:
  2466     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2467     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2468     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2469     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2470     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472 * Nitpick:
  2473   - Renamed options:
  2474     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2475     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2476     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2478   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2479   - Added "whack" option.
  2480   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2481   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2482   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2483   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2484     higher cardinalities.
  2485   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2486 
  2487 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2488 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2489 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2490 
  2491     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2492 
  2493 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2494 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2495 
  2496 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2497 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2498 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2499 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2500 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2501 "smt_solver".
  2502 
  2503 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2504 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2505 
  2506 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2507 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2508 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2509 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2512   - Renamed:
  2513     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2514     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2515     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516   - Added:
  2517     smt_verbose
  2518     smt_random_seed
  2519     smt_datatypes
  2520     smt_infer_triggers
  2521     smt_monomorph_limit
  2522     cvc3_options
  2523     remote_cvc3_options
  2524     remote_z3_options
  2525     yices_options
  2526 
  2527 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2528 header.
  2529 
  2530 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2531 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2532 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2533 
  2534   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2535 
  2536 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2539 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2542 
  2543 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2544 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2545 
  2546 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2547 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2548 
  2549 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2550 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2551 
  2552 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2553 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2554 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2562 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2565 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2566 for congruent(2)).
  2567 
  2568 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2569 
  2570   types
  2571     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2572     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2573 
  2574   constants
  2575     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2576     True ~> HOL.True
  2577     False ~> HOL.False
  2578     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2579     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2580     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2581     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2582     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2583     The ~> HOL.The
  2584     All ~> HOL.All
  2585     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2586     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2587     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2588     If ~> HOL.If
  2589     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2590     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2591     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2592     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2593     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2594     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2595     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2596     op : ~> Set.member
  2597     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2598 
  2599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2602 
  2603     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2604     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2605     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2606     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2607     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2608     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2609     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2610     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2611 
  2612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * More stylized fact names:
  2615 
  2616   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2617   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2618   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2619   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2620 
  2621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2624 
  2625   constants
  2626     null ~> List.null
  2627 
  2628   facts
  2629     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2630     null_empty ~> null_def
  2631 
  2632 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2633 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2634 generation.
  2635 
  2636 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2637 Haskell code.
  2638 
  2639 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2640 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2641 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2644 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2647 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2648 
  2649 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2650 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2651 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2652 
  2653 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2654 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2660 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2661 referred to by its qualified name.
  2662 
  2663   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2664   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2665   product ~>  Enum.product
  2666 
  2667 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2668 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670 
  2671 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2672 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2673 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2675 
  2676 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2677 sort_key.
  2678 
  2679 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2683 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2684 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2685 
  2686   types
  2687     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2688               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2689               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2690         (depends on your needs)
  2691 
  2692   constants
  2693      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2694      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2695      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2696 
  2697 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2698 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2699 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2700 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2703 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2704 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2705 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2706 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2710 
  2711 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2712 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2713 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2714 
  2715 
  2716 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2717 
  2718 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2719 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2720 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2721 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2722 compatibility.
  2723 
  2724 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2725 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2726 
  2727 
  2728 *** HOLCF ***
  2729 
  2730 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2731 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2732 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2736 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2737 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2740   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2741   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2742 
  2743 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2744 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2745 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2748 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2749 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2750 domain definition now works:
  2751 
  2752   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2753 
  2754 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2755 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2756 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2757 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2758 
  2759   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2760     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2761 
  2762   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2763 
  2764 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2765 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2766 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2767 
  2768 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2769 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2772 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2773 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2774 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2775 
  2776 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2777 
  2778 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2786 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2787 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2788 
  2789 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2790 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2791 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792 
  2793 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2794 still supported as an input translation.
  2795 
  2796 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2797 
  2798   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2799   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2800   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2801   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2802   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2803   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2804   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2805 
  2806 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2807 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2810   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2811   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2812   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2813   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2814   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2815 
  2816 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2817 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2820 
  2821   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2822   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2823   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2824   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2825 
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2829 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2832 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833 
  2834   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2835   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2836   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2837   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2838   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2839   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2840   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2841   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2842   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2843   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2844   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2845   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2846   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2847   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2848   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2849   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2850   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2851   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2852   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2853   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2854 
  2855 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2856 
  2857   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2858   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2859   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2860   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2861   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2862   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2863   box_less             ~> box_below
  2864   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2865   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2866   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2867   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2868   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2869   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2870   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2871   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2872   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2873   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2874   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2875   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2876   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2877   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2878   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2879   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2880   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2881   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2882   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2883   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2884   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2885   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2886   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2887   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2888   up_less              ~> up_below
  2889   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2890   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2891   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2892   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2893   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2894   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2895   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2896   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2897   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2898   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2899   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2900   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2901   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2902 
  2903 
  2904 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2905 
  2906 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2907 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 
  2910 *** ML ***
  2911 
  2912 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2913 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2914 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2915 
  2916 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2917 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2918 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2919 
  2920 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2921 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2922 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2923 
  2924 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2925 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2926 
  2927 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2928 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2929 
  2930 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2931 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2932 
  2933 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2934 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2935 
  2936 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2937 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2938 almost all situations.
  2939 
  2940 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2941 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2942 Isabelle/ML.
  2943 
  2944 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2945 meaning.
  2946 
  2947 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2948 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2949 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2950 
  2951 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2952 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2953 
  2954 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2955 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2956 
  2957 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2958 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2959 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2960 
  2961 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2962 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2963 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2964 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2965 configuration options.
  2966 
  2967 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2968 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2969 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2970 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2971 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2972 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2973 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2974 
  2975 
  2976 
  2977 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2978 ---------------------------------
  2979 
  2980 *** General ***
  2981 
  2982 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2983 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2984 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2985 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2986 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2987 their full internal name.
  2988 
  2989 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2990 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2991 Some hints on upgrading:
  2992 
  2993   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2994     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2995     which are independent of this issue.
  2996 
  2997   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2998     provides the following special forms:
  2999 
  3000       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3001       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3002       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3003 
  3004     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3005     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3006     extra variables".
  3007 
  3008     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3009     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3010     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3011     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3012     "logic".
  3013 
  3014   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3015     antiquotations:
  3016 
  3017       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3018       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3019       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3020       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3021 
  3022   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3023     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3024     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3025     antiquotations.
  3026 
  3027 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3028 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3029 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3030 diagnose syntax problems.
  3031 
  3032 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3033 
  3034 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3035 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3036 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3037 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3038 
  3039 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3040 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3041 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3042 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3045 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3046 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3047 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3048 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3051 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3052 
  3053 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3054 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3055 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3056 
  3057   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3058 
  3059 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3060 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3061 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3062 
  3063 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3064 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3068 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3069 
  3070 
  3071 *** Pure ***
  3072 
  3073 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3074 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3075 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3076 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3077 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3078 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3079 inspect proof terms.
  3080 
  3081 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3082 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3083 are added internally.  For example:
  3084 
  3085   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3086 
  3087 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3088 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3093 'class' instead.
  3094 
  3095 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3096 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3100 invariants.
  3101 
  3102 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3103 user space functionality any longer.
  3104 
  3105 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3106 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3110 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3111 
  3112 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3113 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3114 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3115 
  3116 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3117 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3118 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3119 
  3120 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3121 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 
  3124 *** HOL ***
  3125 
  3126 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3127 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3128 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3129 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3130 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3131 
  3132 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3133 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3134 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3135 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3136 
  3137   fun
  3138     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3139   where
  3140     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3141 
  3142   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3143     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3144 
  3145   quotient_definition
  3146     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3147 
  3148 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3149 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3150 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3151 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3152 
  3153 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3154 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3155 
  3156 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3157 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3158 
  3159 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3163 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3164 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3165 
  3166 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3167 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3176 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3179 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3180 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3183   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3184   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3185   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3186   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3187   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3188   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3189   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3190   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3191   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3192   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3193   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3194   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3195   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3196   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3197   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3198   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3199   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3200   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3201   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3202   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3203   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3204   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3205   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3206   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3207   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3208   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3209   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3210   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3211   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3212 
  3213 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3214 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3215 
  3216 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3217 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3218 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3219 
  3220 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3221 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3222 
  3223 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3224 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3227 
  3228 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3229 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3232 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3235 
  3236 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3237 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3238 
  3239 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3240 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3241 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3242 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3245   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3246   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3247   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3251 lattices):
  3252 
  3253     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3254     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3255 
  3256     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3257 
  3258     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3259     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3260     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3261     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3262     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3263     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3264     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3265     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3266     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3267     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3268     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3269     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3270     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3271 
  3272     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3273     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3274     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3275     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3276     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3277     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3278     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3279     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3280     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3281     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3282     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3283     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3284     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3285     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3286     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3287     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3288     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3289     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3290 
  3291   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3292   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3293 
  3294     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3295     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3296     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3297     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3298     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3299 
  3300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301 
  3302 * Refined field classes:
  3303   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3304     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3305     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3306   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3310   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3311   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3312   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3313     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3314   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3315     equal_neg_zero.
  3316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3319 sets to lattices:
  3320 
  3321   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3322   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3323   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3324   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3325   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3326   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3327   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3328   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3329   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3330   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3331 
  3332 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3333 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3334 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3335 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3336 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3337 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3340 multiset order:
  3341 
  3342   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3343     <= and <;
  3344   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3345     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3346     multiset_order;
  3347   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3348     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3349     generation;
  3350   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3351     if needed.
  3352 
  3353 Renamed:
  3354 
  3355   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3356   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3357   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3358 
  3359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3362 
  3363 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3364 
  3365 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3366 
  3367 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3368 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3369 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371   Constants:
  3372   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3373   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3374   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3375   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3376   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3377   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3378   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3379   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3380   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3381   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3382   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3383   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3384   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3385 
  3386   Lemmas:
  3387   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3388   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3389   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3390   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3391   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3392   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3393   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3394   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3395   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3396   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3397   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3398   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3399   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3400 
  3401 * Sledgehammer:
  3402   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3403     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3404     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3405     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3406     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3407     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3408     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3410   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3411     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3412   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3413     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3414     is still experimental.)
  3415   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3416     full-typed mode.
  3417   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3418 
  3419 * Nitpick:
  3420   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3421   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3422   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3423     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3424   - Added support for quotient types.
  3425   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3426     constructs.
  3427   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3428     "termination" proofs).
  3429   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3430   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3431   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3432   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3433     record getters.
  3434   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3435   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3436   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3437   - Added "atoms" option.
  3438   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3439     problems.
  3440   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3441     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3442     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3444     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3448   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3449   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3450   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3451   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3452   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3453   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3454   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3455   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3456   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 
  3459 *** HOLCF ***
  3460 
  3461 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3462 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3463 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3466 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3467 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3468 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3469 
  3470 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3471 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3472 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3473 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3474 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3477 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3478 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3481 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3484   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3485 
  3486 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3487 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3490   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3491   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3492   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3493   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3494 
  3495 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3496 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3499   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3500   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3501 
  3502 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3503 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3507 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3512 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 
  3515 *** ML ***
  3516 
  3517 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3518 
  3519     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3520     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3521 
  3522     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3523     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3524     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3525     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3526 
  3527     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3528     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3529     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3530 
  3531 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3532 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3533 
  3534 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3535 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3536 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3537 
  3538 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3539 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3540 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3541 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3542 
  3543 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3544 the context or even global references.
  3545 
  3546 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3547 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3548 
  3549 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3550 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3551 
  3552   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3553   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3554   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3555   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3556   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3557   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3558   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3559   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3560   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3561   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3562 
  3563 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3564 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3565 
  3566 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3567 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3568 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3569 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3570 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3571 
  3572 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3573 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3574 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3575 Theory_Data version.
  3576 
  3577 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3578 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3579 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3580 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3581 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3582 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3583 explicitly in rare situations.
  3584 
  3585 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3586 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588 
  3589 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3590 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591 
  3592 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3593 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3594 quite rare).
  3595 
  3596 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3597 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3600 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3601 terms.
  3602 
  3603 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3604 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3605 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3606 
  3607 
  3608 *** System ***
  3609 
  3610 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3611 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3612 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3613 
  3614 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3615 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3616 respectively.
  3617 
  3618 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3619 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3620 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3621 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3622 
  3623   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3624 
  3625 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3626 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3627 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3628 component.
  3629 
  3630 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3631 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3632 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3633 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3634 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3635 the user for manual installation.
  3636 
  3637 
  3638 
  3639 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3640 -------------------------------------
  3641 
  3642 *** General ***
  3643 
  3644 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3645 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3646 
  3647 
  3648 *** Pure ***
  3649 
  3650 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3651 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3652 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3653 
  3654 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3655 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3656 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3657 
  3658 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3659 interpretation.
  3660 
  3661 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3662 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 
  3665 *** Document preparation ***
  3666 
  3667 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3668 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3669 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3670 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3671 
  3672 
  3673 *** HOL ***
  3674 
  3675 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3676 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3677 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3678 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3679 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3680 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3681 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3682 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3683 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3684 
  3685 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3686 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3687 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3688 
  3689 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3690 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3691 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3692 
  3693 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3694 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3695 
  3696 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3697 
  3698 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3699 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3700 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3701 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3702 
  3703 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3704 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3705 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3706 "mirabelle" utility.
  3707 
  3708 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3709 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3710 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3711 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3712 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3713 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3714 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3715 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3716 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3717 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3718 
  3719 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3720 procedure only.
  3721 
  3722 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3723 
  3724 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3725 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3726 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3727 that fail later.
  3728 
  3729 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3730 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3731 
  3732 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3733 the same method as the approximation method.
  3734 
  3735 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3736 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3737 series expansion.
  3738 
  3739 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3740 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3741 
  3742 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3743 reals.
  3744 
  3745 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3746 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3747 
  3748 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3749 fixpoint theorem.
  3750 
  3751 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3752   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3753     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3754   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3755     accordingly
  3756   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3757     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3758   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3759     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3760 
  3761 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3762 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3763 lattice.
  3764 
  3765 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3766 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3767 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3768 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3769 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3770 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3774   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3775     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3776   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3777     le_inf_iff
  3778   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3779     sup_aci)
  3780   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3781   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3782   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3783     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3784     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3785     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3786     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3787     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3788     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3789     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3790     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3791     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3792     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3793   - authentic syntax for
  3794     Set.Pow
  3795     Set.image
  3796   - mere abbreviations:
  3797     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3798     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3799     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3800     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3801     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3802     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3803     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3804     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3805   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3806 
  3807 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3808 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3809 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3810 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3811 
  3812 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3813 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3814 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3817 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3820 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3821 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3822 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3825 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3826 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3827 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3828 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3829 
  3830 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3831 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3835 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3838 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3839 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3840 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3841 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3842 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3843 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3845 
  3846 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3847     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3848     code_post       replaces    code post
  3849     etc.
  3850   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Renamed methods:
  3853     sizechange -> size_change
  3854     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3855   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3858 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3859 
  3860 * Renamed theorems:
  3861     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3862     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3863     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3864     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3865     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3866   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867 
  3868 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 
  3875 *** HOLCF ***
  3876 
  3877 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3878 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3879 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3880 
  3881 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3882 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3883 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3884 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3885 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3886 
  3887 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3888 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3889 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3890 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3891 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3892 
  3893 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3894 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3895 constructor are pre-configured.
  3896 
  3897 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3898 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3899 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3900 
  3901 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3902 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3903 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3904 as well.)
  3905 
  3906 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3907 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3908 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3909 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3910 examples.
  3911 
  3912 
  3913 *** ML ***
  3914 
  3915 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3916 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3917 
  3918 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3919 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3920 position, logical grouping etc.
  3921 
  3922 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3923 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3924 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3925 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3926 
  3927 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3928 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3929 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3930 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3931 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3932 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3933 
  3934 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3935 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3936 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3937 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3938 experiments with references.
  3939 
  3940 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3941 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3942 
  3943 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3944 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3945 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3946 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3947 
  3948 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3949 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3950 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3951 
  3952 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3953 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3954 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3962 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3963 
  3964 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3965 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3966 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3967 
  3968 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3969 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3970 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3973 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3974 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3978 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3979 instead of global theory.
  3980 
  3981 
  3982 *** System ***
  3983 
  3984 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3985 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3986 usedir option -q.
  3987 
  3988 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3989 also the system manual.
  3990 
  3991 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3992 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3993 
  3994 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3995 this is always enabled.
  3996 
  3997 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3998 
  3999 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4000 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4001 currently supported on Linux only.
  4002 
  4003 
  4004 
  4005 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4006 --------------------------------
  4007 
  4008 *** General ***
  4009 
  4010 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4011 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4012 
  4013   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4014     "isatool."
  4015 
  4016   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4017     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4018 
  4019   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4020     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4021 
  4022 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4023 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4024 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4025 
  4026 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4027 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4028 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4029 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4030 via "isabelle emacs".
  4031 
  4032 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4033 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4034 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4035 
  4036 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4037 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4038 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4039 
  4040 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4041 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4042 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4043 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4044 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4045 
  4046 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4047 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4048 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4049 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4050 
  4051 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4052 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4053 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4054 
  4055 
  4056 *** Pure ***
  4057 
  4058 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4059 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4060 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4061 
  4062 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4063 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4064 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4065 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4066 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4067 
  4068 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4069 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4070 useful in locale declarations.
  4071 
  4072 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4073 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4074 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4075 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4076 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4077 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4078 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4079 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4080 no longer generated.
  4081 
  4082 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4083 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4084 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4085 
  4086 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4087 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4088 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4089 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4090 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4091 
  4092 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4094 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4095 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4096 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4097 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4098 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4099 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4100 
  4101 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4102 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4103 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4104 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4105 
  4106 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4109 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4110 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4111 
  4112 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4113 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4116 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4117 in HOL, write
  4118 
  4119     class foo = ...
  4120 
  4121 instead of
  4122 
  4123     class foo = type + ...
  4124 
  4125 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4126 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4129 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4130 
  4131 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4132 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4133 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4134 
  4135 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4136 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4137 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4138 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4139 directly in regular applications.
  4140 
  4141 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4142 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4143 
  4144 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4145 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4146 
  4147 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4148 theory context.
  4149 
  4150 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4151 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152 
  4153 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4154 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4155 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4156 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4157 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4158 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4159 
  4160   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4161 
  4162 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4163 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4164 normalization.
  4165 
  4166 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4167 addressing etc.
  4168 
  4169 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4170 
  4171   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4172   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4173 
  4174 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4175 
  4176   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4177      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4178      parts of the code generator framework).
  4179 
  4180   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4181      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4182      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4183 
  4184 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4187 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4188 
  4189 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4190 patterns, e.g.
  4191 
  4192     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4193 
  4194 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4195 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4196 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4197 hyphen:
  4198 
  4199     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4200 
  4201 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4202 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4203 
  4204 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4205 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4206 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4207 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4208 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4209 higher-order unification.
  4210 
  4211 
  4212 *** Document preparation ***
  4213 
  4214 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4215 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4216 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4217 
  4218 
  4219 *** HOL ***
  4220 
  4221 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4222 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4223 
  4224 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4225 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4226 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4227 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4228 Main, as before.
  4229 
  4230 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4231 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4232 
  4233 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4234 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4235 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4236 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4237 
  4238 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4239 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4240 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4241 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4242 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4243 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4244 
  4245 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4246 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4247 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4248 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4249 
  4250 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4251 menu.
  4252 
  4253 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4254 (contains the empty clause).
  4255 
  4256 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4257 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4258 
  4259 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4260 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4261 
  4262 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4263 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4264 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4267 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4268 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4269 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4270 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4271 
  4272 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4273 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4274 
  4275 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4276 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4277 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4278 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4279 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4280 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4281 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4282 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4283 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4284 
  4285 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4286 
  4287 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4288 
  4289 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4290 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4291 
  4292 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4293 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4294 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4295 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4296 
  4297 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4298 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4299 
  4300     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4301     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4302     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4303     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4304     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4305     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4306     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4307     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4308 
  4309 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4310 theory Set.
  4311 
  4312 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4313 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4314 
  4315 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4316 
  4317 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4318 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4319 
  4320 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4321 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4322 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4323 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4324 allowed. For examples see
  4325 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4326 
  4327 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4328 
  4329 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4331 
  4332 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4333 structure:
  4334 
  4335     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4336     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4337     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4338     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4339     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4340     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4341     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4342     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4343     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4344     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4345     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4346     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4347     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4348     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4349     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4350     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4351     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4352     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4353     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4354     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4355     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4356     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4357     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4358     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4359     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4360     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4361     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4362     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4363     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4364     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4365     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4366     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4367     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4368 
  4369     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4370     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4371     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4372     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4373     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4374     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4375     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4376     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4377     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4378     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4379 
  4380     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4381     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4382     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4383     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4384     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4385     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4386 
  4387 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4388 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4389 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4390 
  4391 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4392 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4393 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4394 
  4395 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4396 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4397 
  4398 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4399 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4400 
  4401 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4402 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4403 proofs, e.g.
  4404 
  4405   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4406 
  4407 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4408 
  4409 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4410 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4411 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4414 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4418 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4419 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4423 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4424 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4425 preorder_class.*.
  4426 
  4427 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4428 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4429 
  4430 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4431 
  4432   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4433 
  4434 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4435 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4436 fold_image.
  4437 
  4438 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4439 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4440 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4441 the former will disappear at some point.
  4442 
  4443 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4444 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4445 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4446 
  4447 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4448 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4449 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4450 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4451 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4452 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4453 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4454 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4455 
  4456 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4457 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4458 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4459 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4460 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4461 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4462 
  4463     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4464     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4465     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4466     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4467     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4468     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4469     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4470 
  4471 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4472 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4473 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4474 
  4475 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4476 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4477 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4478 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4479 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4480 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4481 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4482 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4483 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4484 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4485 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4486 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4487 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4488 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4489 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4490 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4491 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4492 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4493 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4494 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4495 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4496 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4497 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4498 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4499 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4500 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4501 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4502 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4503 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4504 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4505 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4506 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4507 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4508 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4509 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4510 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4511 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4512 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4513 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4514 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4515 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4516 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4517 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4518 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4519 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4520 
  4521 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4524 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4525 
  4526 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4527 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4528 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4529 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4530 
  4531 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4532 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4533 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4534 theory RealVector.
  4535 
  4536 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4537 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4538 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4539 and inner products are included.
  4540 
  4541 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4542 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4543 supported.
  4544 
  4545 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4546 first diagonalization argument.
  4547 
  4548 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4549 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4550 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4551 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4552 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4553 
  4554     hide (open) const gcd
  4555     abbreviation gcd where
  4556       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4557     notation (output)
  4558       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4559 
  4560 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4561 
  4562 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4563 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4564 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4567 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4568 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4569 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4570 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4571 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4572 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4573 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4574 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4575 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4576 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4577 cases.
  4578 
  4579 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4580 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4581 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4582 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4583 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4584 
  4585     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4586     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4587     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4588     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4589     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4590 
  4591 
  4592 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4593 
  4594 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4595 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4596 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4597 
  4598 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4599 
  4600 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4601 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4602 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4603 
  4604 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4605 
  4606 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4607 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4608 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4609 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4610 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4611 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4612 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4613 
  4614 
  4615 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4616 
  4617 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4618 
  4619 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4620 theory targets.
  4621 
  4622 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4623 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4624 'inductive' etc.
  4625 
  4626 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4627 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4628 
  4629 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4630 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4631 
  4632 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4633 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4634 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4635 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4636 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4637 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4638 the algorithm W:
  4639 
  4640  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4641  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4642          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4643 
  4644 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4645 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4646 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4647 
  4648 
  4649 *** HOLCF ***
  4650 
  4651 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4652 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4653 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4654 
  4655 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4656 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4657 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4658 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4659 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4662 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4663 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 
  4666 *** ZF ***
  4667 
  4668 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4669 
  4670 
  4671 *** ML ***
  4672 
  4673 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4674 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4675 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4676 5.2.1!
  4677 
  4678 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4679 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4680 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4681 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4682 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4683 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4684 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4685 
  4686 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4687 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4688 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4689 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4690 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4691 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4692 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4693 
  4694 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4695 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4696 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4697 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4698 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4699 
  4700 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4701 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4702 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4703 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4704 Method.add_method.
  4705 
  4706 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4707 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4708 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4709 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4710 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4711 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4712 
  4713 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4714 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4715 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4716 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4717 examples.
  4718 
  4719 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4720 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4721 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4722 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4723 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4724 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4725 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4726 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4727 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4728 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4729 
  4730 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4731 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4732 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4733 
  4734 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4735 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4736 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4737 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4738 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4739 resort for legacy applications.
  4740 
  4741 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4742 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4743 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4744 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4745 explicit runtime argument.
  4746 
  4747 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4748 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4749 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4750 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4751 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4752 
  4753 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4754 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4755 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4756 theory state.
  4757 
  4758 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4759 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4760 
  4761   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4762   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4763   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4764   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4765   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4766   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4767   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4768   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4769   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4770   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4771 
  4772 
  4773 *** System ***
  4774 
  4775 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4776 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4777 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4778 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4779 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4780 
  4781 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4782 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4783 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4784 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4785 
  4786 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4787 
  4788 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4789 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4790 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4791 prover operations.
  4792 
  4793 
  4794 
  4795 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4796 -------------------------------
  4797 
  4798 *** General ***
  4799 
  4800 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4801 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4802 
  4803 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4804 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4805 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4806 provides a proper context already.
  4807 
  4808 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4809 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4810 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4811 
  4812 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4813 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4814 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4815 swap theory imports.
  4816 
  4817 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4818 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4819 
  4820 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4821 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4822 white space without escapes.
  4823 
  4824 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4825 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4826 "foo_bar".
  4827 
  4828 
  4829 *** Pure ***
  4830 
  4831 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4832 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4833 
  4834 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4835 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4836 
  4837 (1) unused_thms
  4838      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4839 
  4840 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4841      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4842      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4843 
  4844 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4845      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4846      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4847      their ancestors.
  4848 
  4849 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4850 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4851 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4852 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4853 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4854 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4855 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4856 
  4857 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4858 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4859 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4860 
  4861 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4862 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4863 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4864 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4865 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4866 
  4867 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4868 
  4869 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4870 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4871 update of theories within ML code.
  4872 
  4873 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4874 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4875 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4876 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4877 
  4878 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4879 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4880 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4884 
  4885 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4886 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4887 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4888 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4889 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4890 
  4891 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4892 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4893 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4894 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4895 situations.
  4896 
  4897 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4898 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4899 proof text.
  4900 
  4901 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4902 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4903 
  4904 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4905 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4906 predicates.
  4907 
  4908 
  4909 *** Document preparation ***
  4910 
  4911 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4912 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4913 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4914 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4915 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4916 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4917 
  4918 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4919 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4920 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4921 
  4922 
  4923 *** HOL ***
  4924 
  4925 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4926 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4927 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4928 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4929 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4930 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4931 
  4932 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4933 with multithreading.
  4934 
  4935 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4936 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4937 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4938 
  4939 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4940 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4941 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4942 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4945 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4946 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4947 and makes them available separately.  See
  4948 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4949 
  4950 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4951 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4952 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4953 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4954 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4955 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4956 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4957 the declared rules.
  4958 
  4959 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4960 
  4961   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4962 
  4963 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4964 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4965 
  4966 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4967 
  4968   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4969 
  4970   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4971     definitions on => and bool.
  4972 
  4973   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4974     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4975     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4976 
  4977       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4978       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4979       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4980       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4981       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4982       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4983       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4984       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4985 
  4986   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4987     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4988     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4989 
  4990   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4991     The proof pattern
  4992 
  4993       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4994       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4995 
  4996     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4997     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4998 
  4999       have "EX S. P S"
  5000       proof
  5001         show "P S" <...>
  5002       qed
  5003 
  5004   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5005     The proof pattern
  5006 
  5007       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5008       also have "S = T" <...>
  5009       finally have "P T" .
  5010 
  5011     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5012     must be replaced by something like
  5013 
  5014       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5015       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5016       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5017 
  5018   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5019     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5020 
  5021       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5022 
  5023     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5024     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5025     type of the form
  5026 
  5027       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5028 
  5029     rather than
  5030 
  5031       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5032 
  5033 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5034 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5035 
  5036 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5037 
  5038 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5039 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5041 
  5042 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5043 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5046 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5049 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5050 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5051 
  5052 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5053 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5054 
  5055   less_trans
  5056   less_linear
  5057   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5058   le_less_trans
  5059   less_le_trans
  5060   less_not_sym
  5061   less_asym
  5062 
  5063 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5064 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5065 and different variable names.
  5066 
  5067 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5068 
  5069 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5070 finite maps.
  5071 
  5072 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5073 
  5074 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5075 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5076 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5077 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5078 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5079 accordingly.
  5080 
  5081 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5082 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5083 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5084 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5085 
  5086 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5087 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5088 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5089 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5090 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5092 
  5093 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5094 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5095 
  5096 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5097 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5098 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5099 
  5100 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5102 
  5103 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5104 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5105 
  5106 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5107 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5108 
  5109 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5110 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5111 
  5112 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5113 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5115 
  5116 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5117 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5118 
  5119 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5120 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5121 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5122 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5123 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5124 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5127 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5128 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5129 
  5130 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5131 
  5132 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5133 
  5134 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5135 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5136 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5137 
  5138 
  5139 *** ZF ***
  5140 
  5141 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5142 same session:
  5143 
  5144   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5145   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5146   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5147   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5148   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5149   List      -> List_ZF
  5150   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5151 
  5152 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5153 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5154 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5155 
  5156 
  5157 *** ML ***
  5158 
  5159 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5160 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5161 
  5162 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5163 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5164 
  5165 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5166 
  5167 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5168 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5169 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5170 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5171 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5174 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5175 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5176 
  5177 
  5178 *** System ***
  5179 
  5180 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5181 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5182 
  5183 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5184 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5185 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5186 
  5187 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5188 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5189 
  5190 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5191 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5192 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5193 
  5194 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5195 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5196 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5197 
  5198 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5199 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5200 
  5201 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5202 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5203 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5204 script.
  5205 
  5206 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5207 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5208 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5209 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5210 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5211 
  5212 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5213 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5214 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5215 
  5216 
  5217 
  5218 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5219 -----------------------------------
  5220 
  5221 *** General ***
  5222 
  5223 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5224 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5225 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5226 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5227 
  5228 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5229 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5230 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5231 
  5232 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5233 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5234 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5235 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5236 
  5237 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5238 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5239 quotes.
  5240 
  5241 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5242 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5243 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5244 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5245 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5246 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5247 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5248 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5249 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5252 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5253 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5254 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5255 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5256 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5257 
  5258 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5259 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5260 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5261 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5262 
  5263 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5264 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5265 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5266 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5267 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5268 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5269 
  5270 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5271 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5272 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5273 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5274 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5275 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5276 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5277 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5278 
  5279 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5280 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5281 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5282 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5283 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5284 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5285 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5286 
  5287 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5288 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5289 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5290 
  5291 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5292 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5293 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5294 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5295 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5296 limit is imposed.
  5297 
  5298 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5299 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5300 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5301 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5302 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5303 and scalability.
  5304 
  5305 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5306 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5307 
  5308 
  5309 *** Document preparation ***
  5310 
  5311 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5312 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5313 current context.
  5314 
  5315 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5316 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5317 
  5318 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5319 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5320 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5321 
  5322 
  5323 *** Pure ***
  5324 
  5325 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5326 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5327 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5328 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5329 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5330 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5331 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5332 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5333 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5334 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5335 
  5336 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5337 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5338 sketch:
  5339 
  5340     internal compilation:
  5341         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5342     writing SML code to a file:
  5343         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5344     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5345         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5346     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5347         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5348 
  5349     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5350         method ``eval''
  5351 
  5352 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5353 
  5354 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5355 
  5356     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5357     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5358     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5359     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5360 
  5361 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5362 
  5363     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5364       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5365 
  5366     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5367       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5368 
  5369     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5370       {(target)}+
  5371         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5372 
  5373     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5374       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5375         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5376 
  5377 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5378 
  5379 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5380 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5381 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5382 codegen".
  5383 
  5384 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5385 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5386 annotations).
  5387 
  5388 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5389 syntax.
  5390 
  5391 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5392 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5393 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5394 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5395 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5396 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5397 
  5398 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5399 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5400 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5401 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5402 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5403 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5404 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5405 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5406 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5407 equations, see section "definitions".
  5408 
  5409 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5410 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5411 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5412 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5413 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5414 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5415 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5416 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5417 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5418 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5419 
  5420 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5421 configuration options:
  5422 
  5423   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5424   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5425   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5426   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5427   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5428   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5429   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5430   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5431   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5432 
  5433 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5434 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5435 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5436 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5437 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5438 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5439 order.
  5440 
  5441 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5442 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5443 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5444 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5445 context encountered later on.
  5446 
  5447 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5448 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5449 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5450 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5451 
  5452 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5453 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5454 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5455 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5456 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5457 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5458 
  5459 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5460 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5461 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5462 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5463 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5464 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5465 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5466 more permissive.
  5467 
  5468 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5469 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5470 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5471 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5472 maintainability of proof texts.
  5473 
  5474 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5475 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5476 
  5477   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5478   then guess x and y by clarify
  5479 
  5480 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5481 proof tools being involved here.
  5482 
  5483 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5484 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5485 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5486 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5487 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5488 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5489 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5490 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5491 
  5492 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5493 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5494 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5495 
  5496   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5497   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5498   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5499   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5500 
  5501 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5502 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5503 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5504 
  5505 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5506 both named and unnamed ones.
  5507 
  5508 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5509 
  5510   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5511 
  5512 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5513 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5514 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5515 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5516 
  5517 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5518 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5519 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5520 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5521 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5522 
  5523 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5524 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5525 
  5526 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5527 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5528 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5529 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5530 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5531 originally first one.
  5532 
  5533 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5534 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5535 expected.
  5536 
  5537 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5538 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5539 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5540 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5541 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5542 
  5543   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5544     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5545     obtains x where "P x"
  5546 
  5547   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5548     assumes "A & B"
  5549     obtains A and B
  5550 
  5551   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5552     assumes "A | B"
  5553     obtains
  5554       A
  5555     | B
  5556 
  5557 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5558 explicitly:
  5559 
  5560   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5561     obtains "~ thesis"
  5562 
  5563   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5564     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5565 
  5566 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5567 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5568 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5569 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5570 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5571 case_names).
  5572 
  5573 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5574 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5575 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5576 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5577 
  5578 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5579 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5580 top-level lemma.
  5581 
  5582 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5583 introduction rule (default "that").
  5584 
  5585 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5586 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5587 to occur.
  5588 
  5589 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5590 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5591 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5592 representations independently of name spaces.
  5593 
  5594 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5595 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5596 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5597 
  5598 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5599 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5600 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5601 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5602 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5603 current context.
  5604 
  5605 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5606 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5607 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5608 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5609 
  5610   axiomatization
  5611     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5612     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5613 
  5614   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5615   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5616 
  5617   abbreviation
  5618     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5619     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5620 
  5621 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5622 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5623 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5624 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5625 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5626 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5627 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5628 
  5629 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5630 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5631 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5632 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5633 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5634 
  5635 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5636 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5637 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5638 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5639 
  5640 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5641 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5642 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5643 
  5644   definition "K x _ = x"
  5645 
  5646   inductive conj for A B
  5647   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5648 
  5649 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5650 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5651 abbreviations on output.
  5652 
  5653 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5654 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5655 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5656 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5657 
  5658 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5659 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5660 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5661 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5662 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5663 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5664 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5665 
  5666 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5667 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5668 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5669 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5670 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5671 
  5672 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5673 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5674 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5675 
  5676 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5677 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5678 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5679 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5680 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5681 
  5682   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5683     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5684 
  5685 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5686 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5687 partial_order.
  5688 
  5689 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5690 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5691 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5692 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5693 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5694 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5695 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5696 examples.
  5697 
  5698 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5699 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5700 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5701 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5702 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5703 
  5704 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5705 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5706 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5707 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5708 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5709 
  5710   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5711   (induct set: foo bar)
  5712   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5713   (induct type: foo bar)
  5714 
  5715 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5716 new format.
  5717 
  5718 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5719 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5720 
  5721 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5722 considered a legacy feature.
  5723 
  5724 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5725 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5726 
  5727 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5728 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5729 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5730 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5731   
  5732 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5733 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5734 manipulating the claset.
  5735 
  5736 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5737 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5738 least one premise.
  5739 
  5740 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5741 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5742 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5743 rule steps.
  5744 
  5745 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5746 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5747 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5748 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5749 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5750 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5751 
  5752 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5753 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5754 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5755 
  5756 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5757 the graph browser tool.
  5758 
  5759 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5760 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5761 
  5762 
  5763 *** HOL ***
  5764 
  5765 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5766 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5767 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5768 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5769 multi-threading.
  5770   
  5771 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5772 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5773 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5774 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5775 work with multi-threading.
  5776 
  5777 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5778 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5779 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5780 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5781 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5782 
  5783 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5784 
  5785 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5786 equality.
  5787 
  5788 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5789 the new 'class' package:
  5790 
  5791     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5792     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5793     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5794     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5795     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5796     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5797     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5798     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5799     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5800     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5801     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5802     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5803     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5804     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5805     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5806     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5807     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5808     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5809     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5810     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5811 
  5812 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5813 
  5814 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5815 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5816 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5817 names.
  5818 
  5819 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5820 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5821 
  5822 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5823 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5824 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5825 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5826 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5827 
  5828 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5829 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5830 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5831 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5832 
  5833 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5834 
  5835 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5836 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5837 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5838 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5842 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5843 
  5844 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5845 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5846 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5847 
  5848 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5849 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5850 
  5851 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5852 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5853 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5854 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5855 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5856 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5857 in the current context.
  5858 
  5859 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5860 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5862 
  5863 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5864 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5865 
  5866 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5867 
  5868     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5869     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5870 
  5871     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5872       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5873     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5874     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5875 
  5876     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5877     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5878 
  5879   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5880 
  5881     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5882     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5883     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5884     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5885     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5886     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5887     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5888     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5889     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5890     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5891     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5892     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5893     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5894     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5895     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5896     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5897     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5898     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5899     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5900     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5901     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5902     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5903     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5904     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5905     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5906     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5907     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5908     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5909     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5910     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5911     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5912     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5913     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5914     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5915     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5916 
  5917     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5918     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5919     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5920     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5921     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5922     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5923     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5924     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5925     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5926     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5927     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5928     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5929     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5930     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5931     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5932     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5933     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5934 
  5935     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5936     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5937     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5938     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5939     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5940     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5941     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5942     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5943     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5944     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5945     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5946     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5947     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5948     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5949     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5950     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5951     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5952     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5953     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5954     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5955     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5956     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5957     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5958     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5959     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5960     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5961     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5962     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5963 
  5964     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5965     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5966     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5967     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5968     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5969     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5970 
  5971     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5972     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5973     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5974     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5975 
  5976     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5977     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5978 
  5979     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5980     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5981 
  5982 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5983 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5984 
  5985 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5986 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5987 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5988 "*.size".
  5989 
  5990 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5992 
  5993 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5994 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5995 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5996 
  5997 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5998 
  5999 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  6000 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  6001 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  6002 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  6003 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  6004 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  6005 numerals on all operations.
  6006 
  6007 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  6008 
  6009 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  6010 
  6011 * Code generator library theories:
  6012   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  6013     languages.
  6014   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  6015     languages.
  6016   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  6017     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  6018   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  6019   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6020     denominator).
  6021   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6022     representable by rational numbers.
  6023   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6024     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6025     includes Code_Integer.
  6026   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6027     target-language built-in integers.
  6028   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6029     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6030 
  6031 * New package for inductive predicates
  6032 
  6033   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6034 
  6035     inductive
  6036       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6037       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6038     where
  6039       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6040     | ...
  6041 
  6042   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6043 
  6044     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6045 
  6046     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6047     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6048 
  6049     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6050     intros
  6051       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6052       ...
  6053 
  6054   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6055   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6056 
  6057     inductive_set
  6058       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6059       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6060     where
  6061       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6062     | ...
  6063 
  6064   or
  6065 
  6066     inductive_set
  6067       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6068       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6069       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6070     where
  6071       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6072     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6073     | ...
  6074 
  6075   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6076 
  6077   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6078   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6079 
  6080   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6081 
  6082   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6083     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6084     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6085     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6086     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6087 
  6088   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6089     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6090     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6091     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6092     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6093     statements of the form
  6094 
  6095       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6096 
  6097     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6098     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6099 
  6100       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6101 
  6102   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6103 
  6104       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6105         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6106         ==> ... ==> P
  6107 
  6108     for predicates and
  6109 
  6110       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6111         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6112         ==> ... ==> P
  6113 
  6114     for sets rather than
  6115 
  6116       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6117         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6118         ==> ... ==> P
  6119 
  6120     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6121     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6122     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6123 
  6124   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6125     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6126     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6127 
  6128 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6129 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6130 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6131 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6132 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6133 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6134 
  6135 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6136 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6137 
  6138 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6139 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6140 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6141 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6142 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6143 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6144 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6145 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6146 variable.
  6147 
  6148 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6149 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6150 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6151 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6152   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6153   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6154 
  6155 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6156 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6157 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6158 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6159 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6160 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6161 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6162 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6163 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6164 
  6165 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6166 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6167 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6168 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6169 rat, etc.
  6170 
  6171 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6172 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6173 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6174 
  6175 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6176 
  6177 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6178 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6179 
  6180 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6181 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6182 
  6183 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6184 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6185 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6186 
  6187 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6188 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6190 
  6191 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6192 
  6193 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6194 
  6195 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6196 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6197 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6198 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6199 
  6200 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6201 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6202 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6203 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6204 
  6205 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6206 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6207 algebraic operations.
  6208 
  6209 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6211 
  6212 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6214 
  6215 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6216 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6217 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6218 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6219 adapted.
  6220  
  6221 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6222 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6223 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6224 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6225 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6226 
  6227 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6228 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6229 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6230 
  6231 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6232 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6233 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6234 
  6235 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6236 
  6237 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6238 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6239 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6240   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6241       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6242   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6243   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6244   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6245