NEWS
author nipkow
Fri Sep 02 19:25:44 2011 +0200 (2011-09-02 ago)
changeset 44657 17dbd9d9db38
parent 44648 897f32a827f2
child 44666 8670a39d4420
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    10 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    11 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    12 
    13 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    14 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    15 usedir option -Q.
    16 
    17 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
    18 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
    19 
    20 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
    21 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
    22 
    23 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    24 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    25 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    26 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    27 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    28 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
    31 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
    32 
    33   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
    34   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
    35   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
    36   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
    37   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
    38 
    39 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
    40 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    43 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    44 
    45   long_names   ~> names_long
    46   short_names  ~> names_short
    47   unique_names ~> names_unique
    48 
    49 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
    50 
    51   declare [[names_unique = false]]
    52 
    53 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
    54 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
    55 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
    56 
    57 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in
    58 syntax diagrams.
    59 
    60 * Attribute case_names has been refined: the assumptions in each case can
    61 be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
    62 
    63 
    64 *** HOL ***
    65 
    66 * Classes bot and top require underlying partial order rather than preorder:
    67 uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    68 
    69 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
    70 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for complete
    71 boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas Inf_less_iff,
    72 less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in class complete_linorder.
    73 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def,
    74 Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
    75 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary, Sup_binary,
    76 INF_eq, SUP_eq, INF_UNIV_range, SUP_UNIV_range, Int_eq_Inter,
    77 INTER_eq_Inter_image, Inter_def, INT_eq, Un_eq_Union, UNION_eq_Union_image,
    78 Union_def, UN_singleton, UN_eq have been discarded.
    79 More consistent and less misunderstandable names:
    80   INFI_def ~> INF_def
    81   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
    82   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
    83   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
    84   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
    85   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
    86   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
    87   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
    88   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
    89   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
    90   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
    91   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
    92   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
    93   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
    94 
    95 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 
    97 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems referring
    98 to UNION any longer;  these have been moved to collection UN_ball_bex_simps.
    99 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   100 
   101 * Archimedean_Field.thy:
   102     floor now is defined as parameter of a separate type class floor_ceiling.
   103  
   104 * Finite_Set.thy: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   105 
   106     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   107     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   108     
   109 Both use point-free characterisation; interpretation proofs may need adjustment.
   110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Code generation:
   113   - theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of characters
   114     in the target language.
   115   - commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code instead. 
   116   - method evaluation is legacy, use method eval instead.
   117   - legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. To activate it, add the following
   118     line in your theory:
   119       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   120  
   121 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Nitpick:
   124   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   125   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   126   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   127     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Sledgehammer:
   130   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   131     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132   - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed
   133     TPTP problems (TFF).
   134   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound", "max_mono_iters",
   135     and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   136   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full Types"
   137     Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   138 
   139 * Metis:
   140   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * "try":
   144   - Renamed "try_methods" and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and "elim:"
   145     options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146   - Introduced "try" that not only runs "try_methods" but also "solve_direct",
   147     "sledgehammer", "quickcheck", and "nitpick".
   148 
   149 * Quickcheck:
   150   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   151     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)
   152   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   153     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)
   154   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   155     narrowing-based testing.
   156     It requires that the Glasgow Haskell compiler is installed and
   157     its location is known to Isabelle with the environment variable
   158     ISABELLE_GHC.
   159   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   160     from HOL-Library
   161 
   162 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".
   163 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use partial_function instead.
   164 
   165 * HOL-Probability:
   166   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   167   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   168   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended reals.
   169     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Old recdef package has been moved to Library/Old_Recdef.thy, where it
   172 must be loaded explicitly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   173 
   174 * Well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has been moved to
   175 Library/Wfrec.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   176 
   177 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to Library/Extended_Nat.
   178 The names of the following types and constants have changed:
   179   inat (type) ~> enat
   180   Fin         ~> enat
   181   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   182   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   183   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   184 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   185 been renamed accordingly.
   186 
   187 * Limits.thy: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   188 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   189 
   190 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   191 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   192 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   193 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   194 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   195 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   196 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   197 
   198   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   199   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   200   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   201   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   202 
   203 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   204 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   205 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   208   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   209   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   210   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   211   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   212   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   213   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   214   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   215   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   216   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   217   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   218   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   219   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   220   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   221   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   222   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   223   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   224   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   225   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   226   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   227   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   228   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   229   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   230   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   231   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   232   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   233   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   234   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   235   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   236   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   237   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   238   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   239   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   240   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   241   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   242   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   243   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   244   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   245   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   246   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   247   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   248   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   249   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   250   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   251 
   252 * Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the bounded_linear and
   253 bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in order to reduce the
   254 number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the original names for
   255 distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   258   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   259   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   260   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   261   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   262   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   263   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   264 
   265 * Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   266 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   269   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   270   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   271   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   272   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   273   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   274   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   275   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   276   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   277   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   278   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   279   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   280   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   281   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   282   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   283   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   284   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   285   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   286   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   287   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   288   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   289   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   290   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   291   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   292   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   293   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   294   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   295   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   296   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   297   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   298   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   299   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   300   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   301   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   302   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   303   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   304   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   305   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   306   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   307   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   308   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   309   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   310   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   311   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   312   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   313   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   314   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   315   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   316   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   317   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   318   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   319   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   320   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   321 
   322 
   323 *** Document preparation ***
   324 
   325 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators, which are better
   326 avoided in the first place.  Implicit tab-width is 1.
   327 
   328 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   329 isar-ref manual.
   330 
   331 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its result.
   332 
   333 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   334 like this:
   335 
   336   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   337   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   338 
   339 * New term style "isub" as ad-hoc conversion of variables x1, y23 into
   340 subscripted form x\<^isub>1, y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   341 
   342 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   343 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   344 
   345 
   346 *** ML ***
   347 
   348 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   349 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   350 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   351 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   352 under external program control.
   353 
   354 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   355 data, which requires explicit setup.
   356 
   357 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   358 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   359 (better known as Proof General).
   360 
   361 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   362 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   363 
   364 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   365 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   366 
   367 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   368 (including quotes etc.).
   369 
   370 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   371 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   372 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   373 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   374 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   375 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   376 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   377 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   378 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   379 
   380 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   381 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   382 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   383 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   384 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   385 
   386 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   387 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   388 
   389 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   390 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   391 
   392 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   393 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   394 
   395 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   396 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   397 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   398 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   399 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   400 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   401 proper Proof.context.
   402 
   403 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   404 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.
   405 For example:
   406 
   407   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   408 
   409 
   410 
   411 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   412 ----------------------------------
   413 
   414 *** General ***
   415 
   416 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   417 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   418 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   419 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   420 like this:
   421 
   422   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   423 
   424 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   425 
   426 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   427 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   428 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   429 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   430 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   431 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   432 
   433 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   434 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   435 the following package declarations:
   436 
   437   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   438   \usepackage{textcomp}
   439 
   440 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   441 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   442 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   443 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   444 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   445 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   446 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   447 
   448 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   449 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   450 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   451 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   452 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   453 
   454 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   455 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   456 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   457 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   458 
   459 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   460 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   461 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   462 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   463 
   464   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   465 
   466   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   467   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   468   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   469   show_types                    show_types
   470   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   471   show_consts                   show_consts
   472   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   473 
   474   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   475   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   476   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   477 
   478   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   479   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   480 
   481   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   482 
   483   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   484   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   485   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   486   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   487   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   488 
   489 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   490 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   491 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   492 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   493 
   494 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   498   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   499 
   500 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   501 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   502 float_token.
   503 
   504 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   505 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   509 DejaVu Sans.
   510 
   511 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   512 
   513 
   514 *** Pure ***
   515 
   516 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   517 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   518 time.
   519 
   520 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   521 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   522 
   523 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   524 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   527 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   528 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   529 command already provided this functionality.
   530 
   531 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   532 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   533 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   534 without interpretations.
   535 
   536 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   537 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   538 
   539 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   540 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   541 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   542 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   543 
   544 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   545 'definition' instead.
   546 
   547 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   548 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   549 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   550 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   551 
   552 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   553 constructors.
   554 
   555 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   556 the local file system.
   557 
   558 
   559 *** HOL ***
   560 
   561 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   562 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   563 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   564 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   565 
   566   declare [[coercion f]]
   567 
   568 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   569 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   570 
   571   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   572 
   573 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   574 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   575 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   576 other theories like this:
   577 
   578   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   579 
   580 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   581 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   582 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   583 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   584 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   585 for examples.
   586 
   587 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   588 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   591 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   592 
   593 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   594 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   595 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   596 
   597 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   598 functorial structure of types.
   599 
   600 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   601 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   602 
   603 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   604 languages.
   605 
   606 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   607 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   609 
   610 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   611 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   614 combinators any longer.
   615 
   616 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   617 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   618 
   619 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   620 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   621 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   622 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   623 
   624   record 'a foo = ...
   625   ...
   626   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   627 
   628 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   629 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   633 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   634 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   635 
   636 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   637 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   638 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   639 
   640 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   641 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   644 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   645 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   646 independently.
   647 
   648 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   649 counter example search.
   650 
   651 * Sledgehammer:
   652   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   653     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   654     sledgehammer").
   655   - Renamed commands:
   656     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   657     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   658     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   659     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   660   - Renamed options:
   661     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   662     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   663     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   664     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   665     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * Nitpick:
   668   - Renamed options:
   669     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   670     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   671     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   672   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   673   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   674   - Added "whack" option.
   675   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   676   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   677   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   678   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   679     higher cardinalities.
   680   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   681 
   682 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   683 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   684 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   685 
   686     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   687 
   688 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   689 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   690 
   691 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   692 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   693 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   694 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   695 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   696 "smt_solver".
   697 
   698 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   699 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   700 
   701 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   702 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   703 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   704 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   707   - Renamed:
   708     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   709     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   710     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711   - Added:
   712     smt_verbose
   713     smt_random_seed
   714     smt_datatypes
   715     smt_infer_triggers
   716     smt_monomorph_limit
   717     cvc3_options
   718     remote_cvc3_options
   719     remote_z3_options
   720     yices_options
   721 
   722 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   723 header.
   724 
   725 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   726 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   728 
   729   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   730 
   731 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   734 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   737 
   738 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   739 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   740 
   741 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   742 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   743 
   744 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   745 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   748 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   749 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   757 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   760 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   761 for congruent(2)).
   762 
   763 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   764 
   765   types
   766     bool ~> HOL.bool
   767     nat ~> Nat.nat
   768 
   769   constants
   770     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   771     True ~> HOL.True
   772     False ~> HOL.False
   773     op & ~> HOL.conj
   774     op | ~> HOL.disj
   775     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   776     op = ~> HOL.eq
   777     Not ~> HOL.Not
   778     The ~> HOL.The
   779     All ~> HOL.All
   780     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   781     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   782     Let ~> HOL.Let
   783     If ~> HOL.If
   784     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   785     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   786     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   787     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   788     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   789     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   790     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   791     op : ~> Set.member
   792     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   793 
   794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
   797 
   798     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
   799     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
   800     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
   801     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
   802     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
   803     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
   804     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
   805     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
   806 
   807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * More stylized fact names:
   810 
   811   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
   812   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
   813   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
   814   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
   815 
   816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
   819 
   820   constants
   821     null ~> List.null
   822 
   823   facts
   824     mem_iff ~> member_def
   825     null_empty ~> null_def
   826 
   827 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
   828 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   829 generation.
   830 
   831 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
   832 Haskell code.
   833 
   834 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
   835 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
   836 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   837 
   838 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   839 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   842 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
   843 
   844 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   845 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   846 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   847 
   848 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
   849 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
   852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853 
   854 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
   855 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
   856 referred to by its qualified name.
   857 
   858   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
   859   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
   860   product ~>  Enum.product
   861 
   862 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
   863 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
   864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
   867 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
   868 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
   872 sort_key.
   873 
   874 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
   875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
   878 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
   879 instead of finite cartesian products.
   880 
   881   types
   882     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
   883               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
   884               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
   885         (depends on your needs)
   886 
   887   constants
   888      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
   889      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
   890      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
   891 
   892 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
   893 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
   894 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
   895 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
   898 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
   899 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
   900 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
   901 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902 
   903 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
   904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   905 
   906 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
   907 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
   908 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
   909 
   910 
   911 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   912 
   913 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
   914 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
   915 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
   916 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
   917 compatibility.
   918 
   919 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
   920 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
   921 
   922 
   923 *** HOLCF ***
   924 
   925 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
   926 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
   927 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
   928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   929 
   930 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
   931 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
   932 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
   935   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
   936   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
   937 
   938 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
   939 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
   940 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941 
   942 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
   943 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
   944 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
   945 domain definition now works:
   946 
   947   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
   948 
   949 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
   950 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
   951 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
   952 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
   953 
   954   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
   955     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
   956 
   957   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
   958 
   959 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
   960 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
   961 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
   964 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
   967 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
   968 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
   969 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
   970 
   971 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
   972 
   973 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   974 
   975 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
   978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
   981 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
   982 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
   983 
   984 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
   985 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
   986 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987 
   988 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
   989 still supported as an input translation.
   990 
   991 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
   992 
   993   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
   994   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
   995   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
   996   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
   997   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
   998   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
   999   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1000 
  1001 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1002 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1005   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1006   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1007   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1008   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1009   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1010 
  1011 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1012 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013 
  1014 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1015 
  1016   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1017   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1018   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1019   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1020 
  1021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022 
  1023 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1024 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1027 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1028 
  1029   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1030   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1031   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1032   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1033   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1034   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1035   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1036   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1037   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1038   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1039   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1040   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1041   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1042   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1043   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1044   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1045   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1046   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1047   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1048   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1049 
  1050 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1053   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1054   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1055   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1056   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1057   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1058   box_less             ~> box_below
  1059   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1060   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1061   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1062   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1063   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1064   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1065   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1066   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1067   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1068   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1069   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1070   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1071   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1072   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1073   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1074   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1075   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1076   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1077   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1078   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1079   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1080   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1081   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1082   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1083   up_less              ~> up_below
  1084   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1085   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1086   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1087   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1088   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1089   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1090   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1091   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1092   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1093   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1094   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1095   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1096   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1097 
  1098 
  1099 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1100 
  1101 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1102 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 
  1105 *** ML ***
  1106 
  1107 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1108 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1109 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1110 
  1111 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1112 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1113 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1114 
  1115 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1116 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1117 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1118 
  1119 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1120 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1121 
  1122 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1123 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1124 
  1125 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1126 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1127 
  1128 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1129 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1130 
  1131 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1132 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1133 almost all situations.
  1134 
  1135 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1136 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1137 Isabelle/ML.
  1138 
  1139 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1140 meaning.
  1141 
  1142 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1143 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1144 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1145 
  1146 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1147 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1148 
  1149 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1150 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1151 
  1152 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1153 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1154 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1155 
  1156 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1157 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1158 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1159 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1160 configuration options.
  1161 
  1162 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1163 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1164 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1165 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1166 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1167 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1168 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1169 
  1170 
  1171 
  1172 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1173 ---------------------------------
  1174 
  1175 *** General ***
  1176 
  1177 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1178 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1179 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1180 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1181 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1182 their full internal name.
  1183 
  1184 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1185 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1186 Some hints on upgrading:
  1187 
  1188   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1189     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1190     which are independent of this issue.
  1191 
  1192   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1193     provides the following special forms:
  1194 
  1195       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1196       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1197       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1198 
  1199     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1200     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1201     extra variables".
  1202 
  1203     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1204     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1205     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1206     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1207     "logic".
  1208 
  1209   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1210     antiquotations:
  1211 
  1212       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1213       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1214       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1215       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1216 
  1217   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1218     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1219     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1220     antiquotations.
  1221 
  1222 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1223 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1224 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1225 diagnose syntax problems.
  1226 
  1227 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1228 
  1229 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1230 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1231 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1232 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1233 
  1234 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1235 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1236 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1237 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1238 
  1239 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1240 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1241 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1242 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1243 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1244 
  1245 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1246 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1247 
  1248 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1249 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1250 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1251 
  1252   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1253 
  1254 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1255 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1256 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1257 
  1258 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1259 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1263 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1264 
  1265 
  1266 *** Pure ***
  1267 
  1268 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1269 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1270 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1271 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1272 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1273 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1274 inspect proof terms.
  1275 
  1276 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1277 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1278 are added internally.  For example:
  1279 
  1280   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1281 
  1282 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1283 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1284 
  1285 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1286 
  1287 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1288 'class' instead.
  1289 
  1290 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1291 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1293 
  1294 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1295 invariants.
  1296 
  1297 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1298 user space functionality any longer.
  1299 
  1300 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1301 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1303 
  1304 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1305 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1306 
  1307 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1308 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1309 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1310 
  1311 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1312 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1313 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1314 
  1315 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1316 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1317 
  1318 
  1319 *** HOL ***
  1320 
  1321 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1322 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1323 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1324 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1325 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1326 
  1327 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1328 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1329 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1330 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1331 
  1332   fun
  1333     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1334   where
  1335     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1336 
  1337   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1338     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1339 
  1340   quotient_definition
  1341     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1342 
  1343 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1344 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1345 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1346 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1347 
  1348 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1349 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1350 
  1351 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1352 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1353 
  1354 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1358 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1359 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1360 
  1361 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1362 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1363 
  1364 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1369 
  1370 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1371 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1372 
  1373 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1374 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1375 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1376 
  1377   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1378   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1379   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1380   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1381   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1382   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1383   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1384   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1385   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1386   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1387   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1388   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1389   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1390   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1391   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1392   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1393   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1394   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1395   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1396   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1397   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1398   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1399   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1400   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1401   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1402   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1403   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1404   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1405   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1406   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1407 
  1408 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1409 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1410 
  1411 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1412 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1413 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1414 
  1415 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1416 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1417 
  1418 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1419 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1422 
  1423 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1424 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1427 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1432 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1433 
  1434 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1435 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1436 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1437 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1440   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1441   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1442   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1446 lattices):
  1447 
  1448     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1449     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1450 
  1451     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1452 
  1453     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1454     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1455     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1456     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1457     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1458     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1459     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1460     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1461     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1462     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1463     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1464     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1465     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1466 
  1467     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1468     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1469     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1470     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1471     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1472     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1473     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1474     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1475     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1476     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1477     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1478     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1479     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1480     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1481     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1482     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1483     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1484     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1485 
  1486   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1487   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1488 
  1489     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1490     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1491     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1492     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1493     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1494 
  1495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1496 
  1497 * Refined field classes:
  1498   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1499     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1500     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1501   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1505   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1506   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1507   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1508     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1509   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1510     equal_neg_zero.
  1511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1514 sets to lattices:
  1515 
  1516   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1517   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1518   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1519   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1520   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1521   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1522   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1523   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1524   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1525   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1526 
  1527 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1528 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1529 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1530 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1531 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1532 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1533 
  1534 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1535 multiset order:
  1536 
  1537   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1538     <= and <;
  1539   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1540     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1541     multiset_order;
  1542   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1543     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1544     generation;
  1545   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1546     if needed.
  1547 
  1548 Renamed:
  1549 
  1550   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1551   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1552   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1553 
  1554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1557 
  1558 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1559 
  1560 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1561 
  1562 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1563 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1564 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1565 
  1566   Constants:
  1567   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1568   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1569   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1570   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1571   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1572   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1573   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1574   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1575   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1576   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1577   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1578   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1579   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1580 
  1581   Lemmas:
  1582   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1583   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1584   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1585   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1586   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1587   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1588   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1589   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1590   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1591   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1592   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1593   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1594   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1595 
  1596 * Sledgehammer:
  1597   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1598     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1599     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1600     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1601     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1602     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1603     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1605   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1606     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1607   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1608     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1609     is still experimental.)
  1610   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1611     full-typed mode.
  1612   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1613 
  1614 * Nitpick:
  1615   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1616   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1617   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1618     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1619   - Added support for quotient types.
  1620   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1621     constructs.
  1622   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1623     "termination" proofs).
  1624   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1625   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1626   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1627   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1628     record getters.
  1629   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1630   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1631   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1632   - Added "atoms" option.
  1633   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1634     problems.
  1635   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1636     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1637     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1639     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1643   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1644   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1645   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1646   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1647   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1648   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1649   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1650   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1651   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 
  1654 *** HOLCF ***
  1655 
  1656 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1657 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1658 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1661 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1662 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1663 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1664 
  1665 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1666 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1667 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1668 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1669 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1672 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1673 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1676 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1679   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1680 
  1681 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1682 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1685   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1686   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1687   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1688   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1689 
  1690 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1691 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1694   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1695   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1696 
  1697 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1698 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1700 
  1701 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1702 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705 
  1706 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1707 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1708 
  1709 
  1710 *** ML ***
  1711 
  1712 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1713 
  1714     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1715     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1716 
  1717     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1718     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1719     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1720     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1721 
  1722     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1723     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1724     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1725 
  1726 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1727 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1728 
  1729 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1730 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1731 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1732 
  1733 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1734 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1735 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1736 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1737 
  1738 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1739 the context or even global references.
  1740 
  1741 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1742 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1743 
  1744 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1745 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1746 
  1747   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1748   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1749   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1750   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1751   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1752   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1753   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1754   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1755   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1756   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1757 
  1758 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1759 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1760 
  1761 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1762 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1763 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1764 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1765 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1766 
  1767 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1768 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1769 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1770 Theory_Data version.
  1771 
  1772 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1773 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1774 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1775 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1776 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1777 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1778 explicitly in rare situations.
  1779 
  1780 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1781 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1785 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1786 
  1787 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1788 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1789 quite rare).
  1790 
  1791 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1792 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1793 
  1794 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1795 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1796 terms.
  1797 
  1798 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1799 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1800 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1801 
  1802 
  1803 *** System ***
  1804 
  1805 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1806 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1807 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1808 
  1809 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1810 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1811 respectively.
  1812 
  1813 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1814 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1815 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1816 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1817 
  1818   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1819 
  1820 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1821 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1822 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1823 component.
  1824 
  1825 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1826 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1827 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1828 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1829 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1830 the user for manual installation.
  1831 
  1832 
  1833 
  1834 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1835 -------------------------------------
  1836 
  1837 *** General ***
  1838 
  1839 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1840 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1841 
  1842 
  1843 *** Pure ***
  1844 
  1845 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1846 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1847 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1848 
  1849 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1850 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1851 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1852 
  1853 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1854 interpretation.
  1855 
  1856 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1857 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 
  1860 *** Document preparation ***
  1861 
  1862 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  1863 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  1864 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  1865 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  1866 
  1867 
  1868 *** HOL ***
  1869 
  1870 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  1871 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  1872 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  1873 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  1874 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  1875 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  1876 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  1877 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  1878 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  1879 
  1880 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  1881 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  1882 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  1883 
  1884 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  1885 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  1886 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  1887 
  1888 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  1889 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  1890 
  1891 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  1892 
  1893 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  1894 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  1895 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  1896 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  1897 
  1898 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  1899 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  1900 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  1901 "mirabelle" utility.
  1902 
  1903 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  1904 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  1905 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  1906 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  1907 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  1908 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  1909 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  1910 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  1911 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  1912 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  1913 
  1914 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  1915 procedure only.
  1916 
  1917 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  1918 
  1919 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  1920 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  1921 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  1922 that fail later.
  1923 
  1924 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  1925 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  1926 
  1927 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  1928 the same method as the approximation method.
  1929 
  1930 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  1931 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  1932 series expansion.
  1933 
  1934 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  1935 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  1936 
  1937 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  1938 reals.
  1939 
  1940 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  1941 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  1942 
  1943 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  1944 fixpoint theorem.
  1945 
  1946 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1947   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  1948     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  1949   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  1950     accordingly
  1951   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  1952     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  1953   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  1954     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  1955 
  1956 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  1957 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  1958 lattice.
  1959 
  1960 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  1961 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  1962 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  1963 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  1964 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  1965 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  1966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  1969   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  1970     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  1971   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  1972     le_inf_iff
  1973   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  1974     sup_aci)
  1975   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  1976   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  1977   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  1978     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  1979     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  1980     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  1981     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  1982     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  1983     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  1984     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  1985     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  1986     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  1987     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  1988   - authentic syntax for
  1989     Set.Pow
  1990     Set.image
  1991   - mere abbreviations:
  1992     Set.empty               (for bot)
  1993     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  1994     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  1995     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  1996     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  1997     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  1998     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  1999     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2000   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2001 
  2002 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2003 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2004 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2005 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2006 
  2007 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2008 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2009 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2010 
  2011 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2012 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2015 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2016 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2017 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2020 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2021 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2022 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2023 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2024 
  2025 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2026 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2030 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2033 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2034 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2035 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2036 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2037 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2038 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2040 
  2041 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2042     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2043     code_post       replaces    code post
  2044     etc.
  2045   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Renamed methods:
  2048     sizechange -> size_change
  2049     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2050   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2051 
  2052 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2053 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2054 
  2055 * Renamed theorems:
  2056     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2057     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2058     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2059     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2060     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2061   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2062 
  2063 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068 
  2069 
  2070 *** HOLCF ***
  2071 
  2072 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2073 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2074 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2075 
  2076 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2077 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2078 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2079 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2080 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2081 
  2082 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2083 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2084 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2085 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2086 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2087 
  2088 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2089 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2090 constructor are pre-configured.
  2091 
  2092 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2093 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2094 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2095 
  2096 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2097 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2098 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2099 as well.)
  2100 
  2101 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2102 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2103 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2104 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2105 examples.
  2106 
  2107 
  2108 *** ML ***
  2109 
  2110 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2111 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2112 
  2113 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2114 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2115 position, logical grouping etc.
  2116 
  2117 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2118 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2119 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2120 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2121 
  2122 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2123 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2124 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2125 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2126 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2127 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2128 
  2129 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2130 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2131 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2132 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2133 experiments with references.
  2134 
  2135 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2136 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2137 
  2138 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2139 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2140 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2141 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2142 
  2143 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2144 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2145 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2146 
  2147 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2148 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2149 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2150 
  2151 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2157 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2158 
  2159 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2160 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2161 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2162 
  2163 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2164 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2165 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2168 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2169 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2173 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2174 instead of global theory.
  2175 
  2176 
  2177 *** System ***
  2178 
  2179 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2180 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2181 usedir option -q.
  2182 
  2183 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2184 also the system manual.
  2185 
  2186 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2187 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2188 
  2189 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2190 this is always enabled.
  2191 
  2192 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2193 
  2194 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2195 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2196 currently supported on Linux only.
  2197 
  2198 
  2199 
  2200 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2201 --------------------------------
  2202 
  2203 *** General ***
  2204 
  2205 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2206 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2207 
  2208   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2209     "isatool."
  2210 
  2211   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2212     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2213 
  2214   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2215     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2216 
  2217 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2218 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2219 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2220 
  2221 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2222 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2223 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2224 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2225 via "isabelle emacs".
  2226 
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2228 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2229 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2230 
  2231 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2232 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2233 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2234 
  2235 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2236 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2237 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2238 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2239 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2240 
  2241 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2242 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2243 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2244 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2245 
  2246 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2247 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2248 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2249 
  2250 
  2251 *** Pure ***
  2252 
  2253 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2254 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2255 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2256 
  2257 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2258 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2259 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2260 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2261 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2262 
  2263 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2264 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2265 useful in locale declarations.
  2266 
  2267 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2268 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2269 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2270 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2271 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2272 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2273 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2274 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2275 no longer generated.
  2276 
  2277 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2278 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2279 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2280 
  2281 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2282 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2283 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2284 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2285 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2286 
  2287 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2289 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2290 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2291 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2292 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2293 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2294 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2295 
  2296 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2297 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2298 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2299 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2300 
  2301 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2304 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2305 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2306 
  2307 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2308 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309 
  2310 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2311 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2312 in HOL, write
  2313 
  2314     class foo = ...
  2315 
  2316 instead of
  2317 
  2318     class foo = type + ...
  2319 
  2320 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2321 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2324 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2325 
  2326 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2327 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2328 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2329 
  2330 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2331 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2332 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2333 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2334 directly in regular applications.
  2335 
  2336 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2337 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2338 
  2339 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2340 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2341 
  2342 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2343 theory context.
  2344 
  2345 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2346 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2349 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2350 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2351 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2352 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2353 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2354 
  2355   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2356 
  2357 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2358 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2359 normalization.
  2360 
  2361 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2362 addressing etc.
  2363 
  2364 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2365 
  2366   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2367   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2368 
  2369 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2370 
  2371   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2372      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2373      parts of the code generator framework).
  2374 
  2375   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2376      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2377      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2378 
  2379 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2382 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2385 patterns, e.g.
  2386 
  2387     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2388 
  2389 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2390 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2391 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2392 hyphen:
  2393 
  2394     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2395 
  2396 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2397 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2398 
  2399 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2400 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2401 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2402 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2403 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2404 higher-order unification.
  2405 
  2406 
  2407 *** Document preparation ***
  2408 
  2409 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2410 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2411 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2412 
  2413 
  2414 *** HOL ***
  2415 
  2416 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2417 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2418 
  2419 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2420 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2421 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2422 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2423 Main, as before.
  2424 
  2425 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2426 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2427 
  2428 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2429 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2430 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2431 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2432 
  2433 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2434 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2435 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2436 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2437 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2438 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2439 
  2440 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2441 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2442 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2443 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2444 
  2445 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2446 menu.
  2447 
  2448 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2449 (contains the empty clause).
  2450 
  2451 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2452 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2453 
  2454 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2455 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2456 
  2457 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2458 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2459 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2462 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2463 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2464 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2465 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2466 
  2467 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2468 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2469 
  2470 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2471 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2472 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2473 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2474 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2475 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2476 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2477 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2478 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2479 
  2480 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2481 
  2482 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2483 
  2484 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2485 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2488 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2489 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2490 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2491 
  2492 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2493 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2494 
  2495     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2496     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2497     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2498     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2499     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2500     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2501     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2502     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2503 
  2504 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2505 theory Set.
  2506 
  2507 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2508 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2509 
  2510 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2511 
  2512 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2513 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2514 
  2515 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2516 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2517 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2518 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2519 allowed. For examples see
  2520 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2521 
  2522 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2523 
  2524 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526 
  2527 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2528 structure:
  2529 
  2530     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2531     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2532     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2533     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2534     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2535     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2536     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2537     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2538     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2539     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2540     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2541     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2542     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2543     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2544     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2545     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2546     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2547     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2548     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2549     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2550     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2551     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2552     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2553     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2554     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2555     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2556     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2557     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2558     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2559     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2560     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2561     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2562     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2563 
  2564     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2565     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2566     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2567     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2568     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2569     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2570     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2571     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2572     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2573     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2574 
  2575     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2576     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2577     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2578     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2579     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2580     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2581 
  2582 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2583 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2584 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2585 
  2586 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2587 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2588 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2589 
  2590 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2591 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2592 
  2593 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2594 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2595 
  2596 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2597 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2598 proofs, e.g.
  2599 
  2600   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2601 
  2602 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2603 
  2604 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2605 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2606 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2609 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2613 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2614 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2618 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2619 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2620 preorder_class.*.
  2621 
  2622 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2623 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2624 
  2625 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2626 
  2627   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2628 
  2629 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2630 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2631 fold_image.
  2632 
  2633 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2634 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2635 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2636 the former will disappear at some point.
  2637 
  2638 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2639 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2640 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2641 
  2642 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2643 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2644 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2645 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2646 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2647 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2648 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2649 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2650 
  2651 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2652 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2653 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2654 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2655 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2656 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2657 
  2658     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2659     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2660     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2661     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2662     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2663     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2664     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2665 
  2666 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2667 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2668 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2669 
  2670 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2671 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2672 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2673 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2674 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2675 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2676 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2677 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2678 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2679 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2680 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2681 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2682 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2683 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2684 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2685 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2686 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2687 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2688 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2689 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2690 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2691 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2692 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2693 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2694 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2695 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2696 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2697 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2698 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2699 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2700 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2701 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2702 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2703 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2704 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2705 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2706 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2707 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2708 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2709 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2710 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2711 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2712 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2713 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2714 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2715 
  2716 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2719 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2720 
  2721 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2722 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2723 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2724 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2725 
  2726 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2727 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2728 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2729 theory RealVector.
  2730 
  2731 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2732 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2733 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2734 and inner products are included.
  2735 
  2736 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2737 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2738 supported.
  2739 
  2740 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2741 first diagonalization argument.
  2742 
  2743 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2744 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2745 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2746 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2747 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2748 
  2749     hide (open) const gcd
  2750     abbreviation gcd where
  2751       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2752     notation (output)
  2753       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2754 
  2755 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2756 
  2757 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2758 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2759 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2762 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2763 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2764 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2765 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2766 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2767 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2768 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2769 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2770 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2771 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2772 cases.
  2773 
  2774 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2775 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2776 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2777 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2778 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2779 
  2780     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2781     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2782     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2783     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2784     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2785 
  2786 
  2787 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2788 
  2789 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2790 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2791 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2792 
  2793 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2794 
  2795 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2796 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2797 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2798 
  2799 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2800 
  2801 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2802 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2803 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2804 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2805 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2806 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2807 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2808 
  2809 
  2810 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2811 
  2812 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2813 
  2814 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2815 theory targets.
  2816 
  2817 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2818 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2819 'inductive' etc.
  2820 
  2821 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2822 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2823 
  2824 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2825 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2826 
  2827 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2828 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2829 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2830 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2831 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2832 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2833 the algorithm W:
  2834 
  2835  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2836  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2837          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2838 
  2839 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2840 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2841 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2842 
  2843 
  2844 *** HOLCF ***
  2845 
  2846 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2847 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2848 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2849 
  2850 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2851 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2852 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2853 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2854 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2857 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2858 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2859 
  2860 
  2861 *** ZF ***
  2862 
  2863 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  2864 
  2865 
  2866 *** ML ***
  2867 
  2868 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  2869 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  2870 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  2871 5.2.1!
  2872 
  2873 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  2874 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  2875 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  2876 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  2877 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  2878 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  2879 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2880 
  2881 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  2882 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  2883 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  2884 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  2885 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  2886 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  2887 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2888 
  2889 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  2890 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  2891 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  2892 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  2893 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2894 
  2895 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  2896 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  2897 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  2898 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  2899 Method.add_method.
  2900 
  2901 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  2902 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  2903 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  2904 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  2905 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  2906 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  2907 
  2908 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  2909 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  2910 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  2911 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  2912 examples.
  2913 
  2914 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  2915 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  2916 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  2917 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  2918 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  2919 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  2920 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  2921 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  2922 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  2923 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  2924 
  2925 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  2926 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  2927 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  2928 
  2929 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  2930 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  2931 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  2932 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  2933 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  2934 resort for legacy applications.
  2935 
  2936 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  2937 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  2938 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  2939 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  2940 explicit runtime argument.
  2941 
  2942 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  2943 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  2944 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  2945 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  2946 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  2949 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  2950 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  2951 theory state.
  2952 
  2953 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  2954 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  2955 
  2956   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  2957   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  2958   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  2959   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  2960   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  2961   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  2962   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  2963   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  2964   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  2965   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  2966 
  2967 
  2968 *** System ***
  2969 
  2970 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  2971 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  2972 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  2973 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  2974 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  2975 
  2976 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  2977 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  2978 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  2979 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  2980 
  2981 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  2982 
  2983 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  2984 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  2985 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  2986 prover operations.
  2987 
  2988 
  2989 
  2990 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  2991 -------------------------------
  2992 
  2993 *** General ***
  2994 
  2995 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  2996 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  2997 
  2998 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  2999 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3000 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3001 provides a proper context already.
  3002 
  3003 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3004 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3005 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3006 
  3007 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3008 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3009 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3010 swap theory imports.
  3011 
  3012 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3013 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3014 
  3015 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3016 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3017 white space without escapes.
  3018 
  3019 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3020 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3021 "foo_bar".
  3022 
  3023 
  3024 *** Pure ***
  3025 
  3026 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3027 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3028 
  3029 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3030 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3031 
  3032 (1) unused_thms
  3033      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3034 
  3035 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3036      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3037      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3038 
  3039 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3040      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3041      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3042      their ancestors.
  3043 
  3044 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3045 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3046 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3047 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3048 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3049 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3050 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3051 
  3052 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3053 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3054 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3055 
  3056 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3057 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3058 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3059 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3060 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3061 
  3062 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3063 
  3064 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3065 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3066 update of theories within ML code.
  3067 
  3068 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3069 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3070 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3071 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3072 
  3073 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3074 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3075 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3079 
  3080 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3081 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3082 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3083 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3084 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3085 
  3086 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3087 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3088 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3089 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3090 situations.
  3091 
  3092 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3093 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3094 proof text.
  3095 
  3096 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3098 
  3099 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3100 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3101 predicates.
  3102 
  3103 
  3104 *** Document preparation ***
  3105 
  3106 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3107 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3108 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3109 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3110 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3111 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3112 
  3113 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3114 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3115 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3116 
  3117 
  3118 *** HOL ***
  3119 
  3120 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3121 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3122 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3123 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3124 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3125 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3126 
  3127 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3128 with multithreading.
  3129 
  3130 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3131 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3132 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3133 
  3134 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3135 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3136 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3137 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3140 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3141 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3142 and makes them available separately.  See
  3143 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3144 
  3145 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3146 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3147 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3148 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3149 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3150 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3151 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3152 the declared rules.
  3153 
  3154 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3155 
  3156   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3157 
  3158 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3159 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3160 
  3161 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3162 
  3163   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3164 
  3165   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3166     definitions on => and bool.
  3167 
  3168   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3169     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3170     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3171 
  3172       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3173       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3174       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3175       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3176       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3177       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3178       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3179       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3180 
  3181   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3182     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3183     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3184 
  3185   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3186     The proof pattern
  3187 
  3188       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3189       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3190 
  3191     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3192     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3193 
  3194       have "EX S. P S"
  3195       proof
  3196         show "P S" <...>
  3197       qed
  3198 
  3199   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3200     The proof pattern
  3201 
  3202       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3203       also have "S = T" <...>
  3204       finally have "P T" .
  3205 
  3206     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3207     must be replaced by something like
  3208 
  3209       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3210       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3211       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3212 
  3213   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3214     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3215 
  3216       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3217 
  3218     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3219     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3220     type of the form
  3221 
  3222       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3223 
  3224     rather than
  3225 
  3226       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3227 
  3228 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3229 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3230 
  3231 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3234 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3238 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3241 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3244 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3245 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3248 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3249 
  3250   less_trans
  3251   less_linear
  3252   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3253   le_less_trans
  3254   less_le_trans
  3255   less_not_sym
  3256   less_asym
  3257 
  3258 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3259 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3260 and different variable names.
  3261 
  3262 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3263 
  3264 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3265 finite maps.
  3266 
  3267 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3268 
  3269 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3270 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3271 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3272 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3273 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3274 accordingly.
  3275 
  3276 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3277 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3278 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3279 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3280 
  3281 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3282 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3283 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3284 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3285 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3289 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3292 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3293 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3294 
  3295 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3299 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3300 
  3301 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3302 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3305 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3308 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3312 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3313 
  3314 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3315 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3316 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3317 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3318 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3319 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3322 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3323 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3324 
  3325 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3326 
  3327 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3328 
  3329 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3330 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3331 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3332 
  3333 
  3334 *** ZF ***
  3335 
  3336 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3337 same session:
  3338 
  3339   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3340   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3341   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3342   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3343   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3344   List      -> List_ZF
  3345   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3346 
  3347 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3348 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3349 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3350 
  3351 
  3352 *** ML ***
  3353 
  3354 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3355 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3356 
  3357 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3358 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3359 
  3360 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3361 
  3362 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3363 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3364 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3365 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3366 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3369 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3370 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3371 
  3372 
  3373 *** System ***
  3374 
  3375 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3376 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3377 
  3378 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3379 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3380 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3381 
  3382 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3383 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3384 
  3385 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3386 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3387 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3388 
  3389 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3390 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3391 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3392 
  3393 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3394 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3395 
  3396 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3397 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3398 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3399 script.
  3400 
  3401 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3402 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3403 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3404 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3405 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3406 
  3407 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3408 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3409 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3410 
  3411 
  3412 
  3413 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3414 -----------------------------------
  3415 
  3416 *** General ***
  3417 
  3418 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3419 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3420 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3421 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3422 
  3423 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3424 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3425 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3428 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3429 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3430 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3433 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3434 quotes.
  3435 
  3436 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3437 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3438 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3439 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3440 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3441 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3442 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3443 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3444 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3445 
  3446 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3447 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3448 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3449 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3450 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3451 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3452 
  3453 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3454 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3455 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3456 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3457 
  3458 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3459 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3460 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3461 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3462 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3463 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3464 
  3465 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3466 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3467 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3468 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3469 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3470 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3471 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3472 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3473 
  3474 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3475 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3476 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3477 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3478 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3479 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3480 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3481 
  3482 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3483 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3484 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3485 
  3486 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3487 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3488 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3489 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3490 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3491 limit is imposed.
  3492 
  3493 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3494 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3495 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3496 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3497 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3498 and scalability.
  3499 
  3500 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3501 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3502 
  3503 
  3504 *** Document preparation ***
  3505 
  3506 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3507 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3508 current context.
  3509 
  3510 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3511 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3512 
  3513 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3514 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3515 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3516 
  3517 
  3518 *** Pure ***
  3519 
  3520 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3521 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3522 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3523 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3524 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3525 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3526 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3527 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3528 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3529 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3530 
  3531 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3532 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3533 sketch:
  3534 
  3535     internal compilation:
  3536         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3537     writing SML code to a file:
  3538         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3539     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3540         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3541     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3542         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3543 
  3544     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3545         method ``eval''
  3546 
  3547 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3548 
  3549 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3550 
  3551     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3552     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3553     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3554     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3555 
  3556 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3557 
  3558     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3559       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3560 
  3561     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3562       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3563 
  3564     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3565       {(target)}+
  3566         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3567 
  3568     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3569       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3570         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3571 
  3572 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3573 
  3574 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3575 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3576 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3577 codegen".
  3578 
  3579 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3580 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3581 annotations).
  3582 
  3583 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3584 syntax.
  3585 
  3586 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3587 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3588 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3589 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3590 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3591 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3592 
  3593 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3594 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3595 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3596 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3597 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3598 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3599 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3600 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3601 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3602 equations, see section "definitions".
  3603 
  3604 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3605 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3606 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3607 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3608 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3609 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3610 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3611 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3612 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3613 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3614 
  3615 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3616 configuration options:
  3617 
  3618   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3619   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3620   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3621   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3622   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3623   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3624   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3625   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3626   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3627 
  3628 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3629 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3630 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3631 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3632 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3633 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3634 order.
  3635 
  3636 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3637 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3638 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3639 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3640 context encountered later on.
  3641 
  3642 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3643 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3644 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3645 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3646 
  3647 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3648 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3649 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3650 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3651 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3652 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3653 
  3654 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3655 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3656 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3657 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3658 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3659 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3660 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3661 more permissive.
  3662 
  3663 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3664 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3665 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3666 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3667 maintainability of proof texts.
  3668 
  3669 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3670 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3671 
  3672   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3673   then guess x and y by clarify
  3674 
  3675 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3676 proof tools being involved here.
  3677 
  3678 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3679 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3680 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3681 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3682 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3683 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3684 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3685 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3686 
  3687 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3688 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3689 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3690 
  3691   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3692   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3693   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3694   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3695 
  3696 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3697 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3698 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3699 
  3700 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3701 both named and unnamed ones.
  3702 
  3703 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3704 
  3705   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3706 
  3707 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3708 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3709 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3710 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3711 
  3712 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3713 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3714 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3715 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3716 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3717 
  3718 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3719 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3720 
  3721 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3722 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3723 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3724 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3725 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3726 originally first one.
  3727 
  3728 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3729 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3730 expected.
  3731 
  3732 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3733 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3734 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3735 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3736 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3737 
  3738   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3739     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3740     obtains x where "P x"
  3741 
  3742   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3743     assumes "A & B"
  3744     obtains A and B
  3745 
  3746   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3747     assumes "A | B"
  3748     obtains
  3749       A
  3750     | B
  3751 
  3752 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3753 explicitly:
  3754 
  3755   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3756     obtains "~ thesis"
  3757 
  3758   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3759     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3760 
  3761 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3762 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3763 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3764 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3765 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3766 case_names).
  3767 
  3768 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3769 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3770 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3771 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3772 
  3773 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3774 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3775 top-level lemma.
  3776 
  3777 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3778 introduction rule (default "that").
  3779 
  3780 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3781 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3782 to occur.
  3783 
  3784 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3785 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3786 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3787 representations independently of name spaces.
  3788 
  3789 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3790 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3791 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3794 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3795 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3796 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3797 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3798 current context.
  3799 
  3800 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3801 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3802 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3803 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3804 
  3805   axiomatization
  3806     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3807     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3808 
  3809   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3810   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3811 
  3812   abbreviation
  3813     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3814     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3815 
  3816 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3817 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3818 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3819 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3820 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3821 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3822 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3823 
  3824 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3825 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3826 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3827 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3828 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3829 
  3830 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3831 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3832 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3833 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3834 
  3835 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3836 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3837 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3838 
  3839   definition "K x _ = x"
  3840 
  3841   inductive conj for A B
  3842   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3843 
  3844 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3845 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3846 abbreviations on output.
  3847 
  3848 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3849 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3850 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3851 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3852 
  3853 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3854 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3855 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3856 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3857 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3858 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  3859 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  3860 
  3861 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  3862 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  3863 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  3864 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  3865 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  3866 
  3867 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  3868 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  3869 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  3870 
  3871 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  3872 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  3873 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  3874 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  3875 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  3876 
  3877   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  3878     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  3879 
  3880 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  3881 definition specification element in the context of locale
  3882 partial_order.
  3883 
  3884 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  3885 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  3886 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  3887 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  3888 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  3889 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  3890 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  3891 examples.
  3892 
  3893 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  3894 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  3895 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  3896 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  3897 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  3898 
  3899 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  3900 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  3901 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  3902 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  3903 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  3904 
  3905   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  3906   (induct set: foo bar)
  3907   (induct pred: foo bar)
  3908   (induct type: foo bar)
  3909 
  3910 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  3911 new format.
  3912 
  3913 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  3914 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  3915 
  3916 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  3917 considered a legacy feature.
  3918 
  3919 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  3920 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  3923 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  3924 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  3925 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  3926   
  3927 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  3928 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  3929 manipulating the claset.
  3930 
  3931 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  3932 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  3933 least one premise.
  3934 
  3935 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  3936 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  3937 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  3938 rule steps.
  3939 
  3940 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  3941 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  3942 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  3943 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  3944 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  3945 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  3946 
  3947 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  3948 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  3949 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  3950 
  3951 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  3952 the graph browser tool.
  3953 
  3954 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  3955 default; use '!' option for full details.
  3956 
  3957 
  3958 *** HOL ***
  3959 
  3960 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  3961 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  3962 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  3963 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  3964 multi-threading.
  3965   
  3966 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  3967 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  3968 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  3969 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  3970 work with multi-threading.
  3971 
  3972 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  3973 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  3974 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  3975 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  3976 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  3977 
  3978 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  3979 
  3980 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  3981 equality.
  3982 
  3983 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  3984 the new 'class' package:
  3985 
  3986     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  3987     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  3988     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  3989     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  3990     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  3991     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  3992     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  3993     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  3994     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  3995     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  3996     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  3997     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  3998     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  3999     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4000     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4001     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4002     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4003     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4004     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4005     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4006 
  4007 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4008 
  4009 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4010 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4011 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4012 names.
  4013 
  4014 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4015 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4016 
  4017 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4018 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4019 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4020 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4021 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4022 
  4023 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4024 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4025 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4026 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4027 
  4028 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4029 
  4030 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4031 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4032 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4033 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4037 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4040 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4041 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4044 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4045 
  4046 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4047 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4048 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4049 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4050 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4051 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4052 in the current context.
  4053 
  4054 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4055 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4059 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4060 
  4061 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4062 
  4063     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4064     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4065 
  4066     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4067       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4068     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4069     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4070 
  4071     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4072     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4073 
  4074   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4075 
  4076     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4077     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4078     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4079     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4080     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4081     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4082     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4083     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4084     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4085     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4086     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4087     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4088     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4089     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4090     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4091     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4092     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4093     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4094     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4095     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4096     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4097     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4098     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4099     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4100     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4101     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4102     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4103     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4104     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4105     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4106     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4107     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4108     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4109     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4110     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4111 
  4112     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4113     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4114     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4115     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4116     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4117     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4118     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4119     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4120     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4121     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4122     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4123     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4124     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4125     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4126     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4127     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4128     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4129 
  4130     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4131     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4132     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4133     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4134     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4135     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4136     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4137     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4138     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4139     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4140     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4141     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4142     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4143     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4144     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4145     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4146     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4147     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4148     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4149     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4150     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4151     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4152     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4153     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4154     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4155     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4156     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4157     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4158 
  4159     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4160     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4161     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4162     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4163     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4164     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4165 
  4166     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4167     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4168     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4169     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4170 
  4171     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4172     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4173 
  4174     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4175     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4176 
  4177 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4178 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4179 
  4180 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4181 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4182 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4183 "*.size".
  4184 
  4185 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4189 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4190 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4191 
  4192 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4195 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4196 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4197 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4198 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4199 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4200 numerals on all operations.
  4201 
  4202 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4203 
  4204 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4205 
  4206 * Code generator library theories:
  4207   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4208     languages.
  4209   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4210     languages.
  4211   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4212     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4213   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4214   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4215     denominator).
  4216   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4217     representable by rational numbers.
  4218   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4219     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4220     includes Code_Integer.
  4221   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4222     target-language built-in integers.
  4223   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4224     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4225 
  4226 * New package for inductive predicates
  4227 
  4228   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4229 
  4230     inductive
  4231       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4232       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4233     where
  4234       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4235     | ...
  4236 
  4237   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4238 
  4239     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4240 
  4241     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4242     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4243 
  4244     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4245     intros
  4246       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4247       ...
  4248 
  4249   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4250   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4251 
  4252     inductive_set
  4253       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4254       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4255     where
  4256       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4257     | ...
  4258 
  4259   or
  4260 
  4261     inductive_set
  4262       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4263       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4264       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4265     where
  4266       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4267     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4268     | ...
  4269 
  4270   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4271 
  4272   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4273   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4274 
  4275   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4276 
  4277   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4278     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4279     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4280     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4281     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4282 
  4283   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4284     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4285     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4286     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4287     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4288     statements of the form
  4289 
  4290       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4291 
  4292     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4293     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4294 
  4295       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4296 
  4297   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4298 
  4299       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4300         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4301         ==> ... ==> P
  4302 
  4303     for predicates and
  4304 
  4305       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4306         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4307         ==> ... ==> P
  4308 
  4309     for sets rather than
  4310 
  4311       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4312         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4313         ==> ... ==> P
  4314 
  4315     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4316     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4317     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4318 
  4319   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4320     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4321     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4322 
  4323 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4324 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4325 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4326 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4327 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4328 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4329 
  4330 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4331 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4332 
  4333 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4334 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4335 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4336 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4337 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4338 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4339 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4340 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4341 variable.
  4342 
  4343 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4344 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4345 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4346 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4347   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4348   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4349 
  4350 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4351 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4352 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4353 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4354 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4355 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4356 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4357 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4358 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4359 
  4360 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4361 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4362 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4363 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4364 rat, etc.
  4365 
  4366 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4367 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4368 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4369 
  4370 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4371 
  4372 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4373 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4374 
  4375 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4376 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4377 
  4378 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4379 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4380 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4383 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4385 
  4386 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4387 
  4388 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4389 
  4390 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4391 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4392 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4393 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4394 
  4395 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4396 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4397 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4398 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4399 
  4400 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4401 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4402 algebraic operations.
  4403 
  4404 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4411 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4412 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4413 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4414 adapted.
  4415  
  4416 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4417 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4418 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4419 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4420 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4421 
  4422 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4423 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4424 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4425 
  4426 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4427 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4428 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4429 
  4430 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4433 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4434 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4435   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4436       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4437   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4438   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4439   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4440 
  4441 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4442 
  4443 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4444 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4445 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4446 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4447 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4448 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4449 
  4450 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4451 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4452 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4453 
  4454 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4455 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4456 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4458 
  4459 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4460 
  4461 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4462 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4463 
  4464 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4465 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4466 
  4467 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4468 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4469 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4470 
  4471 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4472 True/False.
  4473 
  4474 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4475 
  4476 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4477 
  4478 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4479 ``rule'' method.
  4480 
  4481 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4482 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4483 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4484 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4485 
  4486 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4487 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4488 
  4489 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4490 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4491 
  4492 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4493 Library.
  4494 
  4495 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4496 
  4497 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4498 as greatest fixed-point.
  4499 
  4500 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4501 association lists.
  4502 
  4503 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4504 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4505 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4506 
  4507 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4508 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4509 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4510 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4511 behavior.
  4512 
  4513 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4514 
  4515 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4516 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4517 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4518 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4519 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4520 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4521 
  4522 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4523 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4524 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4525 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4526 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4527 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4528 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4529 
  4530 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4531 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4532 
  4533 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4534 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4535 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4536 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4537 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4538 
  4539 
  4540 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4541 
  4542 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4543 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4544 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4545 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4549 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4550 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4551 
  4552 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4553 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4554 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 
  4556 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4557 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4558 
  4559 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4560 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4561 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4565   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4566   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4567   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4568   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4569   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4570   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4571   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4572   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4573   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4574   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4575   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4576   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4577   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4578   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4579 
  4580 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4581 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4582 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4583 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4584 
  4585   approx        <-- capprox
  4586   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4587   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4588   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4589   monad         <-- cmonad
  4590   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4591   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4592   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4593   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4594 
  4595 
  4596 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4597 
  4598 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4599 
  4600 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4602 
  4603 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4604 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605 
  4606 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4607 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4608 of algebraic structures.
  4609 
  4610 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4611 
  4612 
  4613 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4614 
  4615 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4616 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4617 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4618 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4619 
  4620 
  4621 *** ML ***
  4622 
  4623 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4624 (even on SML/NJ).
  4625 
  4626 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4627 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4628 compile-time.  For example:
  4629 
  4630 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4631 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4632 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4633 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4634 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4635 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4636 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4637 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4638 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4639 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4640 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4641 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4642 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4643 ML {* @{context} *}
  4644 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4645 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4646 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4647 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4648 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4649 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4650 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4651 
  4652 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4653 
  4654 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4655 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4656 
  4657 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4658 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4659 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4660 
  4661 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4662 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4663 
  4664 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4665 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4666 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4667 
  4668 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4669 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4670 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4671 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4672 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4673 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4674 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4675 declarations and definitions.
  4676 
  4677 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4678 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4679 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4680 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4681 
  4682 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4683 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4684 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4685 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4688 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4689 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4690 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4691 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4692 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4693 
  4694 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4695 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4696 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4697 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4698 attributes, methods, etc.
  4699 
  4700 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4701 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4702 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4703 fold_map combinators.
  4704 
  4705 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4706 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4707 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4708 derivation.
  4709 
  4710 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4711 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4712 achieve the old behaviour.
  4713 
  4714 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4715 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4716 statements.
  4717 
  4718 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4719 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4720 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4721 
  4722 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4723 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4724 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4725 
  4726   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4727   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4728   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4729 
  4730 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4731 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4732 
  4733 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4734 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4735 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4736 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4737 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4738 
  4739 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4740 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4741 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4742 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4743 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4744 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4745 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4746 in a locale context).
  4747 
  4748 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4749 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4750 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4751 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4752 
  4753 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4754 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4755 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4756 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4757 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4758 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4759 
  4760 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4761 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4762 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4763 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4764 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4765 
  4766   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4767 
  4768 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4769 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4770 this:
  4771 
  4772   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4773 
  4774 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4775 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4776 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4777 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4778 
  4779 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4780 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4781 
  4782 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4783 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4784 
  4785 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4786 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4787 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4788 batch mode.
  4789 
  4790 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4791 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4792 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4793 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4796 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4797 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4798 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4799 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4800 
  4801 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4802 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4803 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4804 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4805 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4806 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4807 
  4808 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4809 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4810 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4812 
  4813 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4814 "Trueprop" etc.
  4815 
  4816 
  4817 *** System ***
  4818 
  4819 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4820 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4821 Isabelle installations.
  4822 
  4823 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4824 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4825 code.
  4826 
  4827 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4828 
  4829 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4830 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4831 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4832 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4833 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4834 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4835 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4836 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4837 Implementation manual.
  4838 
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4842 ----------------------------------
  4843 
  4844 *** General ***
  4845 
  4846 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4847 
  4848   theory <name>
  4849   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4850   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4851   begin
  4852 
  4853 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4854 
  4855   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4856 
  4857 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4858 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  4859 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  4860 
  4861 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  4862 relative and absolute paths.
  4863 
  4864 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  4865 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  4866 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  4867 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  4868 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  4869 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  4870 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  4871 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  4872 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  4873 
  4874   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  4875 
  4876 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  4877 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  4878 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  4879 
  4880 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  4881 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  4884 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  4885 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  4886 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  4887 
  4888   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  4889   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  4890 
  4891 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  4892 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  4893 faster.
  4894 
  4895 
  4896 *** Document preparation ***
  4897 
  4898 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  4899 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  4900 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  4901 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  4902 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  4903 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  4904 
  4905 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  4906 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  4907 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  4908 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  4909 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  4910 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  4911 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  4912 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  4913 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  4914 \isadroptag.
  4915 
  4916 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  4917 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  4918 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  4919 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  4920 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  4921 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  4922 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  4923 specified above.
  4924 
  4925 * Several new antiquotations:
  4926 
  4927   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  4928 
  4929   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  4930 
  4931   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  4932   argument is a known logical constant;
  4933 
  4934   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  4935   theorem applying a "style" to it
  4936 
  4937   @{ML text}
  4938 
  4939 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  4940 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  4941 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  4942 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  4943 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  4944 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  4945 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  4946 
  4947 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  4948 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  4949 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  4950 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  4951 
  4952 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  4953 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  4954 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  4955 
  4956 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  4957 a proof context.
  4958 
  4959 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  4960 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  4961 
  4962 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  4963 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  4964 
  4965 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  4966 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  4967 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  4968 
  4969 
  4970 *** Pure ***
  4971 
  4972 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  4973 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  4974 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  4975 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  4976 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  4977 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  4978 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  4979 
  4980 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  4981 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  4982 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  4983 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  4984 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  4985 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  4986 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  4987 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  4988 
  4989 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  4990 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  4991 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  4992 
  4993 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  4994 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  4995 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  4996 
  4997 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  4998 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  4999 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5000 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5004 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5005 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5006 axclasses vs. locales.
  5007 
  5008 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5009 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5010 
  5011 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5012 marks in schematic variable names.
  5013 
  5014 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5015 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5016 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5017 
  5018   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5019     by simp
  5020 
  5021 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5022 
  5023 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5024 annotations as "(00...)".
  5025 
  5026 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5027 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5028 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5029 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5030 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5031 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5032 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5033 
  5034 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5035 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5036 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5037 specifications.
  5038 
  5039 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5040 locally fixed variables as well.
  5041 
  5042 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5043 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5044 Limit.
  5045 
  5046 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5047 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5048 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5049 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5050 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5051 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5052 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5053 
  5054 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5055 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5056 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5057 
  5058 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5061 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5062 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5063 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5064 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5065 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5066 
  5067 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5068 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5069 
  5070 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5071 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5072 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5073 
  5074 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5075 
  5076 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5077 theory development.
  5078 
  5079 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5080 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5081 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5082 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5083 
  5084 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5085 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5086 quoted when used as identifier.
  5087 
  5088 
  5089 *** Locales ***
  5090 
  5091 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5092 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5093 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5094 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5095 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5096 commands is a follows:
  5097 
  5098   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5099   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5100   (3) interpret expr inst
  5101 
  5102 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5103 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5104 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5105 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5106 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5107 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5108 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5109 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5110 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5111 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5112 
  5113 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5114 'interpret' instead.
  5115 
  5116 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5117 parameters.
  5118 
  5119 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5120 redeclaration.
  5121 
  5122 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5123 
  5124 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5125 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5126 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5127 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5128 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5129 
  5130 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5131 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5132 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5133 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5134 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5135 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5136 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5137 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5138 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5139 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5140 
  5141 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5142 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5143 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5144 
  5145 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5146 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5147 
  5148 
  5149 *** Provers ***
  5150 
  5151 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5152 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5153 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5154 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5155 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5156 
  5157 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5158 and quasi orders.
  5159 
  5160 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5161 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5162 
  5163 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5164 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5165 
  5166 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5167 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5168 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 
  5171 *** HOL ***
  5172 
  5173 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5174 
  5175   syntax (epsilon)
  5176     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5177 
  5178 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5179 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5180 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5181 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5182 
  5183 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5184 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5185 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5186 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5187 
  5188 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5189 instead of ":".
  5190 
  5191 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5192 
  5193   Old       New
  5194   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5195   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5196   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5197   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5198   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5199 
  5200 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5201 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5202 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5203 
  5204   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5205   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5206 
  5207 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5208 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5209 interface.
  5210 
  5211 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5212 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5213 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5214 be a tuple pattern.
  5215 
  5216 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5217 
  5218   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5219   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5220   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5221   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5222 
  5223 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5224 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5225 
  5226 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5227 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5228 (insert F x)'.
  5229 
  5230 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5231 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5232 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5233 
  5234 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5235 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5236 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5237 
  5238 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5239 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5240 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5241 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5242 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5243 
  5244 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5245 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5246 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5247 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5248 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5249 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5250 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5251 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5252 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5253 
  5254 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5255 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5256 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5257 quite long.
  5258 
  5259 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5260 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5261 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5262 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5263 
  5264 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5265 type-variables in the term.
  5266 
  5267 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5268 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5269 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5270 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5271 goals than previously.
  5272 
  5273 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5274 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5275 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5276 just like y <= x.
  5277 
  5278 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5279 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5280 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5281 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5282 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5283 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5285 
  5286 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5287 
  5288 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5289 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5290 
  5291 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5292 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5293 inequalities.
  5294 
  5295 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5296 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5297 
  5298   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5299   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5300   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5301   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5302   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5303   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5304   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5305   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5306   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5307   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5308   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5309 
  5310 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5311      
  5312      zero_le_square
  5313      not_square_less_zero 
  5314 
  5315   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5316   
  5317      realpow_zero_zero
  5318      realpow_two
  5319      realpow_less
  5320      zero_le_power
  5321      realpow_two_le
  5322      abs_realpow_two
  5323      realpow_two_abs     
  5324 
  5325 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5326 
  5327 * Theory List:
  5328 
  5329 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5330 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5331 
  5332   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5333   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5334   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5335   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5336 
  5337 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5338 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5339 
  5340 
  5341 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5342 
  5343 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5344 integers in the reals.
  5345 
  5346 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5347 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5348 
  5349   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5350   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5351   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5352   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5353   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5354 
  5355 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5356 
  5357 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5358 
  5359 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5360 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5361 
  5362   hypreal = real star
  5363   hypnat = nat star
  5364   hcomplex = complex star
  5365 
  5366 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5367 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5368 
  5369   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5370 
  5371   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5372   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5373   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5374   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5375   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5376 
  5377   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5378   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5379   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5380   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5381   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5382 
  5383 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5384 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5385 
  5386   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5387   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5388   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5389   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5390   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5391   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5392   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5393   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5394   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5395   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5396   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5397   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5398   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5399   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5400   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5401   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5402   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5403   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5404   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5405   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5406   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5407   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5408   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5409   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5410 
  5411 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5412 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5413 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5414 
  5415   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5416   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5417   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5418   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5419   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5420   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5421   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5422   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5423   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5424   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5425     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5426   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5427   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5428   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5429   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5430   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5431   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5432   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5433   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5434   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5435   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5436   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5437   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5438   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5439   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5440   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5441   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5442   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5443   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5444   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5445   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5446   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5447   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5448   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5449   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5450   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5451   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5452   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5453   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5454   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5455   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5456   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5457   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5458   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5459   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5460   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5461   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5462   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5463   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5464   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5465   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5466   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5467   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5468   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5469 
  5470   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5471   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5472   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5473   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5474   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5475   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5476   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5477   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5478   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5479   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5480   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5481 
  5482   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5483   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5484   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5485   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5486   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5487   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5488   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5489   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5490   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5491   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5492   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5493   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5494   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5495   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5496   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5497   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5498   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5499   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5500   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5501   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5502   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5503 
  5504 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5505 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5506 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5507 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5508 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5509 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5510 
  5511 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5512 
  5513 
  5514 *** HOLCF ***
  5515 
  5516 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5517 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5518 type-inference.
  5519 
  5520 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5521 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5522 instead of exponential time).
  5523 
  5524 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5525 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5526 
  5527   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5528 
  5529 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5530 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5531 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5532 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5533 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5534 syntax and examples.
  5535 
  5536 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5537 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5538 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5539 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5540 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5541 
  5542 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5543 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5544 
  5545   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5546   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5547   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5548   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5549   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5550   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5551 
  5552 
  5553 *** ZF ***
  5554 
  5555 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5556 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5557 of a homomorphism).
  5558 
  5559 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5560 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5561 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5562 
  5563 
  5564 *** Cube ***
  5565 
  5566 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5567 theories.
  5568 
  5569 
  5570 *** ML ***
  5571 
  5572 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5573 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5574 
  5575 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5576 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5577 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5578 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5579 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5580 
  5581 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5582 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5583 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5584 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5585 
  5586 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5587 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5588 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5589 
  5590     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5591     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5592     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5593     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5594     seq fs = List.app fs
  5595     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5596     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5597 
  5598 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5599 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5600 
  5601   x |> f                f #> g
  5602   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5603 
  5604 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5605 
  5606   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5607   infix 2 ?;
  5608   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5609   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5610 
  5611 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5612 infix operators.
  5613 
  5614 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5615 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5616 example:
  5617 
  5618   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5619     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5620 
  5621   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5622     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5623 
  5624   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5625     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5626 
  5627   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5628     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5629 
  5630 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5631 available:
  5632 
  5633   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5634   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5635   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5636   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5637 
  5638 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5639 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5640 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5641 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5642 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5643 
  5644   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5645   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5646   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5647 
  5648 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5649 
  5650   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5651   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5652 
  5653 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5654 Naive rewrites:
  5655 
  5656   make_keylist = AList.make
  5657   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5658 
  5659 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5660   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5661 
  5662     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5663     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5664 
  5665 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5666   Naive rewrites:
  5667 
  5668     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5669     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5670 
  5671 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5672 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5673 lists.
  5674 
  5675 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5676 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5677 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5678 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5679 
  5680 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5681 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5682 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5683 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5684 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5685 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5686 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5687 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5688 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5689 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5690 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5691 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5692 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5693 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5694 Output.raw have no effect.
  5695 
  5696 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5697 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5698 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5699 
  5700 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5701 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5702 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5703 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5704 
  5705 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5706 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5707 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5708 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5709 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5710 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5711 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5712 
  5713 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5714 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5715 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5716 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5717 
  5718 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5719 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5720 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5721 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5722 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5723 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5724 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5725 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5726 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5727 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5728 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5729 
  5730 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5731 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5732 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5733 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5734 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5735 with earlier declarations.
  5736 
  5737 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5738 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5739 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5740 
  5741 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5742 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5743 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5744 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5745 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5746 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5747 
  5748   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5749     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5750 
  5751   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5752     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5753 
  5754   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5755     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5756     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5757     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5758 
  5759 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5760 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5761 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5762 
  5763 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5764 
  5765 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5766 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5767 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5768 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5769 
  5770 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5771 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5772 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5773 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5774 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5775 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5776 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5777 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5778 
  5779 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5780 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5781 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5782 
  5783 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5784 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5785 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5786 
  5787 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5788 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5789 
  5790   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5791   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5792   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5793   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5794 
  5795 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5796 
  5797 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5798 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5799 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5800 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5801 (both increase the runtime).
  5802 
  5803 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5804 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5805 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5806 
  5807 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5808 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5809 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5810 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5811 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5812 for further details.
  5813 
  5814 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5815 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5816 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5817 scripts for the time being.
  5818 
  5819 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5820 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5821 
  5822   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5823   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5824 
  5825 
  5826 *** System ***
  5827 
  5828 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5829 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5830 
  5831 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5832 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5833 
  5834 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5835 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5836 
  5837 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5838 distribution being used.
  5839 
  5840 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5841 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5842 theories.
  5843 
  5844 
  5845 
  5846 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5847 --------------------------------
  5848 
  5849 *** General ***
  5850 
  5851 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5852   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5853 
  5854 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5855   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5856   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5857   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5858   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  5859   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  5860   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  5861   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  5862   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  5863   existing theory and ML files.
  5864 
  5865 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  5866 
  5867 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  5868   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  5869   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  5870   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  5871 
  5872 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  5873   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  5874   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  5875   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  5876 
  5877 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  5878   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  5879   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  5880 
  5881 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  5882   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  5883   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  5884   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  5885   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  5886 
  5887 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  5888   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  5889 
  5890 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  5891   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  5892   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  5893 
  5894 
  5895 *** Isar ***
  5896 
  5897 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  5898   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  5899   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  5900     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  5901     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  5902     emulations.
  5903   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  5904     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  5905     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  5906 
  5907 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  5908   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  5909     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  5910     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  5911   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  5912 
  5913 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  5914   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  5915   and derived forms.
  5916 
  5917 * Locales:
  5918   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  5919     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  5920     "_axioms") in the premise.
  5921     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  5922   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  5923     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  5924   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  5925     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  5926   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  5927         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  5928     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  5929     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  5930     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  5931     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  5932     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  5933       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  5934     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  5935     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  5936     with "locale (open)".
  5937       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  5938 
  5939 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  5940   (Isar) contexts.
  5941 
  5942 
  5943 *** HOL ***
  5944 
  5945 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  5946   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  5947   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  5948   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  5949   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  5950 
  5951 * Simplifier:
  5952   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  5953     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  5954     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  5955     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  5956     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  5957   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  5958     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  5959     is solved by simplification already.
  5960 
  5961 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  5962     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  5963 
  5964 * Numerics:
  5965   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  5966     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  5967   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  5968     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  5969   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  5970     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  5971     exponentiation).
  5972 
  5973 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  5974 
  5975 * Records:
  5976   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  5977     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  5978     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  5979   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  5980     (not enabled by default).
  5981   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  5982     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  5983   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  5984 
  5985 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  5986   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  5987   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  5988 
  5989 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  5990 
  5991 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  5992 
  5993 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  5994   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  5995 
  5996 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  5997   matrix theory to linear programming.
  5998 
  5999 * Unions and Intersections:
  6000   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  6001   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  6002   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  6003   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  6004 
  6005 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  6006   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  6007   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  6008   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  6009 
  6010 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  6011   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  6012 
  6013 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  6014   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  6015 
  6016 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  6017   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  6018   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  6019 
  6020 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  6021   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  6022   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  6023   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  6024   for examples.
  6025 
  6026 
  6027 *** HOLCF ***
  6028 
  6029 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  6030 
  6031 
  6032 
  6033 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  6034 ------------------------------
  6035 
  6036 *** General ***
  6037 
  6038 * Provers/simplifier:
  6039 
  6040   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  6041     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  6042     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  6043     the order of assumptions.
  6044 
  6045     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6046 
  6047     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  6048        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  6049 
  6050         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  6051 
  6052        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  6053 
  6054         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  6055 
  6056        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  6057        kind of problem.
  6058 
  6059     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  6060        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  6061        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  6062        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  6063        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  6064        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  6065        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  6066 
  6067   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  6068 
  6069   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  6070     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  6071     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  6072     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  6073     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  6074     the simplifier would diverge.
  6075 
  6076   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  6077 
  6078   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  6079     congruence is ignored.
  6080 
  6081 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  6082   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  6083   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  6084 
  6085 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  6086 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  6087    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  6088 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  6089 
  6090 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  6091 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
  6092       PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
  6093 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
  6094 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
  6095 (or rather last, the way they are printed).
  6096 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
  6097 
  6098 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
  6099 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
  6100 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
  6101 assumption failed.
  6102 
  6103 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
  6104 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
  6105 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
  6106 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
  6107 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
  6108 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
  6109 on the old view without predicates;
  6110 
  6111 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
  6112 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
  6113 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
  6114 
  6115 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
  6116 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
  6117 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
  6118 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
  6119 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
  6120 be given (the default is 40);
  6121 
  6122 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
  6123 (batch-mode only);
  6124 
  6125 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
  6126 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
  6127 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
  6128 
  6129 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
  6130 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
  6131 for slight decrease in efficiency;
  6132 
  6133 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
  6134 linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
  6135 
  6136 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
  6137 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
  6138 
  6139 
  6140 *** HOL ***
  6141 
  6142 * arith(_tac)
  6143 
  6144  - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
  6145    Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
  6146    of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
  6147    In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
  6148 
  6149  - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
  6150 
  6151  - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
  6152    linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
  6153    Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
  6154 
  6155 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
  6156 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
  6157 
  6158 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
  6159 are distributed over a sum of terms;
  6160 
  6161 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
  6162 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
  6163 "<=", "<" and "=").
  6164 
  6165 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
  6166 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
  6167 
  6168 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
  6169 definition;
  6170 
  6171 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
  6172 Finite_Set);
  6173 
  6174 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
  6175 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
  6176 
  6177 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
  6178   each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
  6179 
  6180 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
  6181 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
  6182 of the empty set.
  6183 
  6184 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
  6185 any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
  6186 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
  6187 Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
  6188 
  6189 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
  6190 
  6191 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
  6192 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
  6193 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
  6194 
  6195 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
  6196 
  6197 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
  6198 Fleuriot);
  6199 
  6200 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
  6201 
  6202 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
  6203 Gray and Kramer);
  6204 
  6205 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
  6206 
  6207 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
  6208 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
  6209 
  6210 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
  6211 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
  6212 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
  6213 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
  6214 assignment, exceptions.
  6215 
  6216 
  6217 *** ZF ***
  6218 
  6219 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
  6220 universe, etc.);
  6221 
  6222 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
  6223 
  6224 
  6225 *** ML ***
  6226 
  6227 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
  6228 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
  6229 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
  6230 
  6231 * Pure: