NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Dec 29 17:36:18 2015 +0100 (2015-12-29 ago)
changeset 61960 20c1321378db
parent 61958 0a5dd617a88c
child 61963 2548e7cc86fb
permissions -rw-r--r--
support additional abbrevs;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
    13 
    14   theorems             ~>  lemmas
    15   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
    16   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
    17   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
    18 
    19 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
    20 accordingly.
    21 
    22 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
    23 'theorem'.
    24 
    25 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
    26 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
    27 to update old sources.
    28 
    29 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
    30 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
    31 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
    32 has been removed (see below).
    33 
    34 
    35 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    36 
    37 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
    38 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
    39 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
    40 
    41 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
    42 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
    43 
    44 * Improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command state output,
    45 interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
    46 
    47 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
    48 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Configuration option "ML_debugger"
    49 and commands 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
    50 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with debugging
    51 information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via context
    52 menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML expressions etc.
    53 At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have any effect on the
    54 running ML program.
    55 
    56 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
    57 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
    58 
    59 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
    60 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
    61 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
    62 update.
    63 
    64 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
    65 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
    66 enable option "editor_output_state".
    67 
    68 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
    69 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
    70 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
    71 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
    72 visibility.
    73 
    74 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
    75 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
    76 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
    77 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
    78 panel.
    79 
    80 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
    81 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
    82 the editor.
    83 
    84 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
    85 instead of former C+e LEFT.
    86 
    87 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to
    88 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
    89 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
    90 
    91 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
    92 application wrapper threat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
    93 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
    94 instead.
    95 
    96 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
    97 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
    98 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
    99 
   100 
   101 *** Document preparation ***
   102 
   103 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
   104 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
   105 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
   106 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
   107 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
   108 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
   109 
   110 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
   111 (outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the short
   112 form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>.   @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
   113 
   114 * @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
   115 
   116 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
   117 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   118 
   119 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
   120 entities of the Isar language.
   121 
   122 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
   123 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
   124 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
   125 
   126 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
   127 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
   128 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
   129 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
   130 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
   131 
   132 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
   133 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
   134 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
   135 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
   136 or terminal spaces are ignored.
   137 
   138 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
   139 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
   140 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
   141 
   142 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
   143 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
   144 
   145 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
   146 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
   147 follows:
   148 
   149   \<^item>  itemize
   150   \<^enum>  enumerate
   151   \<^descr>  description
   152 
   153 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
   154 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
   155 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
   156 
   157 * Document antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source
   158 recursively, adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in
   159 the short form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
   160 
   161 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
   162 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
   163 
   164 
   165 *** Isar ***
   166 
   167 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
   168 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
   169 
   170 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
   171 parameter scope for of each clause.
   172 
   173 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
   174 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
   175 
   176 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured
   177 rule statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but
   178 the notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
   179 example:
   180 
   181   have result: "C x y"
   182     if "A x" and "B y"
   183     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   184     <proof>
   185 
   186 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
   187 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
   188 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
   189 
   190   {
   191     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   192     assume that: "A x" "B y"
   193     have "C x y" <proof>
   194   }
   195   note result = this
   196 
   197 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
   198 instead of 'assume' above.
   199 
   200 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
   201 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
   202 
   203   assume result: "C x y"
   204     if "A x" and "B y"
   205     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   206 
   207 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
   208 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
   209 
   210 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
   211 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
   212 example:
   213 
   214   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
   215 
   216 is equivalent to:
   217 
   218   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
   219 
   220 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
   221 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
   222 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as follows:
   223 
   224   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   225 
   226 or:
   227 
   228   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
   229 
   230 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
   231 
   232   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
   233 
   234 * New command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
   235 ('apply' scripts).
   236 
   237 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
   238 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
   239 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
   240 of the local context elements yet.
   241 
   242 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
   243 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
   244 
   245   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
   246   then have something
   247   proof cases
   248     case a
   249     then show ?thesis <proof>
   250   next
   251     case b
   252     then show ?thesis <proof>
   253   next
   254     case c
   255     then show ?thesis <proof>
   256   qed
   257 
   258 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
   259 
   260   case a: (c xs)
   261   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
   262 
   263 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
   264 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
   265 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
   266 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
   267 and always put attributes in front.
   268 
   269 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
   270 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
   271 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
   272 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
   273 
   274 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
   275 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
   276 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
   277 manual.
   278 
   279 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
   280 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
   281 example:
   282 
   283 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   284   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   285 proof goal_cases
   286   case (1 x)
   287   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
   288 next
   289   case (2 y z)
   290   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
   291 qed
   292 
   293 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   294   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   295 proof goal_cases
   296   case prems: 1
   297   then show ?case using prems sorry
   298 next
   299   case prems: 2
   300   then show ?case using prems sorry
   301 qed
   302 
   303 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
   304 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
   305 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
   306 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
   307 
   308 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
   309 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
   310 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
   311 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
   312 
   313   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
   314     supply [simp] = a
   315   proof
   316     show A by simp
   317   next
   318     show A by simp
   319   qed
   320 
   321 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
   322 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
   323 
   324 
   325 *** Pure ***
   326 
   327 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
   328 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
   329 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
   330 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   331 
   332 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
   333 commands.  Previously, the keyword was 'where'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   334 
   335 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
   336 printing terms.  Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
   337 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity.  Now
   338 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
   339 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed.  This can be of great
   340 help when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof
   341 states are displayed much more succinctly.  It also means that only
   342 notation needs to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this
   343 example:
   344 
   345   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
   346   begin
   347     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
   348   end
   349 
   350   locale morphism =
   351     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
   352     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
   353   begin
   354     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
   355   end
   356 
   357 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
   358 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
   359 
   360 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
   361 'defines'.
   362 
   363 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
   364 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
   367 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
   368 
   369 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
   370 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
   371 
   372 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
   373 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint.
   376 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour
   377 has been exploited.
   378 
   379 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
   380 operations behave more similar to abbreviations.  Potential
   381 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   382 
   383 
   384 *** HOL ***
   385 
   386 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named "case_prod",
   387 uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses.  Very popular theorem aliasses
   388 have been retained.
   389 Consolidated facts:
   390   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
   391   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
   392   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
   393   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
   394   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
   395   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
   396   split_split ~> prod.split
   397   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
   398   splitI ~> case_prodI
   399   splitD ~> case_prodD
   400   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
   401   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
   402   splitE ~> case_prodE
   403   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
   404   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
   405   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
   406   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
   407   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
   408   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
   409   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
   410   The_split ~> The_case_prod
   411   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
   412   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
   413   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
   414   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
   415   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
   416   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
   417   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
   418   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
   419   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
   420   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
   421   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
   422   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
   423   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
   424   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
   425 Changes in structure HOLogic:
   426   split_const ~> case_prod_const
   427   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
   428   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
   429   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
   430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   431 
   432 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
   433 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
   434 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
   435 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
   436 
   437 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
   438 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
   439 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
   440 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
   441 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
   442 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
   445 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
   446 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
   447 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
   448 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
   449 
   450 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function 'real'
   451 is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and abbreviates
   452 of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real' abbreviates
   453 of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real' have been
   454 replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
   455 Consolidated facts (among others):
   456   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
   457   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
   458   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
   459   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
   460   real_of_one of_int_1
   461   real_of_int_add of_int_add
   462   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
   463   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
   464   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
   465   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
   466   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
   467   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
   468   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
   469   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
   470   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
   471   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
   472   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
   473   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
   474   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
   475   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
   476   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
   477   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
   478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   479 
   480 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
   482 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
   483 simplify porting old theories:
   484 
   485   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
   486 
   487   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
   488 
   489   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
   490   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
   491 
   492   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
   493 
   494   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
   495   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
   496 
   497   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
   498 
   499   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
   500     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
   501 
   502 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
   503 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
   505 
   506 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
   507 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
   510 
   511 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Sledgehammer:
   514   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
   515   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
   516     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
   517   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
   518   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
   519   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
   520     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
   522 
   523 * Nitpick:
   524   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
   525   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
   526   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
   527   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
   528 
   529 * New (co)datatype package:
   530   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
   531     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
   532   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
   533   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
   534     being defined.
   535   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
   536 
   537 * Transfer:
   538   - new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
   539     'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
   540     'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
   541 
   542 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
   543 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations.
   544 Slight INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes
   545 former simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
   546 
   547 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors.  Slight
   548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   549 
   550 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
   551 integral (semi)domains, particularly units.  Although
   552 logically subsumed by fields, is is not a super class of these
   553 in order not to burden fields with notions that are trivial there.
   554 
   555 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants
   556 for equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral
   557 (semi)domain.  This formalizes associated elements as well.
   558 
   559 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
   560 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
   561 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as gcd_nat.assoc
   562 and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
   563 
   564 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _)
   565 are logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class
   566 Rings.divide, with infix syntax (_ div _).  Infix syntax (_ / _)
   567 for field division is added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse.
   568 INCOMPATIBILITY,  instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather
   569 than the former separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually
   570 not available during instantiation.
   571 
   572 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel
   573 complementary terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))"
   574 simplifies to "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   575 
   576 * Library/Multiset:
   577   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
   578       < ~> <#
   579       \<subset> ~> \<subset>#
   580       <= ~> <=#
   581       \<le> ~> \<le>#
   582       \<subseteq> ~> \<subseteq>#
   583     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   584   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
   585     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
   586     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
   587     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
   588     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
   589     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
   590     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   591   - Renamed conversions:
   592       multiset_of ~> mset
   593       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
   594       set_of ~> set_mset
   595     INCOMPATIBILITY
   596   - Renamed lemmas:
   597       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
   598       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
   599       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
   600     INCOMPATIBILITY
   601   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
   602     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp less_eq_multiset.transfer
   603     less_eq_multiset_def
   604     INCOMPATIBILITY
   605 
   606 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the Bourbaki-Witt
   607 fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in chain-complete partial
   608 orders.
   609 
   610 * Multivariate_Analysis/Cauchy_Integral_Thm: Contour integrals (= complex path integrals),
   611 Cauchy's integral theorem, winding numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem,
   612 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light
   613 
   614 * Multivariate_Analysis: Added topological concepts such as connected components,
   615 homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
   616 
   617 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef'
   618 command. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
   619 
   620 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
   621 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   622 "inductive_defs" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
   623 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
   626 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   627 "function_defs" is enabled. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 * Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data structures.
   630 
   631 * Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
   632 
   633 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat =>
   634 'a.
   635 
   636 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
   637 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   638 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   639 
   640 
   641 *** ML ***
   642 
   643 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
   644 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
   645 breaks.
   646 
   647 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
   648 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
   649 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
   650 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
   651 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
   654 
   655 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
   656 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
   657 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   658 
   659 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
   660 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
   661 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
   662 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
   663 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
   666 
   667   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
   668   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
   669 
   670   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
   671   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
   672 
   673 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
   674 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
   675 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
   676 
   677 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
   678 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
   679 instead (with proper context).
   680 
   681 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
   682 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
   683 
   684 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
   685 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
   686 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
   687 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
   688 the proof context discipline.
   689 
   690 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
   691 system are available:
   692 
   693   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
   694   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
   695   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
   696 
   697 
   698 *** System ***
   699 
   700 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
   701 
   702 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
   703 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
   704 performance.
   705 
   706 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
   707 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324).  For example:
   708 
   709     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
   710 
   711 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
   712 conflations:
   713 
   714     hence  ~>  then have
   715     thus   ~>  then show
   716 
   717 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
   718 maintainability of proofs.
   719 
   720 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
   721 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild)
   722 is required after change.
   723 
   724 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
   725 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
   726 
   727 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
   728 space.
   729 
   730 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
   731 platforms as follows.
   732 
   733   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
   734     associated with the main app bundle
   735 
   736   - isabelle jedit: settings
   737     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
   738     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   739 
   740   - isabelle build: settings
   741     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   742 
   743 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
   744 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
   745 
   746 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
   747 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
   748 
   749 
   750 
   751 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
   752 ------------------------------
   753 
   754 *** General ***
   755 
   756 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
   757 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
   758 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
   759 
   760   context
   761   begin
   762 
   763   private definition ...
   764   private lemma ...
   765 
   766   qualified definition ...
   767   qualified lemma ...
   768 
   769   lemma ...
   770   theorem ...
   771 
   772   end
   773 
   774 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
   775 naming policy.
   776 
   777 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
   778 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
   779 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
   780 
   781 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
   782 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
   783 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
   784 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
   785 
   786 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
   787 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
   788 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
   789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
   792 theory context.
   793 
   794 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
   795 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
   796 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
   797 
   798 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
   799 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
   800 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
   801 sources.
   802 
   803 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
   804 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
   805 
   806 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
   807 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
   808 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
   809 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
   810 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
   811 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
   812 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
   813 
   814 
   815 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   816 
   817 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
   818 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
   819 
   820 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
   821 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
   822 in the buffer.
   823 
   824 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
   825 marker, SideKick parser.
   826 
   827 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
   828 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
   829 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
   830 
   831 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
   832 Options / Text Area).
   833 
   834 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
   835 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
   836 
   837 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   838 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   839 
   840 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   841 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   842 
   843 
   844 *** Document preparation ***
   845 
   846 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   847 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   848 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   849 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   850 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   851 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   852 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   853 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   856 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   857 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   858 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   859 
   860 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   861 style.
   862 
   863 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   864 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   865 
   866 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   867 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   868 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   869 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   870 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   871 
   872 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   873 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   874 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   875 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   876 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   877 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   878 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
   881 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
   882 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 
   886 *** Pure ***
   887 
   888 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   889 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   890 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   891 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   892 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   893 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   894 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   895 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   896 
   897 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   898 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   899 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   900 
   901 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   902 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   903 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   904 different index.
   905 
   906 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   907 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   908 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   909 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   910 
   911 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   912 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   913 token category instead.
   914 
   915 
   916 *** HOL ***
   917 
   918 * New (co)datatype package:
   919   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   920     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   921     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   922     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   923     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924   - Renamed theorems:
   925       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   926       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   927       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   928       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   929       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   930       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   931       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   932       sel_map ~> map_sel
   933       sel_set ~> set_sel
   934       sel_split ~> split_sel
   935       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   936       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   937       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   938     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   939   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   940     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   941     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   942   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   943     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   944     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   946     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   947     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   948     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   949     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   950     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   951     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952   - Renamed theories:
   953       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   954       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   955       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   956       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   957       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   958       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   959     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   960   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   961     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   962     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   963     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   964     rel_sum (using inductive).
   965     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   966     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   967     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   968     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   969   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
   970     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
   971     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
   972     rules.
   973 
   974 * Old datatype package:
   975   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   976     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   977     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   978     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   979     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980   - Renamed theorems:
   981       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   982     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983   - Renamed theory:
   984       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   985     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * Nitpick:
   988   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   989     operations.
   990 
   991 * Sledgehammer:
   992   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   993     default.
   994   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   995     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   996   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   997     Removed sub-command:
   998       min
   999   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  1000     dramatically improved.
  1001   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  1002 
  1003 * Old and new SMT modules:
  1004   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  1005     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  1006     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  1007     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  1008     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  1009     point to it.
  1010     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  1012     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  1014     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  1015   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  1016     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  1017 
  1018 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  1019 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  1020 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  1021 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  1022 
  1023 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  1024 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  1025 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  1028 
  1029 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  1030 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  1031 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  1032 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  1035 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1036 
  1037 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  1038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1039 
  1040 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  1041 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  1042 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  1045 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  1048 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  1049 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  1050 
  1051 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  1052 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  1053 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  1054 needed.
  1055 
  1056 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  1057 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  1058 
  1059 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  1060 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  1061 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  1062 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  1063 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  1064 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  1065 
  1066 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  1067 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  1068 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  1069 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  1070 
  1071 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  1072 type class hierarchy:
  1073   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1074   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  1075   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  1076   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  1077 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1078 
  1079 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  1080   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  1081   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  1082 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1083 
  1084 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  1085 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  1086 
  1087 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  1088   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  1089   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  1090   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  1091 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  1094 and part of theory Main.
  1095   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  1096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  1099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  1102 Fact rename:
  1103     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  1107 
  1108 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  1109 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  1110 
  1111 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  1112 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  1113 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  1114 
  1115 * Library/Multiset:
  1116   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  1117   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  1118     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  1119   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  1120       <# ~> #<#
  1121       <=# ~> #<=#
  1122       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  1123       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  1124     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1125   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  1126       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  1127       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  1128     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129   - Renamed
  1130       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  1131       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  1132       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  1133     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  1135   - Added attributes:
  1136       image_mset.id [simp]
  1137       image_mset_id [simp]
  1138       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  1139       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  1140       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  1141       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  1142       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  1143       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  1144     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  1147 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  1148 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  1149 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1150 
  1151 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  1152 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  1153 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  1154 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  1155 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  1156 examples.
  1157 
  1158 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  1159   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  1160   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  1161   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  1162     projection
  1163 
  1164 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  1165 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  1166 
  1167 
  1168 *** ML ***
  1169 
  1170 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  1171 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  1172 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  1173 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  1174 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  1175 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  1176 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  1177 
  1178 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  1179 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  1180 
  1181 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  1182 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  1183 
  1184 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  1188 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  1189 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  1190 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  1191 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  1192 nested.
  1193 
  1194 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  1195 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  1198 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  1199 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  1200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  1203 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  1204 Thm.term_of etc.
  1205 
  1206 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  1207 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  1208 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  1211 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  1212 
  1213 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  1214 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  1215 
  1216 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  1217 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  1218 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  1221 Input.source (with formal position information).
  1222 
  1223 
  1224 *** System ***
  1225 
  1226 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  1227 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  1228 
  1229 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  1230 
  1231 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  1232 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  1233 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  1234 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  1235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1236 
  1237 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  1238 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  1239 
  1240 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  1241 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  1242 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  1243 
  1244 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  1245 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  1246 
  1247 
  1248 
  1249 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  1250 ---------------------------------
  1251 
  1252 *** General ***
  1253 
  1254 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  1255 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  1256 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  1257 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  1258 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  1259 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  1260 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  1261 some examples.
  1262 
  1263 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  1264 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  1265 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  1266 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  1267 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  1268 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  1269 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  1270 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  1271 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  1272 
  1273 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  1274 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  1275 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  1276 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  1277 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  1278 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  1279 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  1280 proof tools.
  1281 
  1282 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  1283 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  1284 supports input via ` (backquote).
  1285 
  1286 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  1287 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  1288 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  1289 
  1290 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  1291 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  1292 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  1293 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  1296 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  1297 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  1298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  1301 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  1302 
  1303 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  1304 not check existence within the file-system.
  1305 
  1306 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  1307 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  1308 
  1309 
  1310 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1311 
  1312 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  1313 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  1314 buffer.
  1315 
  1316 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  1317 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  1318 
  1319 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  1320 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  1321 
  1322 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  1323 auxiliary ML files.
  1324 
  1325 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  1326 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  1327 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  1328 
  1329 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  1330 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  1331 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  1332 
  1333 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  1334 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  1335 
  1336 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  1337 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  1338 caret".
  1339 
  1340 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  1341 completion popup and context-menu.
  1342 
  1343 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  1344 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  1345 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  1346 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  1347 
  1348 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  1349 to highlight text via regular expression.
  1350 
  1351 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  1352 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  1353 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  1354 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  1355 
  1356 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  1357 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  1358 
  1359 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  1360 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  1361 
  1362 * Improved monitor panel.
  1363 
  1364 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  1365 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  1366 
  1367 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  1368 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  1369 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  1370 
  1371 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  1372 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  1373 within the context.
  1374 
  1375 
  1376 *** Pure ***
  1377 
  1378 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  1379 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  1380 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  1381 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  1382 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  1383 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  1384 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  1385 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  1386 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  1387 
  1388 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  1389 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  1390 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  1391 renaming needs to be applied:
  1392 
  1393   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  1394   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  1395   all            ~>  Pure.all
  1396   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  1397   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  1398 
  1399 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  1400 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  1401 old constants:
  1402 
  1403 setup {*
  1404   fn thy => thy
  1405     |> Sign.root_path
  1406     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  1407     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  1408     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  1409     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  1410 *}
  1411 
  1412 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  1413 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  1414 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  1415 
  1416 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  1417 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  1418 instantiated theorem.
  1419 
  1420 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  1421 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  1422 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  1423 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  1424 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  1425 
  1426   attribute_setup standard =
  1427     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  1428 
  1429 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  1430 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  1431 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  1432 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  1433 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  1434 
  1435 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  1436 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  1437 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  1438 
  1439 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  1440 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  1441 
  1442 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  1443 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  1444 
  1445 
  1446 *** HOL ***
  1447 
  1448 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  1449 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  1452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  1455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  1458 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  1461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  1464 with the given constants.
  1465 
  1466 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  1467 operations on records.
  1468 
  1469 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  1470 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1471 
  1472 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  1475 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  1476 
  1477 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  1480 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  1481 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  1482 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  1483 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  1486 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1487 
  1488 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  1489   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  1490   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  1491   part of theory "Main".
  1492 
  1493   Theory renamings:
  1494     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  1495     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  1496     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  1497     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  1498     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  1499     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  1500     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  1501     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  1502     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  1503     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  1504     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  1505     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  1506     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  1507     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  1508     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  1509     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  1510     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  1511     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  1512     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  1513     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  1514     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  1515     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  1516 
  1517   New theories:
  1518     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  1519     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  1520     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  1521     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  1522     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  1523 
  1524   Discontinued theories:
  1525     BNF/BNF.thy
  1526     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  1527 
  1528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * New (co)datatype package:
  1531   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  1532   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  1533     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  1534   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  1535     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  1536   - Renamed commands:
  1537       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  1538       primrec_new ~> primrec
  1539       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  1540     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  1542     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  1543     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  1545     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  1546     using "prim(co)rec".
  1547     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  1549     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  1550     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1551   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  1552     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  1553     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  1554     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Old datatype package:
  1557   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  1558     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  1559     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  1561     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  1562     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1563 
  1564 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  1565   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  1566   BNF-based datatype package.
  1567 
  1568   Renamed constants:
  1569     Option.set ~> set_option
  1570     Option.map ~> map_option
  1571     option_rel ~> rel_option
  1572 
  1573   Renamed theorems:
  1574     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  1575     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  1576     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  1577     option.recs ~> option.rec
  1578     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  1579     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  1580     map.simps ~> list.map
  1581     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  1582     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  1583     the.simps ~> option.sel
  1584 
  1585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1586 
  1587 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  1588     sum_map ~> map_sum
  1589     map_pair ~> map_prod
  1590     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  1591     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  1592     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  1593     set_rel ~> rel_set
  1594     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  1595     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  1596     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  1597     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  1598 
  1599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Lifting and Transfer:
  1602   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  1603   - stronger reflexivity prover
  1604   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  1605   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  1606     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  1607     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  1608       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  1609       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  1610       automatically
  1611     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  1612     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  1613       automatically for datatypes
  1614   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  1615     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  1616       more
  1617       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1618     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  1619       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  1620       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  1622       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  1623       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624   - registration of code equations is more robust
  1625     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  1627     form
  1628     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  1630     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  1632     Code_Numeral.natural
  1633     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  1635     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  1638 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  1639 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  1640 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  1641 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  1642 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  1643 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  1646 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  1647 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  1648 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  1649 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  1650 
  1651 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  1652 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  1653 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  1654 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  1655 
  1656 * Sledgehammer:
  1657   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  1658   - MaSh overhaul:
  1659     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  1660       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  1661     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  1662       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  1663       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  1664       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  1665   - New option:
  1666       smt_proofs
  1667   - Renamed options:
  1668       isar_compress ~> compress
  1669       isar_try0 ~> try0
  1670 
  1671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  1674 
  1675 * Nitpick:
  1676   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  1677     take infinite values.
  1678   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  1679     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  1680   - Removed "std" option.
  1681   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  1682     "hide_types".
  1683 
  1684 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  1685 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1686 
  1687 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  1688 
  1689 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  1690   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  1691   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  1692     SUP instead uniformly.
  1693   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  1694     or SUP and Sup.
  1695   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  1696   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  1697   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  1698     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  1699     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  1700 
  1701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702 
  1703 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  1704 
  1705 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  1706 
  1707   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1708   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1709   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1710   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1711 
  1712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713 
  1714 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  1715 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  1716 
  1717 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  1718 
  1719     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  1720     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  1721     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  1722     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  1723     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  1724     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  1725     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  1726     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  1727     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  1728     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  1729     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  1730     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  1731     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  1732     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  1733     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1734     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1735     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  1736     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  1737     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  1738     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  1739     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  1740     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  1741     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  1742     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  1743     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  1744     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  1745     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  1746     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  1747     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  1748     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  1749     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  1750     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  1751     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1752     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1753     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1754     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1755     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1756     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1757     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1758     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1759     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1760     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1761     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1762     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1763     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1764     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1765     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1766     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1767     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1768     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1769     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1770     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1771     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1772     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1773     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1774     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1775     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1776     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1777     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1778 
  1779   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1780   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1781   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1782     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1783 
  1784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1787 
  1788   Fact consolidations:
  1789     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1790     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1791     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1792     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1793     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1794     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1795     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1796     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1797     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1798     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1799     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1800     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1801     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1802     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1803     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1804     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1805     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1806     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1807     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1808     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1809     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1810     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1811     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1812     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1813     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1814     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1815     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1816     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1817     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1818     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1819     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1820     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1821     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1822     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1823     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1824     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1825     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1826     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1827     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1828     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1829 
  1830 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1831 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1832 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1833 
  1834 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1835 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1836 
  1837 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1838 
  1839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1842 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1848     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1849 
  1850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1851 
  1852 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1853   consolidation:
  1854     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1855     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1856 
  1857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1860   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1861   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1862   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1863     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1864   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1865     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1866   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1867 
  1868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869 
  1870 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1871 
  1872     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1873     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1874     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1875     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1876     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1877     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1878     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1879     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1880     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1881     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1882     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1883     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1884     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1885 
  1886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1887 
  1888 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1889 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1890 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1891 
  1892 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1893     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1894     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1895     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1896     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1897 
  1898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900 * Fact name consolidation:
  1901     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1902     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1903     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1904     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1905     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1906 
  1907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1908 
  1909 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1910 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1911 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1912 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1913 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1914 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1915 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1919 
  1920 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1921 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1922 
  1923 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1924 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1925 
  1926 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1927 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1928 or the brute way with
  1929 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1930 
  1931 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1932 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1933 stating boundedness of sets.
  1934 
  1935 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1936 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1937 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938 
  1939 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1940   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1941   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1942   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1943   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1944   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1945   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1946   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1947   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1948   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1949   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1950   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1951 
  1952   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1953 
  1954   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1955 
  1956     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1957     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1958     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1959     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1960     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1961 
  1962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1965   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1966 
  1967   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1968 
  1969   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1970 
  1971   - removed constant isDiff
  1972 
  1973   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1974     input syntax.
  1975 
  1976   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1977 
  1978   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1979 
  1980   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1981 
  1982   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1983 
  1984   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1985     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1986     has_vector_derivative.
  1987 
  1988   - Other renamings:
  1989     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1990     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1991     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1992     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1993     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1994     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1995     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1996 
  1997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  2000 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  2001 in continuous_intros.
  2002 
  2003 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  2004 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  2005 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  2006 
  2007 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  2008 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  2009 especially removes
  2010 
  2011     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  2012 
  2013 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  2014     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  2015 
  2016 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  2017 
  2018   Renamings:
  2019     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  2020     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  2021     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  2022     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  2023     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  2024     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  2025     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  2026     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  2027     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  2028     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  2029     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  2030     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  2031 
  2032     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  2033     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  2034     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  2035 
  2036   Removed theorems:
  2037     complex_zero_def
  2038     complex_add_def
  2039     complex_minus_def
  2040     complex_diff_def
  2041     complex_one_def
  2042     complex_mult_def
  2043     complex_inverse_def
  2044     complex_scaleR_def
  2045 
  2046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  2049 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  2052 
  2053 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  2054 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  2055 
  2056 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  2057 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2058 
  2059 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  2060 
  2061 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  2062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2063 
  2064 * HOL-Word:
  2065   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  2066     of "word_arith_wis".
  2067   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  2068     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  2069     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  2070 
  2071 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  2072   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  2073   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  2074   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  2075     (except the AFP)
  2076 
  2077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  2080   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  2081   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  2082     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  2083   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  2084     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  2085     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  2086     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  2087     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  2088     intervals.
  2089   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  2090     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  2091     - renamed theorems:
  2092         interval ~> box
  2093         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  2094         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  2095         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  2096         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  2097         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  2098         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  2099         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  2100         open_interval ~> open_box
  2101         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  2102         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  2103         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  2104         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  2105         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  2106         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  2107         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  2108         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  2109         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  2110         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  2111         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  2112         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  2113         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  2114         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  2115         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  2116         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  2117         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  2118         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  2119         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  2120         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  2121         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  2122         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  2123         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  2124         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  2125 
  2126     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  2127         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  2128         has_integral + has_integral_real
  2129         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  2130         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  2131         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  2132         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  2133         integral_const + integral_const_real
  2134         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  2135         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  2136         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  2137         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  2138         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  2139         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  2140         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  2141         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  2142         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  2143         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  2144 
  2145   - renamed theorems:
  2146     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  2147     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  2148     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  2149 
  2150 * HOL-Probability:
  2151   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  2152 
  2153     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  2154       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  2155 
  2156     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  2157 
  2158   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  2159     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  2160 
  2161     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  2162     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  2163     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  2164     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  2165     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  2166     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  2167     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  2168     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  2169     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  2170     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  2171     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  2172     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  2173     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  2174     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  2175     integral_indicator          ~>
  2176          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  2177     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  2178     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  2179     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  2180 
  2181     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  2182          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  2183 
  2184     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  2185          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  2186 
  2187     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  2188          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  2189 
  2190     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  2191          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  2192          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  2193 
  2194     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  2195          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2196 
  2197     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  2198          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  2199 
  2200     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  2201          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  2202          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2203 
  2204     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  2205          nn_integral_real_affine
  2206 
  2207     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  2208          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  2209 
  2210     The following theorems where removed:
  2211 
  2212     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  2213     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  2214     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  2215     lebesgue_integral_multc
  2216     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  2217     integral_cmul_indicator
  2218     integral_real
  2219 
  2220   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  2221     distributed random variables.
  2222 
  2223 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  2224 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  2225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 
  2228 *** Scala ***
  2229 
  2230 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  2231 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  2232 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  2233 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  2234 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  2237 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 
  2240 *** ML ***
  2241 
  2242 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  2243 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  2244 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  2245 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  2246 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  2247 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  2248 
  2249 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  2250 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2251 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  2252 actually belongs to it).
  2253 
  2254 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  2255 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  2256 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  2257 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  2258 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  2259 of schematic variables.
  2260 
  2261 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  2262 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263 
  2264 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  2265 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  2266 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  2269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  2272 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  2273 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  2277 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  2279 formal context.
  2280 
  2281 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  2282 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  2285 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  2286 
  2287 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  2288 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  2289 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  2290 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  2291 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  2292 
  2293 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  2294 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  2295 purposes.
  2296 
  2297 
  2298 *** System ***
  2299 
  2300 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  2301 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  2302 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  2303 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  2304 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  2305 
  2306 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  2307 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  2308 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  2309 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  2310 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  2311 settings variable.
  2312 
  2313 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  2314 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  2315 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  2316 
  2317 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  2318 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  2319 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  2320 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  2321 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  2322 
  2323 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  2324 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  2325 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  2326 
  2327 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  2328 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  2329 
  2330 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  2331 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  2332 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  2333 
  2334 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  2335 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  2336 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  2337 processing is started.
  2338 
  2339 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  2340 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  2341 
  2342 
  2343 
  2344 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  2345 -------------------------------------
  2346 
  2347 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2348 
  2349 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  2350 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  2351 
  2352 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  2353 after edits surrounding the command location.
  2354 
  2355 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  2356 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  2357 e.g. out-of-memory).
  2358 
  2359 
  2360 *** System ***
  2361 
  2362 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  2363 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  2364 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  2365 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  2366 
  2367 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  2368 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  2369 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  2370 
  2371 
  2372 
  2373 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  2374 -------------------------------------
  2375 
  2376 *** General ***
  2377 
  2378 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  2379 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  2380 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  2383 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  2386 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  2387 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  2388 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  2389 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  2390 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  2391 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  2392 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  2393 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  2394 syntax.
  2395 
  2396 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  2397 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  2400 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  2401 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  2402 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  2403 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  2404 
  2405 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  2406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  2409 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  2410 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  2411 
  2412 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  2413 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  2414 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  2415 
  2416 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  2417 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  2418 
  2419 
  2420 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2421 
  2422 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  2423 Documentation panel.
  2424 
  2425 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  2426 documentation.
  2427 
  2428 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  2429 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  2430 
  2431 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  2432 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  2433 normal editing and checking process.
  2434 
  2435 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  2436 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  2437 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  2438 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  2439 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  2440 
  2441 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  2442 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  2443 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  2444 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  2445 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  2446 
  2447 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  2448 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  2449 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  2450 
  2451 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  2452 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  2453 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  2454 to resolve conflict.
  2455 
  2456 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  2457 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  2458 
  2459 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  2460 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  2461 such command executions while editing.
  2462 
  2463 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  2464 document content.
  2465 
  2466 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  2467 toplevel theorem statements.
  2468 
  2469 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  2470 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  2471 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  2472 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  2473 
  2474 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  2475 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  2476 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  2477 
  2478 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  2479 / Global Options / Appearance".
  2480 
  2481 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  2482 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  2483 
  2484 
  2485 *** Pure ***
  2486 
  2487 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  2488 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  2489 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  2490 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  2491 details.
  2492 
  2493 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  2494 
  2495 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  2496 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  2497 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  2498 
  2499 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  2500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  2503 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  2504 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  2505 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  2508 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  2509 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  2512 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  2513 
  2514 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  2515 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  2516 situations.
  2517 
  2518 
  2519 *** HOL ***
  2520 
  2521 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  2522 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  2523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  2526 
  2527 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  2528 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  2529 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  2530 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  2531 
  2532   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  2533 
  2534 * Code generator:
  2535   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  2536     'code_instance'.
  2537   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  2538     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  2539 
  2540 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  2541 examples.
  2542 
  2543 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  2544 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  2545 to distinguish both when desired.
  2546 
  2547 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  2548 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  2549 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  2550 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2551 
  2552 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  2553 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  2554 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  2555 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  2556 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  2557 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  2560 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  2561 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2562 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  2563 
  2564 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  2565 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  2566 
  2567 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  2568 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  2569 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  2570 
  2571 * Lifting:
  2572   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  2573     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  2574       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  2575       transfer rules
  2576     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  2577       correspondence relation can be generated
  2578     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  2579       parametricity
  2580     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  2581   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  2582   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  2583     copies
  2584   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  2585     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  2586     anonymous context)
  2587   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  2588     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2589   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  2590     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  2591   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  2592     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2593 
  2594 * Transfer:
  2595   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  2596     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  2597   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  2598   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  2599     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  2600   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  2601 
  2602 * Reification and reflection:
  2603   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  2604     "Reification".
  2605   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  2606   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  2607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  2610   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  2611     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2612     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  2613   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  2614     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  2615   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  2616     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  2617     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  2618     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  2619     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  2620     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  2621     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  2622     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  2623   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  2624     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  2625   - Fact renames:
  2626       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  2627       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  2628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  2631 
  2632 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  2633 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  2634 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  2638 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  2639 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  2640 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  2641 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  2642 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  2643 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  2644 lemmas.
  2645 
  2646 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  2647 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  2648 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  2651 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2652 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  2653 
  2654 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  2655 top and bottom elements.
  2656 
  2657 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  2658 
  2659 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  2660 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  2661 
  2662  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  2663    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  2664    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  2665 
  2666  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  2667    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  2668    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  2669 
  2670    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  2671    arbitrary filter.
  2672 
  2673  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  2674    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  2675    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  2676    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  2677    on a compact set.
  2678 
  2679  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  2680    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  2681    linear_continuum_topology).
  2682 
  2683  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  2684    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  2685    on all sequences converging to x.
  2686 
  2687  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  2688    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  2689    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  2690    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  2691    left or right.
  2692 
  2693  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  2694 
  2695      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  2696 
  2697  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  2698    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  2699 
  2700  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  2701    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  2702    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  2703    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  2704    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  2705    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  2706 
  2707  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  2708 
  2709    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  2710 
  2711    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  2712      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  2713 
  2714    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  2715 
  2716    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  2717      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  2718 
  2719    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  2720 
  2721    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  2722 
  2723  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  2724 
  2725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * Nitpick:
  2728   - Added option "spy".
  2729   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  2730 
  2731 * Sledgehammer:
  2732   - Renamed option:
  2733       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  2734     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  2736   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  2737   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  2738 
  2739 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  2740 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  2741 
  2742 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  2743   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  2744   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  2745     generated code.
  2746   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  2747   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  2748   - Fact renames:
  2749     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  2750     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  2751     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2752 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2755 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2756 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2757 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2758 
  2759 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2760 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2761 
  2762 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763 
  2764 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2765 
  2766     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2767     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2768 
  2769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2772 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2773 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2774 
  2775 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2776 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2777 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2778 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * HOL-BNF:
  2781   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2782     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2783     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2784     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2785   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2786     coinduct).
  2787   - Renamed keywords:
  2788     data ~> datatype_new
  2789     codata ~> codatatype
  2790     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2791   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2792     discs ~> disc
  2793     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2794     map_id' ~> map_id
  2795     sels ~> sel
  2796     set_map' ~> set_map
  2797     sets ~> set
  2798 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800 
  2801 *** ML ***
  2802 
  2803 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2804 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2805 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2806 Examples.thy in particular.
  2807 
  2808 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2809 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2810 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2811 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2812 
  2813 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2814 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2815 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2816 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2820 
  2821     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2822     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2823 
  2824 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2827 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2828 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2829 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2830 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2831 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2832 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2833 
  2834 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2835 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2836 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2837 clasets separately from the context.
  2838 
  2839 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2840 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2841 
  2842 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2843 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2844 
  2845 
  2846 *** System ***
  2847 
  2848 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2849 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2850 
  2851 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2852 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2853 
  2854 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2855 settings variable.
  2856 
  2857 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2858 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2859 always pdf.
  2860 
  2861 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2862 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2863 
  2864 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2865 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2866 
  2867 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2868 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2869 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2870 
  2871 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2872 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2873 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2874 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2875 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2876 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2877 
  2878 
  2879 
  2880 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2881 -----------------------------------
  2882 
  2883 *** General ***
  2884 
  2885 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2886 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2887 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2888 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2889 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2890 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2891 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2892 
  2893 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2894 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2895 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2896 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2897 
  2898 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2899 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2900 
  2901 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2902 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2903 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2904 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2905 dependencies properly.
  2906 
  2907 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2908 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2909 
  2910 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2911 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2912 
  2913 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2914 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2915 and "class ... context ...".
  2916 
  2917 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2918 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2919 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2920 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2921 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2922 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2923 
  2924 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2925 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2926 
  2927 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2928 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2929 
  2930 
  2931 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2932 
  2933 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2934 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2935 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2936 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2937 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2938 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2939 
  2940 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2941 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2942 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2943 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2944 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2945 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2946 
  2947 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2948 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2949 browser on demand.
  2950 
  2951 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2952 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2953 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2954 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2955 
  2956 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2957 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2958 
  2959 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2960 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2961 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2962 potentially infinite message streams.
  2963 
  2964 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2965 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2966 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2967 schemes.
  2968 
  2969 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2970 symbols.
  2971 
  2972 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2973 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2974 
  2975 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2976 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2977 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2978 
  2979 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2980 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2981 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2982 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2983 
  2984 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2985 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2986 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2987 
  2988 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2989 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2990 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2991 Isabelle distribution.
  2992 
  2993 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2994 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2995 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2996 
  2997 
  2998 *** Pure ***
  2999 
  3000 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  3001 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  3002 
  3003 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  3004 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  3005 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3008 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  3009 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  3010 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  3011 with some care where this is really required.
  3012 
  3013 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  3014 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  3015 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  3016 
  3017   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  3018 
  3019 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  3020 a Hasse diagram.
  3021 
  3022 
  3023 *** HOL ***
  3024 
  3025 * Sledgehammer:
  3026 
  3027   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  3028     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  3029   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  3030   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  3031   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  3032   - Renamed options:
  3033       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  3034       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  3035       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  3036       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  3037 
  3038 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  3039 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  3040 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  3041 
  3042 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  3043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3044 
  3045 * Lifting:
  3046   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  3047   - quot_del attribute
  3048   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  3049 
  3050 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  3051 expressions.
  3052 
  3053 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  3054 pointfree expressions.
  3055 
  3056 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  3057 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  3058 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  3059 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  3060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  3063 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  3064 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  3065 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  3066 accordingly.
  3067 
  3068 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  3069 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  3072 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  3077 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  3078 
  3079 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  3080 
  3081 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  3082 
  3083   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  3084   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  3085 
  3086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  3089 
  3090   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  3091   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  3092 
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  3096 
  3097   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  3098     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  3099     output f x converges to G.
  3100 
  3101   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  3102     infinity (at_bot).
  3103 
  3104   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  3105     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  3106 
  3107   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  3108     at_top".
  3109 
  3110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  3113 lattice type classes.
  3114 
  3115 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  3116 
  3117     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  3118     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  3119 
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  3123 changes as follows.
  3124 
  3125   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  3126 
  3127       prefix ~> prefixeq
  3128       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  3129 
  3130   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  3131     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  3132     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  3133     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  3134 
  3135   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  3136     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  3137     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  3138 
  3139   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  3140     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  3141     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  3142     Library/Prefix_Order.
  3143 
  3144   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  3145     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  3146 
  3147       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  3148       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  3149       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  3150       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  3151       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  3152       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  3153       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  3154       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  3155       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  3156       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  3157       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  3158       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  3159       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  3160       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  3161       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  3162       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  3163 
  3164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  3167 
  3168 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  3169 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  3170 
  3171 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  3172 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  3173 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  3174 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  3175 
  3176   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  3177   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  3178   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  3179   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  3180   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  3181   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  3182   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  3183   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  3184   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  3185   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  3186 
  3187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  3190 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  3191 Data").
  3192 
  3193 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  3194 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  3195 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  3196 code.
  3197 
  3198 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  3199 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  3200 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  3204 
  3205 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  3206 
  3207 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  3208 
  3209   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  3210   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  3211 
  3212 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  3213 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  3214 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  3215 
  3216   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  3217 
  3218     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  3219     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  3220     cart_base i  removed
  3221     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  3222 
  3223   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  3224 
  3225   Renamed lemmas:
  3226 
  3227     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  3228     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  3229     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  3230     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  3231     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  3232     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  3233     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  3234     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  3235     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  3236     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  3237 
  3238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * HOL/Probability:
  3241 
  3242   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  3243 
  3244   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  3245     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  3246     (borel_measurable_induct).
  3247 
  3248   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  3249     projective family).
  3250 
  3251 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  3252 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  3253 
  3254 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  3255 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  3256 datatypes.
  3257 
  3258 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  3259 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  3260 
  3261 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  3262 trees for the code generator.
  3263 
  3264 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  3265 Lifting/Transfer.
  3266 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  3269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 
  3272 *** Document preparation ***
  3273 
  3274 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  3275 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  3276 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  3277 
  3278 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  3279 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  3280 
  3281 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  3282 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  3283 document/root.tex.
  3284 
  3285 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  3286 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 
  3289 *** ML ***
  3290 
  3291 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  3292 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  3293 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  3294 
  3295 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  3296 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  3297 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  3298 
  3299 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  3300 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  3301 necessarily printing visible text.
  3302 
  3303 
  3304 *** System ***
  3305 
  3306 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  3307 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  3308 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  3309 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  3310 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  3311 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  3312 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  3313 
  3314 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  3315 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  3316 
  3317   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  3318 
  3319 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  3320 
  3321 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  3322 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  3323 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  3324 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  3325 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  3326 
  3327 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  3328 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  3329 
  3330 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  3331 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  3332 
  3333 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  3334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  3337 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  3338 version of Isabelle.
  3339 
  3340 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  3341 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  3342 
  3343 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  3344 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3345 for home-made settings.
  3346 
  3347 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  3348 
  3349 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  3350 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  3351 configuration.
  3352 
  3353 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  3354 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  3355 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  3356 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  3357 bundled as Isabelle component.
  3358 
  3359 
  3360 
  3361 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  3362 ------------------------------
  3363 
  3364 *** General ***
  3365 
  3366 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  3367 
  3368   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  3369     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  3370   - markup for bound variables
  3371   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  3372   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  3373   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  3374     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  3375 
  3376 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  3377 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  3378 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  3379 
  3380 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  3381 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  3382 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  3383 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  3384 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  3385 
  3386   context
  3387     fixes x y z :: 'a
  3388     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  3389   begin
  3390 
  3391   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  3392 
  3393   end
  3394 
  3395   thm my_trans
  3396 
  3397 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  3398 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  3399 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  3400 
  3401 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  3402 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  3403 
  3404 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  3405 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  3406 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  3407 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  3408 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  3409 
  3410 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  3411 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  3412 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  3413 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  3414 indices of schematic variables.
  3415 
  3416 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  3417 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  3418 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3419 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  3420 etc. was exploited.
  3421 
  3422 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  3423 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  3424 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  3425 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  3426 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  3427 of the material of that old tutorial.
  3428 
  3429 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  3430 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  3431 manual.
  3432 
  3433 
  3434 *** Pure ***
  3435 
  3436 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  3437 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  3438 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  3439 
  3440 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  3441 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  3442 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  3443 undocumented feature.)
  3444 
  3445 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  3446 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3447 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  3448 
  3449   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  3450 
  3451   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  3452     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  3453 
  3454 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  3455 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  3456 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  3457 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  3458 
  3459 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  3460 
  3461     num ~> num_token
  3462     xnum ~> xnum_token
  3463     xstr ~> str_token
  3464 
  3465 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  3466 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  3467 position information via constraints).
  3468 
  3469 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  3470 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  3471 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3472 
  3473 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  3474 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  3475 
  3476 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  3477 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  3478 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  3481 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  3484 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  3485 
  3486   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  3487 
  3488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  3491 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  3494 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  3495 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  3496 
  3497 
  3498 *** HOL ***
  3499 
  3500 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  3501 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  3502 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  3503 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  3504 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  3505 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  3506 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  3507 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  3508 possible.
  3509 
  3510 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  3511 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  3512 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  3513 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  3514 
  3515 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  3516 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  3519 
  3520 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  3521 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  3522 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  3523 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  3524 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  3525 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  3526 
  3527   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  3528     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  3529 
  3530   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  3531     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  3532     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  3533 
  3534   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  3535     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  3536 
  3537   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  3538     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  3539     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  3540 
  3541   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  3542     Redefine using other integer operations.
  3543 
  3544 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  3545 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  3546 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  3547 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  3548 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  3549 
  3550   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  3551     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  3552     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  3553     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  3554     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  3555 
  3556     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  3557     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  3558 
  3559   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  3560     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  3561     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  3562     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  3563     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  3564     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  3565     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  3566     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  3567 
  3568   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  3569     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  3570     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  3571     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  3572 
  3573   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  3574     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  3575     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  3576     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  3577 
  3578   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  3579     from type nat to type int.
  3580 
  3581 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  3582 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  3583 
  3584   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  3585     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  3586     type.  Example syntax:
  3587 
  3588     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  3589       is List.insert
  3590 
  3591     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  3592     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  3593     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  3594     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  3595     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  3596     by the package.
  3597 
  3598   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  3599     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  3600     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  3601     code generation for each constant.
  3602 
  3603   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  3604     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  3605     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  3606     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  3607     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  3608 
  3609   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  3610     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  3611     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  3612 
  3613 * Quotient package:
  3614 
  3615   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  3616     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  3617 
  3618   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  3619     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  3620 
  3621   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  3622     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  3623     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  3626     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  3629 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  3630 
  3631 * Quickcheck:
  3632 
  3633   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  3634     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  3635     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  3636     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  3637     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  3638 
  3639     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  3640     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  3641     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  3642 
  3643     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  3644     continues searching for genuine ones.
  3645 
  3646     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  3647     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  3648     show genuine counterexamples.
  3649 
  3650   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  3651     value generators for a given type and operations.
  3652 
  3653     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  3654     constructors of that type.
  3655 
  3656   - Support for multisets.
  3657 
  3658   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  3659 
  3660   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  3661     conjectures in a locale context.
  3662 
  3663 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  3664 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  3665 
  3666 * Sledgehammer:
  3667   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  3668     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  3669   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  3670   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  3671     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  3672   - Sped up the minimizer.
  3673   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  3674   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  3675   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  3676 
  3677 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  3678 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  3679 
  3680 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  3681 
  3682 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  3685 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  3686 
  3687   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  3688 
  3689 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  3690 a list and a nat.
  3691 
  3692 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  3693 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  3694 
  3695 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  3696 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  3697 default.
  3698 
  3699 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  3700 
  3701   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  3702 
  3703 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  3704 
  3705 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  3706 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  3707 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  3708 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  3709 one_case.
  3710 
  3711 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  3712 the result of the fact expression.
  3713 
  3714 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  3715 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  3716 of some relation theorems:
  3717 
  3718   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  3719   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3720   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  3721   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  3722   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  3723   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  3724 
  3725 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  3726 
  3727 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  3728 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  3729 
  3730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  3733 to match the constant's name:
  3734 
  3735   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  3736   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  3737   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  3738   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  3739   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  3740   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  3741   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  3742   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  3743   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  3744   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  3745   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  3746   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  3747   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  3748   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  3749   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  3750   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  3751   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3752   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3753   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3754   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3755   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3756   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3757   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3758   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3759 
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3763 and corresponding theorem names:
  3764 
  3765   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3766 
  3767   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3768 
  3769   - Renamed theorems:
  3770 
  3771     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3772     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3773     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3774     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3775     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3776     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3777     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3778     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3779     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3780     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3781     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3782     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3783     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3784     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3785     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3786     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3787     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3788     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3789     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3790     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3791     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3792     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3793     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3794 
  3795     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3796 
  3797     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3798 
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3802 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3803 
  3804   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3805   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3806   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3807   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3808   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3809   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3810   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3811   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3812   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3813   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3814   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3815   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3816   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3817   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3818   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3819   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3820   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3821   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3822   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3823   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3824   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3825 
  3826 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3827 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3832 
  3833   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3834   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3835   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3836   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3837   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3838   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3839   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3840   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3841   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3842   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3843   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3844   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3845   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3846   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3847   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3848   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3849   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3850   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3851 
  3852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3855 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3856 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3857 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3858 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3859 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3860 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3861 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3862 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3863 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3864 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3865 
  3866 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3867 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3868 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3869 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3870 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3871 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3872 
  3873 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3874 through option types.
  3875 
  3876 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3877 relations.
  3878 
  3879 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3883 
  3884   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3885   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3886   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3887   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3888   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3889   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3890   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3891   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3892   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3893   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3894   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3895   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3896   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3897   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3898   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3899   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3900   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3901   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3902   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3903   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3904   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3905   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3906   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3907   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3908   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3909   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3910   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3911   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3912   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3913   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3914   zless_le ~> less_le
  3915   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3916   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3917   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3918 
  3919 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3920 
  3921   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3922 
  3923 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3924 
  3925 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3926 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3927 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3928 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3932 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3933 
  3934 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3935 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3936 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3937 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3938 follows:
  3939 
  3940   Operations:
  3941   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3942   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3943   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3944   del -> rbt_del
  3945   delete -> rbt_delete
  3946   ins -> rbt_ins
  3947   insert -> rbt_insert
  3948   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3949   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3950   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3951   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3952   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3953   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3954   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3955   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3956   union -> rbt_union
  3957   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3958   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3959 
  3960   Lemmas:
  3961   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3962   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3963   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3964   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3965   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3966   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3967   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3968   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3969   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3970   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3971   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3972   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3973   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3974   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3975   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3976   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3977   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3978   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3979   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3980   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3981   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3982   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3983   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3984   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3985   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3986   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3987   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3988   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3989   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3990   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3991   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3992   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3993   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3994   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3995   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3996   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3997   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3998   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3999   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  4000   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  4001   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  4002   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  4003   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  4004   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  4005   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  4006   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  4007   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  4008   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  4009   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  4010   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  4011   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  4012   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  4013   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  4014   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  4015   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  4016   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  4017   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  4018   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  4019   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  4020   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  4021   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  4022   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  4023   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  4024   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  4025   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  4026   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  4027   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  4028   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  4029   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  4030   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  4031   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  4032   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  4033   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  4034   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  4035   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  4036   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  4037   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  4038   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  4039   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  4040   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  4041   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  4042   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  4043   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  4044 
  4045 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  4046 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  4047 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049   Changed Operations:
  4050   float_abs -> abs
  4051   float_nprt -> nprt
  4052   float_pprt -> pprt
  4053   pow2 -> use powr
  4054   round_down -> float_round_down
  4055   round_up -> float_round_up
  4056   scale -> exponent
  4057 
  4058   Removed Operations:
  4059   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  4060 
  4061   Renamed Lemmas:
  4062   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  4063   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  4064   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  4065   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  4066   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  4067   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  4068   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  4069   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  4070   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  4071   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  4072   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  4073   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  4074   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  4075   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  4076   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  4077   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  4078   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  4079   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  4080   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  4081   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  4082   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  4083   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  4084   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  4085   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  4086   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  4087   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  4088   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  4089   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  4090   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  4091   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  4092   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  4093   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  4094   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  4095   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  4096   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  4097   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  4098 
  4099   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  4100   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  4101   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  4102   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  4103   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  4104   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  4105   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  4106   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  4107   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  4108   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  4109 
  4110 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  4111 association lists with distinct keys.
  4112 
  4113 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  4114 annotated commands.
  4115 
  4116 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  4117 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  4118 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  4119 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  4122 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  4123 instead.
  4124 
  4125   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  4126   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  4127   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  4128   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  4129   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  4130   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  4131   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  4132   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  4133   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4134   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  4135   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  4136   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  4137   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  4138   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4139   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4140   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  4141   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4142   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  4143   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  4144   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  4145   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  4146   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  4147   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  4148   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  4149   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  4150   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  4151   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  4152   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  4153   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  4154   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4155   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  4156   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4157   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  4158   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  4159   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  4160   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  4161   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  4162   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  4163   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  4164   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  4165   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  4166 
  4167 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  4168 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  4169 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  4170 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  4171 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  4172 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  4173 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  4174 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  4175 
  4176 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  4177 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  4178 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  4179 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  4180 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  4181 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  4182 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  4183 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  4184 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  4185 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  4186 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  4187 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4188 
  4189   Renamed constants:
  4190   measure -> emeasure
  4191   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  4192   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  4193   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  4194   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  4195 
  4196   Removed locales:
  4197   completeable_measure_space
  4198   finite_measure_space
  4199   finite_prob_space
  4200   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  4201   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  4202   finite_sigma_algebra
  4203   measure_space
  4204   pair_finite_prob_space
  4205   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  4206   pair_finite_space
  4207   pair_sigma_algebra
  4208   product_sigma_algebra
  4209 
  4210   Removed constants:
  4211   conditional_space
  4212   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4213   image_space
  4214   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4215   pair_measure_generator
  4216   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  4217   subvimage
  4218 
  4219   Replacement theorems:
  4220   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  4221   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  4222   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  4223   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  4224   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  4225   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  4226   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  4227   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4228   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  4229   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  4230   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  4231   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4232   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  4233   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  4234   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  4235   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  4236   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4237   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4238   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  4239   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4240   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4241   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  4242   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  4243   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  4244   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  4245   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  4246   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  4247   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4248   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  4249   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  4250   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  4251   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  4252   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  4253   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  4254   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  4255   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  4256   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  4257   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  4258   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  4259   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  4260   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  4261   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  4262   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  4263   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  4264   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  4265   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  4266   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  4267   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  4268   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  4269   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  4270   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  4271   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  4272   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4273   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4274   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  4275   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  4276   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  4277   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  4278   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4279   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  4280   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  4281   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  4282   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4283   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  4284   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  4285   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  4286   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  4287   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  4288   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  4289   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  4290   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  4291   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  4292   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  4293   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  4294   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4295   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  4296   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  4297   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  4298   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  4299   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4300   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4301   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4302   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4303   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  4304   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  4305   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  4306   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  4307   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  4308   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  4309   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  4310   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  4311   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  4312   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  4313   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  4314   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  4315   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  4316   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  4317   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  4318   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  4319   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  4320   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  4321   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  4322   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  4323   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  4324   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  4325   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  4326   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4327   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  4328   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  4329   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  4330   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  4331   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  4332   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  4333   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  4334   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  4335   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  4336   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  4337   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  4338   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4339   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  4340   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4341   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  4342   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  4343   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  4344   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  4345   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  4346   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  4347   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  4348 
  4349 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  4350 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  4351 
  4352 
  4353 *** FOL ***
  4354 
  4355 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  4356 
  4357 
  4358 *** ZF ***
  4359 
  4360 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  4361 analysis.
  4362 
  4363 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  4364 
  4365 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 
  4368 *** ML ***
  4369 
  4370 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  4371 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  4372 
  4373 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  4374 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  4375 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  4376 
  4377 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  4378 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  4379 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  4380 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  4381 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  4382 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  4383 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  4384 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  4385 
  4386 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  4387 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  4388 
  4389 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  4390 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  4391 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  4392 
  4393 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4394 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  4397 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  4398 context as well.
  4399 
  4400 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  4401 
  4402   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  4403   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  4404   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  4405   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  4406   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  4407   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  4408   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  4409   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  4410   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  4411   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  4412   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  4413   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  4414 
  4415 
  4416 *** System ***
  4417 
  4418 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  4419 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  4420 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  4421 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  4422 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  4423 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  4424 the generic user home was intended.
  4425 
  4426 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  4427 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  4428 
  4429 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  4430 (not just JRE).
  4431 
  4432 
  4433 
  4434 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  4435 ------------------------------------
  4436 
  4437 *** General ***
  4438 
  4439 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  4440 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  4441 
  4442   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  4443     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  4444     files for checking).
  4445 
  4446   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  4447     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  4448     positions.
  4449 
  4450   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  4451     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  4452     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  4453 
  4454   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  4455     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  4456     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  4457 
  4458   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  4459     cores.
  4460 
  4461   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  4462     versions (garbage collection).
  4463 
  4464 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  4465 including some remaining limitations.
  4466 
  4467 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  4468 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4469 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  4470 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  4471 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  4472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4473 
  4474 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  4475 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  4476 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  4477 
  4478 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  4479 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  4480 usedir option -Q.
  4481 
  4482 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  4483 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  4484 
  4485   long_names   ~> names_long
  4486   short_names  ~> names_short
  4487   unique_names ~> names_unique
  4488 
  4489 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  4490 
  4491   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  4492 
  4493 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  4494 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  4495 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  4496 
  4497 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  4498 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  4499 
  4500 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  4501   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  4502   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  4503   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  4504     "Classical Reasoner".
  4505 
  4506 
  4507 *** HOL ***
  4508 
  4509 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  4510 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511 
  4512 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  4513 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  4514 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  4515 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  4516 class complete_linorder.
  4517 
  4518 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  4519 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  4520 
  4521 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  4522 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  4523 
  4524   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  4525   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  4526   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4527   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4528   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4529   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4530   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  4531   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  4532   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  4533   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  4534   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  4535 
  4536 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  4537 
  4538   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  4539   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  4540   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  4541   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  4542   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  4543   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  4544   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  4545   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  4546   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  4547   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  4548   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  4549   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  4550   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  4551   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  4552   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  4553   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  4554 
  4555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  4558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4559 
  4560 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  4561 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  4562 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  4563 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4564 
  4565 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  4566 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  4567 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  4568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  4571 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  4572 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  4573 
  4574 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  4575 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  4576 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  4579 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  4580 
  4581 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  4582 
  4583     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  4584     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  4585 
  4586 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  4587 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  4590 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  4593 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  4594 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  4595 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  4598   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  4599   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  4600   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  4601   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  4602   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  4603   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  4604 
  4605 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  4606 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4607 
  4608   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  4609   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  4610   real_less_def ~> less_le
  4611   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  4612   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  4613   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4614   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4615   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4616   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4617   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4618   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  4619   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  4620   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  4621   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4622   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  4623   real_le_linear ~> linear
  4624   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  4625   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  4626   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  4627   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  4628   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  4629   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  4630   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  4631   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  4632   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  4633   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  4634   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  4635   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  4636   expi_add ~> exp_add
  4637   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  4638   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  4639   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  4640   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  4641   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4642   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  4643   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4644   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  4645   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4646   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4647   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4648   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4649   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4650   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  4651   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  4652   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  4653   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  4654   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4655   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4656   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4657   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  4658   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4659   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4660   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  4661   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  4662   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  4663   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  4664   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  4665   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4666   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4667   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4668   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  4669   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  4670   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4671   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4672   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  4673   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  4674   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4675   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  4676   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4677   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4678   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  4679   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  4680   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4681   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  4682   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  4683   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4684   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  4685   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4686   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  4687   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  4688   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  4689   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  4690 
  4691 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  4692 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  4693 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  4694 
  4695 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  4696 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  4697 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  4698 
  4699 * Code generation:
  4700 
  4701   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  4702     characters in the target language.
  4703 
  4704   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  4705     instead.
  4706 
  4707   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  4708 
  4709   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  4710     reactivated by the following theory command:
  4711 
  4712       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  4713 
  4714 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  4717 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  4718 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  4719 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  4720 syntax.
  4721 
  4722 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  4723 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  4724 
  4725 * Nitpick:
  4726   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  4727   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  4728   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  4729     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Sledgehammer:
  4732   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  4733   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  4734     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  4735   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  4736     this can be done within reasonable time.
  4737   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  4738     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4739   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  4740     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  4741   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  4742     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744 * Metis:
  4745   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  4747     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Command 'try':
  4750   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  4751     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4752   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4753     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4754 
  4755 * Quickcheck:
  4756   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4757     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4758   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4759     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4760   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4761     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4762     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4763     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4764   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4765     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4766 
  4767 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4768 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4769 
  4770 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4771 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4772 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4773 
  4774 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4775 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4777 
  4778 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4779 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4782 arithmetic.
  4783 
  4784 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4785 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4786 and lattice type classes.
  4787 
  4788 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4789 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4790 
  4791 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4792 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4793 
  4794 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4795 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4796 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797 
  4798   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4799   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4800   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4801   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4802 
  4803 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4804 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4805 constants:
  4806 
  4807   type inat   ~> type enat
  4808   Fin         ~> enat
  4809   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4810   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4811   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4812 
  4813 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4814 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4815 
  4816 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4817 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4818 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4819 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4820 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4821 
  4822 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4823 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4824 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4825 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4826 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4827 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4828 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4829 
  4830   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4831   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4832   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4833   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4834 
  4835 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4836 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4837 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4840   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4841   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4842   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4843   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4844   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4845   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4846   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4847   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4848   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4849   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4850   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4851   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4852   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4853   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4854   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4855   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4856   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4857   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4858   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4859   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4860   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4861   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4862   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4863   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4864   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4865   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4866   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4867   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4868   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4869   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4870   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4871   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4872   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4873   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4874   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4875   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4876   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4877   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4878   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4879   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4880   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4881   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4882   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4883   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4884   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4885   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4886   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4887   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4888   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4889   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4890 
  4891 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4892   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4893   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4894   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4895   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4896     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4897 
  4898 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4901   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4902   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4903   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4904   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4905   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4906   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4907   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4908   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4909   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4910   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4911   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4912   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4913   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4914   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4915   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4916   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4917   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4918   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4919   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4920   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4921   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4922   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4923   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4924   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4925 
  4926 
  4927 *** Document preparation ***
  4928 
  4929 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4930 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4931 same.
  4932 
  4933 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4934 result.
  4935 
  4936 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4937 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4938 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4939 
  4940 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4941 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4942 
  4943 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4944 like this:
  4945 
  4946   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4947   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4948 
  4949 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4950 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4951 layouts.
  4952 
  4953 
  4954 *** ML ***
  4955 
  4956 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4957 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4958 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4959 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4960 under external program control.
  4961 
  4962 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4963 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4964 
  4965 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4966 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4967 (better known as Proof General).
  4968 
  4969 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4970 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4971 
  4972 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4973 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4974 
  4975 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4976 (including quotes etc.).
  4977 
  4978 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4979 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4980 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4981 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4982 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4983 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4984 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4985 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4986 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4987 
  4988 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4989 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4990 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4991 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4992 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4993 
  4994 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4995 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4996 
  4997 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4998 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4999 
  5000 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  5001 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  5002 
  5003 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  5004 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  5005 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  5006 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  5007 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  5008 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  5009 proper Proof.context.
  5010 
  5011 
  5012 *** System ***
  5013 
  5014 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  5015 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  5016 
  5017 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  5018 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  5019 
  5020 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  5021 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  5022 
  5023   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  5024   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  5025   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  5026   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  5027   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  5028 
  5029 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  5030 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5031 
  5032 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  5033 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  5034 example:
  5035 
  5036   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  5037 
  5038 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  5039 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  5040 
  5041 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  5042 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  5043 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  5044 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  5045 
  5046 
  5047 
  5048 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  5049 ----------------------------------
  5050 
  5051 *** General ***
  5052 
  5053 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  5054 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  5055 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  5056 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  5057 like this:
  5058 
  5059   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  5060 
  5061 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  5062 
  5063 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  5064 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  5065 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  5066 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  5067 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  5068 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  5069 
  5070 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  5071 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  5072 the following package declarations:
  5073 
  5074   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  5075   \usepackage{textcomp}
  5076 
  5077 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  5078 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  5079 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  5080 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  5081 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  5082 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  5083 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  5084 
  5085 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  5086 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5087 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  5088 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  5089 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  5090 
  5091 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  5092 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  5093 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  5094 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5095 
  5096 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  5097 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  5098 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  5099 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  5100 
  5101   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  5102 
  5103   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  5104   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  5105   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  5106   show_types                    show_types
  5107   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  5108   show_consts                   show_consts
  5109   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  5110 
  5111   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  5112   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  5113   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  5114 
  5115   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  5116   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  5117 
  5118   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  5119 
  5120   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  5121   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  5122   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  5123   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  5124   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  5125 
  5126 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  5127 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  5128 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  5129 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  5130 
  5131 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  5132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  5135   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  5136 
  5137 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  5138 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  5139 float_token.
  5140 
  5141 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  5142 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  5143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  5146 DejaVu Sans.
  5147 
  5148 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  5149 
  5150 
  5151 *** Pure ***
  5152 
  5153 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  5154 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  5155 time.
  5156 
  5157 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  5158 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5159 
  5160 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  5161 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5162 
  5163 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  5164 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  5165 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  5166 command already provided this functionality.
  5167 
  5168 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  5169 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  5170 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  5171 without interpretations.
  5172 
  5173 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  5174 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  5175 
  5176 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  5177 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  5178 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  5179 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  5180 
  5181 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5182 'definition' instead.
  5183 
  5184 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  5185 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  5186 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  5187 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  5188 
  5189 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  5190 constructors.
  5191 
  5192 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  5193 the local file system.
  5194 
  5195 
  5196 *** HOL ***
  5197 
  5198 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  5199 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  5200 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  5201 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  5202 
  5203   declare [[coercion f]]
  5204 
  5205 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  5206 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  5207 
  5208   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  5209 
  5210 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  5211 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  5212 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  5213 other theories like this:
  5214 
  5215   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  5216 
  5217 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  5218 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  5219 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  5220 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  5221 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  5222 for examples.
  5223 
  5224 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  5225 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5226 
  5227 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  5228 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  5229 
  5230 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  5231 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  5232 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  5233 
  5234 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  5235 functorial structure of types.
  5236 
  5237 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  5238 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  5239 
  5240 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  5241 languages.
  5242 
  5243 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  5244 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  5245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5246 
  5247 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  5248 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5249 
  5250 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  5251 combinators any longer.
  5252 
  5253 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  5254 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  5255 
  5256 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  5257 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  5258 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  5259 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  5260 
  5261   record 'a foo = ...
  5262   ...
  5263   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  5264 
  5265 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  5266 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  5267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5268 
  5269 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  5270 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  5271 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  5272 
  5273 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  5274 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  5275 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  5276 
  5277 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  5278 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5279 
  5280 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  5281 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  5282 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  5283 independently.
  5284 
  5285 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  5286 counter example search.
  5287 
  5288 * Sledgehammer:
  5289   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  5290     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  5291     sledgehammer").
  5292   - Renamed commands:
  5293     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  5294     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  5295     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  5296     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5297   - Renamed options:
  5298     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  5299     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  5300     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  5301     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  5302     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 * Nitpick:
  5305   - Renamed options:
  5306     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  5307     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  5308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  5310   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  5311   - Added "whack" option.
  5312   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  5313   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  5314   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  5315   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  5316     higher cardinalities.
  5317   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  5318 
  5319 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  5320 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  5321 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  5322 
  5323     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  5324 
  5325 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  5326 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  5327 
  5328 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  5329 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  5330 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  5331 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  5332 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  5333 "smt_solver".
  5334 
  5335 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  5336 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  5337 
  5338 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  5339 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  5340 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  5341 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5342 
  5343 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  5344   - Renamed:
  5345     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  5346     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  5347     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5348   - Added:
  5349     smt_verbose
  5350     smt_random_seed
  5351     smt_datatypes
  5352     smt_infer_triggers
  5353     smt_monomorph_limit
  5354     cvc3_options
  5355     remote_cvc3_options
  5356     remote_z3_options
  5357     yices_options
  5358 
  5359 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  5360 header.
  5361 
  5362 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  5363 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  5364 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  5365 
  5366   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  5367 
  5368 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  5371 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5372 
  5373 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5374 
  5375 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  5376 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5377 
  5378 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  5379 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  5380 
  5381 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  5382 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5383 
  5384 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  5385 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  5386 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5387 
  5388 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5389 
  5390 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  5391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5392 
  5393 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  5394 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5395 
  5396 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  5397 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  5398 for congruent(2)).
  5399 
  5400 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  5401 
  5402   types
  5403     bool ~> HOL.bool
  5404     nat ~> Nat.nat
  5405 
  5406   constants
  5407     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  5408     True ~> HOL.True
  5409     False ~> HOL.False
  5410     op & ~> HOL.conj
  5411     op | ~> HOL.disj
  5412     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  5413     op = ~> HOL.eq
  5414     Not ~> HOL.Not
  5415     The ~> HOL.The
  5416     All ~> HOL.All
  5417     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  5418     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  5419     Let ~> HOL.Let
  5420     If ~> HOL.If
  5421     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  5422     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  5423     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  5424     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  5425     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  5426     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  5427     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  5428     op : ~> Set.member
  5429     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  5430 
  5431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5432 
  5433 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  5434 
  5435     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  5436     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  5437     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  5438     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  5439     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  5440     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  5441     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  5442     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  5443 
  5444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5445 
  5446 * More stylized fact names:
  5447 
  5448   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  5449   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  5450   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  5451   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  5452 
  5453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5454 
  5455 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  5456 
  5457   constants
  5458     null ~> List.null
  5459 
  5460   facts
  5461     mem_iff ~> member_def
  5462     null_empty ~> null_def
  5463 
  5464 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  5465 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  5466 generation.
  5467 
  5468 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  5469 Haskell code.
  5470 
  5471 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  5472 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  5473 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5474 
  5475 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  5476 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  5479 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  5480 
  5481 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  5482 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  5483 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5484 
  5485 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  5486 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5487 
  5488 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  5489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5490 
  5491 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  5492 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  5493 referred to by its qualified name.
  5494 
  5495   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  5496   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  5497   product ~>  Enum.product
  5498 
  5499 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  5500 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  5501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  5504 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  5505 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  5506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  5509 sort_key.
  5510 
  5511 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  5512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5513 
  5514 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  5515 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  5516 instead of finite cartesian products.
  5517 
  5518   types
  5519     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  5520               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  5521               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  5522         (depends on your needs)
  5523 
  5524   constants
  5525      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  5526      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  5527      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  5528 
  5529 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  5530 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  5531 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  5532 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  5535 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  5536 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  5537 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  5538 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5539 
  5540 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  5541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5542 
  5543 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  5544 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  5545 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  5546 
  5547 
  5548 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5549 
  5550 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  5551 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  5552 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  5553 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  5554 compatibility.
  5555 
  5556 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  5557 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  5558 
  5559 
  5560 *** HOLCF ***
  5561 
  5562 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  5563 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  5564 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  5565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5566 
  5567 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  5568 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  5569 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5570 
  5571   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  5572   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  5573   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  5574 
  5575 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  5576 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  5577 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5578 
  5579 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  5580 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  5581 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  5582 domain definition now works:
  5583 
  5584   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  5585 
  5586 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  5587 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  5588 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  5589 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  5590 
  5591   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  5592     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  5593 
  5594   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  5595 
  5596 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  5597 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  5598 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5599 
  5600 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  5601 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5602 
  5603 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  5604 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  5605 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  5606 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  5607 
  5608 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  5609 
  5610 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5611 
  5612 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5613 
  5614 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  5615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  5618 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  5619 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  5620 
  5621 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  5622 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  5623 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5624 
  5625 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  5626 still supported as an input translation.
  5627 
  5628 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  5629 
  5630   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  5631   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  5632   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  5633   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  5634   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  5635   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  5636   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  5637 
  5638 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  5639 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5640 
  5641   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  5642   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  5643   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  5644   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  5645   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  5646   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  5647 
  5648 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  5649 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5650 
  5651 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  5652 
  5653   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  5654   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  5655   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  5656   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  5657 
  5658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5659 
  5660 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  5661 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5662 
  5663 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  5664 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5665 
  5666   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  5667   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  5668   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  5669   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  5670   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  5671   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  5672   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  5673   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  5674   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  5675   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  5676   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  5677   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  5678   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  5679   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  5680   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  5681   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  5682   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  5683   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  5684   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  5685   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  5686 
  5687 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5688 
  5689   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  5690   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  5691   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  5692   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  5693   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  5694   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  5695   box_less             ~> box_below
  5696   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  5697   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  5698   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  5699   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  5700   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  5701   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  5702   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  5703   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  5704   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  5705   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  5706   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  5707   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  5708   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  5709   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  5710   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  5711   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  5712   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  5713   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  5714   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  5715   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  5716   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  5717   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  5718   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  5719   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  5720   up_less              ~> up_below
  5721   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  5722   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  5723   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  5724   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  5725   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  5726   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  5727   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  5728   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  5729   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  5730   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  5731   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  5732   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  5733   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  5734 
  5735 
  5736 *** FOL and ZF ***
  5737 
  5738 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  5739 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5740 
  5741 
  5742 *** ML ***
  5743 
  5744 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  5745 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  5746 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  5747 
  5748 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  5749 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  5750 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  5751 
  5752 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5753 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5754 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5755 
  5756 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5757 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5758 
  5759 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5760 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5761 
  5762 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5763 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5764 
  5765 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5766 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5767 
  5768 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5769 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5770 almost all situations.
  5771 
  5772 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5773 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5774 Isabelle/ML.
  5775 
  5776 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5777 meaning.
  5778 
  5779 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5780 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5781 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5782 
  5783 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5784 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5785 
  5786 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5787 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5788 
  5789 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5790 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5791 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5792 
  5793 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5794 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5795 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5796 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5797 configuration options.
  5798 
  5799 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5800 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5801 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5802 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5803 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5804 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5805 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5806 
  5807 
  5808 
  5809 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5810 ---------------------------------
  5811 
  5812 *** General ***
  5813 
  5814 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5815 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5816 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5817 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5818 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5819 their full internal name.
  5820 
  5821 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5822 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5823 Some hints on upgrading:
  5824 
  5825   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5826     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5827     which are independent of this issue.
  5828 
  5829   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5830     provides the following special forms:
  5831 
  5832       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5833       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5834       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5835 
  5836     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5837     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5838     extra variables".
  5839 
  5840     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5841     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5842     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5843     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5844     "logic".
  5845 
  5846   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5847     antiquotations:
  5848 
  5849       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5850       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5851       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5852       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5853 
  5854   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5855     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5856     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5857     antiquotations.
  5858 
  5859 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5860 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5861 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5862 diagnose syntax problems.
  5863 
  5864 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5865 
  5866 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5867 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5868 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5869 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5870 
  5871 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5872 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5873 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5874 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5875 
  5876 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5877 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5878 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5879 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5880 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5881 
  5882 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5883 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5884 
  5885 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5886 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5887 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5888 
  5889   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5890 
  5891 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5892 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5893 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5894 
  5895 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5896 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5898 
  5899 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5900 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5901 
  5902 
  5903 *** Pure ***
  5904 
  5905 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5906 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5907 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5908 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5909 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5910 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5911 inspect proof terms.
  5912 
  5913 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5914 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5915 are added internally.  For example:
  5916 
  5917   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5918 
  5919 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5920 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5921 
  5922 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5923 
  5924 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5925 'class' instead.
  5926 
  5927 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5928 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5930 
  5931 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5932 invariants.
  5933 
  5934 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5935 user space functionality any longer.
  5936 
  5937 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5938 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5942 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5943 
  5944 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5945 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5946 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5947 
  5948 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5949 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5950 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5951 
  5952 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5953 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5954 
  5955 
  5956 *** HOL ***
  5957 
  5958 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5959 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5960 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5961 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5962 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5963 
  5964 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5965 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5966 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5967 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5968 
  5969   fun
  5970     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5971   where
  5972     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5973 
  5974   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5975     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5976 
  5977   quotient_definition
  5978     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5979 
  5980 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5981 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5982 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5983 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5984 
  5985 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5986 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5987 
  5988 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5989 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5990 
  5991 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 
  5994 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5995 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5996 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5997 
  5998 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5999 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6000 
  6001 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  6002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6003 
  6004 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  6005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  6008 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  6011 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  6012 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  6015   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  6016   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  6017   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  6018   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  6019   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  6020   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  6021   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  6022   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  6023   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  6024   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  6025   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  6026   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  6027   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  6028   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  6029   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  6030   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  6031   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  6032   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  6033   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  6034   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  6035   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  6036   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  6037   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  6038   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  6039   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  6040   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  6041   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  6042   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  6043   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  6044 
  6045 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  6046 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  6047 
  6048 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  6049 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  6050 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6051 
  6052 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  6053 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  6054 
  6055 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  6056 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6057 
  6058 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  6059 
  6060 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  6061 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6062 
  6063 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  6064 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6065 
  6066 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6067 
  6068 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  6069 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  6070 
  6071 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  6072 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  6073 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  6074 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6075 
  6076 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  6077   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  6078   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  6079   - inverse, divide: Rings
  6080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  6083 lattices):
  6084 
  6085     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  6086     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  6087 
  6088     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  6089 
  6090     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  6091     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  6092     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6093     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  6094     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6095     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  6096     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  6097     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  6098     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  6099     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  6100     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  6101     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  6102     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  6103 
  6104     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  6105     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6106     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6107     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  6108     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  6109     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  6110     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  6111     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  6112     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  6113     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  6114     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  6115     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  6116     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  6117     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  6118     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  6119     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  6120     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  6121     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  6122 
  6123   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  6124   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  6125 
  6126     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  6127     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  6128     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  6129     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  6130     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  6131 
  6132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6133 
  6134 * Refined field classes:
  6135   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  6136     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  6137     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  6138   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  6139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6140 
  6141 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  6142   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  6143   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  6144   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  6145     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  6146   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  6147     equal_neg_zero.
  6148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6149 
  6150 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  6151 sets to lattices:
  6152 
  6153   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  6154   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  6155   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  6156   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  6157   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  6158   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  6159   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  6160   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  6161   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  6162   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  6163 
  6164 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  6165 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  6166 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  6167 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  6168 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  6169 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6170 
  6171 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  6172 multiset order:
  6173 
  6174   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  6175     <= and <;
  6176   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  6177     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  6178     multiset_order;
  6179   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  6180     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  6181     generation;
  6182   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  6183     if needed.
  6184 
  6185 Renamed:
  6186 
  6187   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  6188   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  6189   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  6190 
  6191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  6194 
  6195 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  6196 
  6197 * Theory List: added transpose.
  6198 
  6199 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  6200 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  6201 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203   Constants:
  6204   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  6205   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  6206   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  6207   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  6208   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  6209   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  6210   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  6211   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  6212   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  6213   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  6214   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  6215   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  6216   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  6217 
  6218   Lemmas:
  6219   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6220   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  6221   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  6222   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  6223   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  6224   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  6225   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  6226   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  6227   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  6228   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  6229   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  6230   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  6231   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6232 
  6233 * Sledgehammer:
  6234   - Renamed ATP commands:
  6235     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  6236     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  6237     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  6238     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  6239     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  6240     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6241   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  6242   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  6243     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  6244   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  6245     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  6246     is still experimental.)
  6247   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  6248     full-typed mode.
  6249   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  6250 
  6251 * Nitpick:
  6252   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  6253   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  6254   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  6255     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  6256   - Added support for quotient types.
  6257   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  6258     constructs.
  6259   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  6260     "termination" proofs).
  6261   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  6262   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  6263   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  6264   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  6265     record getters.
  6266   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  6267   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  6268   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  6269   - Added "atoms" option.
  6270   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  6271     problems.
  6272   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  6273     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  6274     "SAT4J_Light&q