NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Dec 29 23:20:11 2015 +0100 (2015-12-29 ago)
changeset 61970 6226261144d7
parent 61969 e01015e49041
child 61971 720fa884656e
permissions -rw-r--r--
more symbols;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
    13 
    14   theorems             ~>  lemmas
    15   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
    16   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
    17   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
    18 
    19 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
    20 accordingly.
    21 
    22 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
    23 'theorem'.
    24 
    25 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
    26 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
    27 to update old sources.
    28 
    29 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
    30 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
    31 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
    32 has been removed (see below).
    33 
    34 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and
    35 Isabelle fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    39 
    40 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
    41 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
    42 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
    43 
    44 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
    45 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
    46 
    47 * Improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command state output,
    48 interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
    49 
    50 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
    51 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Configuration option "ML_debugger"
    52 and commands 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
    53 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with debugging
    54 information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via context
    55 menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML expressions etc.
    56 At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have any effect on the
    57 running ML program.
    58 
    59 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
    60 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
    61 
    62 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
    63 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
    64 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
    65 update.
    66 
    67 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
    68 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
    69 enable option "editor_output_state".
    70 
    71 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
    72 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
    73 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
    74 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
    75 visibility.
    76 
    77 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
    78 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
    79 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
    80 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
    81 panel.
    82 
    83 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
    84 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
    85 the editor.
    86 
    87 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
    88 instead of former C+e LEFT.
    89 
    90 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to
    91 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
    92 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
    93 
    94 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
    95 application wrapper threat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
    96 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
    97 instead.
    98 
    99 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
   100 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
   101 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
   102 
   103 
   104 *** Document preparation ***
   105 
   106 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
   107 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
   108 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
   109 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
   110 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
   111 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
   112 
   113 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
   114 (outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the short
   115 form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>.   @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
   116 
   117 * @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
   118 
   119 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
   120 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   121 
   122 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
   123 entities of the Isar language.
   124 
   125 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
   126 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
   127 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
   128 
   129 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
   130 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
   131 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
   132 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
   133 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
   134 
   135 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
   136 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
   137 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
   138 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
   139 or terminal spaces are ignored.
   140 
   141 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
   142 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
   143 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
   144 
   145 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
   146 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
   147 
   148 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
   149 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
   150 follows:
   151 
   152   \<^item>  itemize
   153   \<^enum>  enumerate
   154   \<^descr>  description
   155 
   156 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
   157 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
   158 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
   159 
   160 * Document antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source
   161 recursively, adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in
   162 the short form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
   163 
   164 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
   165 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
   166 
   167 
   168 *** Isar ***
   169 
   170 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
   171 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
   172 
   173 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
   174 parameter scope for of each clause.
   175 
   176 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
   177 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
   178 
   179 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured
   180 rule statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but
   181 the notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
   182 example:
   183 
   184   have result: "C x y"
   185     if "A x" and "B y"
   186     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   187     <proof>
   188 
   189 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
   190 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
   191 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
   192 
   193   {
   194     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   195     assume that: "A x" "B y"
   196     have "C x y" <proof>
   197   }
   198   note result = this
   199 
   200 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
   201 instead of 'assume' above.
   202 
   203 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
   204 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
   205 
   206   assume result: "C x y"
   207     if "A x" and "B y"
   208     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   209 
   210 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
   211 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
   212 
   213 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
   214 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
   215 example:
   216 
   217   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
   218 
   219 is equivalent to:
   220 
   221   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
   222 
   223 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
   224 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
   225 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as follows:
   226 
   227   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   228 
   229 or:
   230 
   231   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
   232 
   233 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
   234 
   235   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
   236 
   237 * New command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
   238 ('apply' scripts).
   239 
   240 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
   241 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
   242 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
   243 of the local context elements yet.
   244 
   245 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
   246 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
   247 
   248   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
   249   then have something
   250   proof cases
   251     case a
   252     then show ?thesis <proof>
   253   next
   254     case b
   255     then show ?thesis <proof>
   256   next
   257     case c
   258     then show ?thesis <proof>
   259   qed
   260 
   261 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
   262 
   263   case a: (c xs)
   264   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
   265 
   266 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
   267 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
   268 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
   269 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
   270 and always put attributes in front.
   271 
   272 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
   273 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
   274 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
   275 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
   276 
   277 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
   278 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
   279 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
   280 manual.
   281 
   282 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
   283 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
   284 example:
   285 
   286 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   287   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   288 proof goal_cases
   289   case (1 x)
   290   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
   291 next
   292   case (2 y z)
   293   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
   294 qed
   295 
   296 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   297   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   298 proof goal_cases
   299   case prems: 1
   300   then show ?case using prems sorry
   301 next
   302   case prems: 2
   303   then show ?case using prems sorry
   304 qed
   305 
   306 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
   307 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
   308 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
   309 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
   310 
   311 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
   312 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
   313 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
   314 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
   315 
   316   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
   317     supply [simp] = a
   318   proof
   319     show A by simp
   320   next
   321     show A by simp
   322   qed
   323 
   324 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
   325 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
   326 
   327 
   328 *** Pure ***
   329 
   330 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
   331 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
   332 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
   333 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   334 
   335 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
   336 commands.  Previously, the keyword was 'where'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   337 
   338 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
   339 printing terms.  Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
   340 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity.  Now
   341 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
   342 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed.  This can be of great
   343 help when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof
   344 states are displayed much more succinctly.  It also means that only
   345 notation needs to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this
   346 example:
   347 
   348   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
   349   begin
   350     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
   351   end
   352 
   353   locale morphism =
   354     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
   355     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
   356   begin
   357     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
   358   end
   359 
   360 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
   361 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
   362 
   363 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
   364 'defines'.
   365 
   366 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
   367 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
   370 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
   371 
   372 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
   373 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
   374 
   375 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
   376 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   377 
   378 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint.
   379 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour
   380 has been exploited.
   381 
   382 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
   383 operations behave more similar to abbreviations.  Potential
   384 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   385 
   386 
   387 *** HOL ***
   388 
   389 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named "case_prod",
   390 uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses.  Very popular theorem aliasses
   391 have been retained.
   392 Consolidated facts:
   393   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
   394   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
   395   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
   396   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
   397   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
   398   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
   399   split_split ~> prod.split
   400   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
   401   splitI ~> case_prodI
   402   splitD ~> case_prodD
   403   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
   404   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
   405   splitE ~> case_prodE
   406   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
   407   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
   408   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
   409   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
   410   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
   411   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
   412   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
   413   The_split ~> The_case_prod
   414   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
   415   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
   416   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
   417   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
   418   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
   419   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
   420   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
   421   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
   422   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
   423   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
   424   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
   425   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
   426   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
   427   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
   428 Changes in structure HOLogic:
   429   split_const ~> case_prod_const
   430   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
   431   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
   432   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
   433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
   436 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
   437 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
   438 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
   439 
   440 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
   441 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
   442 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
   443 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
   444 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
   445 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
   448 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
   449 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
   450 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
   451 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
   452 
   453 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function 'real'
   454 is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and abbreviates
   455 of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real' abbreviates
   456 of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real' have been
   457 replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
   458 Consolidated facts (among others):
   459   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
   460   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
   461   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
   462   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
   463   real_of_one of_int_1
   464   real_of_int_add of_int_add
   465   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
   466   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
   467   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
   468   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
   469   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
   470   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
   471   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
   472   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
   473   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
   474   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
   475   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
   476   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
   477   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
   478   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
   479   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
   480   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
   484 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
   485 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
   486 simplify porting old theories:
   487 
   488   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
   489 
   490   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
   491 
   492   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
   493   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
   494 
   495   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
   496 
   497   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
   498   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
   499 
   500   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
   501 
   502   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
   503     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
   504 
   505   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
   506 
   507   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
   508 
   509 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
   510 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
   512 
   513 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
   514 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 
   516 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
   517 
   518 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   519 
   520 * Sledgehammer:
   521   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
   522   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
   523     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
   524   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
   525   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
   526   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
   527     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
   529 
   530 * Nitpick:
   531   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
   532   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
   533   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
   534   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
   535 
   536 * New (co)datatype package:
   537   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
   538     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
   539   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
   540   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
   541     being defined.
   542   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
   543 
   544 * Transfer:
   545   - new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
   546     'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
   547     'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
   548 
   549 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
   550 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations.
   551 Slight INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes
   552 former simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
   553 
   554 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors.  Slight
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
   558 integral (semi)domains, particularly units.  Although
   559 logically subsumed by fields, is is not a super class of these
   560 in order not to burden fields with notions that are trivial there.
   561 
   562 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants
   563 for equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral
   564 (semi)domain.  This formalizes associated elements as well.
   565 
   566 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
   567 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
   568 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as gcd_nat.assoc
   569 and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
   570 
   571 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _)
   572 are logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class
   573 Rings.divide, with infix syntax (_ div _).  Infix syntax (_ / _)
   574 for field division is added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse.
   575 INCOMPATIBILITY,  instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather
   576 than the former separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually
   577 not available during instantiation.
   578 
   579 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel
   580 complementary terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))"
   581 simplifies to "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * Library/Multiset:
   584   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
   585       < ~> <#
   586       \<subset> ~> \<subset>#
   587       <= ~> <=#
   588       \<le> ~> \<le>#
   589       \<subseteq> ~> \<subseteq>#
   590     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   591   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
   592     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
   593     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
   594     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
   595     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
   596     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
   597     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598   - Renamed conversions:
   599       multiset_of ~> mset
   600       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
   601       set_of ~> set_mset
   602     INCOMPATIBILITY
   603   - Renamed lemmas:
   604       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
   605       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
   606       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
   607     INCOMPATIBILITY
   608   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
   609     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp less_eq_multiset.transfer
   610     less_eq_multiset_def
   611     INCOMPATIBILITY
   612 
   613 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the Bourbaki-Witt
   614 fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in chain-complete partial
   615 orders.
   616 
   617 * Multivariate_Analysis/Cauchy_Integral_Thm: Contour integrals (= complex path integrals),
   618 Cauchy's integral theorem, winding numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem,
   619 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light
   620 
   621 * Multivariate_Analysis: Added topological concepts such as connected components,
   622 homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
   623 
   624 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef'
   625 command. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
   626 
   627 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
   628 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   629 "inductive_defs" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
   630 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
   633 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   634 "function_defs" is enabled. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data structures.
   637 
   638 * Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
   639 
   640 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat =>
   641 'a.
   642 
   643 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
   644 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   645 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   646 
   647 
   648 *** ML ***
   649 
   650 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
   651 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
   652 breaks.
   653 
   654 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
   655 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
   656 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
   657 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
   658 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
   661 
   662 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
   663 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
   664 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
   667 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
   668 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
   669 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
   670 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
   673 
   674   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
   675   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
   676 
   677   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
   678   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
   679 
   680 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
   681 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
   682 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
   683 
   684 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
   685 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
   686 instead (with proper context).
   687 
   688 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
   689 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
   690 
   691 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
   692 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
   693 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
   694 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
   695 the proof context discipline.
   696 
   697 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
   698 system are available:
   699 
   700   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
   701   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
   702   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
   703 
   704 
   705 *** System ***
   706 
   707 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
   708 
   709 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
   710 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
   711 performance.
   712 
   713 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
   714 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324).  For example:
   715 
   716     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
   717 
   718 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
   719 conflations:
   720 
   721     hence  ~>  then have
   722     thus   ~>  then show
   723 
   724 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
   725 maintainability of proofs.
   726 
   727 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
   728 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild)
   729 is required after change.
   730 
   731 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
   732 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
   733 
   734 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
   735 space.
   736 
   737 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
   738 platforms as follows.
   739 
   740   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
   741     associated with the main app bundle
   742 
   743   - isabelle jedit: settings
   744     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
   745     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   746 
   747   - isabelle build: settings
   748     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   749 
   750 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
   751 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
   752 
   753 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
   754 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
   755 
   756 
   757 
   758 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
   759 ------------------------------
   760 
   761 *** General ***
   762 
   763 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
   764 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
   765 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
   766 
   767   context
   768   begin
   769 
   770   private definition ...
   771   private lemma ...
   772 
   773   qualified definition ...
   774   qualified lemma ...
   775 
   776   lemma ...
   777   theorem ...
   778 
   779   end
   780 
   781 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
   782 naming policy.
   783 
   784 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
   785 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
   786 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
   787 
   788 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
   789 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
   790 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
   791 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
   792 
   793 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
   794 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
   795 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
   796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797 
   798 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
   799 theory context.
   800 
   801 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
   802 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
   803 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
   804 
   805 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
   806 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
   807 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
   808 sources.
   809 
   810 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
   811 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
   812 
   813 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
   814 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
   815 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
   816 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
   817 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
   818 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
   819 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
   820 
   821 
   822 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   823 
   824 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
   825 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
   826 
   827 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
   828 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
   829 in the buffer.
   830 
   831 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
   832 marker, SideKick parser.
   833 
   834 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
   835 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
   836 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
   837 
   838 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
   839 Options / Text Area).
   840 
   841 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
   842 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
   843 
   844 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   845 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   846 
   847 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   848 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   849 
   850 
   851 *** Document preparation ***
   852 
   853 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   854 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   855 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   856 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   857 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   858 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   859 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   860 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   861 
   862 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   863 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   864 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   865 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   866 
   867 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   868 style.
   869 
   870 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   871 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   872 
   873 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   874 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   875 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   876 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   877 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   878 
   879 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   880 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   881 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   882 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   883 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   884 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   885 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886 
   887 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
   888 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
   889 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 
   893 *** Pure ***
   894 
   895 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   896 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   897 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   898 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   899 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   900 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   901 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   902 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   903 
   904 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   905 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   906 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   907 
   908 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   909 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   910 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   911 different index.
   912 
   913 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   914 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   915 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   916 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   917 
   918 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   919 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   920 token category instead.
   921 
   922 
   923 *** HOL ***
   924 
   925 * New (co)datatype package:
   926   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   927     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   928     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   929     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   930     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931   - Renamed theorems:
   932       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   933       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   934       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   935       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   936       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   937       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   938       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   939       sel_map ~> map_sel
   940       sel_set ~> set_sel
   941       sel_split ~> split_sel
   942       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   943       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   944       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   945     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   946   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   947     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   948     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   950     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   951     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   953     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   954     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   955     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   956     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   957     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   958     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959   - Renamed theories:
   960       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   961       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   962       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   963       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   964       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   965       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   966     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   968     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   969     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   970     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   971     rel_sum (using inductive).
   972     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   973     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   974     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   975     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   976   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
   977     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
   978     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
   979     rules.
   980 
   981 * Old datatype package:
   982   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   983     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   984     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   985     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   986     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987   - Renamed theorems:
   988       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   989     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   990   - Renamed theory:
   991       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   992     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Nitpick:
   995   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   996     operations.
   997 
   998 * Sledgehammer:
   999   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  1000     default.
  1001   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  1002     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  1003   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  1004     Removed sub-command:
  1005       min
  1006   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  1007     dramatically improved.
  1008   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  1009 
  1010 * Old and new SMT modules:
  1011   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  1012     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  1013     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  1014     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  1015     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  1016     point to it.
  1017     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  1019     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1020   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  1021     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  1022   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  1023     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  1024 
  1025 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  1026 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  1027 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  1028 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  1029 
  1030 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  1031 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  1032 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  1035 
  1036 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  1037 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  1038 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  1039 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  1042 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  1045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  1048 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  1049 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050 
  1051 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  1052 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  1055 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  1056 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  1057 
  1058 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  1059 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  1060 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  1061 needed.
  1062 
  1063 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  1064 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  1065 
  1066 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  1067 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  1068 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  1069 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  1070 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  1071 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  1072 
  1073 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  1074 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  1075 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  1076 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  1077 
  1078 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  1079 type class hierarchy:
  1080   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1081   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  1082   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  1083   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  1084 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1085 
  1086 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  1087   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  1088   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  1089 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1090 
  1091 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  1092 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  1093 
  1094 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  1095   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  1096   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  1097   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  1098 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  1101 and part of theory Main.
  1102   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  1103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1104 
  1105 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  1106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1107 
  1108 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  1109 Fact rename:
  1110     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  1111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  1114 
  1115 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  1116 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  1117 
  1118 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  1119 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  1120 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  1121 
  1122 * Library/Multiset:
  1123   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  1124   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  1125     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  1126   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  1127       <# ~> #<#
  1128       <=# ~> #<=#
  1129       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  1130       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  1131     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  1133       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  1134       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  1135     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136   - Renamed
  1137       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  1138       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  1139       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  1140     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  1142   - Added attributes:
  1143       image_mset.id [simp]
  1144       image_mset_id [simp]
  1145       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  1146       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  1147       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  1148       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  1149       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  1150       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  1151     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  1154 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  1155 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  1156 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1157 
  1158 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  1159 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  1160 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  1161 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  1162 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  1163 examples.
  1164 
  1165 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  1166   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  1167   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  1168   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  1169     projection
  1170 
  1171 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  1172 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  1173 
  1174 
  1175 *** ML ***
  1176 
  1177 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  1178 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  1179 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  1180 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  1181 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  1182 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  1183 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  1184 
  1185 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  1186 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  1187 
  1188 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  1189 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  1190 
  1191 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  1192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  1195 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  1196 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  1197 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  1198 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  1199 nested.
  1200 
  1201 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  1202 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  1205 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  1206 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  1207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  1210 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  1211 Thm.term_of etc.
  1212 
  1213 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  1214 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  1215 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  1218 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  1219 
  1220 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  1221 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  1222 
  1223 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  1224 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  1225 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  1228 Input.source (with formal position information).
  1229 
  1230 
  1231 *** System ***
  1232 
  1233 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  1234 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  1235 
  1236 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  1237 
  1238 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  1239 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  1240 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  1241 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  1242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1243 
  1244 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  1245 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  1246 
  1247 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  1248 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  1249 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  1250 
  1251 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  1252 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  1253 
  1254 
  1255 
  1256 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  1257 ---------------------------------
  1258 
  1259 *** General ***
  1260 
  1261 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  1262 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  1263 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  1264 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  1265 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  1266 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  1267 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  1268 some examples.
  1269 
  1270 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  1271 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  1272 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  1273 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  1274 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  1275 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  1276 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  1277 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  1278 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  1279 
  1280 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  1281 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  1282 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  1283 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  1284 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  1285 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  1286 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  1287 proof tools.
  1288 
  1289 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  1290 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  1291 supports input via ` (backquote).
  1292 
  1293 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  1294 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  1295 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  1296 
  1297 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  1298 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  1299 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  1300 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  1303 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  1304 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  1305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1306 
  1307 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  1308 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  1309 
  1310 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  1311 not check existence within the file-system.
  1312 
  1313 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  1314 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  1315 
  1316 
  1317 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1318 
  1319 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  1320 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  1321 buffer.
  1322 
  1323 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  1324 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  1325 
  1326 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  1327 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  1328 
  1329 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  1330 auxiliary ML files.
  1331 
  1332 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  1333 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  1334 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  1335 
  1336 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  1337 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  1338 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  1339 
  1340 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  1341 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  1342 
  1343 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  1344 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  1345 caret".
  1346 
  1347 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  1348 completion popup and context-menu.
  1349 
  1350 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  1351 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  1352 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  1353 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  1354 
  1355 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  1356 to highlight text via regular expression.
  1357 
  1358 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  1359 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  1360 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  1361 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  1362 
  1363 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  1364 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  1365 
  1366 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  1367 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  1368 
  1369 * Improved monitor panel.
  1370 
  1371 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  1372 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  1373 
  1374 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  1375 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  1376 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  1377 
  1378 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  1379 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  1380 within the context.
  1381 
  1382 
  1383 *** Pure ***
  1384 
  1385 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  1386 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  1387 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  1388 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  1389 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  1390 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  1391 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  1392 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  1393 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  1394 
  1395 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  1396 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  1397 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  1398 renaming needs to be applied:
  1399 
  1400   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  1401   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  1402   all            ~>  Pure.all
  1403   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  1404   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  1405 
  1406 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  1407 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  1408 old constants:
  1409 
  1410 setup {*
  1411   fn thy => thy
  1412     |> Sign.root_path
  1413     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  1414     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  1415     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  1416     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  1417 *}
  1418 
  1419 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  1420 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  1421 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  1422 
  1423 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  1424 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  1425 instantiated theorem.
  1426 
  1427 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  1428 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  1429 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  1430 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  1431 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  1432 
  1433   attribute_setup standard =
  1434     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  1435 
  1436 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  1437 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  1438 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  1439 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  1440 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  1441 
  1442 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  1443 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  1444 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  1445 
  1446 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  1447 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  1448 
  1449 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  1450 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  1451 
  1452 
  1453 *** HOL ***
  1454 
  1455 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  1456 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  1459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  1465 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1466 
  1467 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  1468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  1471 with the given constants.
  1472 
  1473 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  1474 operations on records.
  1475 
  1476 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  1477 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  1482 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  1483 
  1484 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1485 
  1486 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  1487 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  1488 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  1489 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  1490 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491 
  1492 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  1493 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  1496   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  1497   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  1498   part of theory "Main".
  1499 
  1500   Theory renamings:
  1501     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  1502     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  1503     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  1504     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  1505     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  1506     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  1507     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  1508     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  1509     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  1510     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  1511     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  1512     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  1513     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  1514     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  1515     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  1516     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  1517     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  1518     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  1519     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  1520     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  1521     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  1522     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  1523 
  1524   New theories:
  1525     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  1526     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  1527     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  1528     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  1529     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  1530 
  1531   Discontinued theories:
  1532     BNF/BNF.thy
  1533     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  1534 
  1535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 * New (co)datatype package:
  1538   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  1539   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  1540     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  1541   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  1542     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  1543   - Renamed commands:
  1544       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  1545       primrec_new ~> primrec
  1546       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  1547     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  1549     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  1550     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1551   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  1552     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  1553     using "prim(co)rec".
  1554     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  1556     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  1557     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  1559     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  1560     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  1561     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Old datatype package:
  1564   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  1565     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  1566     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  1568     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  1569     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  1572   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  1573   BNF-based datatype package.
  1574 
  1575   Renamed constants:
  1576     Option.set ~> set_option
  1577     Option.map ~> map_option
  1578     option_rel ~> rel_option
  1579 
  1580   Renamed theorems:
  1581     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  1582     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  1583     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  1584     option.recs ~> option.rec
  1585     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  1586     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  1587     map.simps ~> list.map
  1588     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  1589     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  1590     the.simps ~> option.sel
  1591 
  1592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593 
  1594 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  1595     sum_map ~> map_sum
  1596     map_pair ~> map_prod
  1597     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  1598     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  1599     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  1600     set_rel ~> rel_set
  1601     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  1602     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  1603     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  1604     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  1605 
  1606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Lifting and Transfer:
  1609   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  1610   - stronger reflexivity prover
  1611   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  1612   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  1613     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  1614     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  1615       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  1616       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  1617       automatically
  1618     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  1619     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  1620       automatically for datatypes
  1621   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  1622     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  1623       more
  1624       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  1626       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  1627       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  1629       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  1630       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631   - registration of code equations is more robust
  1632     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  1634     form
  1635     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  1637     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  1639     Code_Numeral.natural
  1640     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  1642     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  1645 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  1646 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  1647 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  1648 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  1649 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  1650 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  1653 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  1654 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  1655 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  1656 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  1657 
  1658 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  1659 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  1660 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  1661 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  1662 
  1663 * Sledgehammer:
  1664   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  1665   - MaSh overhaul:
  1666     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  1667       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  1668     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  1669       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  1670       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  1671       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  1672   - New option:
  1673       smt_proofs
  1674   - Renamed options:
  1675       isar_compress ~> compress
  1676       isar_try0 ~> try0
  1677 
  1678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  1681 
  1682 * Nitpick:
  1683   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  1684     take infinite values.
  1685   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  1686     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  1687   - Removed "std" option.
  1688   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  1689     "hide_types".
  1690 
  1691 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  1692 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  1695 
  1696 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  1697   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  1698   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  1699     SUP instead uniformly.
  1700   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  1701     or SUP and Sup.
  1702   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  1703   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  1704   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  1705     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  1706     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  1707 
  1708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1709 
  1710 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  1711 
  1712 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  1713 
  1714   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1715   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1716   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1717   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1718 
  1719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1720 
  1721 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  1722 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  1723 
  1724 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  1725 
  1726     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  1727     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  1728     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  1729     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  1730     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  1731     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  1732     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  1733     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  1734     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  1735     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  1736     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  1737     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  1738     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  1739     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  1740     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1741     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1742     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  1743     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  1744     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  1745     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  1746     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  1747     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  1748     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  1749     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  1750     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  1751     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  1752     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  1753     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  1754     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  1755     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  1756     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  1757     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  1758     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1759     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1760     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1761     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1762     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1763     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1764     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1765     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1766     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1767     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1768     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1769     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1770     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1771     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1772     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1773     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1774     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1775     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1776     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1777     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1778     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1779     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1780     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1781     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1782     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1783     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1784     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1785 
  1786   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1787   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1788   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1789     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1790 
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1794 
  1795   Fact consolidations:
  1796     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1797     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1798     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1799     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1800     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1801     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1802     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1803     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1804     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1805     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1806     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1807     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1808     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1809     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1810     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1811     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1812     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1813     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1814     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1815     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1816     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1817     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1818     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1819     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1820     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1821     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1822     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1823     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1824     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1825     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1826     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1827     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1828     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1829     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1830     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1831     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1832     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1833     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1834     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1835     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1836 
  1837 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1838 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1839 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1840 
  1841 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1842 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1843 
  1844 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1845 
  1846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1847 
  1848 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1849 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850 
  1851 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1853 
  1854 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1855     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1856 
  1857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1860   consolidation:
  1861     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1862     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1863 
  1864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1867   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1868   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1869   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1870     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1871   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1872     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1873   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1874 
  1875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1878 
  1879     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1880     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1881     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1882     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1883     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1884     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1885     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1886     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1887     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1888     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1889     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1890     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1891     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1892 
  1893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1896 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1897 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1898 
  1899 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1900     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1901     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1902     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1903     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1904 
  1905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907 * Fact name consolidation:
  1908     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1909     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1910     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1911     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1912     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1913 
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1917 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1918 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1919 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1920 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1921 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1922 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924 
  1925 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1926 
  1927 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1928 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1929 
  1930 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1931 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1932 
  1933 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1934 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1935 or the brute way with
  1936 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1937 
  1938 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1939 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1940 stating boundedness of sets.
  1941 
  1942 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1943 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1944 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1947   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1948   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1949   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1950   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1951   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1952   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1953   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1954   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1955   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1956   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1957   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1958 
  1959   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1960 
  1961   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1962 
  1963     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1964     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1965     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1966     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1967     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1968 
  1969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1970 
  1971 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1972   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1973 
  1974   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1975 
  1976   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1977 
  1978   - removed constant isDiff
  1979 
  1980   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1981     input syntax.
  1982 
  1983   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1984 
  1985   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1986 
  1987   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1988 
  1989   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1990 
  1991   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1992     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1993     has_vector_derivative.
  1994 
  1995   - Other renamings:
  1996     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1997     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1998     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1999     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  2000     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  2001     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  2002     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  2003 
  2004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2005 
  2006 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  2007 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  2008 in continuous_intros.
  2009 
  2010 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  2011 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  2012 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  2013 
  2014 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  2015 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  2016 especially removes
  2017 
  2018     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  2019 
  2020 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  2021     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  2022 
  2023 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  2024 
  2025   Renamings:
  2026     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  2027     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  2028     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  2029     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  2030     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  2031     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  2032     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  2033     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  2034     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  2035     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  2036     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  2037     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  2038 
  2039     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  2040     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  2041     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  2042 
  2043   Removed theorems:
  2044     complex_zero_def
  2045     complex_add_def
  2046     complex_minus_def
  2047     complex_diff_def
  2048     complex_one_def
  2049     complex_mult_def
  2050     complex_inverse_def
  2051     complex_scaleR_def
  2052 
  2053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  2056 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2057 
  2058 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  2059 
  2060 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  2061 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  2062 
  2063 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  2064 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  2067 
  2068 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  2069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 * HOL-Word:
  2072   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  2073     of "word_arith_wis".
  2074   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  2075     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  2076     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  2077 
  2078 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  2079   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  2080   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  2081   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  2082     (except the AFP)
  2083 
  2084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085 
  2086 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  2087   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  2088   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  2089     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  2090   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  2091     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  2092     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  2093     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  2094     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  2095     intervals.
  2096   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  2097     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  2098     - renamed theorems:
  2099         interval ~> box
  2100         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  2101         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  2102         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  2103         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  2104         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  2105         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  2106         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  2107         open_interval ~> open_box
  2108         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  2109         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  2110         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  2111         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  2112         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  2113         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  2114         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  2115         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  2116         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  2117         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  2118         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  2119         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  2120         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  2121         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  2122         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  2123         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  2124         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  2125         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  2126         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  2127         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  2128         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  2129         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  2130         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  2131         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  2132 
  2133     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  2134         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  2135         has_integral + has_integral_real
  2136         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  2137         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  2138         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  2139         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  2140         integral_const + integral_const_real
  2141         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  2142         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  2143         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  2144         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  2145         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  2146         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  2147         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  2148         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  2149         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  2150         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  2151 
  2152   - renamed theorems:
  2153     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  2154     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  2155     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  2156 
  2157 * HOL-Probability:
  2158   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  2159 
  2160     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  2161       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  2162 
  2163     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  2164 
  2165   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  2166     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  2167 
  2168     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  2169     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  2170     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  2171     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  2172     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  2173     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  2174     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  2175     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  2176     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  2177     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  2178     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  2179     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  2180     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  2181     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  2182     integral_indicator          ~>
  2183          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  2184     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  2185     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  2186     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  2187 
  2188     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  2189          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  2190 
  2191     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  2192          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  2193 
  2194     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  2195          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  2196 
  2197     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  2198          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  2199          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  2200 
  2201     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  2202          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2203 
  2204     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  2205          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  2206 
  2207     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  2208          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  2209          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2210 
  2211     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  2212          nn_integral_real_affine
  2213 
  2214     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  2215          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  2216 
  2217     The following theorems where removed:
  2218 
  2219     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  2220     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  2221     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  2222     lebesgue_integral_multc
  2223     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  2224     integral_cmul_indicator
  2225     integral_real
  2226 
  2227   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  2228     distributed random variables.
  2229 
  2230 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  2231 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  2232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233 
  2234 
  2235 *** Scala ***
  2236 
  2237 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  2238 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  2239 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  2240 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  2241 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  2244 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2245 
  2246 
  2247 *** ML ***
  2248 
  2249 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  2250 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  2251 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  2252 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  2253 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  2254 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  2255 
  2256 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  2257 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2258 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  2259 actually belongs to it).
  2260 
  2261 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  2262 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  2263 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  2264 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  2265 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  2266 of schematic variables.
  2267 
  2268 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  2269 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  2272 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  2273 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  2276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  2279 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  2280 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  2281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2282 
  2283 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  2284 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  2286 formal context.
  2287 
  2288 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  2289 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  2292 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  2293 
  2294 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  2295 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  2296 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  2297 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  2298 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  2299 
  2300 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  2301 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  2302 purposes.
  2303 
  2304 
  2305 *** System ***
  2306 
  2307 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  2308 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  2309 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  2310 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  2311 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  2312 
  2313 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  2314 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  2315 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  2316 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  2317 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  2318 settings variable.
  2319 
  2320 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  2321 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  2322 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  2323 
  2324 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  2325 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  2326 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  2327 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  2329 
  2330 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  2331 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  2332 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  2333 
  2334 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  2335 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  2336 
  2337 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  2338 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  2339 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  2340 
  2341 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  2342 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  2343 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  2344 processing is started.
  2345 
  2346 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  2347 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  2348 
  2349 
  2350 
  2351 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  2352 -------------------------------------
  2353 
  2354 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2355 
  2356 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  2357 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  2358 
  2359 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  2360 after edits surrounding the command location.
  2361 
  2362 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  2363 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  2364 e.g. out-of-memory).
  2365 
  2366 
  2367 *** System ***
  2368 
  2369 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  2370 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  2371 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  2372 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  2373 
  2374 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  2375 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  2376 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  2377 
  2378 
  2379 
  2380 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  2381 -------------------------------------
  2382 
  2383 *** General ***
  2384 
  2385 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  2386 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  2387 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  2390 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  2393 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  2394 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  2395 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  2396 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  2397 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  2398 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  2399 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  2400 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  2401 syntax.
  2402 
  2403 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  2404 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2405 
  2406 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  2407 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  2408 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  2409 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  2410 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  2411 
  2412 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  2413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2414 
  2415 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  2416 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  2417 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  2418 
  2419 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  2420 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  2421 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  2422 
  2423 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  2424 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  2425 
  2426 
  2427 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2428 
  2429 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  2430 Documentation panel.
  2431 
  2432 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  2433 documentation.
  2434 
  2435 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  2436 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  2437 
  2438 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  2439 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  2440 normal editing and checking process.
  2441 
  2442 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  2443 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  2444 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  2445 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  2446 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  2447 
  2448 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  2449 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  2450 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  2451 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  2452 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  2453 
  2454 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  2455 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  2456 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  2457 
  2458 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  2459 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  2460 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  2461 to resolve conflict.
  2462 
  2463 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  2464 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  2465 
  2466 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  2467 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  2468 such command executions while editing.
  2469 
  2470 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  2471 document content.
  2472 
  2473 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  2474 toplevel theorem statements.
  2475 
  2476 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  2477 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  2478 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  2479 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  2480 
  2481 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  2482 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  2483 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  2484 
  2485 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  2486 / Global Options / Appearance".
  2487 
  2488 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  2489 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  2490 
  2491 
  2492 *** Pure ***
  2493 
  2494 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  2495 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  2496 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  2497 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  2498 details.
  2499 
  2500 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  2501 
  2502 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  2503 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  2504 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  2505 
  2506 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  2507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  2510 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  2511 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  2512 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  2515 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  2516 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  2519 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  2520 
  2521 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  2522 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  2523 situations.
  2524 
  2525 
  2526 *** HOL ***
  2527 
  2528 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  2529 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  2530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  2533 
  2534 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  2535 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  2536 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  2537 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  2538 
  2539   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  2540 
  2541 * Code generator:
  2542   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  2543     'code_instance'.
  2544   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  2545     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  2546 
  2547 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  2548 examples.
  2549 
  2550 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  2551 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  2552 to distinguish both when desired.
  2553 
  2554 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  2555 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  2556 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  2557 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  2560 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  2561 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  2562 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  2563 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  2564 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  2567 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  2568 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2569 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  2570 
  2571 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  2572 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  2573 
  2574 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  2575 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  2576 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  2577 
  2578 * Lifting:
  2579   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  2580     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  2581       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  2582       transfer rules
  2583     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  2584       correspondence relation can be generated
  2585     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  2586       parametricity
  2587     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  2588   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  2589   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  2590     copies
  2591   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  2592     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  2593     anonymous context)
  2594   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  2595     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2596   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  2597     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  2598   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  2599     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2600 
  2601 * Transfer:
  2602   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  2603     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  2604   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  2605   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  2606     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  2607   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  2608 
  2609 * Reification and reflection:
  2610   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  2611     "Reification".
  2612   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  2613   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  2614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  2617   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  2618     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2619     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  2620   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  2621     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  2622   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  2623     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  2624     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  2625     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  2626     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  2627     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  2628     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  2629     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  2630   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  2631     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  2632   - Fact renames:
  2633       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  2634       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  2638 
  2639 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  2640 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  2641 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  2642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  2645 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  2646 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  2647 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  2648 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  2649 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  2650 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  2651 lemmas.
  2652 
  2653 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  2654 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  2655 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  2658 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2659 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  2660 
  2661 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  2662 top and bottom elements.
  2663 
  2664 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  2665 
  2666 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  2667 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  2668 
  2669  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  2670    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  2671    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  2672 
  2673  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  2674    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  2675    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  2676 
  2677    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  2678    arbitrary filter.
  2679 
  2680  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  2681    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  2682    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  2683    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  2684    on a compact set.
  2685 
  2686  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  2687    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  2688    linear_continuum_topology).
  2689 
  2690  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  2691    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  2692    on all sequences converging to x.
  2693 
  2694  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  2695    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  2696    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  2697    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  2698    left or right.
  2699 
  2700  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  2701 
  2702      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  2703 
  2704  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  2705    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  2706 
  2707  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  2708    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  2709    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  2710    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  2711    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  2712    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  2713 
  2714  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  2715 
  2716    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  2717 
  2718    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  2719      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  2720 
  2721    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  2722 
  2723    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  2724      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  2725 
  2726    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  2727 
  2728    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  2729 
  2730  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  2731 
  2732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * Nitpick:
  2735   - Added option "spy".
  2736   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  2737 
  2738 * Sledgehammer:
  2739   - Renamed option:
  2740       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  2741     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  2743   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  2744   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  2745 
  2746 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  2747 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  2748 
  2749 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  2750   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  2751   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  2752     generated code.
  2753   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  2754   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  2755   - Fact renames:
  2756     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  2757     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  2758     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2759 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2762 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2763 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2764 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2765 
  2766 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2767 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2768 
  2769 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2772 
  2773     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2774     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2775 
  2776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2779 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2780 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2781 
  2782 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2783 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2784 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2785 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * HOL-BNF:
  2788   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2789     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2790     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2791     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2792   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2793     coinduct).
  2794   - Renamed keywords:
  2795     data ~> datatype_new
  2796     codata ~> codatatype
  2797     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2798   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2799     discs ~> disc
  2800     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2801     map_id' ~> map_id
  2802     sels ~> sel
  2803     set_map' ~> set_map
  2804     sets ~> set
  2805 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 
  2808 *** ML ***
  2809 
  2810 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2811 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2812 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2813 Examples.thy in particular.
  2814 
  2815 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2816 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2817 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2818 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2819 
  2820 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2821 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2822 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2823 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2827 
  2828     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2829     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2830 
  2831 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2834 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2835 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2836 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2837 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2838 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2839 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2840 
  2841 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2842 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2843 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2844 clasets separately from the context.
  2845 
  2846 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2847 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2848 
  2849 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2850 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2851 
  2852 
  2853 *** System ***
  2854 
  2855 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2856 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2859 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2862 settings variable.
  2863 
  2864 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2865 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2866 always pdf.
  2867 
  2868 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2869 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2870 
  2871 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2872 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2873 
  2874 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2875 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2876 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2877 
  2878 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2879 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2880 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2881 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2882 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2883 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2884 
  2885 
  2886 
  2887 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2888 -----------------------------------
  2889 
  2890 *** General ***
  2891 
  2892 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2893 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2894 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2895 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2896 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2897 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2898 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2899 
  2900 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2901 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2902 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2903 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2904 
  2905 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2906 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2907 
  2908 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2909 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2910 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2911 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2912 dependencies properly.
  2913 
  2914 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2915 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2916 
  2917 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2918 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2919 
  2920 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2921 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2922 and "class ... context ...".
  2923 
  2924 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2925 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2926 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2927 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2928 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2929 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2930 
  2931 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2932 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2933 
  2934 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2935 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2936 
  2937 
  2938 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2939 
  2940 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2941 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2942 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2943 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2944 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2945 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2946 
  2947 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2948 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2949 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2950 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2951 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2952 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2953 
  2954 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2955 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2956 browser on demand.
  2957 
  2958 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2959 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2960 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2961 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2962 
  2963 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2964 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2965 
  2966 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2967 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2968 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2969 potentially infinite message streams.
  2970 
  2971 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2972 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2973 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2974 schemes.
  2975 
  2976 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2977 symbols.
  2978 
  2979 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2980 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2981 
  2982 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2983 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2984 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2985 
  2986 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2987 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2988 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2989 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2990 
  2991 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2992 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2993 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2994 
  2995 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2996 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2997 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2998 Isabelle distribution.
  2999 
  3000 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  3001 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  3002 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  3003 
  3004 
  3005 *** Pure ***
  3006 
  3007 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  3008 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  3009 
  3010 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  3011 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  3012 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3015 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  3016 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  3017 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  3018 with some care where this is really required.
  3019 
  3020 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  3021 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  3022 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  3023 
  3024   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  3025 
  3026 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  3027 a Hasse diagram.
  3028 
  3029 
  3030 *** HOL ***
  3031 
  3032 * Sledgehammer:
  3033 
  3034   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  3035     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  3036   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  3037   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  3038   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  3039   - Renamed options:
  3040       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  3041       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  3042       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  3043       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  3044 
  3045 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  3046 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  3047 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  3048 
  3049 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  3050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * Lifting:
  3053   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  3054   - quot_del attribute
  3055   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  3056 
  3057 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  3058 expressions.
  3059 
  3060 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  3061 pointfree expressions.
  3062 
  3063 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  3064 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  3065 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  3066 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  3067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3068 
  3069 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  3070 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  3071 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  3072 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  3073 accordingly.
  3074 
  3075 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  3076 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  3079 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  3084 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  3085 
  3086 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  3087 
  3088 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  3089 
  3090   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  3091   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  3092 
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  3096 
  3097   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  3098   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  3099 
  3100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  3103 
  3104   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  3105     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  3106     output f x converges to G.
  3107 
  3108   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  3109     infinity (at_bot).
  3110 
  3111   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  3112     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  3113 
  3114   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  3115     at_top".
  3116 
  3117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  3120 lattice type classes.
  3121 
  3122 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  3123 
  3124     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  3125     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  3126 
  3127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  3130 changes as follows.
  3131 
  3132   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  3133 
  3134       prefix ~> prefixeq
  3135       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  3136 
  3137   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  3138     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  3139     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  3140     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  3141 
  3142   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  3143     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  3144     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  3145 
  3146   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  3147     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  3148     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  3149     Library/Prefix_Order.
  3150 
  3151   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  3152     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  3153 
  3154       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  3155       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  3156       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  3157       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  3158       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  3159       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  3160       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  3161       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  3162       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  3163       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  3164       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  3165       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  3166       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  3167       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  3168       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  3169       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  3170 
  3171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  3174 
  3175 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  3176 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  3177 
  3178 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  3179 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  3180 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  3181 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  3182 
  3183   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  3184   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  3185   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  3186   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  3187   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  3188   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  3189   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  3190   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  3191   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  3192   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  3193 
  3194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  3197 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  3198 Data").
  3199 
  3200 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  3201 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  3202 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  3203 code.
  3204 
  3205 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  3206 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  3207 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  3208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  3211 
  3212 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  3213 
  3214 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  3215 
  3216   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  3217   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  3218 
  3219 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  3220 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  3221 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  3222 
  3223   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  3224 
  3225     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  3226     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  3227     cart_base i  removed
  3228     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  3229 
  3230   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  3231 
  3232   Renamed lemmas:
  3233 
  3234     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  3235     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  3236     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  3237     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  3238     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  3239     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  3240     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  3241     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  3242     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  3243     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  3244 
  3245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * HOL/Probability:
  3248 
  3249   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  3250 
  3251   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  3252     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  3253     (borel_measurable_induct).
  3254 
  3255   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  3256     projective family).
  3257 
  3258 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  3259 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  3260 
  3261 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  3262 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  3263 datatypes.
  3264 
  3265 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  3266 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  3267 
  3268 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  3269 trees for the code generator.
  3270 
  3271 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  3272 Lifting/Transfer.
  3273 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  3276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 
  3279 *** Document preparation ***
  3280 
  3281 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  3282 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  3283 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  3284 
  3285 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  3286 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  3287 
  3288 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  3289 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  3290 document/root.tex.
  3291 
  3292 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  3293 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 
  3296 *** ML ***
  3297 
  3298 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  3299 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  3300 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  3301 
  3302 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  3303 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  3304 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  3305 
  3306 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  3307 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  3308 necessarily printing visible text.
  3309 
  3310 
  3311 *** System ***
  3312 
  3313 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  3314 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  3315 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  3316 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  3317 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  3318 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  3319 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  3320 
  3321 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  3322 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  3323 
  3324   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  3325 
  3326 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  3327 
  3328 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  3329 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  3330 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  3331 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  3332 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  3333 
  3334 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  3335 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  3336 
  3337 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  3338 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  3339 
  3340 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  3341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  3344 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  3345 version of Isabelle.
  3346 
  3347 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  3348 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  3349 
  3350 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  3351 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3352 for home-made settings.
  3353 
  3354 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  3355 
  3356 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  3357 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  3358 configuration.
  3359 
  3360 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  3361 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  3362 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  3363 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  3364 bundled as Isabelle component.
  3365 
  3366 
  3367 
  3368 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  3369 ------------------------------
  3370 
  3371 *** General ***
  3372 
  3373 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  3374 
  3375   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  3376     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  3377   - markup for bound variables
  3378   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  3379   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  3380   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  3381     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  3382 
  3383 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  3384 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  3385 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  3386 
  3387 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  3388 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  3389 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  3390 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  3391 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  3392 
  3393   context
  3394     fixes x y z :: 'a
  3395     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  3396   begin
  3397 
  3398   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  3399 
  3400   end
  3401 
  3402   thm my_trans
  3403 
  3404 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  3405 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  3406 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  3407 
  3408 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  3409 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  3410 
  3411 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  3412 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  3413 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  3414 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  3415 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  3416 
  3417 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  3418 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  3419 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  3420 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  3421 indices of schematic variables.
  3422 
  3423 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  3424 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  3425 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3426 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  3427 etc. was exploited.
  3428 
  3429 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  3430 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  3431 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  3432 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  3433 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  3434 of the material of that old tutorial.
  3435 
  3436 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  3437 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  3438 manual.
  3439 
  3440 
  3441 *** Pure ***
  3442 
  3443 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  3444 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  3445 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  3446 
  3447 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  3448 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  3449 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  3450 undocumented feature.)
  3451 
  3452 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  3453 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3454 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  3455 
  3456   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  3457 
  3458   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  3459     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  3460 
  3461 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  3462 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  3463 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  3464 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  3465 
  3466 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  3467 
  3468     num ~> num_token
  3469     xnum ~> xnum_token
  3470     xstr ~> str_token
  3471 
  3472 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  3473 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  3474 position information via constraints).
  3475 
  3476 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  3477 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  3478 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  3481 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  3482 
  3483 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  3484 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  3485 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  3488 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  3491 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  3492 
  3493   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  3494 
  3495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  3498 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  3501 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  3502 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  3503 
  3504 
  3505 *** HOL ***
  3506 
  3507 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  3508 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  3509 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  3510 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  3511 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  3512 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  3513 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  3514 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  3515 possible.
  3516 
  3517 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  3518 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  3519 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  3520 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  3521 
  3522 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  3523 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  3526 
  3527 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  3528 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  3529 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  3530 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  3531 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  3532 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  3533 
  3534   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  3535     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  3536 
  3537   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  3538     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  3539     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  3540 
  3541   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  3542     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  3543 
  3544   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  3545     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  3546     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  3547 
  3548   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  3549     Redefine using other integer operations.
  3550 
  3551 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  3552 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  3553 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  3554 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  3555 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  3556 
  3557   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  3558     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  3559     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  3560     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  3561     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  3562 
  3563     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  3564     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  3565 
  3566   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  3567     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  3568     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  3569     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  3570     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  3571     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  3572     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  3573     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  3574 
  3575   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  3576     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  3577     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  3578     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  3579 
  3580   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  3581     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  3582     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  3583     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  3584 
  3585   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  3586     from type nat to type int.
  3587 
  3588 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  3589 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  3590 
  3591   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  3592     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  3593     type.  Example syntax:
  3594 
  3595     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  3596       is List.insert
  3597 
  3598     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  3599     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  3600     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  3601     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  3602     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  3603     by the package.
  3604 
  3605   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  3606     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  3607     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  3608     code generation for each constant.
  3609 
  3610   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  3611     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  3612     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  3613     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  3614     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  3615 
  3616   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  3617     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  3618     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  3619 
  3620 * Quotient package:
  3621 
  3622   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  3623     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  3624 
  3625   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  3626     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  3627 
  3628   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  3629     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  3630     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  3633     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  3636 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  3637 
  3638 * Quickcheck:
  3639 
  3640   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  3641     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  3642     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  3643     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  3644     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  3645 
  3646     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  3647     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  3648     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  3649 
  3650     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  3651     continues searching for genuine ones.
  3652 
  3653     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  3654     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  3655     show genuine counterexamples.
  3656 
  3657   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  3658     value generators for a given type and operations.
  3659 
  3660     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  3661     constructors of that type.
  3662 
  3663   - Support for multisets.
  3664 
  3665   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  3666 
  3667   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  3668     conjectures in a locale context.
  3669 
  3670 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  3671 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  3672 
  3673 * Sledgehammer:
  3674   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  3675     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  3676   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  3677   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  3678     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  3679   - Sped up the minimizer.
  3680   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  3681   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  3682   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  3683 
  3684 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  3685 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  3686 
  3687 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  3688 
  3689 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  3692 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  3693 
  3694   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  3695 
  3696 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  3697 a list and a nat.
  3698 
  3699 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  3700 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  3701 
  3702 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  3703 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  3704 default.
  3705 
  3706 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  3707 
  3708   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  3709 
  3710 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  3711 
  3712 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  3713 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  3714 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  3715 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  3716 one_case.
  3717 
  3718 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  3719 the result of the fact expression.
  3720 
  3721 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  3722 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  3723 of some relation theorems:
  3724 
  3725   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  3726   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3727   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  3728   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  3729   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  3730   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  3731 
  3732 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  3733 
  3734 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  3735 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  3736 
  3737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3738 
  3739 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  3740 to match the constant's name:
  3741 
  3742   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  3743   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  3744   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  3745   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  3746   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  3747   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  3748   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  3749   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  3750   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  3751   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  3752   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  3753   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  3754   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  3755   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  3756   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  3757   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  3758   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3759   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3760   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3761   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3762   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3763   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3764   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3765   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3766 
  3767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3770 and corresponding theorem names:
  3771 
  3772   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3773 
  3774   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3775 
  3776   - Renamed theorems:
  3777 
  3778     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3779     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3780     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3781     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3782     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3783     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3784     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3785     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3786     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3787     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3788     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3789     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3790     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3791     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3792     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3793     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3794     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3795     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3796     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3797     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3798     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3799     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3800     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3801 
  3802     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3803 
  3804     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3805 
  3806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3807 
  3808 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3809 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3810 
  3811   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3812   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3813   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3814   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3815   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3816   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3817   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3818   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3819   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3820   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3821   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3822   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3823   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3824   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3825   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3826   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3827   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3828   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3829   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3830   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3831   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3832 
  3833 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3834 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3839 
  3840   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3841   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3842   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3843   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3844   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3845   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3846   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3847   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3848   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3849   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3850   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3851   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3852   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3853   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3854   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3855   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3856   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3857   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3858 
  3859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3862 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3863 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3864 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3865 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3866 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3867 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3868 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3869 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3870 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3871 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3872 
  3873 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3874 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3875 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3876 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3877 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3878 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3879 
  3880 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3881 through option types.
  3882 
  3883 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3884 relations.
  3885 
  3886 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3889 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3890 
  3891   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3892   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3893   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3894   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3895   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3896   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3897   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3898   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3899   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3900   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3901   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3902   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3903   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3904   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3905   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3906   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3907   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3908   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3909   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3910   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3911   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3912   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3913   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3914   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3915   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3916   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3917   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3918   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3919   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3920   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3921   zless_le ~> less_le
  3922   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3923   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3924   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3925 
  3926 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3927 
  3928   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3929 
  3930 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3931 
  3932 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3933 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3934 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3935 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3939 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3940 
  3941 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3942 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3943 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3944 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3945 follows:
  3946 
  3947   Operations:
  3948   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3949   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3950   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3951   del -> rbt_del
  3952   delete -> rbt_delete
  3953   ins -> rbt_ins
  3954   insert -> rbt_insert
  3955   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3956   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3957   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3958   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3959   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3960   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3961   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3962   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3963   union -> rbt_union
  3964   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3965   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3966 
  3967   Lemmas:
  3968   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3969   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3970   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3971   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3972   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3973   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3974   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3975   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3976   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3977   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3978   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3979   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3980   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3981   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3982   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3983   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3984   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3985   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3986   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3987   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3988   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3989   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3990   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3991   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3992   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3993   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3994   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3995   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3996   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3997   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3998   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3999   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  4000   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  4001   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  4002   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  4003   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  4004   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  4005   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  4006   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  4007   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  4008   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  4009   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  4010   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  4011   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  4012   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  4013   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  4014   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  4015   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  4016   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  4017   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  4018   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  4019   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  4020   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  4021   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  4022   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  4023   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  4024   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  4025   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  4026   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  4027   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  4028   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  4029   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  4030   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  4031   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  4032   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  4033   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  4034   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  4035   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  4036   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  4037   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  4038   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  4039   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  4040   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  4041   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  4042   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  4043   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  4044   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  4045   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  4046   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  4047   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  4048   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  4049   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  4050   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  4051 
  4052 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  4053 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  4054 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056   Changed Operations:
  4057   float_abs -> abs
  4058   float_nprt -> nprt
  4059   float_pprt -> pprt
  4060   pow2 -> use powr
  4061   round_down -> float_round_down
  4062   round_up -> float_round_up
  4063   scale -> exponent
  4064 
  4065   Removed Operations:
  4066   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  4067 
  4068   Renamed Lemmas:
  4069   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  4070   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  4071   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  4072   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  4073   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  4074   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  4075   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  4076   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  4077   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  4078   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  4079   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  4080   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  4081   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  4082   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  4083   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  4084   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  4085   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  4086   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  4087   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  4088   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  4089   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  4090   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  4091   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  4092   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  4093   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  4094   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  4095   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  4096   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  4097   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  4098   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  4099   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  4100   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  4101   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  4102   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  4103   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  4104   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  4105 
  4106   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  4107   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  4108   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  4109   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  4110   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  4111   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  4112   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  4113   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  4114   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  4115   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  4116 
  4117 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  4118 association lists with distinct keys.
  4119 
  4120 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  4121 annotated commands.
  4122 
  4123 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  4124 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  4125 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  4126 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  4129 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  4130 instead.
  4131 
  4132   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  4133   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  4134   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  4135   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  4136   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  4137   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  4138   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  4139   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  4140   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4141   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  4142   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  4143   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  4144   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  4145   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4146   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4147   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  4148   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4149   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  4150   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  4151   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  4152   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  4153   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  4154   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  4155   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  4156   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  4157   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  4158   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  4159   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  4160   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  4161   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4162   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  4163   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4164   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  4165   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  4166   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  4167   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  4168   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  4169   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  4170   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  4171   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  4172   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  4173 
  4174 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  4175 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  4176 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  4177 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  4178 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  4179 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  4180 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  4181 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  4182 
  4183 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  4184 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  4185 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  4186 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  4187 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  4188 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  4189 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  4190 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  4191 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  4192 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  4193 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  4194 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196   Renamed constants:
  4197   measure -> emeasure
  4198   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  4199   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  4200   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  4201   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  4202 
  4203   Removed locales:
  4204   completeable_measure_space
  4205   finite_measure_space
  4206   finite_prob_space
  4207   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  4208   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  4209   finite_sigma_algebra
  4210   measure_space
  4211   pair_finite_prob_space
  4212   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  4213   pair_finite_space
  4214   pair_sigma_algebra
  4215   product_sigma_algebra
  4216 
  4217   Removed constants:
  4218   conditional_space
  4219   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4220   image_space
  4221   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4222   pair_measure_generator
  4223   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  4224   subvimage
  4225 
  4226   Replacement theorems:
  4227   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  4228   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  4229   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  4230   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  4231   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  4232   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  4233   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  4234   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4235   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  4236   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  4237   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  4238   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4239   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  4240   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  4241   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  4242   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  4243   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4244   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4245   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  4246   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4247   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4248   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  4249   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  4250   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  4251   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  4252   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  4253   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  4254   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4255   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  4256   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  4257   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  4258   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  4259   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  4260   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  4261   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  4262   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  4263   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  4264   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  4265   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  4266   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  4267   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  4268   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  4269   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  4270   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  4271   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  4272   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  4273   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  4274   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  4275   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  4276   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  4277   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  4278   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  4279   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4280   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4281   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  4282   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  4283   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  4284   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  4285   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4286   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  4287   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  4288   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  4289   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4290   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  4291   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  4292   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  4293   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  4294   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  4295   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  4296   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  4297   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  4298   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  4299   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  4300   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  4301   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4302   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  4303   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  4304   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  4305   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  4306   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4307   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4308   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4309   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4310   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  4311   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  4312   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  4313   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  4314   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  4315   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  4316   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  4317   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  4318   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  4319   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  4320   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  4321   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  4322   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  4323   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  4324   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  4325   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  4326   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  4327   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  4328   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  4329   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  4330   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  4331   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  4332   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  4333   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4334   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  4335   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  4336   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  4337   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  4338   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  4339   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  4340   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  4341   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  4342   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  4343   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  4344   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  4345   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4346   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  4347   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4348   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  4349   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  4350   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  4351   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  4352   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  4353   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  4354   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  4355 
  4356 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  4357 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  4358 
  4359 
  4360 *** FOL ***
  4361 
  4362 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  4363 
  4364 
  4365 *** ZF ***
  4366 
  4367 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  4368 analysis.
  4369 
  4370 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  4371 
  4372 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 
  4375 *** ML ***
  4376 
  4377 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  4378 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  4379 
  4380 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  4381 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  4382 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  4383 
  4384 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  4385 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  4386 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  4387 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  4388 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  4389 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  4390 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  4391 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  4392 
  4393 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  4394 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  4395 
  4396 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  4397 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  4398 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  4399 
  4400 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4401 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4402 
  4403 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  4404 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  4405 context as well.
  4406 
  4407 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  4408 
  4409   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  4410   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  4411   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  4412   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  4413   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  4414   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  4415   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  4416   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  4417   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  4418   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  4419   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  4420   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  4421 
  4422 
  4423 *** System ***
  4424 
  4425 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  4426 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  4427 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  4428 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  4429 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  4430 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  4431 the generic user home was intended.
  4432 
  4433 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  4434 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  4435 
  4436 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  4437 (not just JRE).
  4438 
  4439 
  4440 
  4441 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  4442 ------------------------------------
  4443 
  4444 *** General ***
  4445 
  4446 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  4447 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  4448 
  4449   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  4450     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  4451     files for checking).
  4452 
  4453   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  4454     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  4455     positions.
  4456 
  4457   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  4458     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  4459     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  4460 
  4461   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  4462     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  4463     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  4464 
  4465   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  4466     cores.
  4467 
  4468   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  4469     versions (garbage collection).
  4470 
  4471 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  4472 including some remaining limitations.
  4473 
  4474 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  4475 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4476 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  4477 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  4478 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  4479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4480 
  4481 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  4482 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  4483 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  4484 
  4485 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  4486 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  4487 usedir option -Q.
  4488 
  4489 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  4490 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  4491 
  4492   long_names   ~> names_long
  4493   short_names  ~> names_short
  4494   unique_names ~> names_unique
  4495 
  4496 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  4497 
  4498   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  4499 
  4500 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  4501 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  4502 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  4503 
  4504 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  4505 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  4506 
  4507 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  4508   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  4509   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  4510   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  4511     "Classical Reasoner".
  4512 
  4513 
  4514 *** HOL ***
  4515 
  4516 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  4517 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518 
  4519 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  4520 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  4521 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  4522 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  4523 class complete_linorder.
  4524 
  4525 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  4526 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  4527 
  4528 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  4529 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  4530 
  4531   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  4532   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  4533   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4534   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4535   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4536   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4537   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  4538   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  4539   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  4540   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  4541   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  4542 
  4543 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  4544 
  4545   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  4546   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  4547   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  4548   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  4549   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  4550   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  4551   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  4552   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  4553   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  4554   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  4555   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  4556   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  4557   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  4558   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  4559   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  4560   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  4561 
  4562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  4568 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  4569 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  4570 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  4573 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  4574 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  4575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  4578 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  4579 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  4580 
  4581 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  4582 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  4583 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  4586 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  4587 
  4588 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  4589 
  4590     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  4591     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  4592 
  4593 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  4594 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  4597 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  4600 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  4601 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  4602 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  4605   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  4606   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  4607   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  4608   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  4609   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  4610   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  4611 
  4612 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  4613 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  4616   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  4617   real_less_def ~> less_le
  4618   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  4619   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  4620   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4621   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4622   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4623   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4624   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4625   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  4626   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  4627   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  4628   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4629   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  4630   real_le_linear ~> linear
  4631   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  4632   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  4633   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  4634   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  4635   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  4636   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  4637   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  4638   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  4639   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  4640   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  4641   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  4642   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  4643   expi_add ~> exp_add
  4644   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  4645   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  4646   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  4647   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  4648   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4649   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  4650   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4651   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  4652   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4653   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4654   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4655   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4656   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4657   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  4658   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  4659   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  4660   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  4661   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4662   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4663   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4664   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  4665   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4666   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4667   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  4668   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  4669   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  4670   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  4671   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  4672   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4673   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4674   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4675   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  4676   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  4677   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4678   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4679   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  4680   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  4681   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4682   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  4683   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4684   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4685   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  4686   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  4687   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4688   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  4689   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  4690   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4691   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  4692   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4693   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  4694   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  4695   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  4696   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  4697 
  4698 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  4699 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  4700 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  4701 
  4702 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  4703 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  4704 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  4705 
  4706 * Code generation:
  4707 
  4708   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  4709     characters in the target language.
  4710 
  4711   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  4712     instead.
  4713 
  4714   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  4715 
  4716   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  4717     reactivated by the following theory command:
  4718 
  4719       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  4720 
  4721 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  4724 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  4725 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  4726 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  4727 syntax.
  4728 
  4729 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  4730 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  4731 
  4732 * Nitpick:
  4733   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  4734   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  4735   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  4736     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Sledgehammer:
  4739   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  4740   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  4741     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  4742   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  4743     this can be done within reasonable time.
  4744   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  4745     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  4747     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  4748   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  4749     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4750 
  4751 * Metis:
  4752   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  4754     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4755 
  4756 * Command 'try':
  4757   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  4758     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4759   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4760     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4761 
  4762 * Quickcheck:
  4763   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4764     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4765   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4766     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4767   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4768     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4769     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4770     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4771   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4772     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4773 
  4774 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4775 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4776 
  4777 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4778 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4779 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4780 
  4781 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4782 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4786 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4789 arithmetic.
  4790 
  4791 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4792 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4793 and lattice type classes.
  4794 
  4795 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4796 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4797 
  4798 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4799 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4800 
  4801 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4802 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4803 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4806   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4807   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4808   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4809 
  4810 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4811 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4812 constants:
  4813 
  4814   type inat   ~> type enat
  4815   Fin         ~> enat
  4816   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4817   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4818   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4819 
  4820 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4821 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4824 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4825 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4826 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4827 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4828 
  4829 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4830 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4831 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4832 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4833 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4834 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4835 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4836 
  4837   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4838   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4839   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4840   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4841 
  4842 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4843 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4844 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4845 
  4846   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4847   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4848   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4849   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4850   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4851   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4852   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4853   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4854   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4855   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4856   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4857   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4858   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4859   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4860   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4861   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4862   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4863   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4864   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4865   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4866   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4867   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4868   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4869   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4870   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4871   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4872   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4873   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4874   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4875   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4876   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4877   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4878   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4879   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4880   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4881   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4882   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4883   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4884   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4885   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4886   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4887   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4888   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4889   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4890   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4891   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4892   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4893   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4894   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4895   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4896   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4897 
  4898 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4899   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4900   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4901   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4902   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4903     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4908   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4909   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4910   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4911   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4912   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4913   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4914   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4915   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4916   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4917   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4918   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4919   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4920   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4921   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4922   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4923   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4924   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4925   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4926   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4927   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4928   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4929   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4930   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4931   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4932 
  4933 
  4934 *** Document preparation ***
  4935 
  4936 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4937 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4938 same.
  4939 
  4940 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4941 result.
  4942 
  4943 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4944 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4945 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4946 
  4947 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4948 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4949 
  4950 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4951 like this:
  4952 
  4953   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4954   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4955 
  4956 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4957 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4958 layouts.
  4959 
  4960 
  4961 *** ML ***
  4962 
  4963 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4964 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4965 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4966 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4967 under external program control.
  4968 
  4969 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4970 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4971 
  4972 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4973 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4974 (better known as Proof General).
  4975 
  4976 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4977 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4978 
  4979 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4980 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4981 
  4982 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4983 (including quotes etc.).
  4984 
  4985 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4986 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4987 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4988 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4989 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4990 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4991 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4992 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4993 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4994 
  4995 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4996 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4997 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4998 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4999 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  5000 
  5001 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  5002 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  5003 
  5004 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  5005 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  5006 
  5007 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  5008 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  5009 
  5010 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  5011 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  5012 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  5013 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  5014 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  5015 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  5016 proper Proof.context.
  5017 
  5018 
  5019 *** System ***
  5020 
  5021 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  5022 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  5023 
  5024 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  5025 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  5026 
  5027 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  5028 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  5029 
  5030   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  5031   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  5032   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  5033   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  5034   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  5035 
  5036 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  5037 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  5040 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  5041 example:
  5042 
  5043   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  5044 
  5045 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  5046 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  5047 
  5048 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  5049 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  5050 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  5051 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  5052 
  5053 
  5054 
  5055 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  5056 ----------------------------------
  5057 
  5058 *** General ***
  5059 
  5060 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  5061 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  5062 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  5063 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  5064 like this:
  5065 
  5066   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  5067 
  5068 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  5069 
  5070 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  5071 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  5072 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  5073 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  5074 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  5075 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  5076 
  5077 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  5078 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  5079 the following package declarations:
  5080 
  5081   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  5082   \usepackage{textcomp}
  5083 
  5084 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  5085 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  5086 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  5087 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  5088 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  5089 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  5090 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  5091 
  5092 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  5093 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5094 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  5095 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  5096 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  5097 
  5098 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  5099 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  5100 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  5101 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5102 
  5103 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  5104 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  5105 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  5106 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  5107 
  5108   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  5109 
  5110   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  5111   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  5112   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  5113   show_types                    show_types
  5114   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  5115   show_consts                   show_consts
  5116   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  5117 
  5118   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  5119   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  5120   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  5121 
  5122   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  5123   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  5124 
  5125   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  5126 
  5127   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  5128   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  5129   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  5130   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  5131   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  5132 
  5133 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  5134 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  5135 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  5136 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  5137 
  5138 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  5139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  5142   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  5143 
  5144 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  5145 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  5146 float_token.
  5147 
  5148 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  5149 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  5150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  5153 DejaVu Sans.
  5154 
  5155 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  5156 
  5157 
  5158 *** Pure ***
  5159 
  5160 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  5161 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  5162 time.
  5163 
  5164 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  5165 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5166 
  5167 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  5168 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  5171 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  5172 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  5173 command already provided this functionality.
  5174 
  5175 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  5176 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  5177 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  5178 without interpretations.
  5179 
  5180 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  5181 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  5182 
  5183 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  5184 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  5185 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  5186 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  5187 
  5188 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5189 'definition' instead.
  5190 
  5191 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  5192 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  5193 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  5194 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  5195 
  5196 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  5197 constructors.
  5198 
  5199 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  5200 the local file system.
  5201 
  5202 
  5203 *** HOL ***
  5204 
  5205 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  5206 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  5207 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  5208 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  5209 
  5210   declare [[coercion f]]
  5211 
  5212 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  5213 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  5214 
  5215   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  5216 
  5217 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  5218 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  5219 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  5220 other theories like this:
  5221 
  5222   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  5223 
  5224 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  5225 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  5226 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  5227 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  5228 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  5229 for examples.
  5230 
  5231 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  5232 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5233 
  5234 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  5235 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  5236 
  5237 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  5238 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  5239 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  5240 
  5241 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  5242 functorial structure of types.
  5243 
  5244 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  5245 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  5246 
  5247 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  5248 languages.
  5249 
  5250 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  5251 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  5252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5253 
  5254 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  5255 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5256 
  5257 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  5258 combinators any longer.
  5259 
  5260 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  5261 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  5262 
  5263 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  5264 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  5265 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  5266 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  5267 
  5268   record 'a foo = ...
  5269   ...
  5270   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  5271 
  5272 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  5273 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  5274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5275 
  5276 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  5277 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  5278 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  5279 
  5280 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  5281 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  5282 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  5283 
  5284 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  5285 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5286 
  5287 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  5288 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  5289 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  5290 independently.
  5291 
  5292 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  5293 counter example search.
  5294 
  5295 * Sledgehammer:
  5296   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  5297     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  5298     sledgehammer").
  5299   - Renamed commands:
  5300     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  5301     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  5302     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  5303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5304   - Renamed options:
  5305     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  5306     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  5307     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  5308     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  5309     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 * Nitpick:
  5312   - Renamed options:
  5313     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  5314     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  5315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  5317   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  5318   - Added "whack" option.
  5319   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  5320   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  5321   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  5322   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  5323     higher cardinalities.
  5324   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  5325 
  5326 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  5327 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  5328 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  5329 
  5330     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  5331 
  5332 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  5333 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  5334 
  5335 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  5336 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  5337 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  5338 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  5339 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  5340 "smt_solver".
  5341 
  5342 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  5343 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  5344 
  5345 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  5346 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  5347 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  5348 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5349 
  5350 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  5351   - Renamed:
  5352     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  5353     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  5354     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355   - Added:
  5356     smt_verbose
  5357     smt_random_seed
  5358     smt_datatypes
  5359     smt_infer_triggers
  5360     smt_monomorph_limit
  5361     cvc3_options
  5362     remote_cvc3_options
  5363     remote_z3_options
  5364     yices_options
  5365 
  5366 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  5367 header.
  5368 
  5369 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  5370 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  5371 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  5372 
  5373   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  5374 
  5375 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  5378 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5379 
  5380 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  5383 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  5386 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  5387 
  5388 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  5389 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  5392 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  5393 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5394 
  5395 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5396 
  5397 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  5398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5399 
  5400 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  5401 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5402 
  5403 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  5404 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  5405 for congruent(2)).
  5406 
  5407 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  5408 
  5409   types
  5410     bool ~> HOL.bool
  5411     nat ~> Nat.nat
  5412 
  5413   constants
  5414     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  5415     True ~> HOL.True
  5416     False ~> HOL.False
  5417     op & ~> HOL.conj
  5418     op | ~> HOL.disj
  5419     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  5420     op = ~> HOL.eq
  5421     Not ~> HOL.Not
  5422     The ~> HOL.The
  5423     All ~> HOL.All
  5424     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  5425     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  5426     Let ~> HOL.Let
  5427     If ~> HOL.If
  5428     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  5429     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  5430     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  5431     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  5432     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  5433     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  5434     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  5435     op : ~> Set.member
  5436     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  5437 
  5438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5439 
  5440 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  5441 
  5442     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  5443     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  5444     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  5445     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  5446     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  5447     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  5448     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  5449     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  5450 
  5451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 * More stylized fact names:
  5454 
  5455   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  5456   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  5457   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  5458   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  5459 
  5460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5461 
  5462 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  5463 
  5464   constants
  5465     null ~> List.null
  5466 
  5467   facts
  5468     mem_iff ~> member_def
  5469     null_empty ~> null_def
  5470 
  5471 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  5472 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  5473 generation.
  5474 
  5475 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  5476 Haskell code.
  5477 
  5478 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  5479 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  5480 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5481 
  5482 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  5483 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5484 
  5485 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  5486 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  5487 
  5488 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  5489 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  5490 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5491 
  5492 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  5493 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5494 
  5495 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  5500 referred to by its qualified name.
  5501 
  5502   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  5503   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  5504   product ~>  Enum.product
  5505 
  5506 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  5507 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  5508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5509 
  5510 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  5511 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  5512 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  5516 sort_key.
  5517 
  5518 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  5519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  5522 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  5523 instead of finite cartesian products.
  5524 
  5525   types
  5526     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  5527               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  5528               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  5529         (depends on your needs)
  5530 
  5531   constants
  5532      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  5533      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  5534      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  5535 
  5536 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  5537 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  5538 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  5539 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  5542 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  5543 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  5544 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  5545 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546 
  5547 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  5548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5549 
  5550 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  5551 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  5552 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  5553 
  5554 
  5555 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5556 
  5557 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  5558 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  5559 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  5560 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  5561 compatibility.
  5562 
  5563 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  5564 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  5565 
  5566 
  5567 *** HOLCF ***
  5568 
  5569 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  5570 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  5571 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  5572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5573 
  5574 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  5575 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  5576 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  5579   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  5580   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  5581 
  5582 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  5583 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  5584 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  5587 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  5588 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  5589 domain definition now works:
  5590 
  5591   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  5592 
  5593 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  5594 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  5595 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  5596 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  5597 
  5598   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  5599     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  5600 
  5601   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  5602 
  5603 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  5604 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  5605 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5606 
  5607 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  5608 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5609 
  5610 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  5611 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  5612 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  5613 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  5614 
  5615 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  5616 
  5617 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5618 
  5619 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5620 
  5621 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  5622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5623 
  5624 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  5625 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  5626 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  5627 
  5628 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  5629 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  5630 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5631 
  5632 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  5633 still supported as an input translation.
  5634 
  5635 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  5636 
  5637   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  5638   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  5639   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  5640   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  5641   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  5642   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  5643   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  5644 
  5645 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  5646 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5647 
  5648   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  5649   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  5650   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  5651   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  5652   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  5653   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  5654 
  5655 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  5656 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5657 
  5658 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  5659 
  5660   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  5661   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  5662   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  5663   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  5664 
  5665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5666 
  5667 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  5668 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5669 
  5670 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  5671 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5672 
  5673   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  5674   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  5675   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  5676   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  5677   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  5678   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  5679   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  5680   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  5681   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  5682   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  5683   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  5684   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  5685   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  5686   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  5687   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  5688   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  5689   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  5690   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  5691   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  5692   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  5693 
  5694 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5695 
  5696   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  5697   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  5698   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  5699   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  5700   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  5701   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  5702   box_less             ~> box_below
  5703   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  5704   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  5705   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  5706   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  5707   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  5708   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  5709   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  5710   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  5711   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  5712   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  5713   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  5714   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  5715   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  5716   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  5717   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  5718   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  5719   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  5720   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  5721   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  5722   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  5723   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  5724   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  5725   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  5726   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  5727   up_less              ~> up_below
  5728   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  5729   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  5730   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  5731   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  5732   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  5733   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  5734   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  5735   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  5736   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  5737   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  5738   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  5739   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  5740   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  5741 
  5742 
  5743 *** FOL and ZF ***
  5744 
  5745 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  5746 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5747 
  5748 
  5749 *** ML ***
  5750 
  5751 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  5752 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  5753 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  5754 
  5755 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  5756 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  5757 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  5758 
  5759 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5760 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5761 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5762 
  5763 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5764 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5765 
  5766 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5767 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5768 
  5769 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5770 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5771 
  5772 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5773 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5774 
  5775 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5776 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5777 almost all situations.
  5778 
  5779 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5780 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5781 Isabelle/ML.
  5782 
  5783 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5784 meaning.
  5785 
  5786 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5787 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5788 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5789 
  5790 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5791 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5792 
  5793 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5794 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5795 
  5796 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5797 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5798 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5799 
  5800 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5801 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5802 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5803 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5804 configuration options.
  5805 
  5806 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5807 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5808 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5809 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5810 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5811 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5812 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5813 
  5814 
  5815 
  5816 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5817 ---------------------------------
  5818 
  5819 *** General ***
  5820 
  5821 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5822 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5823 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5824 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5825 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5826 their full internal name.
  5827 
  5828 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5829 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5830 Some hints on upgrading:
  5831 
  5832   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5833     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5834     which are independent of this issue.
  5835 
  5836   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5837     provides the following special forms:
  5838 
  5839       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5840       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5841       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5842 
  5843     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5844     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5845     extra variables".
  5846 
  5847     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5848     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5849     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5850     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5851     "logic".
  5852 
  5853   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5854     antiquotations:
  5855 
  5856       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5857       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5858       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5859       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5860 
  5861   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5862     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5863     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5864     antiquotations.
  5865 
  5866 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5867 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5868 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5869 diagnose syntax problems.
  5870 
  5871 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5872 
  5873 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5874 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5875 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5876 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5877 
  5878 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5879 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5880 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5881 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5884 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5885 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5886 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5887 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5888 
  5889 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5890 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5891 
  5892 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5893 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5894 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5895 
  5896   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5897 
  5898 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5899 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5900 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5901 
  5902 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5903 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5907 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5908 
  5909 
  5910 *** Pure ***
  5911 
  5912 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5913 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5914 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5915 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5916 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5917 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5918 inspect proof terms.
  5919 
  5920 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5921 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5922 are added internally.  For example:
  5923 
  5924   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5925 
  5926 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5927 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5930 
  5931 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5932 'class' instead.
  5933 
  5934 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5935 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5937 
  5938 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5939 invariants.
  5940 
  5941 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5942 user space functionality any longer.
  5943 
  5944 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5945 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5949 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5950 
  5951 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5952 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5953 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5954 
  5955 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5956 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5957 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5958 
  5959 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5960 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5961 
  5962 
  5963 *** HOL ***
  5964 
  5965 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5966 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5967 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5968 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5969 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5970 
  5971 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5972 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5973 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5974 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5975 
  5976   fun
  5977     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5978   where
  5979     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5980 
  5981   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5982     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5983 
  5984   quotient_definition
  5985     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5986 
  5987 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5988 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5989 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5990 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5991 
  5992 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5993 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5994 
  5995 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5996 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5997 
  5998 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6000 
  6001 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  6002 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  6003 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  6004 
  6005 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  6006 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6007 
  6008 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  6009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6010 
  6011 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  6012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  6015 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  6018 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  6019 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6020 
  6021   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  6022   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  6023   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  6024   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  6025   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  6026   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  6027   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  6028   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  6029   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  6030   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  6031   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  6032   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  6033   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  6034   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  6035   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  6036   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  6037   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  6038   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  6039   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  6040   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  6041   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  6042   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  6043   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  6044   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  6045   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  6046   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  6047   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  6048   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  6049   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  6050   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  6051 
  6052 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  6053 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  6054 
  6055 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  6056 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  6057 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  6060 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  6061 
  6062 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  6063 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6064 
  6065 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  6066 
  6067 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  6068 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  6071 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6072 
  6073 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  6076 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  6077 
  6078 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  6079 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  6080 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  6081 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6082 
  6083 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  6084   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  6085   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  6086   - inverse, divide: Rings
  6087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6088 
  6089 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  6090 lattices):
  6091 
  6092     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  6093     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  6094 
  6095     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  6096 
  6097     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  6098     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  6099     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6100     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  6101     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6102     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  6103     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  6104     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  6105     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  6106     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  6107     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  6108     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  6109     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  6110 
  6111     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  6112     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6113     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6114     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  6115     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  6116     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  6117     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  6118     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  6119     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  6120     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  6121     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  6122     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  6123     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  6124     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  6125     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  6126     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  6127     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  6128     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  6129 
  6130   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  6131   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  6132 
  6133     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  6134     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  6135     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  6136     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  6137     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  6138 
  6139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6140 
  6141 * Refined field classes:
  6142   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  6143     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  6144     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  6145   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  6149   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  6150   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  6151   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  6152     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  6153   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  6154     equal_neg_zero.
  6155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6156 
  6157 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  6158 sets to lattices:
  6159 
  6160   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  6161   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  6162   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  6163   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  6164   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  6165   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  6166   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  6167   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  6168   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  6169   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  6170 
  6171 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  6172 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  6173 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  6174 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  6175 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  6176 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6177 
  6178 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  6179 multiset order:
  6180 
  6181   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  6182     <= and <;
  6183   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  6184     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  6185     multiset_order;
  6186   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  6187     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  6188     generation;
  6189   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  6190     if needed.
  6191 
  6192 Renamed:
  6193 
  6194   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  6195   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  6196   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  6197 
  6198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  6201 
  6202 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  6203 
  6204 * Theory List: added transpose.
  6205 
  6206 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  6207 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  6208 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6209 
  6210   Constants:
  6211   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  6212   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  6213   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  6214   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  6215   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  6216   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  6217   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  6218   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  6219   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  6220   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  6221   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  6222   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  6223   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  6224 
  6225   Lemmas:
  6226   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6227   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  6228   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  6229   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  6230   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  6231   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  6232   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  6233   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  6234   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  6235   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  6236   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  6237   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  6238   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6239 
  6240 * Sledgehammer:
  6241   - Renamed ATP commands:
  6242     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  6243     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  6244     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  6245     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  6246     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  6247     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6248   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  6249   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  6250     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  6251   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  6252     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  6253     is still experimental.)
  6254   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  6255     full-typed mode.
  6256   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  6257 
  6258 * Nitpick:
  6259   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  6260   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  6261   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  6262     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  6263   - Added support for quotient types.
  6264   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  6265     constructs.
  6266   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  6267     "termination" proofs).
  6268   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  6269   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  6270   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  6271   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  6272     record getters.
  6273   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  6274   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
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