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doc-src/IsarImplementation/Thy/document/tactic.tex

author | wenzelm |

Sat, 08 Jul 2006 14:12:13 +0200 | |

changeset 20065 | 636f84cd3639 |

parent 20043 | 036128013178 |

child 20316 | 99b6e2900c0f |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

tuned;

% \begin{isabellebody}% \def\isabellecontext{tactic}% % \isadelimtheory \isanewline \isanewline \isanewline % \endisadelimtheory % \isatagtheory \isacommand{theory}\isamarkupfalse% \ tactic\ \isakeyword{imports}\ base\ \isakeyword{begin}% \endisatagtheory {\isafoldtheory}% % \isadelimtheory % \endisadelimtheory % \isamarkupchapter{Tactical theorem proving% } \isamarkuptrue% % \begin{isamarkuptext}% The basic idea of tactical theorem proving is to refine the initial claim in a backwards fashion, until a solved form is reached. An intermediate goal consists of several subgoals that need to be solved in order to achieve the main statement; zero subgoals means that the proof may be finished. Goal refinement operations are called tactics; combinators for composing tactics are called tacticals.% \end{isamarkuptext}% \isamarkuptrue% % \isamarkupsection{Goals \label{sec:tactical-goals}% } \isamarkuptrue% % \begin{isamarkuptext}% Isabelle/Pure represents a goal\glossary{Tactical goal}{A theorem of \seeglossary{Horn Clause} form stating that a number of subgoals imply the main conclusion, which is marked as a protected proposition.} as a theorem stating that the subgoals imply the main goal: \isa{A\isactrlsub {\isadigit{1}}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ {\isasymdots}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ A\isactrlsub n\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ C}. The outermost goal structure is that of a Horn Clause\glossary{Horn Clause}{An iterated implication \isa{A\isactrlsub {\isadigit{1}}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ {\isasymdots}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ A\isactrlsub n\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ C}, without any outermost quantifiers. Strictly speaking, propositions \isa{A\isactrlsub i} need to be atomic in Horn Clauses, but Isabelle admits arbitrary substructure here (nested \isa{{\isasymLongrightarrow}} and \isa{{\isasymAnd}} connectives).}: an iterated implication without any quantifiers\footnote{Recall that outermost \isa{{\isasymAnd}x{\isachardot}\ {\isasymphi}{\isacharbrackleft}x{\isacharbrackright}} is always represented via schematic variables in the body: \isa{{\isasymphi}{\isacharbrackleft}{\isacharquery}x{\isacharbrackright}}. These may get instantiated during the course of reasoning.}. For \isa{n\ {\isacharequal}\ {\isadigit{0}}} a goal is solved. The structure of each subgoal \isa{A\isactrlsub i} is that of a general Heriditary Harrop Formula \isa{{\isasymAnd}x\isactrlsub {\isadigit{1}}\ {\isasymdots}\ {\isasymAnd}x\isactrlsub k{\isachardot}\ H\isactrlsub {\isadigit{1}}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ {\isasymdots}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ H\isactrlsub m\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ B} according to the normal form where any local \isa{{\isasymAnd}} is pulled before \isa{{\isasymLongrightarrow}}. Here \isa{x\isactrlsub {\isadigit{1}}{\isacharcomma}\ {\isasymdots}{\isacharcomma}\ x\isactrlsub k} are goal parameters, i.e.\ arbitrary-but-fixed entities of certain types, and \isa{H\isactrlsub {\isadigit{1}}{\isacharcomma}\ {\isasymdots}{\isacharcomma}\ H\isactrlsub m} are goal hypotheses, i.e.\ facts that may be assumed locally. Together, this forms the goal context of the conclusion \isa{B} to be established. The goal hypotheses may be again arbitrary Harrop Formulas, although the level of nesting rarely exceeds 1--2 in practice. The main conclusion \isa{C} is internally marked as a protected proposition\glossary{Protected proposition}{An arbitrarily structured proposition \isa{C} which is forced to appear as atomic by wrapping it into a propositional identity operator; notation \isa{{\isacharhash}C}. Protecting a proposition prevents basic inferences from entering into that structure for the time being.}, which is occasionally represented explicitly by the notation \isa{{\isacharhash}C}. This ensures that the decomposition into subgoals and main conclusion is well-defined for arbitrarily structured claims. \medskip Basic goal management is performed via the following Isabelle/Pure rules: \[ \infer[\isa{{\isacharparenleft}init{\isacharparenright}}]{\isa{C\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ {\isacharhash}C}}{} \qquad \infer[\isa{{\isacharparenleft}finish{\isacharparenright}}]{\isa{{\isacharhash}C}}{\isa{C}} \] \medskip The following low-level variants admit general reasoning with protected propositions: \[ \infer[\isa{{\isacharparenleft}protect{\isacharparenright}}]{\isa{{\isacharhash}C}}{\isa{C}} \qquad \infer[\isa{{\isacharparenleft}conclude{\isacharparenright}}]{\isa{A\isactrlsub {\isadigit{1}}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ {\isasymdots}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ A\isactrlsub n\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ C}}{\isa{A\isactrlsub {\isadigit{1}}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ {\isasymdots}\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ A\isactrlsub n\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ {\isacharhash}C}} \]% \end{isamarkuptext}% \isamarkuptrue% % \isadelimmlref % \endisadelimmlref % \isatagmlref % \begin{isamarkuptext}% \begin{mldecls} \indexml{Goal.init}\verb|Goal.init: cterm -> thm| \\ \indexml{Goal.finish}\verb|Goal.finish: thm -> thm| \\ \indexml{Goal.protect}\verb|Goal.protect: thm -> thm| \\ \indexml{Goal.conclude}\verb|Goal.conclude: thm -> thm| \\ \end{mldecls} \begin{description} \item \verb|Goal.init|~\isa{{\isasymphi}} initializes a tactical goal with the type-checked proposition \isa{{\isasymphi}}. \item \verb|Goal.finish|~\isa{th} checks whether theorem \isa{th} is a solved goal configuration (zero subgoals), and concludes the result by removing the goal protection. \item \verb|Goal.protect|~\isa{th} protects the whole statement of theorem \isa{th}. \item \verb|Goal.conclude|~\isa{th} removes the goal protection for any number of pending subgoals. \end{description}% \end{isamarkuptext}% \isamarkuptrue% % \endisatagmlref {\isafoldmlref}% % \isadelimmlref % \endisadelimmlref % \isamarkupsection{Tactics% } \isamarkuptrue% % \begin{isamarkuptext}% FIXME \glossary{Tactic}{Any function that maps a \seeglossary{tactical goal} to a lazy sequence of possible sucessors. This scheme subsumes failure (empty result sequence), as well as lazy enumeration of proof search results. Error conditions are usually mapped to an empty result, which gives further tactics a chance to try in turn. Commonly, tactics either take an argument to address a particular subgoal, or operate on a certain range of subgoals in a uniform fashion. In any case, the main conclusion is normally left untouched, apart from instantiating \seeglossary{schematic variables}.}% \end{isamarkuptext}% \isamarkuptrue% % \isamarkupsection{Tacticals% } \isamarkuptrue% % \begin{isamarkuptext}% FIXME \glossary{Tactical}{A functional combinator for building up complex tactics from simpler ones. Typical tactical perform sequential composition, disjunction (choice), iteration, or goal addressing. Various search strategies may be expressed via tacticals.}% \end{isamarkuptext}% \isamarkuptrue% % \isamarkupsection{Programmed proofs% } \isamarkuptrue% % \begin{isamarkuptext}% In order to perform a complete tactical proof under program control, one needs to set up an initial goal configuration, apply a tactic, and finish the result, cf.\ the rules given in \secref{sec:tactical-goals}. Further checks are required to ensure that the result is actually an instance of the original claim -- ill-behaved tactics could have destroyed that information. Several simultaneous claims may be handled within a single goal statement by using meta-level conjunction internally.\footnote{This is merely syntax for certain derived statements within Isabelle/Pure, there is no need to introduce a separate conjunction operator.} The whole configuration may be considered within a context of arbitrary-but-fixed parameters and hypotheses, which will be available as local facts during the proof and discharged into implications in the result. All of these administrative tasks are packaged into a separate operation, such that the user merely needs to provide the statement and tactic to be applied.% \end{isamarkuptext}% \isamarkuptrue% % \isadelimmlref % \endisadelimmlref % \isatagmlref % \begin{isamarkuptext}% \begin{mldecls} \indexml{Goal.prove}\verb|Goal.prove: Proof.context -> string list -> term list -> term ->|\isasep\isanewline% \verb| (thm list -> tactic) -> thm| \\ \indexml{Goal.prove-multi}\verb|Goal.prove_multi: Proof.context -> string list -> term list -> term list ->|\isasep\isanewline% \verb| (thm list -> tactic) -> thm list| \\ \indexml{Goal.prove-global}\verb|Goal.prove_global: theory -> string list -> term list -> term ->|\isasep\isanewline% \verb| (thm list -> tactic) -> thm| \\ \end{mldecls} \begin{description} \item \verb|Goal.prove|~\isa{ctxt\ xs\ As\ C\ tac} states goal \isa{C} in the context of arbitrary-but-fixed parameters \isa{xs} and hypotheses \isa{As} and applies tactic \isa{tac} to solve it. The latter may depend on the local assumptions being presented as facts. The result is essentially \isa{{\isasymAnd}xs{\isachardot}\ As\ {\isasymLongrightarrow}\ C}, but is normalized by pulling \isa{{\isasymAnd}} before \isa{{\isasymLongrightarrow}} (the conclusion \isa{C} itself may be a rule statement), turning the quantifier prefix into schematic variables, and generalizing implicit type-variables. \item \verb|Goal.prove_multi| is simular to \verb|Goal.prove|, but states several conclusions simultaneously. \verb|Tactic.conjunction_tac| may be used to split these into individual subgoals before commencing the actual proof. \item \verb|Goal.prove_global| is a degraded version of \verb|Goal.prove| for theory level goals; it includes a global \verb|Drule.standard| for the result. \end{description}% \end{isamarkuptext}% \isamarkuptrue% % \endisatagmlref {\isafoldmlref}% % \isadelimmlref % \endisadelimmlref % \isadelimtheory % \endisadelimtheory % \isatagtheory \isacommand{end}\isamarkupfalse% % \endisatagtheory {\isafoldtheory}% % \isadelimtheory % \endisadelimtheory \isanewline \isanewline \end{isabellebody}% %%% Local Variables: %%% mode: latex %%% TeX-master: "root" %%% End: