NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Mar 12 15:34:33 2019 +0100 (2 months ago ago)
changeset 70084 63721ee8c86c
parent 70042 62e47f06d22c
child 70087 55534affe445
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated to polyml-5.8 (official release);
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    45 
    46 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    47 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    48 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    49 
    50 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    51 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    52 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    53 ongoing document processing.
    54 
    55 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    56 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    57 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    58 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    59 
    60 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    61 overview column.
    62 
    63 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    64 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    65 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    66 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    67 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    68 defaults to 0.
    69 
    70 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    71 OpenJDK 11.
    72 
    73 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    74 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    75 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    76 Isabelle component).
    77 
    78 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    79 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    80 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    81 separated from option "-s".
    82 
    83 
    84 *** Isar ***
    85 
    86 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    87 precedence over goal/proof.
    88 
    89 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    90 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    91 
    92 
    93 *** HOL ***
    94 
    95 * Formal Laurent series and overhaul of Formal power series 
    96 in session HOL-Computational_Algebra.
    97 
    98 * Exponentiation by squaring in session HOL-Library; used for computing
    99 powers in class monoid_mult and modular exponentiation in session
   100 HOL-Number_Theory.
   101 
   102 * More material on residue rings in session HOL-Number_Theory:
   103 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   104 
   105 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter>
   106 (not the corresponding binding operators) now have the same precedence
   107 as any other prefix function symbol.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * Slightly more conventional naming schema in structure Inductive.
   110 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   113 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators Named_Target.theory_map[_result]
   114 to lift specifications to the global theory level.
   115 
   116 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
   117 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
   118 command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build -e" (with
   119 'export_files' in the session ROOT), or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via
   120 the "isabelle-export:" file-system. To get generated code dumped into
   121 output, use "file \<open>\<close>". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   124 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   127 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for
   131 'code_stmts' antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132 
   133 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   134 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*,
   135 are not used by default any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using
   136 declare image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   137 
   138 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   139 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   140 
   141 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   142 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   143 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   144 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   145 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146 
   147 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   148 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   149 
   150 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
   151 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   152 
   153 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
   154 
   155 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
   156 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   158 
   159 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   160 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   161 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   162 
   163 * Sledgehammer:
   164   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has
   165     been updated.
   166   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   167     less time (in most cases).
   168 
   169 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   170 
   171 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   172 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   173 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   174 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   175 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   179 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   180 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   181 
   182   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   183 
   184 
   185 *** ML ***
   186 
   187 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   188 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   189 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead,
   190 or the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   193 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   194 
   195 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   196 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   197 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   198 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   199 ">" as separator. For example:
   200 
   201   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   202   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   203 
   204   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   205   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   206 
   207   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   208   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   209 
   210 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   211 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   212 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   213 observes the official standard).
   214 
   215 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   216 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   217 
   218 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   219 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   220 useful.
   221 
   222 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   223 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   224 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   225 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   226 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   227 
   228   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   229   module Isabelle.Pure where
   230     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   231     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   232     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   233     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   234   \<close>
   235 
   236 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   237 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   238 external compiler is applied.
   239 
   240 
   241 *** System ***
   242 
   243 * The system option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   244 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   245 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   247 
   248 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   249 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   250 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   251 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   252 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   253 dump".
   254 
   255 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   256 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   257 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   258 
   259 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   260 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   261 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   262 component).
   263 
   264 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   265 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   266 Isabelle/PIDE.
   267 
   268 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   269 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   270 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   271 
   272 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   273 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   274 is no longer required.
   275 
   276 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   277 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   278 
   279   isabelle ghc_setup
   280   isabelle ghc_stack
   281 
   282   isabelle ocaml_setup
   283   isabelle ocaml_opam
   284 
   285 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   286 (and corresponding directory contents):
   287 
   288   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   289   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   290   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   291 
   292   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   293   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   294 
   295 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   296 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   297 
   298   ISABELLE_GHC
   299 
   300   ISABELLE_OCAML
   301   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   302 
   303 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   304 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   305 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   306 
   307 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   308 
   309 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   310 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   311 
   312 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   313 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   314 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   315 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   316 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   317 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   318 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   319 are gradually phased out.
   320 
   321 
   322 
   323 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   324 ---------------------------------
   325 
   326 *** General ***
   327 
   328 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   329 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   330 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   331 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   332 
   333 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   334 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   335 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   336 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   337 
   338 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   339 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   340 
   341 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   342 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   343 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   344 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   345 avoid this.
   346 
   347 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   348 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   349 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   350 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   351 
   352 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   353 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   354 instead.
   355 
   356 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   357 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   358 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   359 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   360 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   361 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   362 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   363 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   364 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   365 syntax), use option "-m".
   366 
   367 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   369 
   370 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   371 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   372 without specific Prover IDE management.
   373 
   374 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   375 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   376 context.
   377 
   378 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   379 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   380 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   381 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   382 
   383   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   384 
   385 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   386 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   387 
   388 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   389 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   390 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   391 output.
   392 
   393 
   394 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   395 
   396 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   397 for session management:
   398 
   399   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   400     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   401 
   402   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   403     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   404 
   405   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   406     and -S
   407 
   408   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   409     theories
   410 
   411   Examples:
   412     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   413     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   414     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   415     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   416     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   417 
   418 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   419 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   420 
   421 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   422 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   423 
   424 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   425 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   426 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   427 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   428 arguments into this format.
   429 
   430 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   431 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   432 
   433 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   434 functions (e.g. State output).
   435 
   436 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   437 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   438 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   439 
   440 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   441 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   442 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   445 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   446 
   447 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   448 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   449 Isabelle".
   450 
   451 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   452 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   453 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   454 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   455 Unicode content when saving the file.
   456 
   457 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   458 
   459 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   460 
   461 
   462 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   463 
   464 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   465 Isabelle/jEdit.
   466 
   467 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   468 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   469 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   470 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   471 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   472 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   473 
   474 
   475 *** Document preparation ***
   476 
   477 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   478 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   479 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   480 are supported:
   481 
   482   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   483   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   484   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   485 
   486 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   487 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   488 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   489 
   490 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   491 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   492 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   493 
   494 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   495 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   496 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   497 
   498 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   499 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   500 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   501 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   502 
   503 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   504 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   505 
   506 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   507 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   508 normally need to import.
   509 
   510 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   511 session name verbatim.
   512 
   513 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   514 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   515 
   516 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   517 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   518 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   519 
   520 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   521 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   522 anymore.
   523 
   524 
   525 *** Isar ***
   526 
   527 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   528 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   529 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   530 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   531 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   532 
   533 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   534 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   535 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   536 
   537 
   538 *** Pure ***
   539 
   540 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   541 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   542 
   543 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   544 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   545 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   546 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   547 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   548 
   549 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   550 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   551 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   552 duplicate constant declarations.
   553 
   554 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   555 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   556 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   557 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   558 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   559 
   560 
   561 *** HOL ***
   562 
   563 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   564 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   565 
   566 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   567 
   568   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   569 
   570   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   571     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   572     constraints instead.
   573 
   574   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   575 
   576   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   577     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   578     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   579     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   580 
   581   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   582     standard target languages.
   583 
   584   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   585     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   586     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   587     HOL string values and vice versa.
   588 
   589   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   590     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   591 
   592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   595 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   596 
   597 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   598 
   599 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   600 former axioms:
   601 
   602   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   603 
   604 are replaced by:
   605 
   606   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   607 
   608 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   609 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   610 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   611 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   612 
   613 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   614 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   615 
   616 * Clarifed theorem names:
   617 
   618   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   619   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   620 
   621 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * SMT module:
   624 
   625   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   626     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   629     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   630     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   633 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   634 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   641 
   642 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   643 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   647 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   648 Renamed:
   649 
   650   span_inc ~> span_superset
   651   span_superset ~> span_base
   652   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   653 
   654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   657 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   658 
   659 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   660 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   661 
   662 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   663 
   664   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   665     input syntax
   666 
   667   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   668 
   669 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   670 
   671 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   672 
   673 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   674 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   678   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   679   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   680   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   681 
   682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   683 
   684 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   685 
   686   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   687   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   688   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   689   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   690   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   691 
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   695 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   696 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   697 broken proofs.
   698 
   699 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   700 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   701 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   702 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   703 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   704 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   705 
   706 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   707 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   708 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   709 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   710 examples.
   711 
   712 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   713 
   714 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   715 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   718 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   719 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   723 infix/prefix notation.
   724 
   725 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   726 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   730 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   734 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   736 
   737 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   738 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   739 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   740 
   741 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   742 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   743 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   744 
   745 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   746 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   747 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   748 
   749 
   750 *** ML ***
   751 
   752 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   753 are stored persistently in the session build database. Command-line
   754 tools "isabelle export" and "isabelle build -e" allow to materialize
   755 exports in the physical file-system.
   756 
   757 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   758 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   759 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   760 "isabelle process".
   761 
   762 
   763 *** System ***
   764 
   765 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   766 longer supported.
   767 
   768 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   769 support has been discontinued.
   770 
   771 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   772 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   773 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   776 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   777 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   778 quotes):
   779 
   780   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   781   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   782 
   783   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   784   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   785 
   786   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   787   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   788 
   789 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   790   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   791   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   792   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   793 
   794 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   795 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   796 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   797 only.
   798 
   799 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   800 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   801 up-to-date status of a session.
   802 
   803 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   804 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   805 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   806 directory.
   807 
   808 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   809 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   810 
   811 * The command-line tool "export" and "isabelle build -e" (with
   812 'export_files' in session ROOT entries) retrieve theory exports from the
   813 session build database.
   814 
   815 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   816 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   817 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   818 See also the "system" manual.
   819 
   820 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   821 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   822 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   823 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   824 been discontinued.
   825 
   826 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   827 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   830 repository for the generated session files.
   831 
   832 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   833 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   834 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   835 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   836 ISABELLE_HOME).
   837 
   838 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   839 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   840 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   841 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   842 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   843 
   844 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   845 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   846 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   847 
   848 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   849 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   850 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   851 32/64 bit.
   852 
   853 
   854 
   855 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   856 ----------------------------------
   857 
   858 *** General ***
   859 
   860 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   861 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   862 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   863 
   864 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   865 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   866 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   867 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   868 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   869 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   870 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   871 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   872 
   873 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   874 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   875 just the theory base name as before).
   876 
   877 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   878 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   879 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   880 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   881 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   882 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   883 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   884 
   885 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   886 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   887 leads to the follow renamings:
   888 
   889   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   890   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   891   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   892   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   893   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   894 
   895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   898 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   899 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   900 
   901 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   902 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   903 
   904 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   905 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   906 antiquotations:
   907 
   908   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   909     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   910   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   911     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   912   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   913 
   914 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   915 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   916 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   917 tutorial on code generation.
   918 
   919 
   920 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   921 
   922 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   923 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   924 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   925 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   926 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   927 
   928 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   929 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   930 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   931 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   932 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   933 effectively always enabled.
   934 
   935 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   936 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   937 buffers.
   938 
   939 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   940 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   941 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   942 represented by a different border color.
   943 
   944 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   945 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   946 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   947 
   948 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   949 document in the default web browser.
   950 
   951 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   952 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   953 used for formal checking.
   954 
   955 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   956 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   957 enabled at all times.
   958 
   959 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   960 
   961 
   962 *** Pure ***
   963 
   964 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   965 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   966 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   967 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   970   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   971     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   972   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   973     malformed.
   974   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   975     malformed.
   976 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   979 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   980 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 
   983 *** HOL ***
   984 
   985 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   986 
   987 * SMT module:
   988   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   989     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   990     disabled by default.
   991   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   992   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   993 
   994 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   995 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   996 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1000 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1001 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1005 of "Complex_Main").
  1006 
  1007 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1008 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1014 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1017 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1020 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1021 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1022 
  1023 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1024 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1027 
  1028 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1029 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1030 
  1031 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1032 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1033 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1034 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1035 
  1036 * Generalized some facts:
  1037     measure_induct_rule
  1038     measure_induct
  1039     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1040     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1041     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1042     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1046 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1047 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1048 euclidean size.
  1049 
  1050 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1051   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1052   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1053     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1054     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1055   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1056     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1060 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1061 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1062 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1065   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1066   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1067 
  1068 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1069 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1072 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1073 
  1074 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1075 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1076 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1082 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1083 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1084 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1085 
  1086 syntax (ASCII)
  1087   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1088   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1089   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1090 
  1091 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1092 multisets have been renamed:
  1093 
  1094   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1095   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1096 
  1097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1100 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1101 
  1102 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1103 
  1104 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1105 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1106 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1107 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1108 
  1109 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1110 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1111 
  1112 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1113 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1114 
  1115 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1116 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1117 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1118 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 
  1122 *** System ***
  1123 
  1124 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1125 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1126 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1127 
  1128 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1129 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1130 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1131 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1132 
  1133 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1134 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1135 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1136 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1137 
  1138 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1139 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1140 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1141 unchanged.
  1142 
  1143 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1144 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1147 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1148 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1149 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1150 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1151 
  1152 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1153 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1154 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1155 
  1156 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1157 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1158 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1159 
  1160 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1161 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1162 
  1163   isabelle imports -I -a
  1164   isabelle imports -U -a
  1165   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1166   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1167 
  1168 
  1169 
  1170 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1171 -------------------------------------
  1172 
  1173 *** General ***
  1174 
  1175 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1176   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1178   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1179     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1180     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1181     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1182     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1183 
  1184 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1185 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1186 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1187 
  1188 bundle foo
  1189 begin
  1190   declare a [simp]
  1191   declare b [intro]
  1192 end
  1193 
  1194 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1195 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1196 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1197 
  1198 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1199 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1200 discontinued.
  1201 
  1202 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1203 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1204 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1205 
  1206 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1207 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1208 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1209 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1210 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1211 
  1212 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1213 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1214 
  1215 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1216 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1217 
  1218 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1219 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1220 examples.
  1221 
  1222 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1223 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1224 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1225 
  1226 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1227 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1228 
  1229 
  1230 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1231 
  1232 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1233 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1234 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1235 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1236 
  1237 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1238 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1239 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1240 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1241 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1242 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1243 
  1244 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1245 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1246 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1247 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1248 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1249 
  1250 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1251 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1252 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1253 
  1254 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1255 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1256 
  1257 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1258 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1259 
  1260 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1261 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1262 
  1263 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1264 
  1265 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1266 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1267 systematic renaming.
  1268 
  1269 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1270 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1271 theorem statement.
  1272 
  1273 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1274 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1275 
  1276 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1277 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1278 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1279 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1280 
  1281 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1282 following independent stages:
  1283 
  1284   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1285   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1286   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1287   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1288 
  1289 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1290 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1291 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1292 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1293 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1294 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1295 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1296 
  1297 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1298 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1299 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1300 
  1301 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1302 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1303 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1304 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1305 
  1306 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1307 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1308 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1309 
  1310 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1311 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1312 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1313 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1314 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1315 old keymaps.
  1316 
  1317 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1318 and diverse:
  1319 
  1320   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1321   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1322   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1323 
  1324 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1325 have to be changed.
  1326 
  1327 
  1328 *** Document preparation ***
  1329 
  1330 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1331 
  1332 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1333 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1334 
  1335 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1336 this allows special forms of document output.
  1337 
  1338 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1339 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1340 derivatives.
  1341 
  1342 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1343 
  1344 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1345 Isabelle2015).
  1346 
  1347 
  1348 *** Isar ***
  1349 
  1350 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1351 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1352 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1353 
  1354 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1355 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1356 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1357 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1358 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1359 
  1360 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1361 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1362 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1363 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1364 
  1365 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1366 context.
  1367 
  1368 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1369 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1370 
  1371 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1372 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1373 
  1374 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1375 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1376 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1377 
  1378 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1379 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1383 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1384 definitions.
  1385 
  1386 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1387 expression, e.g.
  1388 
  1389   (use facts in simp)
  1390   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1391 
  1392 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1393 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1394 
  1395 
  1396 *** Pure ***
  1397 
  1398 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1399 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1400 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1401 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1402 
  1403 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1404 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1405 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1406 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1407 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1408 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1409 
  1410 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1411 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1412 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1413 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1414 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1415 types where this is really intended.
  1416 
  1417 
  1418 *** HOL ***
  1419 
  1420 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1421 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1422 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1423 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1424 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1425 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1426 
  1427 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1428 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1429 
  1430 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1431 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 * Sledgehammer:
  1434   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1435   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1436 
  1437 * (Co)datatype package:
  1438   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1439     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1440     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1441     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1442   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1443     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1444   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1445     to the map function.
  1446   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1447   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1448        terms of map and set
  1449        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1450   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1451        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1452     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1453   - Renamed lemmas:
  1454       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1455       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1456     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1458   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1459     equivalent) form.
  1460     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1463 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1464 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1465 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1466 
  1467 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1468 
  1469   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1470   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1471 
  1472 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1473 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1474 eliminated altogether.
  1475 
  1476 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1477 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1478 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1479 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1480 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1481 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1483 
  1484 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1488 
  1489     setsum ~> sum
  1490     setprod ~> prod
  1491     listsum ~> sum_list
  1492     listprod ~> prod_list
  1493 
  1494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1497     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1498     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1499     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1500     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1501     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1502     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1503     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1504     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1505     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1506     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1507     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1508     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1509     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1510     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1511     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1512     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1513     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1514     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1515     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1516     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1517     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1518     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1519     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1520     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1521     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1522     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1523     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1524     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1525     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1527 
  1528 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1529 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1530 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1533 
  1534 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1535 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1536 
  1537   - Logical representation:
  1538     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1539     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1540       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1541     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1542       are non-canonical.
  1543   - Printing and parsing:
  1544     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1545       (as before).
  1546     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1547     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1548       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1549       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1550     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1551       printed as their logical representation.
  1552   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1553     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1554   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1555 
  1556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1559 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1560 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1561 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1564 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1565 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1566 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1567 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1570 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1573 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1574 
  1575 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1576 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1577 interface for the generated code.
  1578 
  1579 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1580 spelt out explicitly.
  1581 
  1582 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1583 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1584 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1585 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1586 
  1587 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1588 products.
  1589 
  1590 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1591 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1592 
  1593 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1594 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1595 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1596 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1597 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1598 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1599 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1601 
  1602 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1603 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1604 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1610   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1611   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1612 
  1613 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1614   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1615     le_add_same_cancel1
  1616     le_add_same_cancel2
  1617     less_add_same_cancel1
  1618     less_add_same_cancel2
  1619     add_le_same_cancel1
  1620     add_le_same_cancel2
  1621     add_less_same_cancel1
  1622     add_less_same_cancel2
  1623 
  1624 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1625   superseeded by a more general version:
  1626     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1627     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1628     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1629     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1630     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1631     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1632     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1633     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1637 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638 
  1639 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1640 
  1641 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1642 
  1643   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1644   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1645 
  1646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1647 
  1648 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1652 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1653 A)".
  1654 
  1655 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1658 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1659 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1660 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661 
  1662 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1663 dioid.
  1664 
  1665 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1666 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1667 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1668 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1669 
  1670 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1671 of a more general type also:
  1672   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1673   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1674   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1675   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1676   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1677   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1678   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1679   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1680   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1681   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1682   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1683   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1684   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1685   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1686   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1687   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1688   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1689   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1690   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1691   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1692   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1693   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1694   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1695   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1696   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1697   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1698   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1699   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1700   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1701   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1702   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1703   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1704   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1705   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1706   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1707   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1708   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1709   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1710   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1711   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1712   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1713   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1714   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1715   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1716   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1717   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1718   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1719   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1720   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1721   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1722   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1723   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1724   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1725   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1726   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1727   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1728   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1729   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1730   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1731   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1732   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1733   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1734   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1735   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1736   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1737   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1738   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1739   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1740   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1741   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1742   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1743   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1744   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1745   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1746   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1747   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1748   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1749   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1750   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1751   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1752   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1753   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1754   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1755   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1756   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1757   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1758   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1759   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1763 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1766 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1767 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1768 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1769 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1770 
  1771 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1772 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1773 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1774 once.
  1775 
  1776 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1777 set_mset rather than count.
  1778 
  1779   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1780     by default.
  1781 
  1782   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1783     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1784 
  1785   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1786     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1787 
  1788   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1789     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1790 
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1794 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1795 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1796 underscores.
  1797 
  1798 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1799 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1800 relation.
  1801 
  1802 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1803 everywhere fix bijections.
  1804 
  1805 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1806 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1807 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1808 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1809 
  1810 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1811 
  1812 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1813 
  1814 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1815 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1816 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1817 
  1818 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1819 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1820 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1821 
  1822 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1823 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1824 
  1825 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1826 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1827 domain.
  1828 
  1829 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1830 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831 
  1832   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1833   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1834 
  1835 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1836 Probability Mass Functions.
  1837 
  1838 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1839 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1840 folding over a list in random order.
  1841 
  1842 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1843 subprobability distributions.
  1844 
  1845 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1846 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1847 
  1848     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1849     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1850     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1851     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1852     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1853     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1854     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1855     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1856     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1857     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1858     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1859     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1860     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1861     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1862     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1863     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1864     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1865     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1866     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1867     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1868     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1869     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1870 
  1871 Some functions have been renamed:
  1872     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1873 
  1874 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1875     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1876     #\<subset># ~> <
  1877     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1878     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1882 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1883 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1884 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1885 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1888 been renamed:
  1889 
  1890     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1891     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1892     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1893     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1894     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1895     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1896     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1897     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1898     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1899 
  1900     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1901     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1902     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1903     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1904     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1905     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1906     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1907     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1908     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1909     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1910     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1917 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1918 
  1919     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1920     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1921     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1922     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1923     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1924     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1925     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1926     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1927     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1928     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1929     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1930     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1931     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1932     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1933     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1934     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1935     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1936 
  1937 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1938 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1939 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1940 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1941 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1942 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1943 
  1944 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1945 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1949 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1950 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1951 
  1952 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1953 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1954 removed or changed:
  1955 
  1956   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1957   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1958   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1959   union_single_eq_diff
  1960   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1961   diff_single_eq_union
  1962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1965 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1966 
  1967   mset_add
  1968   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1969   diff_single_eq_union
  1970   union_single_eq_diff
  1971   union_single_eq_member
  1972   add_eq_conv_diff
  1973   insert_noteq_member
  1974   add_eq_conv_ex
  1975   multi_member_split
  1976   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1977   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1978   mset_subset_insertD
  1979   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1980   insert_union_subset_iff
  1981   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1982   inter_add_left1
  1983   inter_add_left2
  1984   inter_add_right1
  1985   inter_add_right2
  1986   sup_union_left1
  1987   sup_union_left2
  1988   sup_union_right1
  1989   sup_union_right2
  1990   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1991   multi_nonempty_split
  1992   mset_insort
  1993   mset_update
  1994   mult1I
  1995   less_add
  1996   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1997   rel_mset_Zero
  1998   msed_map_invL
  1999   msed_map_invR
  2000   msed_rel_invL
  2001   msed_rel_invR
  2002   le_multiset_right_total
  2003   multiset_induct
  2004   multiset_induct2_size
  2005   multiset_induct2
  2006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2007 
  2008 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2009 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2010 element:
  2011 
  2012   image_mset
  2013   mset
  2014   replicate_mset
  2015   mult1
  2016   pred_mset
  2017   rel_mset'
  2018   mset_insort
  2019 
  2020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2023 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2024 
  2025   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2026   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2027   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2028   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2029   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2030   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2031   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2032   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2033   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2034   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2035   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2036   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2037   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2038   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2039   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2040   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2041   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2042   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2043   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2047 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2048 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2052 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2053 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2056 multisets:
  2057 
  2058   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2059   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2060 
  2061 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2062 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2063 
  2064   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2065   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2066 
  2067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068 
  2069 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2070 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2071 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2072 
  2073 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2074 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2075 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2076 
  2077 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2078 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2079 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2080 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2081 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2082 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2085 the following renaming
  2086 
  2087   prefixeq -> prefix
  2088   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2089   suffixeq -> suffix
  2090   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2091 
  2092 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2093 
  2094 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2095 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2096 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2097 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2098 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2099 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100 
  2101 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2102 theories.
  2103 
  2104 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2105 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2106 
  2107 
  2108 *** ML ***
  2109 
  2110 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2111 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2112 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2113 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2115 
  2116 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2117 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2118 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2119 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2120 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2121 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2122 superseded by General.Div.
  2123 
  2124 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2125 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2126 
  2127 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2128 with approximative output quality.
  2129 
  2130 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2131 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2134 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2135 requiring separate files.
  2136 
  2137 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2138 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2139 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2140 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2141 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2142 
  2143 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2144 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2145 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2146 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2147 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2148 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2149 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2150 
  2151 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2152 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2156 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2157 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2158 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2161 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2162 
  2163 
  2164 *** System ***
  2165 
  2166 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2167 
  2168 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2169 much less disk space.
  2170 
  2171 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2172 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2173 particular:
  2174 
  2175   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2176     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2177   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2178   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2179 
  2180 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2181 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2182 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2185 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2186 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2187 return code 1.
  2188 
  2189 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2190 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2191 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2192 
  2193 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2194 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2195 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2196 
  2197 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2198 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2199 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2200 by default).
  2201 
  2202 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2203 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2204 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2205 resulting log files.
  2206 
  2207 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2208 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2209 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2210 implicit default via option -p.
  2211 
  2212 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2213 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2214 
  2215 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2216 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2217 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2218 
  2219 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2220 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2221 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2222 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2223 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2226 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2227 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2228 
  2229 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2230 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2231 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2232 
  2233 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2234 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2235 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2236 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2237 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2238 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2239 been discontinued.
  2240 
  2241 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2242 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2243 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2244 
  2245 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2246 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2247 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2248 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2249 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2250 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2251 
  2252 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2253 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2254 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2255 connection).
  2256 
  2257 
  2258 
  2259 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2260 -----------------------------------
  2261 
  2262 *** General ***
  2263 
  2264 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2265 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2266 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2267 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2268 examples that do require HOL.
  2269 
  2270 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2271 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2272 
  2273 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2274 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2275 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2276 has been removed (see below).
  2277 
  2278 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2279 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2280 
  2281 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2282 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2283 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2284 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2285 
  2286 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2287 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2288 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2289 meaning.
  2290 
  2291 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2292 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2293 to update old sources.
  2294 
  2295 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2296 
  2297   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2298   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2299   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2300   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2301 
  2302 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2303 accordingly.
  2304 
  2305 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2306 'theorem'.
  2307 
  2308 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2309 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2310 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2311 
  2312 
  2313 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2314 
  2315 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2316 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2317 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2318 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2319 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2320 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2321 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2322 any effect on the running ML program.
  2323 
  2324 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2325 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2326 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2327 update.
  2328 
  2329 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2330 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2331 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2332 
  2333 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2334 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2335 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2336 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2337 visibility.
  2338 
  2339 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2340 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2341 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2342 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2343 panel.
  2344 
  2345 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2346 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2347 
  2348 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2349 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2350 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2351 
  2352 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2353 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2354 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2355 
  2356 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2357 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2358 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2359 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2360 
  2361 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2362 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2363 the editor.
  2364 
  2365 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2366 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2367 
  2368 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2369 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2370 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2371 instead.
  2372 
  2373 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2374 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2375 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2376 
  2377 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2378 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2379 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2380 
  2381 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2382 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2383 
  2384 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2385 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2386 
  2387 
  2388 *** Document preparation ***
  2389 
  2390 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2391 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2392 
  2393 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2394 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2395 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2396 
  2397 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2398 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2399 follows:
  2400 
  2401   \<^item>  itemize
  2402   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2403   \<^descr>  description
  2404 
  2405 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2406 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2407 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2408 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2409 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2410 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2411 
  2412 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2413 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2414 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2415 
  2416 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2417 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2418 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2419 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2420 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2421 
  2422 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2423 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2424 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2425 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2426 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2427 
  2428 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2429 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2430 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2431 
  2432 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2433 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2434 
  2435 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2436 
  2437 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2438 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2439 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2440 
  2441 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2442 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2443 
  2444 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2445 entities of the Isar language.
  2446 
  2447 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2448 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2449 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2450 
  2451 
  2452 *** Isar ***
  2453 
  2454 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2455 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2456 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2457 example:
  2458 
  2459   have result: "C x y"
  2460     if "A x" and "B y"
  2461     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2462     <proof>
  2463 
  2464 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2465 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2466 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2467 
  2468   {
  2469     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2470     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2471     have "C x y" <proof>
  2472   }
  2473   note result = this
  2474 
  2475 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2476 instead of 'assume' above.
  2477 
  2478 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2479 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2480 
  2481   assume result: "C x y"
  2482     if "A x" and "B y"
  2483     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2484 
  2485 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2486 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2487 
  2488 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2489 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2490 example:
  2491 
  2492   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2493 
  2494 is equivalent to:
  2495 
  2496   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2497 
  2498 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2499 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2500 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2501 follows:
  2502 
  2503   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2504 
  2505 or:
  2506 
  2507   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2508 
  2509 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2510 
  2511   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2512 
  2513 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2514 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2515 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2516 of the local context elements yet.
  2517 
  2518 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2519 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2520 
  2521   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2522   then have something
  2523   proof cases
  2524     case a
  2525     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2526   next
  2527     case b
  2528     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2529   next
  2530     case c
  2531     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2532   qed
  2533 
  2534 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2535 
  2536   case a: (c xs)
  2537   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2538 
  2539 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2540 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2541 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2542 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2543 and always put attributes in front.
  2544 
  2545 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2546 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2547 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2548 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2549 
  2550 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2551 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2552 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2553 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2554 
  2555   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2556     supply [simp] = a
  2557   proof
  2558     show A by simp
  2559   next
  2560     show A by simp
  2561   qed
  2562 
  2563 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2564 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2565 
  2566 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2567 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2568 
  2569 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2570 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2571 
  2572 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2573 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2574 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2575 manual.
  2576 
  2577 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2578 ('apply' scripts).
  2579 
  2580 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2581 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2582 example:
  2583 
  2584 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2585   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2586 proof goal_cases
  2587   case (1 x)
  2588   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2589 next
  2590   case (2 y z)
  2591   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2592 qed
  2593 
  2594 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2595   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2596 proof goal_cases
  2597   case prems: 1
  2598   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2599 next
  2600   case prems: 2
  2601   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2602 qed
  2603 
  2604 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2605 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2606 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2607 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2608 
  2609 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2610 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2611 
  2612 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2613 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2614 
  2615 
  2616 *** Pure ***
  2617 
  2618 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2619 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2620 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2621 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2622 
  2623 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2624 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2627 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2628 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2629 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2630 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2631 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2632 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2633 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2634 
  2635   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2636   begin
  2637     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2638   end
  2639 
  2640   locale morphism =
  2641     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2642     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2643   begin
  2644     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2645   end
  2646 
  2647 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2648 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2649 
  2650 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2651 'defines'.
  2652 
  2653 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2654 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2657 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2658 
  2659 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2660 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2663 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2664 exploited.
  2665 
  2666 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2667 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2668 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2669 
  2670 
  2671 *** HOL ***
  2672 
  2673 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2674 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2675 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2676 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2677 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2678 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2679 
  2680 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2681 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2682 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2683 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2684 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2685 
  2686 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2687 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2688 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2689 simplify porting old theories:
  2690 
  2691   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2692 
  2693   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2694 
  2695   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2696   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2697 
  2698   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2699 
  2700   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2701   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2702 
  2703   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2704 
  2705   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2706     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2707 
  2708   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2709   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2710   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2711 
  2712   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2713   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2714   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2715 
  2716 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2717 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2718 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2719 
  2720 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2721 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2722 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2723 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2724 
  2725 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2726 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2727 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2728 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2731 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2732 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2733 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2736 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2737 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2739 
  2740 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2741 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2742 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2743 
  2744 Consolidated facts:
  2745   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2746   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2747   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2748   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2749   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2750   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2751   split_split ~> prod.split
  2752   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2753   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2754   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2755   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2756   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2757   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2758   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2759   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2760   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2761   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2762   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2763   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2764   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2765   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2766   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2767   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2768   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2769   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2770   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2771   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2772   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2773   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2774   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2775   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2776   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2777   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2778   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2779   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2780 
  2781 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2782   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2783   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2784   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2785   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2786 
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2790 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2791 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2792 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2793 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2794 
  2795 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2796   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2797   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2798   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2799   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2800   real_of_one of_int_1
  2801   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2802   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2803   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2804   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2805   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2806   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2807   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2808   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2809   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2810   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2811   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2812   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2813   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2814   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2815   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2816   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2817   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2818 
  2819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2820 
  2821 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2822 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2825 
  2826 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Sledgehammer:
  2829   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2830   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2831     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2832   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2833   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2834   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2835     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2837 
  2838 * Nitpick:
  2839   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2840   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2841   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2842   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2843   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2844 
  2845 * (Co)datatype package:
  2846   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2847     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2848   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2849   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2850     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2852     being defined.
  2853   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2854 
  2855 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2856 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2857 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2858 
  2859 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2860 
  2861 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2862 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2863 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2864 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2865 
  2866 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2870 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2871 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2872 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2873 
  2874 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2875 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2876 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2877 
  2878 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2879 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2880 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2881 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2882 
  2883 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2884 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2885 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2886 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2887 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2888 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2889 during instantiation.
  2890 
  2891 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2892 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2893 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2896 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2897 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2898 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2899 
  2900   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2901   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2902 
  2903 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905 * Library/Multiset:
  2906   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2907       < ~> <#
  2908       > ~> >#
  2909       <= ~> <=#
  2910       >= ~> >=#
  2911       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2912       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2913     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2915       \<subset>#
  2916       \<subseteq>#
  2917       \<supset>#
  2918       \<supseteq>#
  2919   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2920     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2921     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2922     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2923     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2924     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2925     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926   - Renamed conversions:
  2927       multiset_of ~> mset
  2928       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2929       set_of ~> set_mset
  2930     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2931   - Renamed lemmas:
  2932       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2933       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2934       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2935     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2936   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2937     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2938     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2939     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2940 
  2941 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2942 
  2943 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2944 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2945 chain-complete partial orders.
  2946 
  2947 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2948 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2949 
  2950 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2951 periodic functions.
  2952 
  2953 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2954 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2955 GCD.
  2956 
  2957 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2958 
  2959 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2960 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2961 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2962 
  2963 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2964 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2965 
  2966 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2967 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2968 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2969 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2970 
  2971 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2972 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2973 
  2974 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2975 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2976 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2977 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2978 properties.
  2979 
  2980 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2981 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2982 
  2983 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2984 structures.
  2985 
  2986 
  2987 *** ML ***
  2988 
  2989 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2990 system are available:
  2991 
  2992   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2993   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2994   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2995 
  2996 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2997 
  2998 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2999 Isar proof method.
  3000 
  3001 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3002 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3003 breaks.
  3004 
  3005 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3006 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3007 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3010 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3011 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3012 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3013 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3016 
  3017   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3018   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3019 
  3020   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3021   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3022 
  3023 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3024 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3025 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3026 
  3027 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3028 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3029 instead (with proper context).
  3030 
  3031 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3032 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3033 
  3034 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3035 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3036 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3037 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3038 the proof context discipline.
  3039 
  3040 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3041 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3042 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3043 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3044 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 
  3047 *** System ***
  3048 
  3049 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3050 
  3051 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3052 conflations:
  3053 
  3054     hence  ~>  then have
  3055     thus   ~>  then show
  3056 
  3057 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3058 maintainability of proofs.
  3059 
  3060 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3061 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3062 performance.
  3063 
  3064 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3065 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3066 
  3067     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3068 
  3069 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3070 space.
  3071 
  3072 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3073 platforms as follows.
  3074 
  3075   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3076     associated with the main app bundle
  3077 
  3078   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3079     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3080     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3081 
  3082   - isabelle build: settings
  3083     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3084 
  3085 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3086 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3087 
  3088 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3089 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3090 required after change.
  3091 
  3092 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3093 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3094 
  3095 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3096 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3097 
  3098 
  3099 
  3100 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3101 ------------------------------
  3102 
  3103 *** General ***
  3104 
  3105 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3106 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3107 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3108 
  3109   context
  3110   begin
  3111 
  3112   private definition ...
  3113   private lemma ...
  3114 
  3115   qualified definition ...
  3116   qualified lemma ...
  3117 
  3118   lemma ...
  3119   theorem ...
  3120 
  3121   end
  3122 
  3123 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3124 naming policy.
  3125 
  3126 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3127 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3129 
  3130 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3131 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3132 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3133 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3134 
  3135 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3136 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3137 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3141 theory context.
  3142 
  3143 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3144 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3145 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3146 
  3147 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3148 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3149 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3150 sources.
  3151 
  3152 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3153 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3154 
  3155 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3156 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3157 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3158 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3159 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3160 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3161 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3162 
  3163 
  3164 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3165 
  3166 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3167 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3168 
  3169 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3170 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3171 in the buffer.
  3172 
  3173 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3174 marker, SideKick parser.
  3175 
  3176 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3177 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3178 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3179 
  3180 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3181 Options / Text Area).
  3182 
  3183 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3184 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3185 
  3186 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3187 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3188 
  3189 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3190 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3191 
  3192 
  3193 *** Document preparation ***
  3194 
  3195 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3196 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3197 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3198 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3199 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3200 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3201 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3202 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3203 
  3204 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3205 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3206 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3207 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3208 
  3209 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3210 style.
  3211 
  3212 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3213 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3214 
  3215 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3216 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3217 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3218 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3219 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3220 
  3221 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3222 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3223 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3224 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3225 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3226 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3227 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3230 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3231 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 
  3235 *** Pure ***
  3236 
  3237 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3238 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3239 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3240 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3241 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3242 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3243 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3244 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3245 
  3246 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3247 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3248 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3249 
  3250 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3251 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3252 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3253 different index.
  3254 
  3255 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3256 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3257 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3258 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3259 
  3260 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3261 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3262 token category instead.
  3263 
  3264 
  3265 *** HOL ***
  3266 
  3267 * New (co)datatype package:
  3268   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3269     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3270     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3271     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3272     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273   - Renamed theorems:
  3274       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3275       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3276       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3277       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3278       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3279       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3280       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3281       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3282       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3283       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3284       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3285       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3286       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3287     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3289     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3292     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3293     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3295     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3296     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3297     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3298     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3299     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301   - Renamed theories:
  3302       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3303       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3304       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3305       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3306       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3307       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3310     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3311     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3312     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3313     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3314     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3315     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3316     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3317     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3318   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3319     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3320     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3321     rules.
  3322 
  3323 * Old datatype package:
  3324   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3325     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3326     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3327     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3328     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329   - Renamed theorems:
  3330       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3331     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332   - Renamed theory:
  3333       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336 * Nitpick:
  3337   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3338     operations.
  3339 
  3340 * Sledgehammer:
  3341   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3342     default.
  3343   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3344     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3345   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3346     Removed sub-command:
  3347       min
  3348   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3349     dramatically improved.
  3350   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3351 
  3352 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3353   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3354     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3355     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3356     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3357     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3358     point to it.
  3359     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3361     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3362   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3363     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3364   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3365     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3366 
  3367 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3368 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3369 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3370 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3371 
  3372 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3373 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3374 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3377 
  3378 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3379 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3380 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3381 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3384 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3390 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3391 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3394 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3397 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3398 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3399 
  3400 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3401 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3402 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3403 needed.
  3404 
  3405 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3406 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3407 
  3408 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3409 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3410 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3411 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3412 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3413 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3414 
  3415 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3416 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3417 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3418 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3419 
  3420 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3421 type class hierarchy:
  3422   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3423   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3424   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3425   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3426 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3429   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3430   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3431 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3434 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3435 
  3436 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3437   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3438   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3439   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3440 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3443 and part of theory Main.
  3444   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3451 Fact rename:
  3452     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3456 
  3457 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3458 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3459 
  3460 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3461 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3462 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3463 
  3464 * Library/Multiset:
  3465   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3466   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3467     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3468   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3469       <# ~> #<#
  3470       <=# ~> #<=#
  3471       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3472       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3473     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3475       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3476       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3477     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3478   - Renamed
  3479       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3480       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3481       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3482     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3484   - Added attributes:
  3485       image_mset.id [simp]
  3486       image_mset_id [simp]
  3487       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3488       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3489       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3490       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3491       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3492       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3493     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3496 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3497 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3498 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3501 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3502 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3503 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3504 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3505 examples.
  3506 
  3507 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3508   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3509   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3510   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3511     projection
  3512 
  3513 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3514 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3515 
  3516 
  3517 *** ML ***
  3518 
  3519 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3520 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3521 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3522 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3523 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3524 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3525 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3526 
  3527 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3528 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3529 
  3530 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3531 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3532 
  3533 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535 
  3536 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3537 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3538 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3539 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3540 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3541 nested.
  3542 
  3543 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3544 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3547 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3548 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3552 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3553 Thm.term_of etc.
  3554 
  3555 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3556 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3557 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3560 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3561 
  3562 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3563 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3564 
  3565 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3566 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3567 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3570 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3571 
  3572 
  3573 *** System ***
  3574 
  3575 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3576 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3577 
  3578 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3579 
  3580 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3581 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3582 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3583 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3587 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3588 
  3589 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3590 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3591 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3592 
  3593 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3594 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3595 
  3596 
  3597 
  3598 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3599 ---------------------------------
  3600 
  3601 *** General ***
  3602 
  3603 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3604 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3605 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3606 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3607 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3608 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3609 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3610 some examples.
  3611 
  3612 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3613 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3614 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3615 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3616 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3617 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3618 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3619 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3620 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3621 
  3622 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3623 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3624 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3625 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3626 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3627 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3628 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3629 proof tools.
  3630 
  3631 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3632 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3633 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3634 
  3635 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3636 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3637 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3638 
  3639 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3640 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3641 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3642 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3645 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3646 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3650 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3651 
  3652 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3653 not check existence within the file-system.
  3654 
  3655 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3656 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3657 
  3658 
  3659 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3660 
  3661 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3662 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3663 buffer.
  3664 
  3665 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3666 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3667 
  3668 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3669 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3670 
  3671 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3672 auxiliary ML files.
  3673 
  3674 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3675 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3676 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3677 
  3678 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3679 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3680 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3681 
  3682 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3683 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3684 
  3685 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3686 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3687 caret".
  3688 
  3689 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3690 completion popup and context-menu.
  3691 
  3692 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3693 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3694 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3695 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3696 
  3697 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3698 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3699 
  3700 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3701 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3702 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3703 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3704 
  3705 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3706 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3707 
  3708 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3709 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3710 
  3711 * Improved monitor panel.
  3712 
  3713 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3714 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3715 
  3716 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3717 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3718 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3719 
  3720 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3721 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3722 within the context.
  3723 
  3724 
  3725 *** Pure ***
  3726 
  3727 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3728 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3729 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3730 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3731 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3732 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3733 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3734 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3735 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3736 
  3737 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3738 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3739 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3740 renaming needs to be applied:
  3741 
  3742   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3743   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3744   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3745   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3746   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3747 
  3748 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3749 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3750 old constants:
  3751 
  3752 setup {*
  3753   fn thy => thy
  3754     |> Sign.root_path
  3755     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3756     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3757     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3758     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3759 *}
  3760 
  3761 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3762 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3763 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3764 
  3765 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3766 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3767 instantiated theorem.
  3768 
  3769 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3770 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3771 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3772 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3773 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3774 
  3775   attribute_setup standard =
  3776     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3777 
  3778 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3779 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3780 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3781 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3782 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3783 
  3784 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3785 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3786 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3787 
  3788 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3789 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3790 
  3791 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3792 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3793 
  3794 
  3795 *** HOL ***
  3796 
  3797 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3798 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3807 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3813 with the given constants.
  3814 
  3815 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3816 operations on records.
  3817 
  3818 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3819 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3820 
  3821 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822 
  3823 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3824 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3825 
  3826 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3829 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3830 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3831 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3832 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3835 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3838   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3839   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3840   part of theory "Main".
  3841 
  3842   Theory renamings:
  3843     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3844     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3845     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3846     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3847     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3848     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3849     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3850     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3851     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3852     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3853     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3854     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3855     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3856     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3857     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3858     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3859     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3860     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3861     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3862     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3863     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3864     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3865 
  3866   New theories:
  3867     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3868     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3869     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3870     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3871     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3872 
  3873   Discontinued theories:
  3874     BNF/BNF.thy
  3875     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3876 
  3877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * New (co)datatype package:
  3880   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3881   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3882     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3883   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3884     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3885   - Renamed commands:
  3886       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3887       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3888       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3889     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3891     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3892     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3894     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3895     using "prim(co)rec".
  3896     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3897   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3898     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3899     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3901     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3902     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3903     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Old datatype package:
  3906   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3907     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3908     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3910     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3911     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3914   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3915   BNF-based datatype package.
  3916 
  3917   Renamed constants:
  3918     Option.set ~> set_option
  3919     Option.map ~> map_option
  3920     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3921 
  3922   Renamed theorems:
  3923     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3924     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3925     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3926     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3927     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3928     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3929     map.simps ~> list.map
  3930     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3931     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3932     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3933 
  3934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3937     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3938     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3939     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3940     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3941     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3942     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3943     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3944     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3945     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3946     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3947 
  3948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3951   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3952   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3953   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3954   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3955     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3956     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3957       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3958       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3959       automatically
  3960     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3961     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3962       automatically for datatypes
  3963   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3964     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3965       more
  3966       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3968       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3969       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3971       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3972       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3974     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3976     form
  3977     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3979     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3981     Code_Numeral.natural
  3982     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3984     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3985 
  3986 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3987 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3988 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3989 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3990 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3991 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3992 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3995 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3996 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3997 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3998 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3999 
  4000 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4001 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4002 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4003 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4004 
  4005 * Sledgehammer:
  4006   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4007   - MaSh overhaul:
  4008     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4009       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4010     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4011       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4012       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4013       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4014   - New option:
  4015       smt_proofs
  4016   - Renamed options:
  4017       isar_compress ~> compress
  4018       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4019 
  4020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4023 
  4024 * Nitpick:
  4025   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4026     take infinite values.
  4027   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4028     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4029   - Removed "std" option.
  4030   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4031     "hide_types".
  4032 
  4033 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4034 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4037 
  4038 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4039   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4040   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4041     SUP instead uniformly.
  4042   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4043     or SUP and Sup.
  4044   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4045   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4046   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4047     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4048     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4049 
  4050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4053 
  4054 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4055 
  4056   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4057   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4058   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4059   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4060 
  4061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4064 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4065 
  4066 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4067 
  4068     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4069     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4070     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4071     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4072     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4073     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4074     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4075     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4076     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4077     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4078     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4079     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4080     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4081     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4082     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4083     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4084     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4085     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4086     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4087     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4088     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4089     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4090     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4091     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4092     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4093     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4094     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4095     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4096     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4097     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4098     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4099     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4100     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4101     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4102     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4103     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4104     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4105     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4106     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4107     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4108     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4109     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4110     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4111     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4112     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4113     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4114     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4115     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4116     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4117     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4118     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4119     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4120     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4121     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4122     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4123     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4124     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4125     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4126     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4127 
  4128   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4129   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4130   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4131     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4132 
  4133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4136 
  4137   Fact consolidations:
  4138     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4139     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4140     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4141     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4142     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4143     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4144     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4145     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4146     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4147     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4148     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4149     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4150     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4151     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4152     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4153     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4154     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4155     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4156     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4157     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4158     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4159     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4160     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4161     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4162     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4163     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4164     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4165     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4166     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4167     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4168     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4169     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4170     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4171     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4172     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4173     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4174     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4175     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4176     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4177     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4178 
  4179 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4180 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4181 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4182 
  4183 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4184 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4185 
  4186 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4187 
  4188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4191 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4192 
  4193 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4197     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4198 
  4199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4202   consolidation:
  4203     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4204     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4205 
  4206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4207 
  4208 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4209   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4210   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4211   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4212     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4213   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4214     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4215   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4216 
  4217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4220 
  4221     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4222     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4223     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4224     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4225     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4226     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4227     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4228     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4229     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4230     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4231     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4232     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4233     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4234 
  4235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4238 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4239 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4240 
  4241 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4242     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4243     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4244     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4245     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4246 
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Fact name consolidation:
  4250     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4251     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4252     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4253     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4254     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4255 
  4256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4259 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4260 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4261 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4262 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4263 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4264 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4266 
  4267 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4268 
  4269 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4270 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4271 
  4272 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4273 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4274 
  4275 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4276 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4277 or the brute way with
  4278 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4279 
  4280 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4281 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4282 stating boundedness of sets.
  4283 
  4284 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4285 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4286 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4289   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4290   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4291   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4292   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4293   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4294   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4295   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4296   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4297   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4298   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4299   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4300 
  4301   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4302 
  4303   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4304 
  4305     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4306     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4307     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4308     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4309     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4310 
  4311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4314   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4315 
  4316   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4317 
  4318   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4319 
  4320   - removed constant isDiff
  4321 
  4322   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4323     input syntax.
  4324 
  4325   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4326 
  4327   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4328 
  4329   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4330 
  4331   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4332 
  4333   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4334     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4335     has_vector_derivative.
  4336 
  4337   - Other renamings:
  4338     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4339     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4340     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4341     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4342     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4343     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4344     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4345 
  4346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4349 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4350 in continuous_intros.
  4351 
  4352 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4353 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4354 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4355 
  4356 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4357 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4358 especially removes
  4359 
  4360     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4361 
  4362 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4363     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4364 
  4365 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4366 
  4367   Renamings:
  4368     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4369     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4370     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4371     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4372     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4373     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4374     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4375     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4376     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4377     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4378     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4379     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4380 
  4381     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4382     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4383     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4384 
  4385   Removed theorems:
  4386     complex_zero_def
  4387     complex_add_def
  4388     complex_minus_def
  4389     complex_diff_def
  4390     complex_one_def
  4391     complex_mult_def
  4392     complex_inverse_def
  4393     complex_scaleR_def
  4394 
  4395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4398 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4399 
  4400 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4401 
  4402 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4403 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4404 
  4405 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4406 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4409 
  4410 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * HOL-Word:
  4414   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4415     of "word_arith_wis".
  4416   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4417     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4418     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4419 
  4420 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4421   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4422   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4423   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4424     (except the AFP)
  4425 
  4426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4429   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4430   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4431     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4432   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4433     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4434     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4435     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4436     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4437     intervals.
  4438   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4439     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4440     - renamed theorems:
  4441         interval ~> box
  4442         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4443         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4444         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4445         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4446         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4447         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4448         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4449         open_interval ~> open_box
  4450         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4451         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4452         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4453         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4454         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4455         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4456         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4457         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4458         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4459         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4460         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4461         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4462         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4463         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4464         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4465         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4466         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4467         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4468         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4469         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4470         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4471         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4472         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4473         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4474 
  4475     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4476         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4477         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4478         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4479         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4480         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4481         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4482         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4483         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4484         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4485         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4486         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4487         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4488         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4489         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4490         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4491         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4492         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4493 
  4494   - renamed theorems:
  4495     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4496     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4497     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4498 
  4499 * HOL-Probability:
  4500   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4501 
  4502     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4503       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4504 
  4505     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4506 
  4507   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4508     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4509 
  4510     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4511     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4512     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4513     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4514     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4515     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4516     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4517     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4518     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4519     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4520     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4521     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4522     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4523     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4524     integral_indicator          ~>
  4525          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4526     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4527     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4528     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4529 
  4530     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4531          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4532 
  4533     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4534          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4535 
  4536     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4537          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4538 
  4539     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4540          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4541          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4542 
  4543     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4544          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4545 
  4546     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4547          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4548 
  4549     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4550          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4551          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4552 
  4553     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4554          nn_integral_real_affine
  4555 
  4556     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4557          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4558 
  4559     The following theorems where removed:
  4560 
  4561     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4562     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4563     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4564     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4565     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4566     integral_cmul_indicator
  4567     integral_real
  4568 
  4569   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4570     distributed random variables.
  4571 
  4572 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4573 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 
  4577 *** Scala ***
  4578 
  4579 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4580 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4581 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4582 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4583 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4586 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 
  4589 *** ML ***
  4590 
  4591 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4592 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4593 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4594 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4595 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4596 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4597 
  4598 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4599 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4600 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4601 actually belongs to it).
  4602 
  4603 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4604 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4605 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4606 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4607 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4608 of schematic variables.
  4609 
  4610 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4611 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4612 
  4613 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4614 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4615 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4621 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4622 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624 
  4625 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4626 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4627 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4628 formal context.
  4629 
  4630 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4631 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4634 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4635 
  4636 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4637 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4638 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4639 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4640 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4641 
  4642 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4643 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4644 purposes.
  4645 
  4646 
  4647 *** System ***
  4648 
  4649 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4650 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4651 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4652 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4653 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4654 
  4655 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4656 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4657 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4658 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4659 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4660 settings variable.
  4661 
  4662 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4663 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4664 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4665 
  4666 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4667 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4668 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4669 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4670 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4671 
  4672 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4673 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4674 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4675 
  4676 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4677 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4678 
  4679 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4680 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4681 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4682 
  4683 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4684 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4685 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4686 processing is started.
  4687 
  4688 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4689 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4690 
  4691 
  4692 
  4693 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4694 -------------------------------------
  4695 
  4696 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4697 
  4698 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4699 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4700 
  4701 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4702 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4703 
  4704 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4705 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4706 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4707 
  4708 
  4709 *** System ***
  4710 
  4711 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4712 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4713 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4714 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4715 
  4716 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4717 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4718 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4719 
  4720 
  4721 
  4722 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4723 -------------------------------------
  4724 
  4725 *** General ***
  4726 
  4727 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4728 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4729 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4732 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4735 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4736 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4737 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4738 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4739 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4740 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4741 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4742 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4743 syntax.
  4744 
  4745 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4746 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4747 
  4748 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4749 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4750 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4751 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4752 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4753 
  4754 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4758 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4759 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4760 
  4761 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4762 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4763 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4764 
  4765 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4766 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4767 
  4768 
  4769 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4770 
  4771 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4772 Documentation panel.
  4773 
  4774 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4775 documentation.
  4776 
  4777 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4778 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4779 
  4780 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4781 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4782 normal editing and checking process.
  4783 
  4784 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4785 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4786 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4787 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4788 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4789 
  4790 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4791 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4792 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4793 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4794 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4795 
  4796 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4797 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4798 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4799 
  4800 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4801 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4802 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4803 to resolve conflict.
  4804 
  4805 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4806 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4807 
  4808 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4809 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4810 such command executions while editing.
  4811 
  4812 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4813 document content.
  4814 
  4815 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4816 toplevel theorem statements.
  4817 
  4818 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4819 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4820 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4821 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4822 
  4823 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4824 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4825 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4826 
  4827 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4828 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4829 
  4830 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4831 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4832 
  4833 
  4834 *** Pure ***
  4835 
  4836 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4837 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4838 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4839 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4840 details.
  4841 
  4842 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4843 
  4844 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4845 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4846 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4847 
  4848 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4852 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4853 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4854 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4857 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4858 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4861 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4862 
  4863 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4864 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4865 situations.
  4866 
  4867 
  4868 *** HOL ***
  4869 
  4870 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4871 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4875 
  4876 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4877 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4878 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4879 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4880 
  4881   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4882 
  4883 * Code generator:
  4884   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4885     'code_instance'.
  4886   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4887     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4888 
  4889 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4890 examples.
  4891 
  4892 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4893 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4894 to distinguish both when desired.
  4895 
  4896 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4897 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4898 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4899 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4902 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4903 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4904 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4905 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4906 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4907 
  4908 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4909 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4910 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4911 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4912 
  4913 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4914 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4915 
  4916 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4917 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4918 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4919 
  4920 * Lifting:
  4921   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4922     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4923       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4924       transfer rules
  4925     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4926       correspondence relation can be generated
  4927     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4928       parametricity
  4929     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4930   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4931   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4932     copies
  4933   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4934     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4935     anonymous context)
  4936   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4937     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4938   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4939     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4940   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4941     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4942 
  4943 * Transfer:
  4944   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4945     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4946   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4947   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4948     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4949   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4950 
  4951 * Reification and reflection:
  4952   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4953     "Reification".
  4954   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4955   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4959   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4960     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4961     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4962   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4963     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4964   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4965     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4966     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4967     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4968     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4969     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4970     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4971     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4972   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4973     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4974   - Fact renames:
  4975       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4976       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4978 
  4979 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4980 
  4981 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4982 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4983 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4985 
  4986 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4987 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4988 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4989 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4990 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4991 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4992 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4993 lemmas.
  4994 
  4995 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4996 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4997 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5000 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5001 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5002 
  5003 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5004 top and bottom elements.
  5005 
  5006 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5007 
  5008 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5009 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5010 
  5011  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5012    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5013    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5014 
  5015  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5016    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5017    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5018 
  5019    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5020    arbitrary filter.
  5021 
  5022  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5023    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5024    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5025    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5026    on a compact set.
  5027 
  5028  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5029    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5030    linear_continuum_topology).
  5031 
  5032  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5033    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5034    on all sequences converging to x.
  5035 
  5036  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5037    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5038    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5039    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5040    left or right.
  5041 
  5042  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5043 
  5044      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5045 
  5046  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5047    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5048 
  5049  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5050    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5051    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5052    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5053    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5054    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5055 
  5056  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5057 
  5058    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5059 
  5060    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5061      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5062 
  5063    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5064 
  5065    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5066      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5067 
  5068    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5069 
  5070    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5071 
  5072  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5073 
  5074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * Nitpick:
  5077   - Added option "spy".
  5078   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5079 
  5080 * Sledgehammer:
  5081   - Renamed option:
  5082       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5083     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5084   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5085   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5086   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5087 
  5088 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5089 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5090 
  5091 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5092   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5093   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5094     generated code.
  5095   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5096   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5097   - Fact renames:
  5098     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5099     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5100     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5101 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5102 
  5103 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5104 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5105 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5106 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5107 
  5108 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5109 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5110 
  5111 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5114 
  5115     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5116     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5117 
  5118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5121 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5122 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5123 
  5124 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5125 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5126 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5127 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5128 
  5129 * HOL-BNF:
  5130   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5131     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5132     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5133     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5134   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5135     coinduct).
  5136   - Renamed keywords:
  5137     data ~> datatype_new
  5138     codata ~> codatatype
  5139     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5140   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5141     discs ~> disc
  5142     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5143     map_id' ~> map_id
  5144     sels ~> sel
  5145     set_map' ~> set_map
  5146     sets ~> set
  5147 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 
  5150 *** ML ***
  5151 
  5152 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5153 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5154 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5155 Examples.thy in particular.
  5156 
  5157 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5158 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5159 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5160 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5161 
  5162 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5163 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5164 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5165 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5169 
  5170     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5171     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5172 
  5173 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5176 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5177 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5178 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5179 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5180 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5181 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5182 
  5183 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5184 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5185 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5186 clasets separately from the context.
  5187 
  5188 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5189 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5190 
  5191 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5192 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5193 
  5194 
  5195 *** System ***
  5196 
  5197 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5198 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5199 
  5200 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5201 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5202 
  5203 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5204 settings variable.
  5205 
  5206 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5207 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5208 always pdf.
  5209 
  5210 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5211 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5212 
  5213 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5214 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5215 
  5216 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5217 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5218 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5219 
  5220 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5221 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5222 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5223 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5224 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5225 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5226 
  5227 
  5228 
  5229 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5230 -----------------------------------
  5231 
  5232 *** General ***
  5233 
  5234 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5235 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5236 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5237 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5238 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5239 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5240 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5241 
  5242 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5243 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5244 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5245 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5246 
  5247 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5248 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5249 
  5250 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5251 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5252 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5253 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5254 dependencies properly.
  5255 
  5256 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5257 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5258 
  5259 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5260 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5261 
  5262 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5263 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5264 and "class ... context ...".
  5265 
  5266 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5267 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5268 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5269 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5270 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5271 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5272 
  5273 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5274 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5275 
  5276 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5277 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5278 
  5279 
  5280 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5281 
  5282 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5283 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5284 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5285 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5286 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5287 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5288 
  5289 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5290 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5291 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5292 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5293 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5294 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5295 
  5296 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5297 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5298 browser on demand.
  5299 
  5300 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5301 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5302 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5303 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5304 
  5305 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5306 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5307 
  5308 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5309 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5310 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5311 potentially infinite message streams.
  5312 
  5313 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5314 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5315 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5316 schemes.
  5317 
  5318 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5319 symbols.
  5320 
  5321 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5322 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5323 
  5324 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5325 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5326 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5327 
  5328 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5329 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5330 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5331 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5332 
  5333 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5334 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5335 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5336 
  5337 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5338 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5339 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5340 Isabelle distribution.
  5341 
  5342 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5343 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5344 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5345 
  5346 
  5347 *** Pure ***
  5348 
  5349 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5350 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5351 
  5352 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5353 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5354 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355 
  5356 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5357 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5358 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5359 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5360 with some care where this is really required.
  5361 
  5362 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5363 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5364 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5365 
  5366   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5367 
  5368 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5369 a Hasse diagram.
  5370 
  5371 
  5372 *** HOL ***
  5373 
  5374 * Sledgehammer:
  5375 
  5376   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5377     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5378   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5379   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5380   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5381   - Renamed options:
  5382       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5383       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5384       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5385       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5386 
  5387 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5388 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5389 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5390 
  5391 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5393 
  5394 * Lifting:
  5395   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5396   - quot_del attribute
  5397   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5398 
  5399 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5400 expressions.
  5401 
  5402 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5403 pointfree expressions.
  5404 
  5405 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5406 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5407 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5408 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5410 
  5411 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5412 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5413 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5414 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5415 accordingly.
  5416 
  5417 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5418 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5419 
  5420 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5421 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5422 
  5423 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5424 
  5425 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5426 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5427 
  5428 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5429 
  5430 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5431 
  5432   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5433   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5434 
  5435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5436 
  5437 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5438 
  5439   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5440   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5441 
  5442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 
  5444 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5445 
  5446   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5447     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5448     output f x converges to G.
  5449 
  5450   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5451     infinity (at_bot).
  5452 
  5453   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5454     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5455 
  5456   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5457     at_top".
  5458 
  5459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5462 lattice type classes.
  5463 
  5464 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5465 
  5466     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5467     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5468 
  5469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5470 
  5471 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5472 changes as follows.
  5473 
  5474   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5475 
  5476       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5477       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5478 
  5479   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5480     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5481     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5482     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5483 
  5484   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5485     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5486     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5487 
  5488   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5489     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5490     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5491     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5492 
  5493   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5494     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5495 
  5496       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5497       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5498       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5499       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5500       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5501       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5502       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5503       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5504       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5505       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5506       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5507       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5508       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5509       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5510       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5511       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5512 
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5516 
  5517 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5518 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5519 
  5520 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5521 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5522 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5523 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5524 
  5525   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5526   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5527   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5528   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5529   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5530   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5531   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5532   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5533   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5534   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5535 
  5536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5539 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5540 Data").
  5541 
  5542 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5543 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5544 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5545 code.
  5546 
  5547 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5548 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5549 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5553 
  5554 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5555 
  5556 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5557 
  5558   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5559   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5560 
  5561 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5562 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5563 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5564 
  5565   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5566 
  5567     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5568     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5569     cart_base i  removed
  5570     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5571 
  5572   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5573 
  5574   Renamed lemmas:
  5575 
  5576     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5577     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5578     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5579     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5580     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5581     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5582     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5583     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5584     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5585     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5586 
  5587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * HOL/Probability:
  5590 
  5591   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5592 
  5593   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5594     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5595     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5596 
  5597   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5598     projective family).
  5599 
  5600 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5601 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5602 
  5603 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5604 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5605 datatypes.
  5606 
  5607 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5608 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5609 
  5610 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5611 trees for the code generator.
  5612 
  5613 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5614 Lifting/Transfer.
  5615 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5619 
  5620 
  5621 *** Document preparation ***
  5622 
  5623 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5624 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5625 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5626 
  5627 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5628 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5629 
  5630 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5631 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5632 document/root.tex.
  5633 
  5634 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5635 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5636 
  5637 
  5638 *** ML ***
  5639 
  5640 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5641 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5642 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5643 
  5644 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5645 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5646 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5647 
  5648 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5649 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5650 necessarily printing visible text.
  5651 
  5652 
  5653 *** System ***
  5654 
  5655 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5656 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5657 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5658 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5659 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5660 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5661 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5662 
  5663 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5664 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5665 
  5666   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5667 
  5668 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5669 
  5670 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5671 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5672 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5673 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5674 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5675 
  5676 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5677 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5678 
  5679 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5680 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5681 
  5682 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5684 
  5685 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5686 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5687 version of Isabelle.
  5688 
  5689 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5690 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5691 
  5692 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5693 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5694 for home-made settings.
  5695 
  5696 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5697 
  5698 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5699 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5700 configuration.
  5701 
  5702 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5703 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5704 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5705 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5706 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5707 
  5708 
  5709 
  5710 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5711 ------------------------------
  5712 
  5713 *** General ***
  5714 
  5715 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5716 
  5717   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5718     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5719   - markup for bound variables
  5720   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5721   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5722   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5723     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5724 
  5725 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5726 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5727 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5728 
  5729 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5730 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5731 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5732 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5733 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5734 
  5735   context
  5736     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5737     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5738   begin
  5739 
  5740   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5741 
  5742   end
  5743 
  5744   thm my_trans
  5745 
  5746 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5747 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5748 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5749 
  5750 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5751 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5752 
  5753 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5754 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5755 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5756 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5757 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5758 
  5759 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5760 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5761 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5762 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5763 indices of schematic variables.
  5764 
  5765 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5766 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5767 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5768 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5769 etc. was exploited.
  5770 
  5771 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5772 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5773 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5774 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5775 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5776 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5777 
  5778 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5779 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5780 manual.
  5781 
  5782 
  5783 *** Pure ***
  5784 
  5785 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5786 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5787 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5788 
  5789 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5790 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5791 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5792 undocumented feature.)
  5793 
  5794 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5795 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5796 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5797 
  5798   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5799 
  5800   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5801     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5802 
  5803 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5804 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5805 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5806 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5807 
  5808 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5809 
  5810     num ~> num_token
  5811     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5812     xstr ~> str_token
  5813 
  5814 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5815 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5816 position information via constraints).
  5817 
  5818 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5819 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5820 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5821 
  5822 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5823 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5824 
  5825 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5826 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5827 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5828 
  5829 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5830 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5831 
  5832 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5833 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5834 
  5835   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5836 
  5837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5838 
  5839 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5840 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5841 
  5842 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5843 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5844 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5845 
  5846 
  5847 *** HOL ***
  5848 
  5849 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5850 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5851 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5852 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5853 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5854 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5855 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5856 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5857 possible.
  5858 
  5859 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5860 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5861 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5862 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5863 
  5864 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5865 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5866 
  5867 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5868 
  5869 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5870 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5871 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5872 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5873 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5874 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5875 
  5876   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5877     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5878 
  5879   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5880     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5881     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5882 
  5883   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5884     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5885 
  5886   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5887     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5888     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5889 
  5890   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5891     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5892 
  5893 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5894 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5895 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5896 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5897 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5898 
  5899   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5900     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5901     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5902     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5903     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5904 
  5905     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5906     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5907 
  5908   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5909     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5910     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5911     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5912     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5913     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5914     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5915     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5916 
  5917   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5918     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5919     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5920     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5921 
  5922   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5923     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5924     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5925     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5926 
  5927   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5928     from type nat to type int.
  5929 
  5930 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5931 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5932 
  5933   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5934     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5935     type.  Example syntax:
  5936 
  5937     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5938       is List.insert
  5939 
  5940     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5941     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5942     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5943     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5944     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5945     by the package.
  5946 
  5947   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5948     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5949     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5950     code generation for each constant.
  5951 
  5952   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5953     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5954     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5955     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5956     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5957 
  5958   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5959     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5960     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5961 
  5962 * Quotient package:
  5963 
  5964   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5965     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5966 
  5967   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5968     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5969 
  5970   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5971     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5972     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5973 
  5974   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5975     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5976 
  5977 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5978 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5979 
  5980 * Quickcheck:
  5981 
  5982   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5983     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5984     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5985     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5986     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5987 
  5988     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5989     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5990     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5991 
  5992     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5993     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5994 
  5995     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5996     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5997     show genuine counterexamples.
  5998 
  5999   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6000     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6001 
  6002     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6003     constructors of that type.
  6004 
  6005   - Support for multisets.
  6006 
  6007   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6008 
  6009   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6010     conjectures in a locale context.
  6011 
  6012 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6013 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6014 
  6015 * Sledgehammer:
  6016   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6017     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6018   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6019   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6020     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6021   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6022   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6023   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6024   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6025 
  6026 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6027 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6028 
  6029 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6030 
  6031 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6032 
  6033 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6034 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6035 
  6036   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6037 
  6038 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6039 a list and a nat.
  6040 
  6041 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6042 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6043 
  6044 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6045 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6046 default.
  6047 
  6048 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6049 
  6050   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6051 
  6052 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6053 
  6054 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6055 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6056 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6057 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6058 one_case.
  6059 
  6060 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6061 the result of the fact expression.
  6062 
  6063 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6064 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6065 of some relation theorems:
  6066 
  6067   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6068   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6069   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6070   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6071   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6072   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6073 
  6074 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6075 
  6076 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6077 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6078 
  6079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6080 
  6081 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6082 to match the constant's name:
  6083 
  6084   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6085   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6086   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6087   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6088   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6089   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6090   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6091   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6092   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6093   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6094   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6095   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6096   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6097   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6098   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6099   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6100   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6101   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6102   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6103   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6104   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6105   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6106   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6107   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6108 
  6109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6112 and corresponding theorem names:
  6113 
  6114   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6115 
  6116   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6117 
  6118   - Renamed theorems:
  6119 
  6120     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6121     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6122     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6123     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6124     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6125     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6126     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6127     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6128     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6129     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6130     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6131     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6132     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6133     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6134     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6135     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6136     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6137     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6138     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6139     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6140     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6141     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6142     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6143 
  6144     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6145 
  6146     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6147 
  6148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6149 
  6150 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6151 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6152 
  6153   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6154   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6155   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6156   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6157   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6158   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6159   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6160   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6161   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6162   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6163   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6164   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6165   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6166   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6167   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6168   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6169   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6170   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6171   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6172   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6173   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6174 
  6175 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6176 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6177 
  6178 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6179 
  6180 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6181 
  6182   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6183   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6184   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6185   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6186   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6187   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6188   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6189   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6190   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6191   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6192   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6193   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6194   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6195   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6196   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6197   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6198   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6199   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6200 
  6201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6204 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6205 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6206 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6207 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6208 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6209 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6210 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6211 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6212 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6213 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6214 
  6215 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6216 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6217 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6218 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6219 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6220 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6221 
  6222 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6223 through option types.
  6224 
  6225 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6226 relations.
  6227 
  6228 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6229 
  6230 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6231 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6232 
  6233   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6234   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6235   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6236   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6237   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6238   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6239   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6240   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6241   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6242   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6243   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6244   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6245   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6246   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6247   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6248   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6249   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6250   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6251   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6252   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6253   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6254   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6255   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6256   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6257   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6258   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6259   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6260   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6261   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6262   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6263   zless_le ~> less_le
  6264   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6265   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6266   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6267 
  6268 * Theory Deriv: Renamed