NEWS
author Andreas Lochbihler
Mon Sep 02 17:14:35 2013 +0200 (2013-09-02 ago)
changeset 53362 735e078a64e7
parent 53342 96301c704463
child 53398 f8b150e8778b
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    10 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    11 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    12 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    13 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    14 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    15 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    16 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    17 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    18 syntax.
    19 
    20 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    21 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    24 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    25 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    26 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    27 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    28 
    29 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    30 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    31 
    32 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    33 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    34 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    35 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    36 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    37 presentation of theories.
    38 
    39 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    40 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    41 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    44 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    47 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    48 
    49 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    50 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    51 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    52 
    53 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    54 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    55 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    59 
    60 * Improved "Theories" panel: Continuous checking of proof document
    61 (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly, using check
    62 box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may be marked
    63 explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box or
    64 shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    65 
    66 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancelation of
    67 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    68 such command executions while editing.
    69 
    70 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    71 document content.
    72 
    73 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    74 toplevel theorem statements.
    75 
    76 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    77 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    78 
    79 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    80 documentation.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    83 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    84 normal editing and checking process.
    85 
    86 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    87 timing information.
    88 
    89 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    90 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    91 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
    92 
    93 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
    94 / Global Options / Appearance".
    95 
    96 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    97 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.
    98 
    99   - Various Isabelle plugin options to control popup behaviour and
   100     immediate insertion into buffer.
   101 
   102   - Light-weight popup, which avoids explicit window (more reactive
   103     and more robust).  Interpreted key events include TAB, ESCAPE, UP,
   104     DOWN, PAGE_UP, PAGE_DOWN.  Uninterpreted key events are passed to
   105     the jEdit text area.
   106 
   107   - Explicit completion via standard jEdit shortcut C+b, which has
   108     been remapped to action "isabelle.complete" (fall-back on regular
   109     "complete-word" for non-Isabelle buffers).
   110 
   111   - Implicit completion via keyboard input on text area, with popup or
   112     immediate insertion into buffer.
   113 
   114   - Implicit completion of plain words requires at least 3 characters
   115     (was 2 before).
   116 
   117   - Immediate completion ignores plain words; it requires > 1
   118     characters of symbol abbreviation to complete, otherwise fall-back
   119     on completion popup.
   120 
   121   - Isabelle Symbols are only completed in backslashed forms,
   122     e.g. \forall or \<forall> that both produce the Isabelle symbol
   123     \<forall> in its Unicode rendering.
   124 
   125   - Refined table of Isabelle symbol abbreviations (see
   126     $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   127 
   128 
   129 *** Pure ***
   130 
   131 * Type theory is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   132 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   133 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   134 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   138 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   139 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   140 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141 
   142 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   143 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   144 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   145 
   146 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
   147 Particulary, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
   148 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.  See
   149 "isar-ref" manual for details.
   150 
   151 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   152 
   153 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   154 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   155 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   156 
   157 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   161 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   162 situations.
   163 
   164 
   165 *** HOL ***
   166 
   167 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   168 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   169 
   170 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   171 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   172 to distinguish both when desired.
   173 
   174 * Code generator:
   175   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   176     'code_instance'.
   177   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   178     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   179   See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories
   180   for examples.
   181 
   182 * HOL/BNF:
   183   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including a
   184     "primrec_new" command, a "datatype_new_compat" command, and
   185     documentation. See "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   186   - Renamed keywords:
   187     data ~> datatype_new
   188     codata ~> codatatype
   189     bnf_def ~> bnf
   190   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   191     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   192     map_id' ~> map_id
   193     set_map' ~> set_map
   194 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   197   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   198   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   199     generated code.
   200   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   201   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   202   - Fact renames:
   203     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   204     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   205     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   206 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Reification and reflection:
   209   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   210     "Reification".
   211   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   212   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Weaker precendence of syntax for big intersection and union on sets,
   216 in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   219 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   220 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   221 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   222 
   223   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   224 
   225 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   226 
   227 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   228   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   229     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   230     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   231   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   232     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   233   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   234     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   235     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   236     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   237     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   238     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   239     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   240     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
   241   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   242     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   243   - Fact renames:
   244       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   245       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   249 
   250 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.
   251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
   254 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
   255 
   256 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals: natural
   257 (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former code_int).
   258 Conversions are available as integer_of_natural / natural_of_integer /
   259 integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   260 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   261 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262 
   263 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   264 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   265 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   266 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type 
   269 class ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems
   270 lose the class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   274 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   275 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   276 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   277 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   278 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   279 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   280 lemmas.
   281 
   282 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   283 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   284 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285 
   286 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   287 top and bottom elements.
   288 
   289 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   290 
   291 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   292 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   293 
   294  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   295    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   296    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   297 
   298  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   299    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   300    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   301 
   302    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   303    filter.
   304 
   305  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   306    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   307    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   308    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   309 
   310  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   311    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   312    linear_continuum_topology).
   313 
   314  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   315    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   316    all sequences converging to x.
   317 
   318  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   319    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   320    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   321    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   322 
   323  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   324 
   325      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   326 
   327  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   328    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   329 
   330  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   331    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   332    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   333    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   334    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   335    equivalence by the simplifier.
   336 
   337  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   338 
   339    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   340 
   341    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   342      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   343 
   344    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   345 
   346    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   347      Limits
   348 
   349    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   350 
   351    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   352 
   353  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   354 
   355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   358 
   359     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   360     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   361 
   362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * Sledgehammer:
   365 
   366   - Renamed option:
   367       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   368 
   369 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   370 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   371 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   372 
   373 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   374 .../poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   375 src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides integration
   376 with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   377 
   378 
   379 *** ML ***
   380 
   381 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   382 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   383 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   384 Examples.thy in particular.
   385 
   386 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   387 
   388     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   389     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   390 
   391 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   392 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   393 
   394 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   395 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   396 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   397 clasets separately from the context.
   398 
   399 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   400 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   401 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   402 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   403 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   404 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   405 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   406 
   407 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   408 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   409 
   410 
   411 *** System ***
   412 
   413 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   414 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   415 
   416 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   417 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   420 settings variable.
   421 
   422 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   423 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   424 always pdf.
   425 
   426 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   427 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   428 
   429 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   430 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   431 
   432 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   433 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   434 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   435 
   436 
   437 
   438 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   439 -----------------------------------
   440 
   441 *** General ***
   442 
   443 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   444 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   445 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   446 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   447 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   448 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   449 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   450 
   451 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   452 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   453 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   454 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   455 
   456 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   457 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   458 
   459 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   460 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   461 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   462 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   463 dependencies properly.
   464 
   465 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   466 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   467 
   468 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   469 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   470 
   471 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   472 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   473 and "class ... context ...".
   474 
   475 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   476 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   477 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   478 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   479 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   480 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   481 
   482 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   483 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   484 
   485 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   486 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   487 
   488 
   489 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   490 
   491 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   492 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   493 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   494 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   495 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   496 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   497 
   498 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   499 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   500 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   501 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   502 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   503 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   504 
   505 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   506 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   507 browser on demand.
   508 
   509 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   510 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   511 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   512 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   513 
   514 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   515 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   516 
   517 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   518 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   519 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   520 potentially infinite message streams.
   521 
   522 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   523 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   524 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   525 schemes.
   526 
   527 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   528 symbols.
   529 
   530 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   531 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   532 
   533 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   534 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   535 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   536 
   537 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   538 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   539 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   540 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   541 
   542 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   543 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   544 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   545 
   546 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   547 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   548 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   549 Isabelle distribution.
   550 
   551 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   552 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   553 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   554 
   555 
   556 *** Pure ***
   557 
   558 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   559 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   560 
   561 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   562 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   563 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   566 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   567 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   568 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   569 with some care where this is really required.
   570 
   571 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   572 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   573 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   574 
   575   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   576 
   577 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   578 a Hasse diagram.
   579 
   580 
   581 *** HOL ***
   582 
   583 * Sledgehammer:
   584 
   585   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   586     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   587   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   588   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   589   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   590   - Renamed options:
   591       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   592       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   593       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   594       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   595 
   596 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   597 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   598 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   599 
   600 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Lifting:
   604   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   605   - quot_del attribute
   606   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   607 
   608 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   609 expressions.
   610 
   611 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   612 pointfree expressions.
   613 
   614 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   615 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   616 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   617 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   621 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   622 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   623 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   624 accordingly.
   625 
   626 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   627 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   630 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   635 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   636 
   637 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   638 
   639 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   640 
   641   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   642   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   643 
   644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   647 
   648   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   649   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   650 
   651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   654 
   655   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   656     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   657     output f x converges to G.
   658 
   659   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   660     infinity (at_bot).
   661 
   662   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   663     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   664 
   665   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   666     at_top".
   667 
   668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   671 lattice type classes.
   672 
   673 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   674 
   675     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   676     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   677 
   678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   681 changes as follows.
   682 
   683   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   684 
   685       prefix ~> prefixeq
   686       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   687 
   688   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   689     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   690     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   691     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   692 
   693   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   694     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   695     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   696 
   697   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   698     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   699     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   700     Library/Prefix_Order.
   701 
   702   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   703     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   704 
   705       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   706       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   707       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   708       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   709       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   710       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   711       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   712       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   713       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   714       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   715       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   716       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   717       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   718       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   719       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   720       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   721 
   722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   725 
   726 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   727 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   728 
   729 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   730 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   731 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   732 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   733 
   734   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   735   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   736   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   737   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   738   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   739   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   740   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   741   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   742   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   743   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   744 
   745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   748 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   749 Data").
   750 
   751 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   752 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   753 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   754 code.
   755 
   756 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   757 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   758 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   760 
   761 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   762 
   763 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   764 
   765 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   766 
   767   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   768   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   769 
   770 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   771 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   772 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   773 
   774   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   775 
   776     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   777     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   778     cart_base i  removed
   779     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   780 
   781   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   782 
   783   Renamed lemmas:
   784 
   785     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   786     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   787     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   788     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   789     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   790     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   791     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   792     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   793     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   794     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   795 
   796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797 
   798 * HOL/Probability:
   799 
   800   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   801 
   802   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   803     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   804     (borel_measurable_induct).
   805 
   806   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   807     projective family).
   808 
   809 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   810 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   811 
   812 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   813 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   814 datatypes.
   815 
   816 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   817 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   818 
   819 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   820 trees for the code generator.
   821 
   822 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   823 Lifting/Transfer.
   824 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   825 
   826 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829 
   830 *** Document preparation ***
   831 
   832 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   833 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   834 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   835 
   836 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   837 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   838 
   839 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   840 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   841 document/root.tex.
   842 
   843 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   844 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 
   847 *** ML ***
   848 
   849 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   850 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   851 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   852 
   853 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   854 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   855 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   856 
   857 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   858 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   859 necessarily printing visible text.
   860 
   861 
   862 *** System ***
   863 
   864 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   865 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   866 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   867 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   868 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   869 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   870 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   871 
   872 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   873 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   874 
   875   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   876 
   877 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   878 
   879 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   880 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   881 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   882 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   883 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   884 
   885 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   886 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   887 
   888 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   889 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   890 
   891 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   895 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   896 version of Isabelle.
   897 
   898 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   899 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   900 
   901 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   902 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   903 for home-made settings.
   904 
   905 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   906 
   907 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   908 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   909 configuration.
   910 
   911 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   912 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   913 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   914 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   915 bundled as Isabelle component.
   916 
   917 
   918 
   919 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   920 ------------------------------
   921 
   922 *** General ***
   923 
   924 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   925 
   926   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   927     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   928   - markup for bound variables
   929   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   930   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   931   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   932     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   933 
   934 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   935 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   936 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   937 
   938 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   939 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   940 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   941 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   942 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   943 
   944   context
   945     fixes x y z :: 'a
   946     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   947   begin
   948 
   949   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   950 
   951   end
   952 
   953   thm my_trans
   954 
   955 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   956 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   957 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   958 
   959 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   960 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   961 
   962 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   963 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   964 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   965 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   966 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   967 
   968 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   969 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   970 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   971 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   972 indices of schematic variables.
   973 
   974 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   975 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   976 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   977 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   978 etc. was exploited.
   979 
   980 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   981 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   982 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   983 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   984 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   985 of the material of that old tutorial.
   986 
   987 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   988 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   989 manual.
   990 
   991 
   992 *** Pure ***
   993 
   994 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   995 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   996 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   997 
   998 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   999 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1000 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1001 undocumented feature.)
  1002 
  1003 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1004 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1005 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1006 
  1007   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1008 
  1009   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1010     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1011 
  1012 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1013 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1014 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1015 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1016 
  1017 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1018 
  1019     num ~> num_token
  1020     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1021     xstr ~> str_token
  1022 
  1023 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1024 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1025 position information via constraints).
  1026 
  1027 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1028 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1029 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1030 
  1031 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1032 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1033 
  1034 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1035 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1036 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1039 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1042 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1043 
  1044   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1045 
  1046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1047 
  1048 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1049 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050 
  1051 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1052 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1053 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1054 
  1055 
  1056 *** HOL ***
  1057 
  1058 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1059 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1060 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1061 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1062 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1063 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1064 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1065 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1066 possible.
  1067 
  1068 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1069 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1070 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1071 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1072 
  1073 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1074 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1075 
  1076 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1077 
  1078 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1079 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1080 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1081 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1082 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1083 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1084 
  1085   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1086     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1087 
  1088   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1089     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1090     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1091 
  1092   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1093     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1094 
  1095   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1096     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1097     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1098 
  1099   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1100     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1101 
  1102 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1103 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1104 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1105 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1106 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1107 
  1108   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1109     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1110     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1111     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1112     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1113 
  1114     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1115     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1116 
  1117   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1118     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1119     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1120     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1121     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1122     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1123     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1124     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1125 
  1126   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1127     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1128     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1129     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1130 
  1131   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1132     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1133     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1134     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1135 
  1136   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1137     from type nat to type int.
  1138 
  1139 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1140 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1141 
  1142   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1143     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1144     type.  Example syntax:
  1145 
  1146     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1147       is List.insert
  1148 
  1149     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1150     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1151     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1152     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1153     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1154     by the package.
  1155 
  1156   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1157     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1158     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1159     code generation for each constant.
  1160 
  1161   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1162     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1163     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1164     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1165     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1166 
  1167   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1168     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1169     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1170 
  1171 * Quotient package:
  1172 
  1173   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1174     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1175 
  1176   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1177     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1178 
  1179   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1180     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1181     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1184     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1187 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1188 
  1189 * Quickcheck:
  1190 
  1191   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1192     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1193     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1194     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1195     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1196 
  1197     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1198     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1199     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1200 
  1201     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1202     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1203 
  1204     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1205     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1206     show genuine counterexamples.
  1207 
  1208   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1209     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1210 
  1211     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1212     constructors of that type.
  1213 
  1214   - Support for multisets.
  1215 
  1216   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1217 
  1218   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1219     conjectures in a locale context.
  1220 
  1221 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1222 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1223 
  1224 * Sledgehammer:
  1225   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1226     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1227   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1228   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1229     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1230   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1231   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1232   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1233   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1234 
  1235 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1236 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1237 
  1238 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1239 
  1240 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1243 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1244 
  1245   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1246 
  1247 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1248 a list and a nat.
  1249 
  1250 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1251 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1252 
  1253 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1254 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1255 default.
  1256 
  1257 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1258 
  1259   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1260 
  1261 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1262 
  1263 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1264 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1265 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1266 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1267 one_case.
  1268 
  1269 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1270 the result of the fact expression.
  1271 
  1272 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1273 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1274 of some relation theorems:
  1275 
  1276   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1277   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1278   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1279   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1280   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1281   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1282 
  1283 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1284 
  1285 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1286 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1287 
  1288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1289 
  1290 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1291 to match the constant's name:
  1292 
  1293   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1294   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1295   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1296   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1297   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1298   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1299   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1300   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1301   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1302   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1303   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1304   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1305   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1306   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1307   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1308   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1309   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1310   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1311   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1312   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1313   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1314   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1315   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1316   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1317 
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1321 and corresponding theorem names:
  1322 
  1323   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1324 
  1325   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1326 
  1327   - Renamed theorems:
  1328 
  1329     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1330     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1331     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1332     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1333     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1334     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1335     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1336     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1337     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1338     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1339     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1340     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1341     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1342     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1343     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1344     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1345     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1346     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1347     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1348     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1349     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1350     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1351     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1352 
  1353     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1354 
  1355     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1356 
  1357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1358 
  1359 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1360 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1361 
  1362   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1363   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1364   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1365   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1366   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1367   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1368   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1369   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1370   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1371   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1372   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1373   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1374   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1375   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1376   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1377   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1378   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1379   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1380   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1381   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1382   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1383 
  1384 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1385 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1386 
  1387 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1390 
  1391   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1392   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1393   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1394   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1395   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1396   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1397   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1398   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1399   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1400   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1401   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1402   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1403   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1404   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1405   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1406   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1407   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1408   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1409 
  1410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1411 
  1412 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1413 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1414 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1415 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1416 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1417 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1418 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1419 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1420 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1421 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1422 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1423 
  1424 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1425 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1426 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1427 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1428 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1429 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1430 
  1431 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1432 through option types.
  1433 
  1434 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1435 relations.
  1436 
  1437 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1440 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1441 
  1442   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1443   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1444   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1445   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1446   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1447   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1448   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1449   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1450   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1451   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1452   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1453   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1454   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1455   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1456   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1457   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1458   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1459   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1460   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1461   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1462   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1463   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1464   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1465   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1466   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1467   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1468   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1469   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1470   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1471   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1472   zless_le ~> less_le
  1473   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1474   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1475   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1476 
  1477 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1478 
  1479   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1480 
  1481 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1482 
  1483 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1484 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1485 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1486 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1490 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1491 
  1492 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1493 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1494 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1495 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1496 follows:
  1497 
  1498   Operations:
  1499   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1500   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1501   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1502   del -> rbt_del
  1503   delete -> rbt_delete
  1504   ins -> rbt_ins
  1505   insert -> rbt_insert
  1506   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1507   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1508   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1509   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1510   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1511   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1512   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1513   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1514   union -> rbt_union
  1515   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1516   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1517 
  1518   Lemmas:
  1519   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1520   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1521   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1522   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1523   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1524   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1525   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1526   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1527   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1528   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1529   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1530   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1531   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1532   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1533   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1534   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1535   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1536   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1537   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1538   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1539   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1540   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1541   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1542   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1543   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1544   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1545   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1546   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1547   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1548   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1549   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1550   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1551   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1552   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1553   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1554   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1555   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1556   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1557   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1558   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1559   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1560   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1561   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1562   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1563   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1564   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1565   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1566   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1567   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1568   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1569   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1570   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1571   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1572   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1573   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1574   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1575   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1576   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1577   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1578   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1579   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1580   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1581   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1582   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1583   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1584   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1585   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1586   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1587   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1588   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1589   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1590   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1591   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1592   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1593   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1594   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1595   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1596   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1597   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1598   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1599   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1600   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1601   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1602 
  1603 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1604 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1605 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607   Changed Operations:
  1608   float_abs -> abs
  1609   float_nprt -> nprt
  1610   float_pprt -> pprt
  1611   pow2 -> use powr
  1612   round_down -> float_round_down
  1613   round_up -> float_round_up
  1614   scale -> exponent
  1615 
  1616   Removed Operations:
  1617   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1618 
  1619   Renamed Lemmas:
  1620   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1621   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1622   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1623   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1624   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1625   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1626   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1627   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1628   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1629   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1630   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1631   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1632   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1633   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1634   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1635   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1636   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1637   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1638   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1639   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1640   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1641   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1642   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1643   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1644   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1645   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1646   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1647   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1648   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1649   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1650   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1651   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1652   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1653   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1654   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1655   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1656 
  1657   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1658   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1659   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1660   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1661   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1662   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1663   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1664   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1665   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1666   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1667 
  1668 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1669 association lists with distinct keys.
  1670 
  1671 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1672 annotated commands.
  1673 
  1674 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1675 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1676 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1677 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1678 
  1679 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1680 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1681 instead.
  1682 
  1683   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1684   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1685   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1686   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1687   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1688   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1689   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1690   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1691   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1692   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1693   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1694   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1695   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1696   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1697   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1698   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1699   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1700   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1701   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1702   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1703   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1704   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1705   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1706   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1707   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1708   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1709   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1710   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1711   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1712   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1713   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1714   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1715   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1716   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1717   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1718   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1719   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1720   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1721   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1722   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1723   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1724 
  1725 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1726 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1727 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1728 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1729 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1730 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1731 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1732 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1733 
  1734 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1735 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1736 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1737 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1738 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1739 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1740 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1741 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1742 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1743 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1744 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1745 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747   Renamed constants:
  1748   measure -> emeasure
  1749   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1750   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1751   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1752   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1753 
  1754   Removed locales:
  1755   completeable_measure_space
  1756   finite_measure_space
  1757   finite_prob_space
  1758   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1759   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1760   finite_sigma_algebra
  1761   measure_space
  1762   pair_finite_prob_space
  1763   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1764   pair_finite_space
  1765   pair_sigma_algebra
  1766   product_sigma_algebra
  1767 
  1768   Removed constants:
  1769   conditional_space
  1770   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1771   image_space
  1772   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1773   pair_measure_generator
  1774   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1775   subvimage
  1776 
  1777   Replacement theorems:
  1778   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1779   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1780   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1781   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1782   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1783   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1784   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1785   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1786   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1787   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1788   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1789   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1790   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1791   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1792   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1793   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1794   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1795   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1796   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1797   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1798   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1799   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1800   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1801   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1802   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1803   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1804   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1805   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1806   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1807   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1808   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1809   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1810   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1811   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1812   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1813   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1814   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1815   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1816   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1817   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1818   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1819   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1820   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1821   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1822   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1823   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1824   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1825   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1826   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1827   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1828   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1829   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1830   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1831   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1832   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1833   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1834   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1835   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1836   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1837   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1838   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1839   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1840   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1841   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1842   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1843   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1844   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1845   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1846   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1847   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1848   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1849   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1850   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1851   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1852   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1853   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1854   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1855   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1856   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1857   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1858   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1859   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1860   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1861   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1862   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1863   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1864   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1865   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1866   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1867   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1868   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1869   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1870   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1871   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1872   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1873   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1874   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1875   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1876   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1877   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1878   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1879   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1880   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1881   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1882   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1883   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1884   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1885   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1886   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1887   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1888   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1889   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1890   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1891   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1892   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1893   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1894   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1895   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1896   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1897   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1898   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1899   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1900   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1901   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1902   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1903   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1904   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1905   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1906 
  1907 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1908 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1909 
  1910 
  1911 *** FOL ***
  1912 
  1913 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1914 
  1915 
  1916 *** ZF ***
  1917 
  1918 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1919 analysis.
  1920 
  1921 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1922 
  1923 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924 
  1925 
  1926 *** ML ***
  1927 
  1928 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1929 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1930 
  1931 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1932 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1933 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1934 
  1935 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1936 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1937 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1938 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1939 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1940 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1941 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1942 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1943 
  1944 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1945 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1946 
  1947 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1948 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1949 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1950 
  1951 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1952 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1953 
  1954 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1955 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1956 context as well.
  1957 
  1958 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1959 
  1960   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1961   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1962   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1963   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1964   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1965   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1966   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1967   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1968   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1969   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1970   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1971   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1972 
  1973 
  1974 *** System ***
  1975 
  1976 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1977 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1978 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1979 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1980 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1981 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1982 the generic user home was intended.
  1983 
  1984 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1985 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1986 
  1987 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1988 (not just JRE).
  1989 
  1990 
  1991 
  1992 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1993 ------------------------------------
  1994 
  1995 *** General ***
  1996 
  1997 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1998 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1999 
  2000   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2001     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2002     files for checking).
  2003 
  2004   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2005     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2006     positions.
  2007 
  2008   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2009     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2010     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2011 
  2012   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2013     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2014     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2015 
  2016   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2017     cores.
  2018 
  2019   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2020     versions (garbage collection).
  2021 
  2022 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2023 including some remaining limitations.
  2024 
  2025 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2026 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2027 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2028 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2029 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2033 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2034 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2035 
  2036 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2037 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2038 usedir option -Q.
  2039 
  2040 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2041 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2042 
  2043   long_names   ~> names_long
  2044   short_names  ~> names_short
  2045   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2046 
  2047 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2048 
  2049   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2050 
  2051 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2052 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2053 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2054 
  2055 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2056 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2057 
  2058 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2059   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2060   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2061   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2062     "Classical Reasoner".
  2063 
  2064 
  2065 *** HOL ***
  2066 
  2067 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2068 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2071 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2072 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2073 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2074 class complete_linorder.
  2075 
  2076 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2077 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2078 
  2079 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2080 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2081 
  2082   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2083   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2084   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2085   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2086   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2087   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2088   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2089   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2090   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2091   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2092   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2093 
  2094 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2095 
  2096   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2097   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2098   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2099   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2100   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2101   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2102   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2103   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2104   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2105   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2106   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2107   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2108   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2109   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2110   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2111   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2112 
  2113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2119 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2120 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2121 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2124 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2125 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2129 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2130 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2131 
  2132 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2133 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2134 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2137 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2138 
  2139 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2140 
  2141     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2142     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2143 
  2144 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2145 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2148 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2151 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2152 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2153 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2156   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2157   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2158   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2159   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2160   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2161   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2162 
  2163 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2164 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2167   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2168   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2169   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2170   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2171   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2172   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2173   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2174   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2175   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2176   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2177   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2178   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2179   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2180   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2181   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2182   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2183   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2184   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2185   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2186   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2187   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2188   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2189   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2190   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2191   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2192   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2193   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2194   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2195   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2196   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2197   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2198   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2199   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2200   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2201   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2202   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2203   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2204   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2205   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2206   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2207   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2208   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2209   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2210   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2211   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2212   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2213   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2214   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2215   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2216   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2217   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2218   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2219   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2220   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2221   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2222   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2223   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2224   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2225   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2226   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2227   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2228   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2229   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2230   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2231   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2232   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2233   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2234   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2235   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2236   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2237   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2238   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2239   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2240   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2241   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2242   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2243   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2244   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2245   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2246   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2247   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2248 
  2249 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2250 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2251 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2252 
  2253 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2254 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2255 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2256 
  2257 * Code generation:
  2258 
  2259   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2260     characters in the target language.
  2261 
  2262   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2263     instead.
  2264 
  2265   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2266 
  2267   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2268     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2269 
  2270       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2271 
  2272 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2275 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2276 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2277 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2278 syntax.
  2279 
  2280 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2281 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2282 
  2283 * Nitpick:
  2284   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2285   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2286   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2287     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * Sledgehammer:
  2290   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2291   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2292     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2293   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2294     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2295   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2296     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2298     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2299   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2300     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * Metis:
  2303   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2304   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2306 
  2307 * Command 'try':
  2308   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2309     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2311     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2312 
  2313 * Quickcheck:
  2314   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2315     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2316   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2317     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2318   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2319     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2320     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2321     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2322   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2323     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2324 
  2325 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2326 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2327 
  2328 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2329 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2330 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2331 
  2332 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2333 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2337 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2340 arithmetic.
  2341 
  2342 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2343 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2344 and lattice type classes.
  2345 
  2346 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2347 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2348 
  2349 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2350 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2351 
  2352 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2353 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2354 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355 
  2356   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2357   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2358   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2359   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2360 
  2361 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2362 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2363 constants:
  2364 
  2365   type inat   ~> type enat
  2366   Fin         ~> enat
  2367   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2368   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2369   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2370 
  2371 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2372 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2375 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2376 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2377 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2378 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2379 
  2380 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2381 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2382 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2383 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2384 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2385 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2386 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2387 
  2388   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2389   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2390   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2391   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2392 
  2393 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2394 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2395 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2398   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2399   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2400   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2401   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2402   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2403   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2404   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2405   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2406   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2407   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2408   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2409   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2410   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2411   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2412   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2413   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2414   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2415   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2416   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2417   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2418   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2419   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2420   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2421   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2422   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2423   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2424   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2425   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2426   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2427   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2428   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2429   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2430   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2431   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2432   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2433   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2434   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2435   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2436   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2437   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2438   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2439   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2440   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2441   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2442   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2443   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2444   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2445   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2446   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2447   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2448 
  2449 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2450   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2451   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2452   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2453   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2454     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2459   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2460   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2461   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2462   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2463   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2464   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2465   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2466   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2467   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2468   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2469   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2470   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2471   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2472   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2473   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2474   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2475   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2476   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2477   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2478   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2479   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2480   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2481   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2482   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2483 
  2484 
  2485 *** Document preparation ***
  2486 
  2487 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2488 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2489 same.
  2490 
  2491 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2492 result.
  2493 
  2494 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2495 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2496 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2497 
  2498 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2499 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2500 
  2501 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2502 like this:
  2503 
  2504   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2505   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2506 
  2507 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2508 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2509 layouts.
  2510 
  2511 
  2512 *** ML ***
  2513 
  2514 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2515 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2516 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2517 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2518 under external program control.
  2519 
  2520 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2521 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2522 
  2523 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2524 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2525 (better known as Proof General).
  2526 
  2527 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2528 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2529 
  2530 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2531 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2532 
  2533 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2534 (including quotes etc.).
  2535 
  2536 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2537 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2538 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2539 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2540 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2541 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2542 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2543 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2544 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2545 
  2546 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2547 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2548 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2549 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2550 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2551 
  2552 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2553 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2554 
  2555 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2556 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2557 
  2558 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2559 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2560 
  2561 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2562 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2563 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2564 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2565 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2566 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2567 proper Proof.context.
  2568 
  2569 
  2570 *** System ***
  2571 
  2572 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2573 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2574 
  2575 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2576 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2577 
  2578 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2579 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2580 
  2581   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2582   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2583   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2584   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2585   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2586 
  2587 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2588 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2589 
  2590 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2591 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2592 example:
  2593 
  2594   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2595 
  2596 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2597 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2598 
  2599 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2600 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2601 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2602 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2603 
  2604 
  2605 
  2606 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2607 ----------------------------------
  2608 
  2609 *** General ***
  2610 
  2611 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2612 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2613 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2614 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2615 like this:
  2616 
  2617   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2618 
  2619 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2620 
  2621 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2622 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2623 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2624 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2625 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2627 
  2628 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2629 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2630 the following package declarations:
  2631 
  2632   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2633   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2634 
  2635 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2636 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2637 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2638 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2639 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2640 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2641 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2642 
  2643 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2644 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2645 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2646 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2647 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2648 
  2649 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2650 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2651 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2652 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2653 
  2654 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2655 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2656 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2657 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2658 
  2659   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2660 
  2661   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2662   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2663   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2664   show_types                    show_types
  2665   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2666   show_consts                   show_consts
  2667   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2668 
  2669   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2670   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2671   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2672 
  2673   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2674   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2675 
  2676   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2677 
  2678   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2679   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2680   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2681   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2682   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2683 
  2684 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2685 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2686 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2687 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2688 
  2689 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2693   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2694 
  2695 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2696 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2697 float_token.
  2698 
  2699 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2700 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2704 DejaVu Sans.
  2705 
  2706 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2707 
  2708 
  2709 *** Pure ***
  2710 
  2711 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2712 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2713 time.
  2714 
  2715 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2716 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2719 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720 
  2721 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2722 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2723 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2724 command already provided this functionality.
  2725 
  2726 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2727 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2728 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2729 without interpretations.
  2730 
  2731 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2732 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2733 
  2734 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2735 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2736 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2737 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2738 
  2739 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2740 'definition' instead.
  2741 
  2742 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2743 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2744 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2745 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2746 
  2747 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2748 constructors.
  2749 
  2750 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2751 the local file system.
  2752 
  2753 
  2754 *** HOL ***
  2755 
  2756 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2757 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2758 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2759 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2760 
  2761   declare [[coercion f]]
  2762 
  2763 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2764 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2765 
  2766   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2767 
  2768 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2769 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2770 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2771 other theories like this:
  2772 
  2773   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2774 
  2775 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2776 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2777 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2778 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2779 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2780 for examples.
  2781 
  2782 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2783 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2786 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2787 
  2788 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2789 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2790 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2791 
  2792 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2793 functorial structure of types.
  2794 
  2795 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2796 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2797 
  2798 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2799 languages.
  2800 
  2801 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2802 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2806 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2809 combinators any longer.
  2810 
  2811 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2812 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2813 
  2814 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2815 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2816 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2817 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2818 
  2819   record 'a foo = ...
  2820   ...
  2821   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2822 
  2823 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2824 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2828 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2829 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2830 
  2831 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2832 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2833 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2834 
  2835 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2836 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2839 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2840 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2841 independently.
  2842 
  2843 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2844 counter example search.
  2845 
  2846 * Sledgehammer:
  2847   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2848     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2849     sledgehammer").
  2850   - Renamed commands:
  2851     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2852     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2853     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2854     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855   - Renamed options:
  2856     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2857     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2858     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2859     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2860     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2861 
  2862 * Nitpick:
  2863   - Renamed options:
  2864     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2865     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2866     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2868   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2869   - Added "whack" option.
  2870   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2871   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2872   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2873   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2874     higher cardinalities.
  2875   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2876 
  2877 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2878 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2879 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2880 
  2881     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2882 
  2883 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2884 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2885 
  2886 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2887 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2888 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2889 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2890 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2891 "smt_solver".
  2892 
  2893 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2894 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2895 
  2896 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2897 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2898 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2899 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2902   - Renamed:
  2903     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2904     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2905     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906   - Added:
  2907     smt_verbose
  2908     smt_random_seed
  2909     smt_datatypes
  2910     smt_infer_triggers
  2911     smt_monomorph_limit
  2912     cvc3_options
  2913     remote_cvc3_options
  2914     remote_z3_options
  2915     yices_options
  2916 
  2917 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2918 header.
  2919 
  2920 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2921 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2922 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2923 
  2924   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2925 
  2926 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2929 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2934 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2935 
  2936 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2937 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2938 
  2939 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2940 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2943 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2944 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2945 
  2946 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2952 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2955 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2956 for congruent(2)).
  2957 
  2958 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2959 
  2960   types
  2961     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2962     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2963 
  2964   constants
  2965     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2966     True ~> HOL.True
  2967     False ~> HOL.False
  2968     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2969     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2970     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2971     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2972     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2973     The ~> HOL.The
  2974     All ~> HOL.All
  2975     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2976     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2977     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2978     If ~> HOL.If
  2979     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2980     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2981     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2982     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2983     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2984     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2985     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2986     op : ~> Set.member
  2987     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2988 
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2992 
  2993     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2994     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2995     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2996     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2997     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2998     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2999     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3000     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3001 
  3002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * More stylized fact names:
  3005 
  3006   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3007   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3008   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3009   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3010 
  3011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3014 
  3015   constants
  3016     null ~> List.null
  3017 
  3018   facts
  3019     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3020     null_empty ~> null_def
  3021 
  3022 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3023 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3024 generation.
  3025 
  3026 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3027 Haskell code.
  3028 
  3029 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3030 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3031 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3034 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3035 
  3036 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3037 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3038 
  3039 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3040 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3041 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3044 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3048 
  3049 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3050 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3051 referred to by its qualified name.
  3052 
  3053   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3054   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3055   product ~>  Enum.product
  3056 
  3057 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3058 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3062 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3063 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3067 sort_key.
  3068 
  3069 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3073 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3074 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3075 
  3076   types
  3077     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3078               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3079               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3080         (depends on your needs)
  3081 
  3082   constants
  3083      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3084      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3085      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3086 
  3087 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3088 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3089 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3090 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3093 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3094 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3095 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3096 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3102 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3103 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3104 
  3105 
  3106 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3107 
  3108 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3109 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3110 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3111 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3112 compatibility.
  3113 
  3114 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3115 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3116 
  3117 
  3118 *** HOLCF ***
  3119 
  3120 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3121 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3122 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3126 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3127 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3130   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3131   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3132 
  3133 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3134 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3135 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3138 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3139 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3140 domain definition now works:
  3141 
  3142   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3143 
  3144 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3145 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3146 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3147 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3148 
  3149   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3150     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3151 
  3152   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3153 
  3154 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3155 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3156 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3159 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3162 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3163 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3164 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3165 
  3166 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3167 
  3168 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3176 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3177 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3178 
  3179 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3180 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3181 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3184 still supported as an input translation.
  3185 
  3186 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3187 
  3188   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3189   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3190   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3191   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3192   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3193   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3194   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3195 
  3196 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3197 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3200   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3201   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3202   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3203   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3204   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3205 
  3206 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3207 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3210 
  3211   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3212   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3213   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3214   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3215 
  3216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3219 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3220 
  3221 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3222 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223 
  3224   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3225   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3226   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3227   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3228   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3229   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3230   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3231   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3232   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3233   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3234   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3235   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3236   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3237   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3238   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3239   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3240   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3241   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3242   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3243   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3244 
  3245 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3248   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3249   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3250   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3251   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3252   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3253   box_less             ~> box_below
  3254   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3255   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3256   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3257   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3258   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3259   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3260   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3261   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3262   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3263   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3264   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3265   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3266   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3267   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3268   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3269   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3270   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3271   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3272   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3273   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3274   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3275   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3276   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3277   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3278   up_less              ~> up_below
  3279   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3280   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3281   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3282   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3283   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3284   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3285   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3286   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3287   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3288   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3289   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3290   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3291   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3292 
  3293 
  3294 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3295 
  3296 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3297 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 
  3300 *** ML ***
  3301 
  3302 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3303 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3304 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3305 
  3306 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3307 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3308 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3309 
  3310 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3311 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3312 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3313 
  3314 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3315 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3316 
  3317 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3318 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3319 
  3320 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3321 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3322 
  3323 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3324 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3325 
  3326 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3327 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3328 almost all situations.
  3329 
  3330 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3331 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3332 Isabelle/ML.
  3333 
  3334 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3335 meaning.
  3336 
  3337 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3338 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3339 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3340 
  3341 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3342 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3343 
  3344 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3345 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3346 
  3347 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3348 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3349 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3350 
  3351 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3352 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3353 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3354 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3355 configuration options.
  3356 
  3357 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3358 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3359 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3360 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3361 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3362 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3363 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3364 
  3365 
  3366 
  3367 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3368 ---------------------------------
  3369 
  3370 *** General ***
  3371 
  3372 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3373 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3374 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3375 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3376 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3377 their full internal name.
  3378 
  3379 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3380 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3381 Some hints on upgrading:
  3382 
  3383   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3384     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3385     which are independent of this issue.
  3386 
  3387   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3388     provides the following special forms:
  3389 
  3390       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3391       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3392       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3393 
  3394     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3395     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3396     extra variables".
  3397 
  3398     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3399     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3400     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3401     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3402     "logic".
  3403 
  3404   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3405     antiquotations:
  3406 
  3407       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3408       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3409       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3410       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3411 
  3412   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3413     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3414     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3415     antiquotations.
  3416 
  3417 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3418 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3419 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3420 diagnose syntax problems.
  3421 
  3422 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3423 
  3424 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3425 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3426 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3427 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3428 
  3429 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3430 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3431 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3432 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3435 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3436 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3437 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3438 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3441 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3442 
  3443 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3444 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3445 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3446 
  3447   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3448 
  3449 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3450 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3451 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3452 
  3453 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3454 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3458 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3459 
  3460 
  3461 *** Pure ***
  3462 
  3463 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3464 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3465 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3466 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3467 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3468 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3469 inspect proof terms.
  3470 
  3471 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3472 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3473 are added internally.  For example:
  3474 
  3475   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3476 
  3477 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3478 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3483 'class' instead.
  3484 
  3485 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3486 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3490 invariants.
  3491 
  3492 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3493 user space functionality any longer.
  3494 
  3495 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3496 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3500 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3501 
  3502 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3503 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3504 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3505 
  3506 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3507 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3508 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3509 
  3510 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3511 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 
  3514 *** HOL ***
  3515 
  3516 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3517 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3518 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3519 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3520 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3521 
  3522 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3523 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3524 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3525 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3526 
  3527   fun
  3528     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3529   where
  3530     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3531 
  3532   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3533     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3534 
  3535   quotient_definition
  3536     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3537 
  3538 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3539 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3540 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3541 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3542 
  3543 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3544 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3545 
  3546 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3547 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3548 
  3549 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3553 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3554 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3555 
  3556 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3557 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3566 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3569 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3570 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3573   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3574   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3575   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3576   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3577   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3578   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3579   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3580   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3581   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3582   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3583   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3584   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3585   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3586   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3587   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3588   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3589   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3590   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3591   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3592   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3593   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3594   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3595   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3596   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3597   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3598   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3599   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3600   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3601   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3602 
  3603 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3604 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3605 
  3606 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3607 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3608 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3609 
  3610 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3611 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3612 
  3613 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3614 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3617 
  3618 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3619 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3622 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3625 
  3626 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3627 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3628 
  3629 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3630 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3631 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3632 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3635   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3636   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3637   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3641 lattices):
  3642 
  3643     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3644     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3645 
  3646     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3647 
  3648     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3649     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3650     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3651     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3652     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3653     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3654     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3655     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3656     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3657     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3658     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3659     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3660     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3661 
  3662     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3663     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3664     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3665     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3666     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3667     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3668     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3669     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3670     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3671     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3672     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3673     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3674     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3675     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3676     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3677     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3678     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3679     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3680 
  3681   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3682   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3683 
  3684     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3685     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3686     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3687     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3688     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3689 
  3690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Refined field classes:
  3693   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3694     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3695     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3696   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3700   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3701   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3702   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3703     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3704   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3705     equal_neg_zero.
  3706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 
  3708 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3709 sets to lattices:
  3710 
  3711   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3712   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3713   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3714   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3715   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3716   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3717   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3718   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3719   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3720   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3721 
  3722 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3723 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3724 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3725 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3726 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3727 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3730 multiset order:
  3731 
  3732   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3733     <= and <;
  3734   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3735     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3736     multiset_order;
  3737   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3738     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3739     generation;
  3740   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3741     if needed.
  3742 
  3743 Renamed:
  3744 
  3745   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3746   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3747   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3748 
  3749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3752 
  3753 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3754 
  3755 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3756 
  3757 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3758 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3759 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761   Constants:
  3762   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3763   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3764   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3765   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3766   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3767   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3768   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3769   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3770   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3771   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3772   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3773   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3774   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3775 
  3776   Lemmas:
  3777   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3778   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3779   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3780   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3781   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3782   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3783   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3784   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3785   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3786   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3787   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3788   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3789   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3790 
  3791 * Sledgehammer:
  3792   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3793     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3794     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3795     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3796     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3797     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3798     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3800   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3801     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3802   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3803     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3804     is still experimental.)
  3805   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3806     full-typed mode.
  3807   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3808 
  3809 * Nitpick:
  3810   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3811   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3812   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3813     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3814   - Added support for quotient types.
  3815   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3816     constructs.
  3817   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3818     "termination" proofs).
  3819   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3820   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3821   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3822   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3823     record getters.
  3824   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3825   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3826   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3827   - Added "atoms" option.
  3828   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3829     problems.
  3830   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3831     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3832     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3834     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3838   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3839   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3840   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3841   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3842   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3843   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3844   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3845   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3846   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3847 
  3848 
  3849 *** HOLCF ***
  3850 
  3851 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3852 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3853 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3856 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3857 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3858 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3861 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3862 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3863 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3864 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3867 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3868 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3871 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 
  3873   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3874   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3875 
  3876 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3877 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3880   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3881   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3882   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3883   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3884 
  3885 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3886 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3889   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3890   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3891 
  3892 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3893 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3897 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900 
  3901 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3902 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904 
  3905 *** ML ***
  3906 
  3907 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3908 
  3909     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3910     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3911 
  3912     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3913     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3914     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3915     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3916 
  3917     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3918     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3919     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3920 
  3921 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3922 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3923 
  3924 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3925 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3926 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3927 
  3928 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3929 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3930 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3931 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3932 
  3933 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3934 the context or even global references.
  3935 
  3936 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3937 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3938 
  3939 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3940 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3941 
  3942   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3943   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3944   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3945   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3946   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3947   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3948   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3949   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3950   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3951   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3952 
  3953 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3954 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3955 
  3956 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3957 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3958 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3959 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3960 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3961 
  3962 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3963 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3964 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3965 Theory_Data version.
  3966 
  3967 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3968 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3969 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3970 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3971 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3972 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3973 explicitly in rare situations.
  3974 
  3975 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3976 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3980 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3983 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3984 quite rare).
  3985 
  3986 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3987 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3990 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3991 terms.
  3992 
  3993 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3994 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3995 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3996 
  3997 
  3998 *** System ***
  3999 
  4000 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4001 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4002 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4003 
  4004 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4005 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4006 respectively.
  4007 
  4008 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4009 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4010 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4011 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4012 
  4013   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4014 
  4015 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4016 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4017 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4018 component.
  4019 
  4020 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4021 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4022 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4023 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4024 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4025 the user for manual installation.
  4026 
  4027 
  4028 
  4029 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4030 -------------------------------------
  4031 
  4032 *** General ***
  4033 
  4034 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4035 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4036 
  4037 
  4038 *** Pure ***
  4039 
  4040 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4041 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4042 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4043 
  4044 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4045 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4046 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4047 
  4048 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4049 interpretation.
  4050 
  4051 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4052 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054 
  4055 *** Document preparation ***
  4056 
  4057 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4058 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4059 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4060 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4061 
  4062 
  4063 *** HOL ***
  4064 
  4065 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4066 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4067 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4068 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4069 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4070 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4071 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4072 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4073 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4074 
  4075 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4076 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4077 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4078 
  4079 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4080 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4081 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4082 
  4083 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4084 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4085 
  4086 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4087 
  4088 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4089 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4090 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4091 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4092 
  4093 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4094 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4095 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4096 "mirabelle" utility.
  4097 
  4098 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4099 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4100 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4101 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4102 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4103 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4104 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4105 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4106 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4107 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4108 
  4109 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4110 procedure only.
  4111 
  4112 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4113 
  4114 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4115 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4116 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4117 that fail later.
  4118 
  4119 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4120 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4121 
  4122 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4123 the same method as the approximation method.
  4124 
  4125 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4126 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4127 series expansion.
  4128 
  4129 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4130 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4131 
  4132 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4133 reals.
  4134 
  4135 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4136 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4137 
  4138 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4139 fixpoint theorem.
  4140 
  4141 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4142   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4143     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4144   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4145     accordingly
  4146   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4147     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4148   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4149     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4150 
  4151 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4152 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4153 lattice.
  4154 
  4155 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4156 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4157 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4158 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4159 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4160 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4164   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4165     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4166   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4167     le_inf_iff
  4168   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4169     sup_aci)
  4170   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4171   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4172   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4173     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4174     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4175     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4176     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4177     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4178     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4179     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4180     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4181     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4182     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4183   - authentic syntax for
  4184     Set.Pow
  4185     Set.image
  4186   - mere abbreviations:
  4187     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4188     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4189     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4190     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4191     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4192     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4193     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4194     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4195   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4196 
  4197 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4198 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4199 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4200 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4201 
  4202 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4203 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4204 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4207 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4210 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4211 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4212 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4213 
  4214 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4215 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4216 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4217 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4218 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4219 
  4220 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4221 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4225 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4228 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4229 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4230 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4231 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4232 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4233 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4237     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4238     code_post       replaces    code post
  4239     etc.
  4240   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Renamed methods:
  4243     sizechange -> size_change
  4244     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4245   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4248 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4249 
  4250 * Renamed theorems:
  4251     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4252     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4253     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4254     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4255     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4256   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4260 
  4261 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4263 
  4264 
  4265 *** HOLCF ***
  4266 
  4267 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4268 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4269 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4270 
  4271 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4272 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4273 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4274 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4275 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4276 
  4277 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4278 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4279 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4280 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4281 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4282 
  4283 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4284 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4285 constructor are pre-configured.
  4286 
  4287 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4288 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4289 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4290 
  4291 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4292 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4293 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4294 as well.)
  4295 
  4296 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4297 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4298 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4299 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4300 examples.
  4301 
  4302 
  4303 *** ML ***
  4304 
  4305 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4306 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4307 
  4308 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4309 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4310 position, logical grouping etc.
  4311 
  4312 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4313 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4314 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4315 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4316 
  4317 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4318 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4319 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4320 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4321 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4322 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4323 
  4324 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4325 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4326 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4327 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4328 experiments with references.
  4329 
  4330 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4331 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4332 
  4333 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4334 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4335 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4336 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4337 
  4338 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4339 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4340 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4341 
  4342 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4343 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4344 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4352 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4353 
  4354 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4355 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4356 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4357 
  4358 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4359 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4360 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4363 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4364 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4368 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4369 instead of global theory.
  4370 
  4371 
  4372 *** System ***
  4373 
  4374 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4375 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4376 usedir option -q.
  4377 
  4378 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4379 also the system manual.
  4380 
  4381 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4382 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4383 
  4384 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4385 this is always enabled.
  4386 
  4387 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4388 
  4389 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4390 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4391 currently supported on Linux only.
  4392 
  4393 
  4394 
  4395 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4396 --------------------------------
  4397 
  4398 *** General ***
  4399 
  4400 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4401 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4402 
  4403   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4404     "isatool."
  4405 
  4406   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4407     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4408 
  4409   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4410     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4411 
  4412 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4413 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4414 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4415 
  4416 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4417 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4418 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4419 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4420 via "isabelle emacs".
  4421 
  4422 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4423 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4424 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4425 
  4426 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4427 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4428 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4429 
  4430 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4431 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4432 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4433 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4434 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4435 
  4436 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4437 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4438 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4439 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4440 
  4441 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4442 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4443 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4444 
  4445 
  4446 *** Pure ***
  4447 
  4448 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4449 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4450 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4451 
  4452 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4453 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4454 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4455 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4456 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4457 
  4458 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4459 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4460 useful in locale declarations.
  4461 
  4462 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4463 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4464 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4465 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4466 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4467 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4468 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4469 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4470 no longer generated.
  4471 
  4472 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4473 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4474 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4475 
  4476 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4477 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4478 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4479 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4480 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4481 
  4482 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4483 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4484 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4485 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4486 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4487 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4488 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4489 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4490 
  4491 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4492 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4493 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4494 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4495 
  4496 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4497 
  4498 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4499 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4500 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4501 
  4502 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4503 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4504 
  4505 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4506 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4507 in HOL, write
  4508 
  4509     class foo = ...
  4510 
  4511 instead of
  4512 
  4513     class foo = type + ...
  4514 
  4515 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4516 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4519 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4520 
  4521 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4522 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4523 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4524 
  4525 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4526 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4527 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4528 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4529 directly in regular applications.
  4530 
  4531 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4532 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4533 
  4534 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4535 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4536 
  4537 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4538 theory context.
  4539 
  4540 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4541 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4542 
  4543 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4544 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4545 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4546 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4547 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4548 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4549 
  4550   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4551 
  4552 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4553 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4554 normalization.
  4555 
  4556 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4557 addressing etc.
  4558 
  4559 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4560 
  4561   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4562   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4563 
  4564 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4565 
  4566   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4567      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4568      parts of the code generator framework).
  4569 
  4570   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4571      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4572      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4573 
  4574 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4577 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4580 patterns, e.g.
  4581 
  4582     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4583 
  4584 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4585 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4586 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4587 hyphen:
  4588 
  4589     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4590 
  4591 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4592 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4593 
  4594 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4595 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4596 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4597 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4598 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4599 higher-order unification.
  4600 
  4601 
  4602 *** Document preparation ***
  4603 
  4604 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4605 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4606 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4607 
  4608 
  4609 *** HOL ***
  4610 
  4611 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4612 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4613 
  4614 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4615 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4616 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4617 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4618 Main, as before.
  4619 
  4620 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4621 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4622 
  4623 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4624 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4625 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4626 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4627 
  4628 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4629 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4630 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4631 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4632 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4633 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4634 
  4635 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4636 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4637 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4638 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4639 
  4640 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4641 menu.
  4642 
  4643 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4644 (contains the empty clause).
  4645 
  4646 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4647 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4648 
  4649 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4650 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4651 
  4652 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4653 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4654 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4657 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4658 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4659 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4660 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4661 
  4662 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4663 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4664 
  4665 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4666 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4667 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4668 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4669 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4670 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4671 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4672 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4673 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4674 
  4675 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4676 
  4677 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4678 
  4679 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4680 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4683 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4684 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4685 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4686 
  4687 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4688 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4689 
  4690     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4691     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4692     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4693     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4694     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4695     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4696     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4697     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4698 
  4699 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4700 theory Set.
  4701 
  4702 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4703 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4704 
  4705 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4706 
  4707 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4708 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4709 
  4710 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4711 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4712 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4713 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4714 allowed. For examples see
  4715 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4716 
  4717 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4718 
  4719 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4723 structure:
  4724 
  4725     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4726     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4727     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4728     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4729     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4730     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4731     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4732     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4733     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4734     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4735     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4736     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4737     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4738     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4739     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4740     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4741     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4742     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4743     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4744     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4745     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4746     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4747     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4748     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4749     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4750     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4751     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4752     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4753     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4754     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4755     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4756     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4757     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4758 
  4759     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4760     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4761     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4762     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4763     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4764     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4765     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4766     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4767     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4768     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4769 
  4770     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4771     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4772     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4773     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4774     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4775     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4776 
  4777 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4778 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4779 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4780 
  4781 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4782 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4783 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4784 
  4785 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4786 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4789 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4790 
  4791 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4792 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4793 proofs, e.g.
  4794 
  4795   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4796 
  4797 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4798 
  4799 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4800 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4801 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4804 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4806 
  4807 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4808 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4809 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4813 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4814 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4815 preorder_class.*.
  4816 
  4817 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4818 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4819 
  4820 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4821 
  4822   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4823 
  4824 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4825 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4826 fold_image.
  4827 
  4828 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4829 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4830 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4831 the former will disappear at some point.
  4832 
  4833 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4834 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4835 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4836 
  4837 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4838 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4839 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4840 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4841 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4842 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4843 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4844 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4845 
  4846 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4847 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4848 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4849 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4850 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4851 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4852 
  4853     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4854     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4855     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4856     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4857     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4858     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4859     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4860 
  4861 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4862 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4863 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4864 
  4865 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4866 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4867 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4868 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4869 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4870 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4871 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4872 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4873 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4874 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4875 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4876 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4877 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4878 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4879 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4880 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4881 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4882 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4883 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4884 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4885 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4886 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4887 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4888 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4889 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4890 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4891 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4892 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4893 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4894 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4895 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4896 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4897 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4898 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4899 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4900 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4901 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4902 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4903 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4904 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4905 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4906 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4907 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4908 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4909 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4910 
  4911 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4914 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4915 
  4916 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4917 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4918 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4919 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4920 
  4921 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4922 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4923 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4924 theory RealVector.
  4925 
  4926 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4927 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4928 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4929 and inner products are included.
  4930 
  4931 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4932 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4933 supported.
  4934 
  4935 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4936 first diagonalization argument.
  4937 
  4938 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4939 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4940 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4941 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4942 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4943 
  4944     hide (open) const gcd
  4945     abbreviation gcd where
  4946       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4947     notation (output)
  4948       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4949 
  4950 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4951 
  4952 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4953 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4954 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4955 
  4956 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4957 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4958 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4959 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4960 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4961 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4962 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4963 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4964 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4965 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4966 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4967 cases.
  4968 
  4969 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4970 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4971 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4972 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4973 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4974 
  4975     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4976     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4977     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4978     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4979     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4980 
  4981 
  4982 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4983 
  4984 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4985 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4986 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4987 
  4988 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4989 
  4990 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4991 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4992 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4993 
  4994 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4995 
  4996 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4997 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4998 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4999 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5000 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5001 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5002 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5003 
  5004 
  5005 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5006 
  5007 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5008 
  5009 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5010 theory targets.
  5011 
  5012 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5013 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5014 'inductive' etc.
  5015 
  5016 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5017 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5018 
  5019 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5020 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5021 
  5022 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5023 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5024 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5025 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5026 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5027 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5028 the algorithm W:
  5029 
  5030  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5031  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5032          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5033 
  5034 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5035 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5036 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5037 
  5038 
  5039 *** HOLCF ***
  5040 
  5041 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5042 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5043 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5044 
  5045 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5046 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5047 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5048 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5049 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5052 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5053 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 
  5056 *** ZF ***
  5057 
  5058 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5059 
  5060 
  5061 *** ML ***
  5062 
  5063 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5064 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5065 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5066 5.2.1!
  5067 
  5068 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5069 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5070 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5071 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5072 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5073 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5074 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5075 
  5076 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5077 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5078 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5079 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5080 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5081 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5082 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5083 
  5084 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5085 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5086 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5087 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5088 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5089 
  5090 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5091 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5092 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5093 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5094 Method.add_method.
  5095 
  5096 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5097 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5098 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5099 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5100 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5101 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5102 
  5103 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5104 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5105 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5106 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5107 examples.
  5108 
  5109 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5110 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5111 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5112 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5113 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5114 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5115 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5116 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5117 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5118 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5119 
  5120 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5121 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5122 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5123 
  5124 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5125 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5126 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5127 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5128 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5129 resort for legacy applications.
  5130 
  5131 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5132 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5133 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5134 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5135 explicit runtime argument.
  5136 
  5137 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5138 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5139 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5140 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5141 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5142 
  5143 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5144 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5145 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5146 theory state.
  5147 
  5148 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5149 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5150 
  5151   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5152   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5153   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5154   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5155   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5156   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5157   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5158   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5159   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5160   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5161 
  5162 
  5163 *** System ***
  5164 
  5165 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5166 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5167 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5168 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5169 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5170 
  5171 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5172 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5173 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5174 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5175 
  5176 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5177 
  5178 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5179 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5180 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5181 prover operations.
  5182 
  5183 
  5184 
  5185 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5186 -------------------------------
  5187 
  5188 *** General ***
  5189 
  5190 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5191 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5192 
  5193 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5194 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5195 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5196 provides a proper context already.
  5197 
  5198 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5199 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5200 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5201 
  5202 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5203 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5204 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5205 swap theory imports.
  5206 
  5207 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5208 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5209 
  5210 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5211 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5212 white space without escapes.
  5213 
  5214 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5215 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5216 "foo_bar".
  5217 
  5218 
  5219 *** Pure ***
  5220 
  5221 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5222 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5223 
  5224 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5225 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5226 
  5227 (1) unused_thms
  5228      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5229 
  5230 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5231      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5232      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5233 
  5234 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5235      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5236      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5237      their ancestors.
  5238 
  5239 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5240 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5241 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5242 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5243 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5244 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5245 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5246 
  5247 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5248 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5249 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5250 
  5251 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5252 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5253 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5254 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5255 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5256 
  5257 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5258 
  5259 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5260 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5261 update of theories within ML code.
  5262 
  5263 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5264 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5265 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5266 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5267 
  5268 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5269 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5270 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5272 
  5273 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5274 
  5275 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5276 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5277 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5278 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5279 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5280 
  5281 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5282 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5283 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5284 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5285 situations.
  5286 
  5287 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5288 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5289 proof text.
  5290 
  5291 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5292 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5293 
  5294 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5295 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5296 predicates.
  5297 
  5298 
  5299 *** Document preparation ***
  5300 
  5301 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5302 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5303 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5304 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5305 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5306 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5307 
  5308 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5309 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5310 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5311 
  5312 
  5313 *** HOL ***
  5314 
  5315 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5316 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5317 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5318 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5319 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5320 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5321 
  5322 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5323 with multithreading.
  5324 
  5325 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5326 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5327 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5328 
  5329 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5330 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5331 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5332 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5335 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5336 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5337 and makes them available separately.  See
  5338 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5339 
  5340 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5341 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5342 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5343 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5344 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5345 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5346 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5347 the declared rules.
  5348 
  5349 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5350 
  5351   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5352 
  5353 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5354 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5355 
  5356 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5357 
  5358   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5359 
  5360   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5361     definitions on => and bool.
  5362 
  5363   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5364     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5365     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5366 
  5367       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5368       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5369       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5370       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5371       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5372       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5373       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5374       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5375 
  5376   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5377     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5378     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5379 
  5380   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5381     The proof pattern
  5382 
  5383       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5384       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5385 
  5386     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5387     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5388 
  5389       have "EX S. P S"
  5390       proof
  5391         show "P S" <...>
  5392       qed
  5393 
  5394   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5395     The proof pattern
  5396 
  5397       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5398       also have "S = T" <...>
  5399       finally have "P T" .
  5400 
  5401     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5402     must be replaced by something like
  5403 
  5404       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5405       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5406       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5407 
  5408   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5409     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5410 
  5411       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5412 
  5413     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5414     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5415     type of the form
  5416 
  5417       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5418 
  5419     rather than
  5420 
  5421       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5422 
  5423 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5424 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5425 
  5426 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5427 
  5428 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5429 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5431 
  5432 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5433 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5434 
  5435 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5436 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5437 
  5438 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5439 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5440 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5441 
  5442 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5443 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5444 
  5445   less_trans
  5446   less_linear
  5447   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5448   le_less_trans
  5449   less_le_trans
  5450   less_not_sym
  5451   less_asym
  5452 
  5453 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5454 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5455 and different variable names.
  5456 
  5457 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5458 
  5459 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5460 finite maps.
  5461 
  5462 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5463 
  5464 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5465 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5466 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5467 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5468 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5469 accordingly.
  5470 
  5471 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5472 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5473 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5474 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5475 
  5476 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5477 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5478 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5479 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5480 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482 
  5483 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5484 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5487 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5488 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5489 
  5490 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5494 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5495 
  5496 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5497 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5498 
  5499 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5500 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5501 
  5502 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5503 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5507 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5510 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5511 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5512 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5513 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5514 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5517 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5518 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5519 
  5520 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5521 
  5522 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5523 
  5524 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5525 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5526 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5527 
  5528 
  5529 *** ZF ***
  5530 
  5531 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5532 same session:
  5533 
  5534   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5535   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5536   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5537   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5538   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5539   List      -> List_ZF
  5540   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5541 
  5542 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5543 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5544 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5545 
  5546 
  5547 *** ML ***
  5548 
  5549 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5550 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5551 
  5552 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5553 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5554 
  5555 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5556 
  5557 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5558 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5559 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5560 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5561 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5562 
  5563 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5564 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5565 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5566 
  5567 
  5568 *** System ***
  5569 
  5570 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5571 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5572 
  5573 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5574 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5575 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5576 
  5577 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5578 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5579 
  5580 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5581 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5582 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5583 
  5584 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5585 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5586 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5587 
  5588 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5589 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5590 
  5591 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5592 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5593 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5594 script.
  5595 
  5596 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5597 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5598 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5599 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5600 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5601 
  5602 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5603 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5604 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5605 
  5606 
  5607 
  5608 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5609 -----------------------------------
  5610 
  5611 *** General ***
  5612 
  5613 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5614 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5615 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5616 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5617 
  5618 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5619 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5620 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5621 
  5622 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5623 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5624 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5625 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5628 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5629 quotes.
  5630 
  5631 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5632 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5633 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5634 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5635 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5636 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5637 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5638 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5639 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5640 
  5641 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5642 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5643 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5644 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5645 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5646 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5647 
  5648 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5649 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5650 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5651 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5652 
  5653 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5654 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5655 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5656 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5657 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5658 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5659 
  5660 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5661 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5662 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5663 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5664 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5665 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5666 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5667 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5668 
  5669 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5670 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5671 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5672 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5673 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5674 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5675 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5676 
  5677 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5678 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5679 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5680 
  5681 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5682 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5683 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5684 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5685 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5686 limit is imposed.
  5687 
  5688 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5689 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5690 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5691 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5692 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5693 and scalability.
  5694 
  5695 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5696 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5697 
  5698 
  5699 *** Document preparation ***
  5700 
  5701 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5702 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5703 current context.
  5704 
  5705 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5706 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5707 
  5708 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5709 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5710 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5711 
  5712 
  5713 *** Pure ***
  5714 
  5715 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5716 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5717 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5718 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5719 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5720 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5721 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5722 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5723 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5724 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5725 
  5726 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5727 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5728 sketch:
  5729 
  5730     internal compilation:
  5731         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5732     writing SML code to a file:
  5733         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5734     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5735         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5736     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5737         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5738 
  5739     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5740         method ``eval''
  5741 
  5742 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5743 
  5744 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5745 
  5746     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5747     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5748     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5749     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5750 
  5751 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5752 
  5753     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5754       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5755 
  5756     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5757       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5758 
  5759     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5760       {(target)}+
  5761         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5762 
  5763     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5764       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5765         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5766 
  5767 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5768 
  5769 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5770 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5771 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5772 codegen".
  5773 
  5774 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5775 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5776 annotations).
  5777 
  5778 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5779 syntax.
  5780 
  5781 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5782 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5783 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5784 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5785 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5786 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5787 
  5788 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5789 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5790 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5791 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5792 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5793 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5794 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5795 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5796 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5797 equations, see section "definitions".
  5798 
  5799 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5800 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5801 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5802 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5803 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5804 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5805 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5806 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5807 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5808 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5809 
  5810 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5811 configuration options:
  5812 
  5813   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5814   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5815   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5816   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5817   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5818   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5819   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5820   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5821   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5822 
  5823 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5824 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5825 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5826 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5827 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5828 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5829 order.
  5830 
  5831 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5832 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5833 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5834 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5835 context encountered later on.
  5836 
  5837 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5838 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5839 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5840 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5841 
  5842 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5843 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5844 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5845 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5846 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5847 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5848 
  5849 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5850 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5851 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5852 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5853 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5854 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5855 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5856 more permissive.
  5857 
  5858 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5859 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5860 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5861 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5862 maintainability of proof texts.
  5863 
  5864 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5865 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5866 
  5867   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5868   then guess x and y by clarify
  5869 
  5870 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5871 proof tools being involved here.
  5872 
  5873 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5874 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5875 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5876 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5877 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5878 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5879 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5880 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5881 
  5882 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5883 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5884 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5885 
  5886   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5887   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5888   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5889   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5890 
  5891 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5892 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5893 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5894 
  5895 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5896 both named and unnamed ones.
  5897 
  5898 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5899 
  5900   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5901 
  5902 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5903 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5904 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5905 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5906 
  5907 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5908 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5909 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5910 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5911 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5912 
  5913 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5914 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5915 
  5916 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5917 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5918 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5919 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5920 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5921 originally first one.
  5922 
  5923 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5924 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5925 expected.
  5926 
  5927 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5928 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5929 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5930 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5931 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5932 
  5933   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5934     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5935     obtains x where "P x"
  5936 
  5937   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5938     assumes "A & B"
  5939     obtains A and B
  5940 
  5941   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5942     assumes "A | B"
  5943     obtains
  5944       A
  5945     | B
  5946 
  5947 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5948 explicitly:
  5949 
  5950   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5951     obtains "~ thesis"
  5952 
  5953   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5954     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5955 
  5956 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5957 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5958 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5959 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5960 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5961 case_names).
  5962 
  5963 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5964 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5965 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5966 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5967 
  5968 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5969 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5970 top-level lemma.
  5971 
  5972 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5973 introduction rule (default "that").
  5974 
  5975 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5976 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5977 to occur.
  5978 
  5979 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5980 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5981 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5982 representations independently of name spaces.
  5983 
  5984 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5985 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5986 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5987 
  5988 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5989 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5990 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5991 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5992 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5993 current context.
  5994 
  5995 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5996 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5997 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5998 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5999 
  6000   axiomatization
  6001     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6002     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6003 
  6004   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6005   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6006 
  6007   abbreviation
  6008     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6009     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6010 
  6011 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6012 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6013 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6014 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6015 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6016 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6017 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6018 
  6019 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6020 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6021 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6022 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6023 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6024 
  6025 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6026 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6027 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6028 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6029 
  6030 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6031 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6032 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6033 
  6034   definition "K x _ = x"
  6035 
  6036   inductive conj for A B
  6037   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6038 
  6039 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6040 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6041 abbreviations on output.
  6042 
  6043 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6044 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6045 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6046 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6047 
  6048 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6049 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6050 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6051 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6052 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6053 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6054 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6055 
  6056 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6057 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6058 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6059 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6060 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6061 
  6062 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6063 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6064 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6065 
  6066 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6067 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6068 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6069 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6070 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6071 
  6072   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6073     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6074 
  6075 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6076 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6077 partial_order.
  6078 
  6079 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6080 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6081 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6082 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6083 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6084 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6085 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6086 examples.
  6087 
  6088 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6089 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6090 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6091 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6092 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6093 
  6094 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6095 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6096 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6097 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6098 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6099 
  6100   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6101   (induct set: foo bar)
  6102   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6103   (induct type: foo bar)
  6104 
  6105 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6106 new format.
  6107 
  6108 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6109 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6110 
  6111 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6112 considered a legacy feature.
  6113 
  6114 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6115 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6116 
  6117 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6118 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6119 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6120 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6121   
  6122 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6123 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6124 manipulating the claset.
  6125 
  6126 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6127 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6128 least one premise.
  6129 
  6130 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6131 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6132 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6133 rule steps.
  6134 
  6135 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6136 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6137 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6138 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6139 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6140 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6141 
  6142 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6143 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6144 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6145 
  6146 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6147 the graph browser tool.
  6148 
  6149 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6150 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6151 
  6152 
  6153 *** HOL ***
  6154 
  6155 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6156 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6157 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6158 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6159 multi-threading.
  6160   
  6161 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6162 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6163 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6164 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6165 work with multi-threading.
  6166 
  6167 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6168 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6169 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6170 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6171 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6172 
  6173 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6174 
  6175 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6176 equality.
  6177 
  6178 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6179 the new 'class' package:
  6180 
  6181     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6182     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6183     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6184     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6185     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6186     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6187     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6188     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6189     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6190     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6191     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6192     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6193     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6194     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6195     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6196     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6197     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6198     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6199     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6200     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6201 
  6202 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6203 
  6204 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6205 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6206 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6207 names.
  6208 
  6209 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  6210 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  6211 
  6212 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  6213 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  6214 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  6215 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  6216 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  6217 
  6218 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  6219 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  6220 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  6221 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  6222 
  6223 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  6224 
  6225 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  6226 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  6227 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  6228 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  6229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6230 
  6231 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  6232 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6233 
  6234 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  6235 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  6236 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6237 
  6238 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  6239 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  6240 
  6241 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  6242 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  6243 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  6244 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  6245 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  6246 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  6247 in the current context.
  6248 
  6249 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  6250 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  6251 INCOMPATIBILITY.