NEWS
author bulwahn
Mon Oct 03 14:43:15 2011 +0200 (2011-10-03 ago)
changeset 45118 7462f287189a
parent 45109 20b3377b08d7
child 45122 49e305100097
permissions -rw-r--r--
adding examples with relations to Quickcheck_Examples to show that quickcheck can actually handle operators on relations as well
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 
     8 
     9 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
    10 ------------------------------------
    11 
    12 *** General ***
    13 
    14 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
    15 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
    16 
    17   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
    18     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
    19     files for checking).
    20 
    21   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
    22     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
    23     positions.
    24 
    25   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
    26     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
    27     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
    28 
    29   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
    30     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
    31     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
    32 
    33   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
    34     cores.
    35 
    36   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
    37     versions (garbage collection).
    38 
    39 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
    40 including some remaining limitations.
    41 
    42 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    43 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    44 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    45 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    46 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    47 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    48 
    49 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    50 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    51 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    52 
    53 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    54 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    55 usedir option -Q.
    56 
    57 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    58 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    59 
    60   long_names   ~> names_long
    61   short_names  ~> names_short
    62   unique_names ~> names_unique
    63 
    64 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
    65 
    66   declare [[names_unique = false]]
    67 
    68 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
    69 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
    70 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
    71 
    72 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
    73 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
    74 
    75 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
    76   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
    77   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
    78   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
    79     "Classical Reasoner".
    80 
    81 
    82 *** HOL ***
    83 
    84 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
    85 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    86 
    87 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
    88 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
    89 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
    90 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
    91 class complete_linorder.
    92 
    93 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
    94 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
    95 
    96 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
    97 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
    98 
    99   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   100   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   101   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   102   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   103   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   104   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   105   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   106   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   107   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   108   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   109   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   110 
   111 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   112 
   113   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   114   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   115   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   116   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   117   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   118   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   119   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   120   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   121   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   122   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   123   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   124   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   125   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   126   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   127   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   128   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   129 
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   136 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   137 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   138 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   141 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   142 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   146 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   147 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   148 
   149 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   150 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   151 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   154 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   155 
   156 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   157 
   158     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   159     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   160 
   161 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   162 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   165 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   168 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   169 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   170 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   173   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   174   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   175   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   176   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   177   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   178   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   179 
   180 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   181 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   184   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   185   real_less_def ~> less_le
   186   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   187   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   188   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   189   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   190   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   191   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   192   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   193   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   194   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   195   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   196   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   197   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   198   real_le_linear ~> linear
   199   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   200   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   201   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   202   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   203   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   204   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   205   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   206   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   207   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   208   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   209   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   210   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   211   expi_add ~> exp_add
   212   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   213   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   214   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   215   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   216   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   217   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   218   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   219   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   220   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   221   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   222   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   223   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   224   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   225   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   226   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   227   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   228   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   229   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   230   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   231   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   232   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   233   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   234   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   235   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   236   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   237   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   238   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   239   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   240   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   241   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   242   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   243   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   244   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   245   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   246   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   247   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   248   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   249   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   250   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   251   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   252   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   253   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   254   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   255   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   256   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   257   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   258   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   259   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   260   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   261   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   262   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   263   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   264   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   265 
   266 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   267 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   268 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   269 
   270 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   271 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   272 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   273 
   274 * Code generation:
   275 
   276   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   277     characters in the target language.
   278 
   279   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   280     instead.
   281 
   282   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   283 
   284   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   285     reactivated by the following theory command:
   286 
   287       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   288 
   289 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   290 
   291 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   292 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   293 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   294 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   295 syntax.
   296 
   297 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   298 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   299 
   300 * Nitpick:
   301   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   302   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   303   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   304     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * Sledgehammer:
   307   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   308   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   309     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   310   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   311     this can be done within reasonable time.
   312   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   313     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   315     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   316   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   317     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Metis:
   320   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   321   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   322     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Command 'try':
   325   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   326     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   328     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   329 
   330 * Quickcheck:
   331   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   332     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   333   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   334     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   335   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   336     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   337     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   338     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   339   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   340     (formly in HOL/Library).
   341 
   342 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   343 use 'partial_function' instead.
   344 
   345 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   346 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   347 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   348 
   349 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   350 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352 
   353 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   354 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   357 arithmetic.
   358 
   359 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   360 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   361 and lattice type classes.
   362 
   363 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   364 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   365 
   366 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   367 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   368 
   369 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   370 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   371 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   372 
   373   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   374   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   375   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   376   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   377 
   378 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   379 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   380 constants:
   381 
   382   type inat   ~> type enat
   383   Fin         ~> enat
   384   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   385   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   386   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   387 
   388 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   389 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   392 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   393 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   394 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   395 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   396 
   397 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   398 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   399 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   400 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   401 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   402 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   403 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   404 
   405   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   406   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   407   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   408   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   409 
   410 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   411 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   412 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   415   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   416   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   417   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   418   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   419   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   420   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   421   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   422   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   423   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   424   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   425   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   426   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   427   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   428   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   429   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   430   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   431   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   432   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   433   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   434   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   435   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   436   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   437   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   438   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   439   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   440   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   441   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   442   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   443   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   444   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   445   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   446   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   447   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   448   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   449   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   450   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   451   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   452   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   453   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   454   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   455   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   456   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   457   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   458   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   459   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   460   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   461   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   462   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   463   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   464   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   465 
   466 * Session HOL-Probability:
   467   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   468   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   469   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   470   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   471     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   474 
   475   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   476   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   477   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   478   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   479   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   480   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   481   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   482   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   483   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   484   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   485   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   486   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   487   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   488   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   489   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   490   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   491   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   492   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   493   UU_I ~> bottomI
   494   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   495   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   496   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   497   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   498   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   499   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   500 
   501 
   502 *** Document preparation ***
   503 
   504 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   505 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   506 same.
   507 
   508 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   509 result.
   510 
   511 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   512 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   513 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   514 
   515 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   516 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   517 
   518 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   519 like this:
   520 
   521   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   522   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   523 
   524 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   525 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   526 layouts.
   527 
   528 
   529 *** ML ***
   530 
   531 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   532 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   533 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   534 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   535 under external program control.
   536 
   537 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   538 data, which requires explicit setup.
   539 
   540 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   541 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   542 (better known as Proof General).
   543 
   544 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   545 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   546 
   547 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   548 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   549 
   550 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   551 (including quotes etc.).
   552 
   553 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   554 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   555 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   556 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   557 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   558 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   559 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   560 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   561 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   562 
   563 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   564 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   565 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   566 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   567 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   568 
   569 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   570 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   571 
   572 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   573 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   574 
   575 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   576 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   577 
   578 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   579 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   580 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   581 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   582 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   583 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   584 proper Proof.context.
   585 
   586 
   587 *** System ***
   588 
   589 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
   590 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
   591 
   592 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
   593 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
   594 
   595 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
   596 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
   597 
   598   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
   599   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
   600   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
   601   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
   602   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
   603 
   604 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
   605 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   608 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   609 example:
   610 
   611   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   612 
   613 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
   614 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   615 
   616 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   617 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   618 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   619 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   620 
   621 
   622 
   623 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   624 ----------------------------------
   625 
   626 *** General ***
   627 
   628 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   629 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   630 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   631 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   632 like this:
   633 
   634   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   635 
   636 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   637 
   638 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   639 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   640 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   641 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   642 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   643 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   644 
   645 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   646 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   647 the following package declarations:
   648 
   649   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   650   \usepackage{textcomp}
   651 
   652 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   653 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   654 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   655 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   656 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   657 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   658 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   659 
   660 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   661 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   662 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   663 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   664 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   665 
   666 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   667 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   668 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   669 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   670 
   671 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   672 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   673 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   674 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   675 
   676   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   677 
   678   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   679   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   680   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   681   show_types                    show_types
   682   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   683   show_consts                   show_consts
   684   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   685 
   686   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   687   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   688   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   689 
   690   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   691   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   692 
   693   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   694 
   695   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   696   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   697   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   698   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   699   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   700 
   701 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   702 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   703 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   704 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   705 
   706 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   708 
   709   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   710   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   711 
   712 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   713 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   714 float_token.
   715 
   716 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   717 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   721 DejaVu Sans.
   722 
   723 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   724 
   725 
   726 *** Pure ***
   727 
   728 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   729 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   730 time.
   731 
   732 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   733 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   736 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   737 
   738 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   739 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   740 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   741 command already provided this functionality.
   742 
   743 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   744 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   745 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   746 without interpretations.
   747 
   748 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   749 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   750 
   751 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   752 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   753 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   754 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   755 
   756 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   757 'definition' instead.
   758 
   759 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   760 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   761 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   762 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   763 
   764 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   765 constructors.
   766 
   767 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   768 the local file system.
   769 
   770 
   771 *** HOL ***
   772 
   773 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   774 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   775 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   776 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   777 
   778   declare [[coercion f]]
   779 
   780 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   781 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   782 
   783   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   784 
   785 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   786 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   787 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   788 other theories like this:
   789 
   790   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   791 
   792 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   793 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   794 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   795 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   796 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   797 for examples.
   798 
   799 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   800 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   803 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   804 
   805 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   806 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   807 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   808 
   809 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   810 functorial structure of types.
   811 
   812 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   813 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   814 
   815 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   816 languages.
   817 
   818 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   819 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   823 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   826 combinators any longer.
   827 
   828 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   829 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   830 
   831 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   832 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   833 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   834 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   835 
   836   record 'a foo = ...
   837   ...
   838   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   839 
   840 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   841 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   845 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   846 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   847 
   848 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   849 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   850 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   851 
   852 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   853 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   856 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   857 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   858 independently.
   859 
   860 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   861 counter example search.
   862 
   863 * Sledgehammer:
   864   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   865     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   866     sledgehammer").
   867   - Renamed commands:
   868     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   869     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   870     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   871     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872   - Renamed options:
   873     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   874     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   875     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   876     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   877     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Nitpick:
   880   - Renamed options:
   881     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   882     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   883     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   885   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   886   - Added "whack" option.
   887   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   888   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   889   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   890   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   891     higher cardinalities.
   892   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   893 
   894 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   895 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   896 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   897 
   898     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   899 
   900 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   901 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   902 
   903 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   904 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   905 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   906 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   907 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   908 "smt_solver".
   909 
   910 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   911 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   912 
   913 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   914 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   915 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   916 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   919   - Renamed:
   920     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   921     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   922     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923   - Added:
   924     smt_verbose
   925     smt_random_seed
   926     smt_datatypes
   927     smt_infer_triggers
   928     smt_monomorph_limit
   929     cvc3_options
   930     remote_cvc3_options
   931     remote_z3_options
   932     yices_options
   933 
   934 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   935 header.
   936 
   937 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   938 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   940 
   941   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   942 
   943 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   946 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   951 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952 
   953 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   954 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   955 
   956 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   957 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   958 
   959 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   960 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   961 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   964 
   965 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967 
   968 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   969 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   972 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   973 for congruent(2)).
   974 
   975 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   976 
   977   types
   978     bool ~> HOL.bool
   979     nat ~> Nat.nat
   980 
   981   constants
   982     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   983     True ~> HOL.True
   984     False ~> HOL.False
   985     op & ~> HOL.conj
   986     op | ~> HOL.disj
   987     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   988     op = ~> HOL.eq
   989     Not ~> HOL.Not
   990     The ~> HOL.The
   991     All ~> HOL.All
   992     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   993     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   994     Let ~> HOL.Let
   995     If ~> HOL.If
   996     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   997     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   998     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   999     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1000     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1001     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1002     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1003     op : ~> Set.member
  1004     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1005 
  1006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1009 
  1010     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1011     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1012     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1013     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1014     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1015     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1016     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1017     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1018 
  1019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1020 
  1021 * More stylized fact names:
  1022 
  1023   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1024   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1025   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1026   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1027 
  1028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1029 
  1030 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1031 
  1032   constants
  1033     null ~> List.null
  1034 
  1035   facts
  1036     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1037     null_empty ~> null_def
  1038 
  1039 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1040 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1041 generation.
  1042 
  1043 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1044 Haskell code.
  1045 
  1046 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1047 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1048 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1049 
  1050 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1051 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1054 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1055 
  1056 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1057 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1058 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1059 
  1060 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1061 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1062 
  1063 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1065 
  1066 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1067 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1068 referred to by its qualified name.
  1069 
  1070   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1071   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1072   product ~>  Enum.product
  1073 
  1074 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1075 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1079 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1080 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1084 sort_key.
  1085 
  1086 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1090 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1091 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1092 
  1093   types
  1094     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1095               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1096               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1097         (depends on your needs)
  1098 
  1099   constants
  1100      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1101      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1102      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1103 
  1104 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1105 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1106 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1107 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1110 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1111 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1112 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1113 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1119 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1120 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1121 
  1122 
  1123 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1124 
  1125 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1126 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1127 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1128 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1129 compatibility.
  1130 
  1131 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1132 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1133 
  1134 
  1135 *** HOLCF ***
  1136 
  1137 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1138 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1139 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1143 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1144 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1147   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1148   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1149 
  1150 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1151 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1152 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1155 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1156 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1157 domain definition now works:
  1158 
  1159   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1160 
  1161 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1162 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1163 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1164 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1165 
  1166   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1167     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1168 
  1169   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1170 
  1171 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1172 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1173 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1176 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1179 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1180 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1181 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1182 
  1183 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1184 
  1185 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1188 
  1189 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1193 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1194 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1195 
  1196 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1197 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1198 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1199 
  1200 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1201 still supported as an input translation.
  1202 
  1203 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1204 
  1205   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1206   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1207   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1208   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1209   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1210   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1211   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1212 
  1213 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1214 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1215 
  1216   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1217   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1218   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1219   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1220   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1221   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1222 
  1223 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1224 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1225 
  1226 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1227 
  1228   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1229   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1230   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1231   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1232 
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1236 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1239 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1240 
  1241   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1242   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1243   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1244   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1245   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1246   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1247   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1248   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1249   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1250   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1251   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1252   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1253   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1254   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1255   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1256   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1257   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1258   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1259   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1260   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1261 
  1262 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1263 
  1264   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1265   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1266   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1267   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1268   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1269   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1270   box_less             ~> box_below
  1271   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1272   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1273   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1274   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1275   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1276   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1277   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1278   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1279   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1280   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1281   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1282   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1283   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1284   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1285   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1286   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1287   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1288   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1289   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1290   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1291   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1292   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1293   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1294   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1295   up_less              ~> up_below
  1296   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1297   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1298   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1299   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1300   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1301   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1302   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1303   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1304   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1305   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1306   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1307   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1308   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1309 
  1310 
  1311 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1312 
  1313 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1314 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 
  1317 *** ML ***
  1318 
  1319 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1320 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1321 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1322 
  1323 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1324 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1325 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1326 
  1327 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1328 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1329 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1330 
  1331 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1332 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1333 
  1334 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1335 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1336 
  1337 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1338 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1339 
  1340 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1341 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1342 
  1343 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1344 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1345 almost all situations.
  1346 
  1347 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1348 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1349 Isabelle/ML.
  1350 
  1351 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1352 meaning.
  1353 
  1354 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1355 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1356 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1357 
  1358 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1359 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1360 
  1361 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1362 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1363 
  1364 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1365 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1366 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1367 
  1368 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1369 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1370 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1371 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1372 configuration options.
  1373 
  1374 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1375 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1376 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1377 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1378 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1379 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1380 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1381 
  1382 
  1383 
  1384 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1385 ---------------------------------
  1386 
  1387 *** General ***
  1388 
  1389 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1390 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1391 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1392 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1393 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1394 their full internal name.
  1395 
  1396 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1397 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1398 Some hints on upgrading:
  1399 
  1400   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1401     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1402     which are independent of this issue.
  1403 
  1404   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1405     provides the following special forms:
  1406 
  1407       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1408       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1409       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1410 
  1411     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1412     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1413     extra variables".
  1414 
  1415     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1416     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1417     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1418     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1419     "logic".
  1420 
  1421   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1422     antiquotations:
  1423 
  1424       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1425       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1426       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1427       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1428 
  1429   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1430     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1431     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1432     antiquotations.
  1433 
  1434 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1435 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1436 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1437 diagnose syntax problems.
  1438 
  1439 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1440 
  1441 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1442 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1443 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1444 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1445 
  1446 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1447 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1448 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1449 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1452 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1453 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1454 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1455 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1458 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1459 
  1460 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1461 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1462 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1463 
  1464   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1465 
  1466 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1467 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1468 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1469 
  1470 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1471 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1475 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1476 
  1477 
  1478 *** Pure ***
  1479 
  1480 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1481 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1482 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1483 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1484 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1485 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1486 inspect proof terms.
  1487 
  1488 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1489 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1490 are added internally.  For example:
  1491 
  1492   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1493 
  1494 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1495 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1496 
  1497 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498 
  1499 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1500 'class' instead.
  1501 
  1502 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1503 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1505 
  1506 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1507 invariants.
  1508 
  1509 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1510 user space functionality any longer.
  1511 
  1512 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1513 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1517 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1518 
  1519 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1520 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1521 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1522 
  1523 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1524 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1525 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1526 
  1527 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1528 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 
  1531 *** HOL ***
  1532 
  1533 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1534 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1535 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1536 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1537 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1538 
  1539 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1540 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1541 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1542 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1543 
  1544   fun
  1545     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1546   where
  1547     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1548 
  1549   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1550     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1551 
  1552   quotient_definition
  1553     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1554 
  1555 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1556 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1557 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1558 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1559 
  1560 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1561 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1562 
  1563 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1564 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1565 
  1566 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1570 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1571 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1572 
  1573 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1574 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581 
  1582 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1583 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1586 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1587 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588 
  1589   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1590   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1591   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1592   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1593   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1594   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1595   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1596   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1597   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1598   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1599   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1600   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1601   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1602   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1603   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1604   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1605   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1606   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1607   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1608   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1609   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1610   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1611   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1612   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1613   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1614   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1615   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1616   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1617   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1618   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1619 
  1620 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1621 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1622 
  1623 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1624 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1625 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1626 
  1627 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1628 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1629 
  1630 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1631 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1634 
  1635 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1636 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1639 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1642 
  1643 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1644 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1645 
  1646 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1647 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1648 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1649 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1652   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1653   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1654   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1658 lattices):
  1659 
  1660     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1661     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1662 
  1663     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1664 
  1665     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1666     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1667     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1668     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1669     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1670     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1671     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1672     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1673     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1674     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1675     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1676     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1677     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1678 
  1679     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1680     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1681     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1682     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1683     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1684     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1685     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1686     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1687     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1688     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1689     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1690     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1691     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1692     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1693     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1694     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1695     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1696     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1697 
  1698   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1699   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1700 
  1701     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1702     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1703     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1704     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1705     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1706 
  1707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1708 
  1709 * Refined field classes:
  1710   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1711     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1712     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1713   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1717   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1718   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1719   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1720     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1721   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1722     equal_neg_zero.
  1723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1726 sets to lattices:
  1727 
  1728   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1729   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1730   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1731   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1732   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1733   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1734   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1735   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1736   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1737   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1738 
  1739 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1740 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1741 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1742 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1743 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1744 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1747 multiset order:
  1748 
  1749   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1750     <= and <;
  1751   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1752     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1753     multiset_order;
  1754   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1755     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1756     generation;
  1757   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1758     if needed.
  1759 
  1760 Renamed:
  1761 
  1762   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1763   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1764   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1765 
  1766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1767 
  1768 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1769 
  1770 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1771 
  1772 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1773 
  1774 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1775 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1776 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778   Constants:
  1779   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1780   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1781   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1782   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1783   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1784   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1785   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1786   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1787   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1788   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1789   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1790   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1791   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1792 
  1793   Lemmas:
  1794   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1795   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1796   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1797   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1798   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1799   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1800   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1801   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1802   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1803   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1804   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1805   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1806   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1807 
  1808 * Sledgehammer:
  1809   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1810     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1811     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1812     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1813     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1814     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1815     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1816   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1817   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1818     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1819   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1820     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1821     is still experimental.)
  1822   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1823     full-typed mode.
  1824   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1825 
  1826 * Nitpick:
  1827   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1828   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1829   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1830     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1831   - Added support for quotient types.
  1832   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1833     constructs.
  1834   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1835     "termination" proofs).
  1836   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1837   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1838   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1839   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1840     record getters.
  1841   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1842   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1843   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1844   - Added "atoms" option.
  1845   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1846     problems.
  1847   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1848     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1849     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1851     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1852   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1853 
  1854 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1855   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1856   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1857   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1858   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1859   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1860   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1861   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1862   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1863   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1864 
  1865 
  1866 *** HOLCF ***
  1867 
  1868 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1869 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1870 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1873 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1874 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1875 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1878 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1879 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1880 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1881 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1882 
  1883 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1884 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1885 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1888 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1891   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1892 
  1893 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1894 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1897   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1898   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1899   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1900   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1901 
  1902 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1903 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1906   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1907   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1908 
  1909 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1910 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1914 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1919 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920 
  1921 
  1922 *** ML ***
  1923 
  1924 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1925 
  1926     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1927     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1928 
  1929     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1930     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1931     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1932     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1933 
  1934     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1935     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1936     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1937 
  1938 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1939 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1940 
  1941 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1942 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1943 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1944 
  1945 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1946 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1947 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1948 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1949 
  1950 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1951 the context or even global references.
  1952 
  1953 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1954 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1955 
  1956 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1957 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1958 
  1959   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1960   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1961   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1962   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1963   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1964   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1965   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1966   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1967   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1968   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1969 
  1970 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1971 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1972 
  1973 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1974 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1975 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1976 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1977 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1978 
  1979 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1980 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1981 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1982 Theory_Data version.
  1983 
  1984 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1985 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1986 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1987 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1988 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1989 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1990 explicitly in rare situations.
  1991 
  1992 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1993 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1997 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2000 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2001 quite rare).
  2002 
  2003 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2004 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2005 
  2006 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2007 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2008 terms.
  2009 
  2010 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2011 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2012 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2013 
  2014 
  2015 *** System ***
  2016 
  2017 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2018 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2019 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2020 
  2021 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2022 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2023 respectively.
  2024 
  2025 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2026 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2027 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2028 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2029 
  2030   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2031 
  2032 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2033 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2034 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2035 component.
  2036 
  2037 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2038 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2039 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2040 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2041 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2042 the user for manual installation.
  2043 
  2044 
  2045 
  2046 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2047 -------------------------------------
  2048 
  2049 *** General ***
  2050 
  2051 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2052 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2053 
  2054 
  2055 *** Pure ***
  2056 
  2057 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2058 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2059 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2060 
  2061 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2062 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2063 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2064 
  2065 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2066 interpretation.
  2067 
  2068 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2069 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 
  2072 *** Document preparation ***
  2073 
  2074 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2075 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2076 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2077 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2078 
  2079 
  2080 *** HOL ***
  2081 
  2082 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2083 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2084 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2085 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2086 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2087 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2088 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2089 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2090 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2091 
  2092 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2093 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2094 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2095 
  2096 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2097 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2098 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2099 
  2100 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2101 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2102 
  2103 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2104 
  2105 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2106 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2107 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2108 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2109 
  2110 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2111 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2112 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2113 "mirabelle" utility.
  2114 
  2115 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2116 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2117 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2118 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2119 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2120 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2121 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2122 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2123 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2124 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2125 
  2126 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2127 procedure only.
  2128 
  2129 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2130 
  2131 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2132 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2133 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2134 that fail later.
  2135 
  2136 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2137 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2138 
  2139 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2140 the same method as the approximation method.
  2141 
  2142 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2143 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2144 series expansion.
  2145 
  2146 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2147 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2148 
  2149 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2150 reals.
  2151 
  2152 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2153 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2154 
  2155 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2156 fixpoint theorem.
  2157 
  2158 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2159   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2160     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2161   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2162     accordingly
  2163   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2164     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2165   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2166     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2167 
  2168 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2169 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2170 lattice.
  2171 
  2172 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2173 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2174 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2175 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2176 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2177 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2181   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2182     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2183   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2184     le_inf_iff
  2185   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2186     sup_aci)
  2187   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2188   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2189   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2190     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2191     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2192     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2193     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2194     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2195     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2196     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2197     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2198     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2199     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2200   - authentic syntax for
  2201     Set.Pow
  2202     Set.image
  2203   - mere abbreviations:
  2204     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2205     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2206     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2207     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2208     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2209     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2210     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2211     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2212   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2213 
  2214 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2215 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2216 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2217 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2218 
  2219 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2220 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2221 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2224 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2227 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2228 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2229 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2232 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2233 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2234 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2235 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2236 
  2237 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2238 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2242 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2245 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2246 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2247 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2248 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2249 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2250 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2252 
  2253 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2254     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2255     code_post       replaces    code post
  2256     etc.
  2257   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Renamed methods:
  2260     sizechange -> size_change
  2261     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2262   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263 
  2264 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2265 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2266 
  2267 * Renamed theorems:
  2268     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2269     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2270     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2271     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2272     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2273   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 
  2282 *** HOLCF ***
  2283 
  2284 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2285 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2286 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2287 
  2288 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2289 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2290 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2291 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2292 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2293 
  2294 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2295 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2296 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2297 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2298 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2299 
  2300 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2301 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2302 constructor are pre-configured.
  2303 
  2304 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2305 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2306 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2307 
  2308 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2309 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2310 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2311 as well.)
  2312 
  2313 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2314 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2315 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2316 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2317 examples.
  2318 
  2319 
  2320 *** ML ***
  2321 
  2322 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2323 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2324 
  2325 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2326 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2327 position, logical grouping etc.
  2328 
  2329 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2330 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2331 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2332 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2333 
  2334 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2335 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2336 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2337 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2338 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2339 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2340 
  2341 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2342 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2343 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2344 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2345 experiments with references.
  2346 
  2347 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2348 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2349 
  2350 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2351 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2352 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2353 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2354 
  2355 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2356 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2357 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2358 
  2359 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2360 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2361 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2369 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2370 
  2371 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2372 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2373 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2374 
  2375 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2376 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2377 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2380 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2381 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2385 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2386 instead of global theory.
  2387 
  2388 
  2389 *** System ***
  2390 
  2391 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2392 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2393 usedir option -q.
  2394 
  2395 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2396 also the system manual.
  2397 
  2398 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2399 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2400 
  2401 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2402 this is always enabled.
  2403 
  2404 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2405 
  2406 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2407 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2408 currently supported on Linux only.
  2409 
  2410 
  2411 
  2412 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2413 --------------------------------
  2414 
  2415 *** General ***
  2416 
  2417 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2418 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2419 
  2420   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2421     "isatool."
  2422 
  2423   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2424     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2425 
  2426   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2427     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2428 
  2429 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2430 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2431 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2432 
  2433 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2434 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2435 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2436 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2437 via "isabelle emacs".
  2438 
  2439 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2440 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2441 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2442 
  2443 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2444 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2445 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2446 
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2448 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2449 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2450 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2451 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2452 
  2453 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2454 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2455 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2456 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2457 
  2458 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2459 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2460 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2461 
  2462 
  2463 *** Pure ***
  2464 
  2465 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2466 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2467 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2468 
  2469 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2470 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2471 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2472 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2473 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2474 
  2475 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2476 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2477 useful in locale declarations.
  2478 
  2479 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2480 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2481 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2482 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2483 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2484 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2485 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2486 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2487 no longer generated.
  2488 
  2489 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2490 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2491 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2492 
  2493 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2494 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2495 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2496 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2497 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2498 
  2499 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2501 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2502 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2503 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2504 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2505 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2506 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2507 
  2508 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2509 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2510 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2511 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2512 
  2513 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2514 
  2515 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2516 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2517 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2518 
  2519 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2520 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2523 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2524 in HOL, write
  2525 
  2526     class foo = ...
  2527 
  2528 instead of
  2529 
  2530     class foo = type + ...
  2531 
  2532 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2533 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2536 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2537 
  2538 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2539 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2540 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2541 
  2542 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2543 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2544 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2545 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2546 directly in regular applications.
  2547 
  2548 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2549 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2550 
  2551 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2552 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2553 
  2554 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2555 theory context.
  2556 
  2557 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2558 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2561 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2562 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2563 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2564 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2565 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2566 
  2567   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2568 
  2569 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2570 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2571 normalization.
  2572 
  2573 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2574 addressing etc.
  2575 
  2576 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2577 
  2578   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2579   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2580 
  2581 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2582 
  2583   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2584      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2585      parts of the code generator framework).
  2586 
  2587   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2588      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2589      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2590 
  2591 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2592 
  2593 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2594 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2597 patterns, e.g.
  2598 
  2599     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2600 
  2601 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2602 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2603 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2604 hyphen:
  2605 
  2606     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2607 
  2608 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2609 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2610 
  2611 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2612 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2613 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2614 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2615 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2616 higher-order unification.
  2617 
  2618 
  2619 *** Document preparation ***
  2620 
  2621 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2622 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2623 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2624 
  2625 
  2626 *** HOL ***
  2627 
  2628 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2629 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2630 
  2631 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2632 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2633 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2634 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2635 Main, as before.
  2636 
  2637 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2638 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2639 
  2640 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2641 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2642 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2643 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2644 
  2645 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2646 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2647 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2648 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2649 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2650 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2651 
  2652 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2653 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2654 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2655 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2656 
  2657 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2658 menu.
  2659 
  2660 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2661 (contains the empty clause).
  2662 
  2663 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2664 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2665 
  2666 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2667 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2668 
  2669 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2670 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2671 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2674 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2675 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2676 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2677 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2678 
  2679 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2680 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2681 
  2682 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2683 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2684 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2685 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2686 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2687 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2688 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2689 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2690 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2691 
  2692 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2693 
  2694 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2695 
  2696 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2697 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2700 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2701 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2702 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2703 
  2704 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2705 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2706 
  2707     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2708     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2709     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2710     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2711     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2712     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2713     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2714     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2715 
  2716 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2717 theory Set.
  2718 
  2719 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2720 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2721 
  2722 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2723 
  2724 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2725 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2726 
  2727 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2728 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2729 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2730 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2731 allowed. For examples see
  2732 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2733 
  2734 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2735 
  2736 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2740 structure:
  2741 
  2742     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2743     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2744     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2745     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2746     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2747     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2748     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2749     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2750     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2751     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2752     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2753     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2754     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2755     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2756     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2757     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2758     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2759     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2760     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2761     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2762     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2763     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2764     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2765     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2766     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2767     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2768     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2769     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2770     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2771     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2772     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2773     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2774     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2775 
  2776     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2777     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2778     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2779     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2780     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2781     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2782     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2783     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2784     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2785     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2786 
  2787     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2788     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2789     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2790     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2791     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2792     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2793 
  2794 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2795 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2796 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2797 
  2798 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2799 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2800 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2801 
  2802 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2803 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2806 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2807 
  2808 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2809 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2810 proofs, e.g.
  2811 
  2812   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2813 
  2814 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2815 
  2816 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2817 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2818 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2819 
  2820 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2821 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2825 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2826 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2830 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2831 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2832 preorder_class.*.
  2833 
  2834 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2835 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2836 
  2837 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2838 
  2839   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2840 
  2841 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2842 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2843 fold_image.
  2844 
  2845 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2846 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2847 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2848 the former will disappear at some point.
  2849 
  2850 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2851 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2852 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2853 
  2854 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2855 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2856 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2857 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2858 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2859 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2860 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2861 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2862 
  2863 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2864 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2865 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2866 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2867 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2868 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2869 
  2870     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2871     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2872     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2873     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2874     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2875     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2876     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2877 
  2878 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2879 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2880 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2881 
  2882 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2883 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2884 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2885 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2886 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2887 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2888 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2889 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2890 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2891 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2892 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2893 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2894 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2895 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2896 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2897 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2898 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2899 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2900 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2901 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2902 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2903 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2904 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2905 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2906 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2907 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2908 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2909 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2910 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2911 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2912 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2913 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2914 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2915 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2916 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2917 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2918 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2919 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2920 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2921 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2922 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2923 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2924 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2925 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2926 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2927 
  2928 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2931 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2932 
  2933 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2934 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2935 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2936 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2937 
  2938 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2939 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2940 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2941 theory RealVector.
  2942 
  2943 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2944 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2945 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2946 and inner products are included.
  2947 
  2948 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2949 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2950 supported.
  2951 
  2952 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2953 first diagonalization argument.
  2954 
  2955 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2956 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2957 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2958 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2959 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2960 
  2961     hide (open) const gcd
  2962     abbreviation gcd where
  2963       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2964     notation (output)
  2965       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2966 
  2967 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2968 
  2969 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2970 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2971 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2974 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2975 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2976 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2977 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2978 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2979 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2980 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2981 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2982 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2983 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2984 cases.
  2985 
  2986 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2987 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2988 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2989 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2990 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2991 
  2992     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2993     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2994     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2995     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2996     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2997 
  2998 
  2999 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3000 
  3001 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3002 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3003 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3004 
  3005 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3006 
  3007 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3009 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3010 
  3011 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3012 
  3013 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3014 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3015 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3016 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3017 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3018 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3019 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3020 
  3021 
  3022 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3023 
  3024 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3025 
  3026 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3027 theory targets.
  3028 
  3029 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3030 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3031 'inductive' etc.
  3032 
  3033 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3034 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3035 
  3036 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3037 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3038 
  3039 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3040 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3041 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3042 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3043 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3044 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3045 the algorithm W:
  3046 
  3047  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3048  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3049          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3050 
  3051 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3052 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3053 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3054 
  3055 
  3056 *** HOLCF ***
  3057 
  3058 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3059 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3060 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3061 
  3062 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3063 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3064 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3065 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3066 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3067 
  3068 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3069 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3070 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 
  3073 *** ZF ***
  3074 
  3075 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3076 
  3077 
  3078 *** ML ***
  3079 
  3080 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3081 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3082 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3083 5.2.1!
  3084 
  3085 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3086 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3087 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3088 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3089 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3090 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3091 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3092 
  3093 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3094 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3095 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3096 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3098 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3099 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3100 
  3101 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3102 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3103 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3104 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3105 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3106 
  3107 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3108 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3109 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3110 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3111 Method.add_method.
  3112 
  3113 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3114 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3115 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3116 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3117 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3118 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3119 
  3120 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3121 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3122 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3123 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3124 examples.
  3125 
  3126 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3127 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3128 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3129 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3130 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3131 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3132 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3133 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3134 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3135 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3136 
  3137 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3138 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3139 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3140 
  3141 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3142 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3143 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3144 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3145 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3146 resort for legacy applications.
  3147 
  3148 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3149 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3150 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3151 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3152 explicit runtime argument.
  3153 
  3154 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3155 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3156 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3157 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3158 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3161 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3162 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3163 theory state.
  3164 
  3165 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3166 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3167 
  3168   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3169   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3170   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3171   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3172   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3173   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3174   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3175   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3176   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3177   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3178 
  3179 
  3180 *** System ***
  3181 
  3182 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3183 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3184 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3185 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3186 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3187 
  3188 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3189 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3190 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3191 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3192 
  3193 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3194 
  3195 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3196 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3197 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3198 prover operations.
  3199 
  3200 
  3201 
  3202 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3203 -------------------------------
  3204 
  3205 *** General ***
  3206 
  3207 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3208 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3209 
  3210 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3211 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3212 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3213 provides a proper context already.
  3214 
  3215 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3216 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3217 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3218 
  3219 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3220 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3221 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3222 swap theory imports.
  3223 
  3224 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3225 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3226 
  3227 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3228 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3229 white space without escapes.
  3230 
  3231 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3232 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3233 "foo_bar".
  3234 
  3235 
  3236 *** Pure ***
  3237 
  3238 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3239 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3240 
  3241 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3242 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3243 
  3244 (1) unused_thms
  3245      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3246 
  3247 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3248      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3249      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3250 
  3251 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3252      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3253      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3254      their ancestors.
  3255 
  3256 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3257 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3258 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3259 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3260 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3261 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3262 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3263 
  3264 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3265 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3266 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3267 
  3268 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3269 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3270 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3271 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3272 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3273 
  3274 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3275 
  3276 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3277 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3278 update of theories within ML code.
  3279 
  3280 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3281 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3282 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3283 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3284 
  3285 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3286 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3287 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3291 
  3292 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3293 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3294 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3295 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3296 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3297 
  3298 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3299 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3300 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3301 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3302 situations.
  3303 
  3304 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3305 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3306 proof text.
  3307 
  3308 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3309 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3310 
  3311 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3312 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3313 predicates.
  3314 
  3315 
  3316 *** Document preparation ***
  3317 
  3318 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3319 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3320 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3321 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3322 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3323 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3324 
  3325 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3326 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3327 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3328 
  3329 
  3330 *** HOL ***
  3331 
  3332 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3333 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3334 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3335 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3336 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3337 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3338 
  3339 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3340 with multithreading.
  3341 
  3342 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3343 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3344 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3345 
  3346 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3347 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3348 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3349 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3352 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3353 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3354 and makes them available separately.  See
  3355 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3356 
  3357 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3358 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3359 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3360 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3361 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3362 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3363 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3364 the declared rules.
  3365 
  3366 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3367 
  3368   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3369 
  3370 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3371 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3372 
  3373 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3374 
  3375   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3376 
  3377   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3378     definitions on => and bool.
  3379 
  3380   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3381     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3382     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3383 
  3384       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3385       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3386       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3387       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3388       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3389       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3390       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3391       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3392 
  3393   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3394     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3395     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3396 
  3397   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3398     The proof pattern
  3399 
  3400       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3401       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3402 
  3403     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3404     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3405 
  3406       have "EX S. P S"
  3407       proof
  3408         show "P S" <...>
  3409       qed
  3410 
  3411   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3412     The proof pattern
  3413 
  3414       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3415       also have "S = T" <...>
  3416       finally have "P T" .
  3417 
  3418     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3419     must be replaced by something like
  3420 
  3421       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3422       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3423       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3424 
  3425   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3426     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3427 
  3428       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3429 
  3430     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3431     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3432     type of the form
  3433 
  3434       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3435 
  3436     rather than
  3437 
  3438       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3439 
  3440 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3441 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3442 
  3443 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3446 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3450 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451 
  3452 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3453 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3456 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3457 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3460 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3461 
  3462   less_trans
  3463   less_linear
  3464   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3465   le_less_trans
  3466   less_le_trans
  3467   less_not_sym
  3468   less_asym
  3469 
  3470 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3471 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3472 and different variable names.
  3473 
  3474 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3475 
  3476 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3477 finite maps.
  3478 
  3479 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3480 
  3481 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3482 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3483 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3484 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3485 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3486 accordingly.
  3487 
  3488 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3489 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3490 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3491 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3492 
  3493 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3494 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3495 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3496 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3497 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3501 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3504 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3505 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3506 
  3507 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3511 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3512 
  3513 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3514 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3517 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3520 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3524 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3527 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3528 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3529 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3530 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3531 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3534 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3535 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3536 
  3537 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3538 
  3539 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3540 
  3541 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3542 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3543 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3544 
  3545 
  3546 *** ZF ***
  3547 
  3548 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3549 same session:
  3550 
  3551   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3552   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3553   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3554   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3555   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3556   List      -> List_ZF
  3557   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3558 
  3559 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3560 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3561 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3562 
  3563 
  3564 *** ML ***
  3565 
  3566 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3567 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3568 
  3569 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3570 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3571 
  3572 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3573 
  3574 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3575 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3576 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3577 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3578 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3581 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3582 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3583 
  3584 
  3585 *** System ***
  3586 
  3587 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3588 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3589 
  3590 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3591 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3592 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3593 
  3594 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3595 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3596 
  3597 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3598 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3599 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3600 
  3601 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3602 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3603 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3604 
  3605 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3606 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3607 
  3608 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3609 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3610 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3611 script.
  3612 
  3613 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3614 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3615 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3616 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3617 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3618 
  3619 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3620 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3621 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3622 
  3623 
  3624 
  3625 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3626 -----------------------------------
  3627 
  3628 *** General ***
  3629 
  3630 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3631 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3632 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3633 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3634 
  3635 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3636 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3637 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3640 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3641 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3642 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3645 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3646 quotes.
  3647 
  3648 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3649 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3650 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3651 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3652 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3653 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3654 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3655 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3656 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3657 
  3658 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3659 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3660 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3661 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3662 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3663 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3664 
  3665 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3666 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3667 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3668 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3669 
  3670 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3671 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3672 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3673 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3674 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3675 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3676 
  3677 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3678 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3679 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3680 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3681 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3682 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3683 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3684 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3685 
  3686 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3687 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3688 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3689 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3690 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3691 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3692 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3693 
  3694 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3695 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3696 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3697 
  3698 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3699 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3700 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3701 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3702 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3703 limit is imposed.
  3704 
  3705 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3706 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3707 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3708 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3709 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3710 and scalability.
  3711 
  3712 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3713 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3714 
  3715 
  3716 *** Document preparation ***
  3717 
  3718 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3719 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3720 current context.
  3721 
  3722 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3723 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3724 
  3725 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3726 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3727 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3728 
  3729 
  3730 *** Pure ***
  3731 
  3732 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3733 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3734 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3735 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3736 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3737 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3738 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3739 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3740 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3741 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3742 
  3743 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3744 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3745 sketch:
  3746 
  3747     internal compilation:
  3748         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3749     writing SML code to a file:
  3750         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3751     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3752         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3753     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3754         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3755 
  3756     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3757         method ``eval''
  3758 
  3759 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3760 
  3761 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3762 
  3763     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3764     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3765     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3766     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3767 
  3768 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3769 
  3770     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3771       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3772 
  3773     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3774       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3775 
  3776     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3777       {(target)}+
  3778         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3779 
  3780     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3781       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3782         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3783 
  3784 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3785 
  3786 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3787 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3788 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3789 codegen".
  3790 
  3791 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3792 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3793 annotations).
  3794 
  3795 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3796 syntax.
  3797 
  3798 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3799 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3800 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3801 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3802 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3803 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3804 
  3805 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3806 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3807 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3808 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3809 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3810 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3811 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3812 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3813 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3814 equations, see section "definitions".
  3815 
  3816 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3817 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3818 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3819 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3820 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3821 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3822 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3823 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3824 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3825 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3826 
  3827 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3828 configuration options:
  3829 
  3830   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3831   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3832   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3833   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3834   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3835   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3836   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3837   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3838   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3839 
  3840 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3841 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3842 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3843 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3844 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3845 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3846 order.
  3847 
  3848 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3849 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3850 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3851 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3852 context encountered later on.
  3853 
  3854 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3855 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3856 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3857 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3858 
  3859 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3860 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3861 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3862 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3863 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3864 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3865 
  3866 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3867 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3868 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3869 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3870 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3871 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3872 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3873 more permissive.
  3874 
  3875 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3876 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3877 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3878 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3879 maintainability of proof texts.
  3880 
  3881 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3882 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3883 
  3884   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3885   then guess x and y by clarify
  3886 
  3887 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3888 proof tools being involved here.
  3889 
  3890 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3891 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3892 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3893 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3894 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3895 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3896 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3897 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3898 
  3899 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3900 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3901 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3902 
  3903   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3904   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3905   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3906   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3907 
  3908 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3909 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3910 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3911 
  3912 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3913 both named and unnamed ones.
  3914 
  3915 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3916 
  3917   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3918 
  3919 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3920 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3921 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3922 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3923 
  3924 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3925 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3926 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3927 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3928 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3929 
  3930 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3931 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3932 
  3933 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3934 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3935 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3936 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3937 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3938 originally first one.
  3939 
  3940 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3941 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3942 expected.
  3943 
  3944 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3945 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3946 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3947 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3948 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3949 
  3950   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3951     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3952     obtains x where "P x"
  3953 
  3954   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3955     assumes "A & B"
  3956     obtains A and B
  3957 
  3958   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3959     assumes "A | B"
  3960     obtains
  3961       A
  3962     | B
  3963 
  3964 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3965 explicitly:
  3966 
  3967   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3968     obtains "~ thesis"
  3969 
  3970   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3971     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3972 
  3973 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3974 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3975 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3976 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3977 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3978 case_names).
  3979 
  3980 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3981 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3982 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3983 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3984 
  3985 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3986 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3987 top-level lemma.
  3988 
  3989 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3990 introduction rule (default "that").
  3991 
  3992 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3993 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3994 to occur.
  3995 
  3996 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3997 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3998 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3999 representations independently of name spaces.
  4000 
  4001 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4002 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4003 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4006 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4007 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4008 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4009 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4010 current context.
  4011 
  4012 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4013 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4014 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4015 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4016 
  4017   axiomatization
  4018     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4019     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4020 
  4021   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4022   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4023 
  4024   abbreviation
  4025     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4026     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4027 
  4028 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4029 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4030 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4031 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4032 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4033 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4034 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4035 
  4036 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4037 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4038 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4039 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4040 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4041 
  4042 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4043 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4044 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4045 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4046 
  4047 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4048 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4049 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4050 
  4051   definition "K x _ = x"
  4052 
  4053   inductive conj for A B
  4054   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4055 
  4056 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4057 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4058 abbreviations on output.
  4059 
  4060 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4061 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4062 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4063 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4064 
  4065 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4066 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4067 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4068 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4069 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4070 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4071 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4072 
  4073 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4074 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4075 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4076 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4077 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4078 
  4079 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4080 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4081 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4082 
  4083 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4084 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4085 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4086 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4087 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4088 
  4089   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4090     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4091 
  4092 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4093 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4094 partial_order.
  4095 
  4096 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4097 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4098 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4099 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4100 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4101 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4102 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4103 examples.
  4104 
  4105 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4106 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4107 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4108 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4109 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4110 
  4111 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4112 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4113 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4114 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4115 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4116 
  4117   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4118   (induct set: foo bar)
  4119   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4120   (induct type: foo bar)
  4121 
  4122 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4123 new format.
  4124 
  4125 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4126 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4127 
  4128 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4129 considered a legacy feature.
  4130 
  4131 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4132 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4135 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4136 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4137 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4138   
  4139 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4140 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4141 manipulating the claset.
  4142 
  4143 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4144 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4145 least one premise.
  4146 
  4147 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4148 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4149 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4150 rule steps.
  4151 
  4152 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4153 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4154 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4155 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4156 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4157 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4158 
  4159 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4160 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4161 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4162 
  4163 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4164 the graph browser tool.
  4165 
  4166 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4167 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4168 
  4169 
  4170 *** HOL ***
  4171 
  4172 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4173 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4174 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4175 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4176 multi-threading.
  4177   
  4178 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4179 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4180 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4181 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4182 work with multi-threading.
  4183 
  4184 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4185 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4186 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4187 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4188 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4189 
  4190 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4191 
  4192 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4193 equality.
  4194 
  4195 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4196 the new 'class' package:
  4197 
  4198     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4199     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4200     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4201     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4202     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4203     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4204     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4205     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4206     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4207     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4208     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4209     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4210     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4211     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4212     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4213     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4214     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4215     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4216     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4217     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4218 
  4219 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4220 
  4221 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4222 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4223 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4224 names.
  4225 
  4226 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4227 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4228 
  4229 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4230 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4231 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4232 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4233 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4234 
  4235 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4236 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4237 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4238 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4239 
  4240 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4241 
  4242 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4243 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4244 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4245 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247 
  4248 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4249 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4252 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4253 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4256 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4257 
  4258 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4259 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4260 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4261 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4262 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4263 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4264 in the current context.
  4265 
  4266 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4267 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4269 
  4270 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4271 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4272 
  4273 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4274 
  4275     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4276     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4277 
  4278     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4279       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4280     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4281     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4282 
  4283     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4284     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4285 
  4286   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4287 
  4288     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4289     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4290     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4291     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4292     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4293     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4294     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4295     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4296     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4297     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4298     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4299     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4300     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4301     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4302     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4303     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4304     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4305     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4306     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4307     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4308     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4309     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4310     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4311     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4312     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4313     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4314     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4315     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4316     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4317     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4318     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4319     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4320     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4321     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4322     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4323 
  4324     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4325     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4326     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4327     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4328     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4329     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4330     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4331     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4332     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4333     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4334     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4335     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4336     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4337     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4338     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4339     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4340     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4341 
  4342     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4343     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4344     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4345     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4346     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4347     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4348     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4349     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4350     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4351     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4352     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4353     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4354     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4355     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4356     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4357     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4358     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4359     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4360     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4361     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4362     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4363     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4364     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4365     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4366     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4367     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4368     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4369     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4370 
  4371     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4372     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4373     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4374     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4375     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4376     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4377 
  4378     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4379     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4380     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4381     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4382 
  4383     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4384     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4385 
  4386     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4387     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4388 
  4389 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4390 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4391 
  4392 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4393 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4394 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4395 "*.size".
  4396 
  4397 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4399 
  4400 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4401 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4402 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4407 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4408 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4409 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4410 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4411 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4412 numerals on all operations.
  4413 
  4414 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4415 
  4416 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4417 
  4418 * Code generator library theories:
  4419   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4420     languages.
  4421   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4422     languages.
  4423   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4424     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4425   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4426   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4427     denominator).
  4428   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4429     representable by rational numbers.
  4430   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4431     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4432     includes Code_Integer.
  4433   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4434     target-language built-in integers.
  4435   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4436     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4437 
  4438 * New package for inductive predicates
  4439 
  4440   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4441 
  4442     inductive
  4443       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4444       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4445     where
  4446       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4447     | ...
  4448 
  4449   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4450 
  4451     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4452 
  4453     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4454     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4455 
  4456     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4457     intros
  4458       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4459       ...
  4460 
  4461   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4462   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4463 
  4464     inductive_set
  4465       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4466       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4467     where
  4468       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4469     | ...
  4470 
  4471   or
  4472 
  4473     inductive_set
  4474       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4475       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4476       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4477     where
  4478       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4479     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4480     | ...
  4481 
  4482   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4483 
  4484   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4485   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4486 
  4487   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4488 
  4489   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4490     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4491     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4492     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4493     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4494 
  4495   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4496     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4497     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4498     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4499     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4500     statements of the form
  4501 
  4502       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4503 
  4504     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4505     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4506 
  4507       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4508 
  4509   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4510 
  4511       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4512         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4513         ==> ... ==> P
  4514 
  4515     for predicates and
  4516 
  4517       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4518         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4519         ==> ... ==> P
  4520 
  4521     for sets rather than
  4522 
  4523       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4524         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4525         ==> ... ==> P
  4526 
  4527     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4528     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4529     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4530 
  4531   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4532     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4533     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4534 
  4535 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4536 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4537 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4538 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4539 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4540 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4541 
  4542 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4543 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4544 
  4545 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4546 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4547 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4548 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4549 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4550 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4551 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4552 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4553 variable.
  4554 
  4555 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4556 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4557 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4558 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4559   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4560   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4561 
  4562 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4563 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4564 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4565 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4566 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4567 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4568 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4569 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4570 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4571 
  4572 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4573 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4574 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4575 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4576 rat, etc.
  4577 
  4578 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4579 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4580 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4581 
  4582 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4583 
  4584 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4585 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4586 
  4587 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4588 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4589 
  4590 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4591 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4592 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4595 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4599 
  4600 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4601 
  4602 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4603 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4604 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4605 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4606 
  4607 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4608 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4609 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4610 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4613 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4614 algebraic operations.
  4615 
  4616 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4623 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4624 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4625 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4626 adapted.
  4627  
  4628 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4629 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4630 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4631 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4632 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4633 
  4634 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4635 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4636 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4637 
  4638 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4639 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4640 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4641 
  4642 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4645 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4646 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4647   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4648       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4649   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4650   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4651   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4652 
  4653 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4654 
  4655 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4656 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4657 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4658 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4659 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4660 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4661 
  4662 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4663 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4664 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4665 
  4666 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4667 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4668 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4672 
  4673 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4674 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4677 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4678 
  4679 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4680 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4681 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4682 
  4683 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4684 True/False.
  4685 
  4686 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4687 
  4688 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4689 
  4690 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4691 ``rule'' method.
  4692 
  4693 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4694 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4695 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4696 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4697 
  4698 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4699 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4700 
  4701 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4702 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4703 
  4704 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4705 Library.
  4706 
  4707 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4708 
  4709 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4710 as greatest fixed-point.
  4711 
  4712 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4713 association lists.
  4714 
  4715 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4716 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4717 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4718 
  4719 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4720 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4721 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4723 behavior.
  4724 
  4725 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4726 
  4727 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4728 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4729 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4730 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4731 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4732 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4733 
  4734 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4735 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4736 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4737 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4738 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4739 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4740 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4741 
  4742 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4743 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4744 
  4745 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4746 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4747 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4748 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4749 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4753 
  4754 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4755 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4756 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4757 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4759 
  4760 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4761 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4762 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4763 
  4764 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4765 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4766 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4769 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4770 
  4771 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4772 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4773 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4777   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4778   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4779   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4780   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4781   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4782   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4783   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4784   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4785   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4786   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4787   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4788   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4789   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4790   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4791 
  4792 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4793 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4794 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4795 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4796 
  4797   approx        <-- capprox
  4798   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4799   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4800   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4801   monad         <-- cmonad
  4802   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4803   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4804   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4805   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4809 
  4810 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4811 
  4812 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4816 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4819 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4820 of algebraic structures.
  4821 
  4822 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4823 
  4824 
  4825 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4826 
  4827 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4828 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4829 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4830 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4831 
  4832 
  4833 *** ML ***
  4834 
  4835 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4836 (even on SML/NJ).
  4837 
  4838 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4839 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4840 compile-time.  For example:
  4841 
  4842 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4843 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4844 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4845 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4846 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4847 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4848 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4849 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4850 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4851 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4852 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4853 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4854 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4855 ML {* @{context} *}
  4856 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4857 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4858 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4859 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4860 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4861 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4862 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4863 
  4864 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4865 
  4866 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4867 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4868 
  4869 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4870 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4871 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4872 
  4873 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4874 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4875 
  4876 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4877 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4878 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4879 
  4880 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4881 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4882 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4883 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4884 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4885 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4886 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4887 declarations and definitions.
  4888 
  4889 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4890 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4891 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4892 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4893 
  4894 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4895 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4896 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4897 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4898 
  4899 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4900 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4901 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4902 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4903 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4904 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4905 
  4906 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4907 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4908 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4909 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4910 attributes, methods, etc.
  4911 
  4912 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4913 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4914 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4915 fold_map combinators.
  4916 
  4917 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4918 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4919 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4920 derivation.
  4921 
  4922 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4923 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4924 achieve the old behaviour.
  4925 
  4926 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4927 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4928 statements.
  4929 
  4930 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4931 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4932 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4933 
  4934 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4935 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4936 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4937 
  4938   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4939   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4940   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4941 
  4942 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4943 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4944 
  4945 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4946 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4947 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4948 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4949 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4950 
  4951 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4952 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4953 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4954 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4955 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4956 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4957 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4958 in a locale context).
  4959 
  4960 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4961 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4962 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4963 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4964 
  4965 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4966 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4967 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4968 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4969 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4970 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4971 
  4972 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4973 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4974 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4975 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4976 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4977 
  4978   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4979 
  4980 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4981 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4982 this:
  4983 
  4984   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4985 
  4986 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4987 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4988 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4989 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4990 
  4991 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4992 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4993 
  4994 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4995 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4996 
  4997 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4998 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4999 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5000 batch mode.
  5001 
  5002 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5003 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5004 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5005 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5008 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5009 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5010 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5011 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5012 
  5013 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5014 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5015 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5016 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5017 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5018 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5019 
  5020 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5021 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5022 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5026 "Trueprop" etc.
  5027 
  5028 
  5029 *** System ***
  5030 
  5031 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5032 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5033 Isabelle installations.
  5034 
  5035 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5036 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5037 code.
  5038 
  5039 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5040 
  5041 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5042 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5043 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5044 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5045 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5046 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5047 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5048 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5049 Implementation manual.
  5050 
  5051 
  5052 
  5053 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5054 ----------------------------------
  5055 
  5056 *** General ***
  5057 
  5058 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5059 
  5060   theory <name>
  5061   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5062   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5063   begin
  5064 
  5065 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5066 
  5067   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5068 
  5069 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5070 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5071 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5072 
  5073 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5074 relative and absolute paths.
  5075 
  5076 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5077 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5078 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5079 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5080 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5081 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5082 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5083 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5084 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5085 
  5086   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5087 
  5088 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5089 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5090 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5091 
  5092 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5093 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5094 
  5095 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5096 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5097 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5098 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5099 
  5100   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5101   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5102 
  5103 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5104 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5105 faster.
  5106 
  5107 
  5108 *** Document preparation ***
  5109 
  5110 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5111 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5112 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5113 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5114 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5115 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5116 
  5117 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5118 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5119 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5120 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5121 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5122 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5123 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5124 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5125 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5126 \isadroptag.
  5127 
  5128 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5129 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5130 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5131 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5132 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5133 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5134 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5135 specified above.
  5136 
  5137 * Several new antiquotations:
  5138 
  5139   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5140 
  5141   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5142 
  5143   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5144   argument is a known logical constant;
  5145 
  5146   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5147   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5148 
  5149   @{ML text}
  5150 
  5151 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5152 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5153 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5154 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5155 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5156 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5157 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5158 
  5159 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5160 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5161 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5162 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5163 
  5164 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5165 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5166 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5167 
  5168 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5169 a proof context.
  5170 
  5171 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5172 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5173 
  5174 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5175 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5176 
  5177 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5178 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5179 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5180 
  5181 
  5182 *** Pure ***
  5183 
  5184 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5185 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5186 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5187 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5188 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5189 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5190 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5191 
  5192 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5193 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5194 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5195 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5196 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5197 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5198 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5199 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5200 
  5201 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5202 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5203 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5204 
  5205 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5206 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5207 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5208 
  5209 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5210 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5211 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5212 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5216 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5217 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5218 axclasses vs. locales.
  5219 
  5220 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5221 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5222 
  5223 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5224 marks in schematic variable names.
  5225 
  5226 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5227 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5228 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5229 
  5230   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5231     by simp
  5232 
  5233 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5234 
  5235 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5236 annotations as "(00...)".
  5237 
  5238 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5239 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5240 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5241 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5242 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5243 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5244 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5245 
  5246 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5247 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5248 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5249 specifications.
  5250 
  5251 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5252 locally fixed variables as well.
  5253 
  5254 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5255 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5256 Limit.
  5257 
  5258 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5259 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5260 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5261 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5262 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5263 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5264 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5265 
  5266 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5267 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5268 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5269 
  5270 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5271 
  5272 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5273 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5274 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5275 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5276 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5277 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5278 
  5279 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5280 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5281 
  5282 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5283 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5284 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5285 
  5286 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5287 
  5288 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5289 theory development.
  5290 
  5291 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5292 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5293 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5294 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5295 
  5296 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5297 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5298 quoted when used as identifier.
  5299 
  5300 
  5301 *** Locales ***
  5302 
  5303 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5304 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5305 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5306 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5307 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5308 commands is a follows:
  5309 
  5310   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5311   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5312   (3) interpret expr inst
  5313 
  5314 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5315 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5316 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5317 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5318 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5319 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5320 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5321 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5322 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5323 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5324 
  5325 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5326 'interpret' instead.
  5327 
  5328 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5329 parameters.
  5330 
  5331 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5332 redeclaration.
  5333 
  5334 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5335 
  5336 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5337 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5338 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5339 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5340 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5341 
  5342 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5343 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5344 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5345 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5346 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5347 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5348 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5349 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5350 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5351 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5352 
  5353 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5354 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5355 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5356 
  5357 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5358 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5359 
  5360 
  5361 *** Provers ***
  5362 
  5363 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5364 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5365 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5366 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5367 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5368 
  5369 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5370 and quasi orders.
  5371 
  5372 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5373 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5374 
  5375 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5376 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5377 
  5378 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5379 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5380 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 
  5383 *** HOL ***
  5384 
  5385 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5386 
  5387   syntax (epsilon)
  5388     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5389 
  5390 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5391 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5392 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5393 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5394 
  5395 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5396 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5397 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5398 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5399 
  5400 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5401 instead of ":".
  5402 
  5403 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5404 
  5405   Old       New
  5406   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5407   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5408   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5409   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5410   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5411 
  5412 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5413 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5414 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5415 
  5416   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5417   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5418 
  5419 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5420 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5421 interface.
  5422 
  5423 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5424 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5425 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5426 be a tuple pattern.
  5427 
  5428 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5429 
  5430   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5431   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5432   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5433   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5434 
  5435 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5436 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5437 
  5438 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5439 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5440 (insert F x)'.
  5441 
  5442 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5443 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5444 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5445 
  5446 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5447 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5448 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5449 
  5450 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5451 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5452 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5453 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5454 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5455 
  5456 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5457 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5458 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5459 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5460 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5461 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5462 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5463 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5464 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5465 
  5466 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5467 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5468 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5469 quite long.
  5470 
  5471 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5472 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5473 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5474 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5475 
  5476 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5477 type-variables in the term.
  5478 
  5479 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5480 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5481 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5482 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5483 goals than previously.
  5484 
  5485 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5486 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5487 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5488 just like y <= x.
  5489 
  5490 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5491 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5492 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5493 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5494 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5495 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5497 
  5498 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5499 
  5500 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5501 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5502 
  5503 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5504 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5505 inequalities.
  5506 
  5507 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5508 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5509 
  5510   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5511   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5512   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5513   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5514   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5515   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5516   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5517   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5518   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5519   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5520   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5521 
  5522 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5523      
  5524      zero_le_square
  5525      not_square_less_zero 
  5526 
  5527   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5528   
  5529      realpow_zero_zero
  5530      realpow_two
  5531      realpow_less
  5532      zero_le_power
  5533      realpow_two_le
  5534      abs_realpow_two
  5535      realpow_two_abs     
  5536 
  5537 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5538 
  5539 * Theory List:
  5540 
  5541 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5542 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5543 
  5544   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5545   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5546   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5547   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5548 
  5549 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5550 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5551 
  5552 
  5553 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5554 
  5555 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5556 integers in the reals.
  5557 
  5558 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5559 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5560 
  5561   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5562   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5563   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5564   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5565   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5566 
  5567 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5568 
  5569 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5570 
  5571 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5572 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5573 
  5574   hypreal = real star
  5575   hypnat = nat star
  5576   hcomplex = complex star
  5577 
  5578 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5579 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5580 
  5581   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5582 
  5583   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5584   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5585   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5586   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5587   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5588 
  5589   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5590   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5591   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5592   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5593   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5594 
  5595 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5596 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5597 
  5598   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5599   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5600   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5601   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5602   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5603   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5604   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5605   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5606   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5607   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5608   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5609   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5610   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5611   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5612   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5613   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5614   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5615   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5616   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5617   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5618   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5619   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5620   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5621   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5622 
  5623 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5624 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5625 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5626 
  5627   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5628   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5629   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5630   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5631   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5632   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5633   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5634   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5635   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5636   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5637     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5638   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5639   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5640   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5641   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5642   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5643   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5644   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5645   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5646   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5647   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5648   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5649   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5650   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5651   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5652   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5653   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5654   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5655   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5656   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5657   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5658   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5659   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5660   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5661   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5662   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5663   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5664   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5665   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5666   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5667   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5668   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5669   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5670   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5671   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5672   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5673   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5674   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5675   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5676   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5677   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5678   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5679   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5680   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5681 
  5682   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5683   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5684   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5685   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5686   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5687   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5688   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5689   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5690   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5691   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5692   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5693 
  5694   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5695   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5696   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5697   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5698   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5699   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5700   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5701   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5702   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5703   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5704   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5705   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5706   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5707   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5708   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5709   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5710   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5711   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5712   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5713   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5714   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5715 
  5716 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5717 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5718 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5719 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5720 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5721 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5722 
  5723 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5724 
  5725 
  5726 *** HOLCF ***
  5727 
  5728 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5729 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5730 type-inference.
  5731 
  5732 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5733 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5734 instead of exponential time).
  5735 
  5736 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5737 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5738 
  5739   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5740 
  5741 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5742 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5743 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5744 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5745 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5746 syntax and examples.
  5747 
  5748 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5749 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5750 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5751 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5752 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5753 
  5754 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5755 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5756 
  5757   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5758   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5759   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5760   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5761   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5762   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5763 
  5764 
  5765 *** ZF ***
  5766 
  5767 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5768 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5769 of a homomorphism).
  5770 
  5771 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5772 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5773 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5774 
  5775 
  5776 *** Cube ***
  5777 
  5778 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5779 theories.
  5780 
  5781 
  5782 *** ML ***
  5783 
  5784 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5785 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5786 
  5787 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5788 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5789 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5790 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5791 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5792 
  5793 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5794 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5795 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5796 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5797 
  5798 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5799 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5800 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5801 
  5802     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5803     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5804     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5805     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5806     seq fs = List.app fs
  5807     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5808     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5809 
  5810 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5811 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5812 
  5813   x |> f                f #> g
  5814   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5815 
  5816 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5817 
  5818   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5819   infix 2 ?;
  5820   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5821   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5822 
  5823 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5824 infix operators.
  5825 
  5826 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5827 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5828 example:
  5829 
  5830   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5831     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5832 
  5833   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5834     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5835 
  5836   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5837     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5838 
  5839   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5840     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5841 
  5842 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5843 available:
  5844 
  5845   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5846   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5847   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5848   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5849 
  5850 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5851 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5852 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5853 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5854 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5855 
  5856   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5857   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5858   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5859 
  5860 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5861 
  5862   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5863   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5864 
  5865 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5866 Naive rewrites:
  5867 
  5868   make_keylist = AList.make
  5869   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5870 
  5871 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5872   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5873 
  5874     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5875     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5876 
  5877 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5878   Naive rewrites:
  5879 
  5880     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5881     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5882 
  5883 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5884 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5885 lists.
  5886 
  5887 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5888 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5889 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5890 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5891 
  5892 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5893 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5894 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5895 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5896 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5897 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5898 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5899 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5900 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5901 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5902 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5903 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5904 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5905 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5906 Output.raw have no effect.
  5907 
  5908 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5909 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5910 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5911 
  5912 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5913 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5914 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5915 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5916 
  5917 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5918 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5919 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5920 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5921 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5922 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5923 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5924 
  5925 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5926 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5927 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5928 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5929 
  5930 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5931 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5932 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5933 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5934 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5935 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5936 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5937 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5938 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5939 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5940 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5941 
  5942 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5943 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5944 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5945 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5946 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5947 with earlier declarations.
  5948 
  5949 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5950 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5951 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5954 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5955 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5956 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5957 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5958 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5959 
  5960   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5961     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5962 
  5963   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5964     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5965 
  5966   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5967     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5968     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5969     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5970 
  5971 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5972 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5973 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5974 
  5975 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5976 
  5977 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5978 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5979 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5980 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5981 
  5982 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5983 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5984 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5985 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5986 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5987 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5988 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5989 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5990 
  5991 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5992 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5993 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5994 
  5995 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5996 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5997 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5998 
  5999 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  6000 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  6001 
  6002   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  6003   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  6004   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6005   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6006 
  6007 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  6008 
  6009 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  6010 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  6011 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  6012 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  6013 (both increase the runtime).
  6014 
  6015 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  6016 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  6017 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  6018 
  6019 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  6020 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  6021 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  6022 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  6023 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  6024 for further details.
  6025 
  6026 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  6027 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  6028 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  6029 scripts for the time being.
  6030 
  6031 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  6032 generated HTML files.  For example:
  6033 
  6034   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  6035   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  6036 
  6037 
  6038 *** System ***
  6039 
  6040 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  6041 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  6042 
  6043 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  6044 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  6045 
  6046 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  6047 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  6048 
  6049 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  6050 distribution being used.
  6051 
  6052 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  6053 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  6054 theories.
  6055 
  6056 
  6057 
  6058 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  6059 --------------------------------
  6060 
  6061 *** General ***
  6062 
  6063 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  6064   Replaces linorder.ML.
  6065 
  6066 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  6067   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  6068   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  6069   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  6070   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  6071   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  6072   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  6073   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  6074   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  6075   existing theory and ML files.
  6076 
  6077 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  6078 
  6079 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  6080   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  6081   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  6082   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  6083 
  6084 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  6085   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  6086   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  6087   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  6088 
  6089 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  6090   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  6091   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  6092 
  6093 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  6094   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  6095   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  6096   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  6097   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  6098 
  6099 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  6100   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  6101 
  6102 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  6103   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  6104   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  6105 
  6106 
  6107 *** Isar ***
  6108 
  6109 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  6110   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  6111   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  6112     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  6113     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  6114     emulations.
  6115   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  6116     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  6117     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  6118 
  6119 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  6120   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  6121     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  6122     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  6123   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  6124 
  6125 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  6126   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  6127   and derived forms.
  6128 
  6129 * Locales:
  6130   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  6131     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  6132     "_axioms") in the premise.
  6133     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  6134   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  6135     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  6136   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  6137     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  6138   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  6139         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  6140     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  6141     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  6142     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  6143     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  6144     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  6145       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  6146     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  6147     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  6148     with "locale (open)".
  6149       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  6150 
  6151 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  6152   (Isar) contexts.
  6153 
  6154 
  6155 *** HOL ***
  6156 
  6157 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  6158   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  6159   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  6160   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  6161   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  6162 
  6163 * Simplifier:
  6164   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  6165     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  6166     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  6167     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  6168     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  6169   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  6170     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  6171     is solved by simplification already.
  6172 
  6173 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  6174     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  6175 
  6176 * Numerics:
  6177   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  6178     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  6179   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  6180     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  6181   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  6182     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  6183     exponentiation).
  6184 
  6185 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  6186 
  6187 * Records:
  6188   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  6189     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  6190     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  6191   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  6192     (not enabled by default).
  6193   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  6194     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  6195   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  6196 
  6197 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  6198   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  6199   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  6200 
  6201 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  6202 
  6203 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  6204 
  6205 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  6206   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  6207 
  6208 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  6209   matrix theory to linear programming.
  6210 
  6211 * Unions and Intersections:
  6212   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  6213   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  6214   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  6215   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  6216 
  6217 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  6218   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  6219   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  6220   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  6221 
  6222 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  6223   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  6224 
  6225 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  6226   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  6227 
  6228 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  6229   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  6230   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  6231