summary |
shortlog |
changelog |
graph |
tags |
branches |
files |
changeset |
file |
revisions |
annotate |
diff |
raw

NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Fri Oct 17 10:39:39 2008 +0200 (2008-10-17 ago) | |

changeset 28637 | 7aabaf1ba263 |

parent 28633 | 7b2cb494e11c |

child 28676 | 78688a5fafc2 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

reactivated HOL-Matrix;

minor cleanup;

minor cleanup;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

10 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

12 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

13 "isatool."

15 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

16 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

18 - The "Isabelle" alias for "isabelle-interface" has been removed.

20 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

21 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

22 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

24 Also note that user interfaces are now better wrapped as regular

25 Isabelle tools instead of using the special isabelle-interface wrapper

26 (which can be confusing if the interface is uninstalled or changed

27 otherwise). See "isabelle tty" and "isabelle emacs" for contemporary

28 examples.

30 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

31 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

32 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

34 * The Isabelle System Manual (system) has been updated, with formally

35 checked references as hyperlinks.

37 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

38 addressing etc.

40 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

41 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

42 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

44 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

45 interface instead.

48 *** Pure ***

50 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

51 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

52 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

53 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

54 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

55 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

57 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

59 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

60 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

61 normalization.

63 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

65 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

66 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

68 * Different bookkeeping for code equations:

69 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular constant

70 is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other parts of the

71 code generator framework).

72 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code attribute)

73 gain priority over default code equations stemming from definition, primrec,

74 fun etc.

75 INCOMPATIBILITY.

77 * Global versions of theorems stemming from classes do not carry

78 a parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

80 * Dropped "locale (open)". INCOMPATBILITY.

82 * Interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

83 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

84 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

86 * Interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation attributes.

87 INCOMPATBILITY.

89 * Command 'instance': attached definitions no longer accepted.

90 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target.

92 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

94 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

95 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

98 *** Document preparation ***

100 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

101 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

102 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

105 *** HOL ***

107 * Unified theorem tables for both code code generators. Thus

108 [code func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

110 * Constant "undefined" replaces "arbitrary" in most occurences.

112 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

113 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

114 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

115 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

116 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

117 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual

119 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

120 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). See also

121 ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/SystemOnTPTP and the VAMPIRE_HOME setting

122 variable. Other provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see

123 also src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

125 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

126 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

128 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation

129 mechanisms. The result of the first successful evaluation mechanism

130 is printed. In square brackets a particular named evaluation

131 mechanisms may be specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See

132 further src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

134 * HOL/Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit induction

135 rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of "wellorder" by

136 means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI. INCOMPATIBILITY.

138 * HOL/Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

139 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

140 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

141 preorder_class.*.

143 * HOL/Ring_and_Field and HOL/Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

144 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

145 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

146 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

147 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

148 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

150 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

151 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

152 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

153 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

154 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

155 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

156 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

158 * HOL/Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

159 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

160 the HOL Distribution. zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and ilcm;

161 corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILY. To

162 recover tupled syntax, use syntax declarations like:

164 hide (open) const gcd

165 abbreviation gcd where

166 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

167 notation (output)

168 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

170 (analogously for lcm, zgcd, zlcm).

172 * HOL/Real/Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

174 * New ML antiquotation @{code}: takes constant as argument, generates

175 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

176 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

177 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

178 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

179 instrumentalizing code generation. See HOL/ex/Code_Antiq for a toy

180 example, or HOL/Complex/ex/ReflectedFerrack for a more ambitious

181 application. In future you ought refrain from ad-hoc compiling

182 generated SML code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical

183 reasons) @{code} cannot refer to constants for which user-defined

184 serializations are set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart

185 directly in that cases.

187 * Integrated image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry points Main.thy and

188 Complex_Main.thy remain as they are.

190 * New image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

191 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). By convention

192 the corresponding theory Plain should be ancestor of every further

193 (library) theory. Some library theories now have ancestor Plain

194 (instead of Main), thus theory Main occasionally has to be imported

195 explicitly.

197 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

198 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

200 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

201 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

202 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

203 are now presented as a list of individual projections

204 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

205 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

206 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

207 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

208 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

210 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

212 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

214 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

215 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

216 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

217 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

218 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

220 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

221 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

222 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

223 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

224 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

226 * Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

227 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

228 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

230 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

231 menu.

234 *** HOL-Algebra ***

236 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

237 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and

238 lattice locales use a record structure with field eq for the

239 equivalence.

241 * New theory of factorial domains.

243 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simprules by default.

244 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

245 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

247 * Renamed the following theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.

248 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

249 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

250 least_carrier ~> least_closed

251 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

252 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

253 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

254 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

257 *** HOL-NSA ***

259 * Created new image HOL-NSA, containing theories of nonstandard

260 analysis which were previously part of HOL-Complex. Entry point

261 Hyperreal.thy remains valid, but theories formerly using

262 Complex_Main.thy should now use new entry point Hypercomplex.thy.

265 *** ZF ***

267 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

270 *** ML ***

272 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

273 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

274 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

275 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

276 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

277 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

279 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

280 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

281 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

282 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

283 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

284 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

285 theory. [Poly/ML 5.2 or later]

287 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

288 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

289 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

290 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

291 proof. [Poly/ML 5.2 or later]

293 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

294 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

295 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

296 theory state.

298 * Name bindings in higher specification mechanisms (notably

299 LocalTheory.define, LocalTheory.note, and derived packages) are now

300 formalized as type Name.binding, replacing old bstring.

301 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap strings via Name.binding function, see

302 also Name.name_of. Packages should pass name bindings given by the

303 user to underlying specification mechanisms; this enables precise

304 tracking of source positions, for example.

306 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

307 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

308 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

310 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

311 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

312 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

313 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

314 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

316 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

317 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

318 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

319 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

320 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

321 resort for legacy applications.

323 * Antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

324 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

326 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

327 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

328 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

329 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

330 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

331 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

332 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

333 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

334 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

337 *** System ***

339 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1 is no longer supported, only for

340 Poly/ML 5.2 or later.

342 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

343 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

344 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

345 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

346 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

348 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

349 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

350 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

351 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

353 * Status messages (with exact source position information) are

354 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

355 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

356 prover operations.

358 * Homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see Isabelle/lib/fonts.

362 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

363 -------------------------------

365 *** General ***

367 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

368 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

370 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

371 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

372 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

373 provides a proper context already.

375 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

376 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

377 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

379 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

380 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

381 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

382 swap theory imports.

384 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

385 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

387 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

388 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

389 white space without escapes.

391 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

392 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

393 "foo_bar".

396 *** Pure ***

398 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

399 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

401 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

402 There are three ways of invoking it:

404 (1) unused_thms

405 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

407 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

408 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

409 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

411 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

412 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

413 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

414 their ancestors.

416 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

417 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

418 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

419 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

420 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

421 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

422 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

424 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

425 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

426 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

428 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

429 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

430 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

431 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

432 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

434 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

436 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

437 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

438 update of theories within ML code.

440 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

441 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

442 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

443 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

445 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

446 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

447 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

448 INCOMPATIBILITY.

450 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

452 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

453 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

454 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

455 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

456 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

458 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

459 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

460 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

461 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

462 situations.

464 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

465 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

466 proof text.

468 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

469 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

471 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

472 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

473 predicates.

476 *** Document preparation ***

478 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

479 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

480 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

481 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

482 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

483 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

485 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

486 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

487 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

490 *** HOL ***

492 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

493 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

494 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

495 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

496 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

497 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

499 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

500 with multithreading.

502 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

503 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

504 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

506 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

507 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

508 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

509 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

511 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

512 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

513 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

514 and makes them available separately. See

515 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

517 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

518 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

519 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

520 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

521 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

522 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

523 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

524 the declared rules.

526 This setup also deals with rules like

528 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

530 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

531 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

533 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

535 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

537 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

538 definitions on => and bool.

540 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

541 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

542 the following theorems have been renamed:

544 subset_def -> subset_eq

545 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

546 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

547 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

548 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

549 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

550 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

551 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

553 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

554 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

555 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

557 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

558 The proof pattern

560 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

561 then have "EX S. P S" ..

563 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

564 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

566 have "EX S. P S"

567 proof

568 show "P S" <...>

569 qed

571 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

572 The proof pattern

574 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

575 also have "S = T" <...>

576 finally have "P T" .

578 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

579 must be replaced by something like

581 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

582 moreover have "S = T" <...>

583 ultimately have "P T" by simp

585 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

586 Code performing pattern matching on types via

588 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

590 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

591 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

592 type of the form

594 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

596 rather than

598 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

600 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

601 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

603 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

605 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

606 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

607 INCOMPATIBILITY.

609 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

610 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

612 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

613 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

615 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

616 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

617 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

619 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

620 the same name in theory Orderings:

622 less_trans

623 less_linear

624 le_imp_less_or_eq

625 le_less_trans

626 less_le_trans

627 less_not_sym

628 less_asym

630 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

631 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

632 and different variable names.

634 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

636 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

637 finite maps.

639 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

641 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

642 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

643 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

644 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

645 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

646 accordingly.

648 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

649 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

650 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

651 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

653 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

654 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

655 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

656 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

657 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

658 INCOMPATIBILITY.

660 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

661 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

663 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

664 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

665 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

667 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

668 INCOMPATIBILITY.

670 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

671 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

673 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

674 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

676 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

677 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

679 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

680 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

681 INCOMPATIBILITY.

683 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

684 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

686 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

687 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

688 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

689 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

690 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

691 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

693 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

694 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

695 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

697 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

699 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

701 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

702 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

703 well-orders on sets and on types.

706 *** ZF ***

708 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

709 same session:

711 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

712 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

713 Int -> Int_ZF

714 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

715 Nat -> Nat_ZF

716 List -> List_ZF

717 Main -> Main_ZF

719 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

720 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

721 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

724 *** ML ***

726 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

727 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

729 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

730 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

732 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

734 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

735 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

736 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

737 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

738 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

740 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

741 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML 5.2).

742 Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

745 *** System ***

747 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

748 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

750 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

751 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

752 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

754 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

755 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

757 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

758 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

759 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

761 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

762 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

763 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

765 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

766 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

768 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

769 way of changing the user's settings is via

770 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

771 script.

773 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

774 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

775 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

776 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

777 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

779 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

780 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

781 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

785 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

786 -----------------------------------

788 *** General ***

790 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

791 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

792 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

793 legacy features will disappear eventually.

795 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

796 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

797 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

799 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

800 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

801 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

802 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

804 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

805 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

806 quotes.

808 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

809 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

810 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

811 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

812 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

813 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

814 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

815 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

816 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

818 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

819 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

820 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

821 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

822 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

823 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

825 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

826 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

827 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

828 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

830 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

831 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

832 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

833 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

834 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

835 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

837 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

838 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

839 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

840 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

841 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

842 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

843 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

844 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

846 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

847 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

848 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

849 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

850 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

851 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

852 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

854 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

855 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

856 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

858 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

859 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

860 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

861 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

862 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

863 limit is imposed.

865 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

866 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

867 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

868 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

869 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

870 and scalability.

872 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

873 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

876 *** Document preparation ***

878 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

879 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

880 current context.

882 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

883 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

885 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

886 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

887 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

890 *** Pure ***

892 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

893 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

894 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

895 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

896 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

897 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

898 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

899 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

900 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

901 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

903 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

904 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

905 sketch:

907 internal compilation:

908 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

909 writing SML code to a file:

910 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

911 writing OCaml code to a file:

912 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

913 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

914 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

916 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

917 method ``eval''

919 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

921 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

923 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

924 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

925 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

926 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

928 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

930 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

931 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

933 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

934 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

936 code_instance <and-list of instances>

937 {(target)}+

938 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

940 code_class <and_list of classes>

941 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

942 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

944 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

946 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

947 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

948 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

949 codegen".

951 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

952 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

953 annotations).

955 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

956 syntax.

958 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

959 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

960 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

961 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

962 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

963 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

965 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

966 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

967 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

968 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

969 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

970 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

971 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

972 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

973 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

974 equations, see section "definitions".

976 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

977 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

978 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

979 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

980 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

981 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

982 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

983 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

984 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

985 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

987 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

988 configuration options:

990 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

991 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

992 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

993 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

994 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

995 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

996 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

997 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

998 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

1000 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

1001 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

1002 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

1003 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

1004 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

1005 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

1006 order.

1008 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

1009 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

1010 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

1011 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

1012 context encountered later on.

1014 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

1015 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

1016 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

1017 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

1019 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

1020 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

1021 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

1022 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

1023 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

1024 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

1026 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

1027 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

1028 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

1029 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

1030 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

1031 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

1032 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

1033 more permissive.

1035 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

1036 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

1037 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

1038 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

1039 maintainability of proof texts.

1041 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

1042 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

1044 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

1045 then guess x and y by clarify

1047 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

1048 proof tools being involved here.

1050 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

1051 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

1052 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

1053 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

1054 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

1055 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

1056 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

1057 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

1059 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

1060 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

1061 certain special cases of literal facts:

1063 have "A" by fact == note `A`

1064 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

1065 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

1066 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

1068 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

1069 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

1070 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

1072 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

1073 both named and unnamed ones.

1075 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

1077 def x == "t" and y == "u"

1079 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

1080 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

1081 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

1082 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

1084 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

1085 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

1086 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

1087 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

1088 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

1090 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

1091 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

1093 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

1094 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

1095 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

1096 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

1097 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

1098 originally first one.

1100 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

1101 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

1102 expected.

1104 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

1105 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

1106 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

1107 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

1108 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

1110 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1111 assumes "EX x. P x"

1112 obtains x where "P x"

1114 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1115 assumes "A & B"

1116 obtains A and B

1118 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1119 assumes "A | B"

1120 obtains

1121 A

1122 | B

1124 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

1125 explicitly:

1127 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1128 obtains "~ thesis"

1130 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1131 obtains "thesis ==> something"

1133 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

1134 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

1135 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

1136 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

1137 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

1138 case_names).

1140 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

1141 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

1142 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

1143 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

1145 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

1146 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

1147 top-level lemma.

1149 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

1150 introduction rule (default "that").

1152 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1153 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

1154 to occur.

1156 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

1157 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

1158 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

1159 representations independently of name spaces.

1161 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

1162 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

1163 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1165 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

1166 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

1167 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

1168 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

1169 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

1170 current context.

1172 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

1173 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

1174 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

1175 isar-ref manual. Examples:

1177 axiomatization

1178 eq (infix "===" 50) where

1179 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

1181 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

1182 definition g where "g x = f x x"

1184 abbreviation

1185 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

1186 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

1188 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

1189 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

1190 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

1191 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

1192 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

1193 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

1194 entities from a monomorphic theory.

1196 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

1197 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

1198 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

1199 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

1200 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

1202 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

1203 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

1204 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

1205 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

1207 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

1208 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

1209 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

1211 definition "K x _ = x"

1213 inductive conj for A B

1214 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

1216 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

1217 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

1218 abbreviations on output.

1220 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

1221 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

1222 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

1223 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

1225 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

1226 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

1227 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

1228 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

1229 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

1230 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

1231 `unfold_locales'; see below.

1233 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

1234 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

1235 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

1236 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

1237 unfold predicates to assumptions.

1239 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

1240 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

1241 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

1243 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

1244 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

1245 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

1246 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

1247 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

1249 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

1250 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

1252 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

1253 definition specification element in the context of locale

1254 partial_order.

1256 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

1257 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

1258 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

1259 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

1260 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

1261 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

1262 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

1263 examples.

1265 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

1266 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

1267 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

1268 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

1269 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

1271 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

1272 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

1273 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

1274 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

1275 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

1277 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

1278 (induct set: foo bar)

1279 (induct pred: foo bar)

1280 (induct type: foo bar)

1282 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

1283 new format.

1285 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

1286 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

1288 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

1289 considered a legacy feature.

1291 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

1292 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1294 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

1295 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

1296 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

1297 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

1299 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

1300 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

1301 manipulating the claset.

1303 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

1304 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

1305 least one premise.

1307 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

1308 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

1309 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

1310 rule steps.

1312 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

1313 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

1314 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

1315 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

1316 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

1317 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

1319 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

1320 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

1321 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

1323 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

1324 the graph browser tool.

1326 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

1327 default; use '!' option for full details.

1330 *** HOL ***

1332 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

1333 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

1334 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

1335 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

1336 multi-threading.

1338 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

1339 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

1340 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

1341 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

1342 work with multi-threading.

1344 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

1345 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

1346 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

1347 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

1348 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

1350 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

1352 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

1353 equality.

1355 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

1356 the new 'class' package:

1358 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

1359 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

1360 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

1361 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

1362 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

1363 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

1364 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

1365 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

1366 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

1367 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

1368 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

1369 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

1370 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

1371 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

1372 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

1373 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

1374 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

1375 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

1376 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

1377 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

1379 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

1381 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

1382 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

1383 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

1384 names.

1386 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

1387 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1389 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

1390 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

1391 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

1392 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

1393 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

1395 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

1396 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

1397 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

1398 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

1400 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

1402 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

1403 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

1404 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

1405 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

1406 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1408 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

1409 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1411 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

1412 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

1413 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1415 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

1416 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

1418 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

1419 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

1420 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

1421 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

1422 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

1423 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

1424 in the current context.

1426 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

1427 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

1428 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1430 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

1431 with new class dense_linear_order.

1433 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

1435 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

1436 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

1438 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

1439 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

1440 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

1441 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

1443 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

1444 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

1446 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

1448 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

1449 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

1450 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

1451 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

1452 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

1453 le_meetI ~> le_infI

1454 join_leI ~> le_supI

1455 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

1456 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

1457 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

1458 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

1459 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

1460 join_comm ~> sup_commute

1461 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

1462 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

1463 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

1464 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

1465 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

1466 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

1467 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

1468 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

1469 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

1470 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

1471 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

1472 join_aci ~> sup_aci

1473 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

1474 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

1475 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

1476 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

1477 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

1478 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

1479 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

1480 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

1481 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

1482 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

1484 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

1485 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

1486 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

1487 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

1488 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

1489 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

1490 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

1491 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

1492 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

1493 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

1494 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

1495 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

1496 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

1497 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

1498 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

1499 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

1500 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

1502 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

1503 mono_join ~> mono_sup

1504 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

1505 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

1506 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

1507 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

1508 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

1509 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

1510 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

1511 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

1512 meet1I ~> inf1I

1513 meet2I ~> inf2I

1514 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

1515 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

1516 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

1517 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

1518 meet1E ~> inf1E

1519 meet2E ~> inf2E

1520 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

1521 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

1522 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1523 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

1524 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1525 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

1526 join1CI ~> sup1CI

1527 join2CI ~> sup2CI

1528 join1E ~> sup1E

1529 join2E ~> sup2E

1531 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

1532 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

1533 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

1534 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

1535 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

1536 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

1538 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

1539 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

1540 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

1541 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

1543 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

1544 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

1546 meet_min ~> inf_min

1547 join_max ~> sup_max

1549 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

1550 type "'a::size ==> bool"

1552 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

1553 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

1554 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

1555 "*.size".

1557 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

1558 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1560 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

1561 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

1562 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1564 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1566 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

1567 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

1568 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

1569 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

1570 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

1571 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

1572 numerals on all operations.

1574 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

1576 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

1578 * Code generator library theories:

1579 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

1580 languages.

1581 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

1582 languages.

1583 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

1584 codes; includes Code_Integer.

1585 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

1586 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

1587 denominator).

1588 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

1589 representable by rational numbers.

1590 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

1591 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

1592 includes Code_Integer.

1593 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

1594 target-language built-in integers.

1595 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

1596 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

1598 * New package for inductive predicates

1600 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

1602 inductive

1603 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1604 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1605 where

1606 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1607 | ...

1609 with full support for type-inference, rather than

1611 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1613 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1614 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1616 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

1617 intros

1618 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1619 ...

1621 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

1622 sets to be defined with the new package via

1624 inductive_set

1625 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1626 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1627 where

1628 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1629 | ...

1631 or

1633 inductive_set

1634 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1635 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1636 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1637 where

1638 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1639 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1640 | ...

1642 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

1644 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

1645 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

1647 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

1649 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

1650 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

1651 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

1652 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

1653 than before the actual inductive definition.

1655 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

1656 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

1657 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

1658 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

1659 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

1660 statements of the form

1662 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

1664 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

1665 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

1667 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

1669 - The format of the elimination rules is now

1671 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

1672 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

1673 ==> ... ==> P

1675 for predicates and

1677 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

1678 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

1679 ==> ... ==> P

1681 for sets rather than

1683 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

1684 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

1685 ==> ... ==> P

1687 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

1688 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

1689 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

1691 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

1692 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

1693 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

1695 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

1696 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

1697 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

1698 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

1699 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

1700 users are encouraged to use the new package.

1702 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

1703 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

1705 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

1706 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

1707 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

1708 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

1709 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

1710 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

1711 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

1712 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

1713 variable.

1715 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

1716 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

1717 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

1718 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

1719 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

1720 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

1722 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

1723 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

1724 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

1725 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

1726 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

1727 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

1728 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

1729 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

1730 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

1732 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

1733 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

1734 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

1735 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

1736 rat, etc.

1738 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

1739 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

1740 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

1742 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

1744 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

1745 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

1747 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

1748 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

1750 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

1751 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

1752 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1754 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

1755 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

1756 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1758 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

1760 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

1762 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

1763 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

1764 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

1765 positive/negative (in inequations).

1767 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

1768 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

1769 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

1770 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1772 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

1773 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

1774 algebraic operations.

1776 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

1777 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1779 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

1780 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1782 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

1783 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

1784 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

1785 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

1786 adapted.

1788 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

1789 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

1790 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

1791 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

1792 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

1794 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

1795 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

1796 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

1798 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

1799 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

1800 better use 'abbreviation'.

1802 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1804 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

1805 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

1806 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

1807 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

1808 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

1809 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

1810 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

1811 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

1813 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

1815 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

1816 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

1817 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

1818 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

1819 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

1820 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

1822 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

1823 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

1824 "A = B" (with priority 50).

1826 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

1827 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

1828 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

1829 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1831 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

1833 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

1834 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1836 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

1837 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

1839 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

1840 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

1841 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

1843 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

1844 True/False.

1846 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

1848 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

1850 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

1851 ``rule'' method.

1853 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

1854 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

1855 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

1856 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

1858 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

1859 zChaff is still supported as well.

1861 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

1862 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

1864 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

1865 Library.

1867 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

1869 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

1870 as greatest fixed-point.

1872 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

1873 association lists.

1875 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

1876 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

1877 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

1879 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

1880 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

1881 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1882 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

1883 behavior.

1885 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

1887 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

1888 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

1889 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

1890 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

1891 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

1892 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

1894 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

1895 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

1896 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

1897 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

1898 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

1899 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

1900 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

1902 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

1903 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

1905 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

1906 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

1907 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

1908 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

1909 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

1912 *** HOL-Complex ***

1914 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

1915 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

1916 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

1917 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

1918 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1920 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

1921 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

1922 and norm :: 'a => real.

1924 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

1925 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

1926 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1928 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

1929 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

1931 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

1932 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

1933 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

1934 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1936 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1937 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1938 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1939 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

1940 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1941 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1942 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1943 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1944 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1945 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1946 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

1947 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1948 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

1949 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

1950 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

1952 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

1953 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

1954 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

1955 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1957 approx <-- capprox

1958 HFinite <-- CFinite

1959 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

1960 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

1961 monad <-- cmonad

1962 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

1963 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

1964 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

1965 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

1968 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1970 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

1972 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

1973 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1975 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

1976 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1978 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

1979 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

1980 of algebraic structures.

1982 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

1985 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1987 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

1988 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

1989 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

1990 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

1993 *** ML ***

1995 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

1996 (even on SML/NJ).

1998 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

1999 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

2000 compile-time. For example:

2002 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

2003 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

2004 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

2005 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

2006 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

2007 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

2008 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

2009 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

2010 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

2011 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

2012 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

2013 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

2014 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

2015 ML {* @{context} *}

2016 ML {* @{theory} *}

2017 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

2018 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

2019 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

2020 ML {* @{simpset} *}

2021 ML {* @{claset} *}

2022 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

2024 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

2026 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

2027 ML_Context.trace enabled.

2029 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

2030 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

2031 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

2033 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

2034 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

2036 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

2037 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

2038 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

2040 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

2041 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

2042 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

2043 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

2044 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

2045 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

2046 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

2047 declarations and definitions.

2049 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

2050 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

2051 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

2052 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

2054 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

2055 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

2056 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

2057 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2059 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

2060 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

2061 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

2062 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

2063 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

2064 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

2066 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

2067 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

2068 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

2069 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

2070 attributes, methods, etc.

2072 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

2073 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

2074 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

2075 fold_map combinators.

2077 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

2078 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

2079 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

2080 derivation.

2082 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

2083 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

2084 achieve the old behaviour.

2086 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

2087 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

2088 statements.

2090 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

2091 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

2092 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

2094 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

2095 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

2096 some popular functions from term.ML:

2098 Term.variant -> Name.variant

2099 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

2100 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

2102 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

2103 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

2105 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

2106 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

2107 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

2108 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

2109 various freeze_thaw operations.

2111 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

2112 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

2113 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

2114 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

2115 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

2116 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

2117 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

2118 in a locale context).

2120 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

2121 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

2122 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

2123 which are considered legacy and await removal.

2125 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

2126 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

2127 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

2128 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

2129 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

2130 a mere theory instead of a full context.

2132 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

2133 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

2134 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

2135 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

2136 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

2138 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

2140 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

2141 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

2142 this:

2144 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

2146 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

2147 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

2148 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

2149 -- use plain ERROR instead.

2151 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

2152 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

2154 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

2155 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

2157 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

2158 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

2159 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

2160 batch mode.

2162 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

2163 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

2164 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

2165 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2167 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

2168 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

2169 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

2170 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

2171 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

2173 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

2174 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

2175 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

2176 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

2177 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

2178 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

2180 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

2181 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

2182 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

2183 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2185 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

2186 "Trueprop" etc.

2189 *** System ***

2191 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

2192 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

2193 Isabelle installations.

2195 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

2196 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

2197 code.

2199 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

2201 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

2202 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

2203 independent theories, according to the given theory header

2204 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

2205 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

2206 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

2207 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

2208 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

2209 Implementation manual.

2213 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

2214 ----------------------------------

2216 *** General ***

2218 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

2220 theory <name>

2221 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

2222 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

2223 begin

2225 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

2227 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

2229 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

2230 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

2231 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

2233 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

2234 relative and absolute paths.

2236 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

2237 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

2238 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

2239 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

2240 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

2241 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

2242 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

2243 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

2244 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

2246 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

2248 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

2249 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

2250 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

2252 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

2253 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

2255 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

2256 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

2257 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

2258 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

2260 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

2261 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

2263 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

2264 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

2265 faster.

2268 *** Document preparation ***

2270 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

2271 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

2272 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

2273 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

2274 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

2275 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

2277 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

2278 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

2279 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

2280 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

2281 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

2282 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

2283 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

2284 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

2285 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

2286 \isadroptag.

2288 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

2289 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

2290 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

2291 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

2292 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

2293 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

2294 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

2295 specified above.

2297 * Several new antiquotations:

2299 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

2301 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

2303 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

2304 argument is a known logical constant;

2306 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

2307 theorem applying a "style" to it

2309 @{ML text}

2311 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

2312 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

2313 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

2314 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

2315 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

2316 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

2317 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

2319 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

2320 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

2321 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

2322 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

2324 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

2325 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

2326 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

2328 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

2329 a proof context.

2331 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

2332 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

2334 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

2335 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

2337 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

2338 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

2339 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

2342 *** Pure ***

2344 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

2345 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

2346 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

2347 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

2348 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

2349 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

2350 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

2352 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

2353 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

2354 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

2355 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

2356 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

2357 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

2358 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

2359 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

2361 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

2362 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

2363 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

2365 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

2366 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

2367 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

2369 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

2370 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

2371 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

2372 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

2373 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2375 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

2376 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

2377 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

2378 axclasses vs. locales.

2380 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

2381 instead of base 26 numbers.

2383 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

2384 marks in schematic variable names.

2386 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

2387 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

2388 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

2390 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

2391 by simp

2393 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

2395 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

2396 annotations as "(00...)".

2398 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

2399 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

2400 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

2401 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

2402 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

2403 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

2404 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

2406 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

2407 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

2408 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

2409 specifications.

2411 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

2412 locally fixed variables as well.

2414 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

2415 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

2416 Limit.

2418 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

2419 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

2420 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

2421 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

2422 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

2423 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

2424 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

2426 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

2427 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

2428 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

2430 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2432 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

2433 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

2434 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

2435 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

2436 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

2437 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

2439 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

2440 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

2442 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

2443 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

2444 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

2446 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

2448 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

2449 theory development.

2451 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

2452 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

2453 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

2454 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

2456 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

2457 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

2458 quoted when used as identifier.

2461 *** Locales ***

2463 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

2464 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

2465 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

2466 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

2467 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

2468 commands is a follows:

2470 (1) interpretation expr inst

2471 (2) interpretation target < expr

2472 (3) interpret expr inst

2474 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

2475 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

2476 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

2477 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

2478 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

2479 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

2480 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

2481 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

2482 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

2483 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

2485 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

2486 'interpret' instead.

2488 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

2489 parameters.

2491 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

2492 redeclaration.

2494 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

2496 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

2497 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

2498 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

2499 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

2500 to attribute arguments as expected.

2502 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

2503 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

2504 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

2505 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

2506 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

2507 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

2508 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

2509 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

2510 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

2511 values to argument tokens explicitly.

2513 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

2514 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

2515 theorem statement in rare situations.

2517 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

2518 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

2521 *** Provers ***

2523 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

2524 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

2525 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

2526 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

2527 still available as 'simplesubst'.

2529 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

2530 and quasi orders.

2532 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

2533 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

2535 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

2536 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

2538 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

2539 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

2540 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2543 *** HOL ***

2545 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

2547 syntax (epsilon)

2548 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

2550 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

2551 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

2552 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

2553 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2555 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

2556 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

2557 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

2558 support corresponding Isar calculations.

2560 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

2561 instead of ":".

2563 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

2565 Old New

2566 {..n(} {..<n}

2567 {)n..} {n<..}

2568 {m..n(} {m..<n}

2569 {)m..n} {m<..n}

2570 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

2572 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

2573 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

2574 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

2576 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

2577 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

2579 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

2580 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

2581 interface.

2583 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

2584 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

2585 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

2586 be a tuple pattern.

2588 Some new syntax forms are available:

2590 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

2591 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

2592 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

2593 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

2595 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

2596 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

2598 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

2599 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

2600 (insert F x)'.

2602 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

2603 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

2604 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

2606 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

2607 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

2608 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

2610 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

2611 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

2612 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

2613 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

2614 in unstructured proof scripts.

2616 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

2617 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

2618 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

2619 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

2620 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

2621 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

2622 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

2623 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

2624 <record_name>_ext_type.

2626 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

2627 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

2628 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

2629 quite long.

2631 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

2632 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

2633 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

2634 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

2636 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

2637 type-variables in the term.

2639 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

2640 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

2641 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2642 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

2643 goals than previously.

2645 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

2646 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

2647 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

2648 just like y <= x.

2650 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

2651 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

2652 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

2653 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

2654 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

2655 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

2656 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

2658 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

2660 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

2661 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

2663 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

2664 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

2665 inequalities.

2667 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2668 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2670 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

2671 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

2672 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

2673 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

2674 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

2675 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

2676 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

2677 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

2678 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

2679 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

2680 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

2682 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

2684 zero_le_square

2685 not_square_less_zero

2687 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

2689 realpow_zero_zero

2690 realpow_two

2691 realpow_less

2692 zero_le_power

2693 realpow_two_le

2694 abs_realpow_two

2695 realpow_two_abs

2697 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

2699 * Theory List:

2701 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2702 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2704 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

2705 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

2706 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

2707 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

2709 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

2710 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

2713 *** HOL-Complex ***

2715 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

2716 integers in the reals.

2718 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2719 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2721 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

2722 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2723 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2724 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2725 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2727 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

2729 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

2731 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

2732 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

2734 hypreal = real star

2735 hypnat = nat star

2736 hcomplex = complex star

2738 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

2739 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2741 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

2743 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

2744 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

2745 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

2746 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

2747 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

2749 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2750 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

2751 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

2752 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

2753 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

2755 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

2756 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2758 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

2759 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

2760 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

2761 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

2762 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

2763 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

2764 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

2765 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

2766 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

2767 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

2768 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

2769 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

2770 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

2771 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

2772 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

2773 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

2774 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

2775 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

2776 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

2777 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

2778 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

2779 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

2780 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

2781 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

2783 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

2784 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

2785 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2787 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

2788 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

2789 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

2790 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

2791 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

2792 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

2793 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

2794 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

2795 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

2796 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

2797 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

2798 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

2799 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

2800 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

2801 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

2802 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

2803 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

2804 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

2805 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

2806 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

2807 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

2808 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

2809 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

2810 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2811 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2812 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

2813 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

2814 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

2815 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

2816 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

2817 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

2818 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

2819 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

2820 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

2821 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

2822 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

2823 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

2824 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

2825 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

2826 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

2827 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

2828 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

2829 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

2830 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

2831 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

2832 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

2833 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

2834 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

2835 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

2836 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

2837 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

2838 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

2839 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

2840 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

2842 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

2843 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

2844 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

2845 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

2846 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

2847 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

2848 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

2849 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

2850 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

2851 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

2852 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

2854 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

2855 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

2856 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

2857 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

2858 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

2859 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

2860 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

2861 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

2862 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

2863 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

2864 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

2865 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

2866 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

2867 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

2868 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

2869 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

2870 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

2871 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

2872 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

2873 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

2874 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

2876 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

2877 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

2878 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

2879 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

2880 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

2881 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

2883 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

2886 *** HOLCF ***

2888 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

2889 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

2890 type-inference.

2892 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

2893 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

2894 instead of exponential time).

2896 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

2897 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

2899 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

2901 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

2902 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

2903 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

2904 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

2905 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2906 syntax and examples.

2908 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

2909 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

2910 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

2911 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

2912 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

2914 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

2915 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2917 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

2918 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

2919 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

2920 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

2921 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

2922 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

2925 *** ZF ***

2927 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

2928 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

2929 of a homomorphism).

2931 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

2932 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

2933 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

2936 *** Cube ***

2938 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

2939 theories.

2942 *** ML ***

2944 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

2945 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

2947 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

2948 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

2949 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

2950 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

2951 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

2953 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

2954 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

2955 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

2956 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

2958 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

2959 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

2960 suggests how one can translate existing code:

2962 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

2963 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

2964 last_elem xs = List.last xs

2965 flat xss = List.concat xss

2966 seq fs = List.app fs

2967 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

2968 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

2970 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

2971 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

2973 x |> f f #> g

2974 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

2976 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

2978 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

2979 infix 2 ?;

2980 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

2981 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

2983 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

2984 infix operators.

2986 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

2987 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

2988 example:

2990 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

2991 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

2993 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

2994 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

2996 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

2997 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

2999 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

3000 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

3002 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

3003 available:

3005 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

3006 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

3007 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

3008 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

3010 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3011 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

3012 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

3013 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

3014 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

3016 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

3017 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

3018 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

3020 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3022 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

3023 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

3025 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

3026 Naive rewrites:

3028 make_keylist = AList.make

3029 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

3031 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

3032 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

3034 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

3035 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

3037 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

3038 Naive rewrites:

3040 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

3041 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

3043 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

3044 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

3045 lists.

3047 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

3048 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

3049 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

3050 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

3052 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

3053 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

3054 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

3055 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

3056 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

3057 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

3058 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

3059 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

3060 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

3061 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

3062 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

3063 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

3064 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

3065 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

3066 Output.raw have no effect.

3068 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

3069 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

3070 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

3072 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

3073 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

3074 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

3075 internal and external process view of file names are different.

3077 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

3078 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

3079 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

3080 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

3081 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

3082 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

3083 Library.sort_strings on result).

3085 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

3086 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

3087 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

3088 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

3090 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

3091 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

3092 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

3093 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

3094 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

3095 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

3096 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

3097 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

3098 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

3099 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

3100 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

3102 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

3103 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

3104 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

3105 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

3106 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

3107 with earlier declarations.

3109 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

3110 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

3111 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3113 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

3114 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

3115 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

3116 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

3117 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

3118 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

3120 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

3121 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

3123 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

3124 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

3126 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

3127 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

3128 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

3129 Theory.merge, etc.)

3131 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

3132 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

3133 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

3135 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

3137 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

3138 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

3139 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

3140 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

3142 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

3143 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

3144 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

3145 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

3146 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

3147 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

3148 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

3149 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

3151 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

3152 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

3153 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3155 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

3156 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

3157 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

3159 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

3160 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

3162 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3163 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3164 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3165 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3167 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

3169 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

3170 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

3171 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

3172 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

3173 (both increase the runtime).

3175 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

3176 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

3177 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

3179 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

3180 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

3181 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

3182 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

3183 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

3184 for further details.

3186 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

3187 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

3188 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

3189 scripts for the time being.

3191 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

3192 generated HTML files. For example:

3194 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

3195 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

3198 *** System ***

3200 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

3201 isabelle, isatool etc.).

3203 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

3204 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

3206 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

3207 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

3209 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

3210 distribution being used.

3212 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

3213 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

3214 theories.

3218 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

3219 --------------------------------

3221 *** General ***

3223 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

3224 Replaces linorder.ML.

3226 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

3227 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

3228 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

3229 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

3230 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

3231 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

3232 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

3233 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

3234 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

3235 existing theory and ML files.

3237 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

3239 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

3240 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

3241 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

3242 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

3244 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

3245 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

3246 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

3247 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

3249 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

3250 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

3251 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

3253 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

3254 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

3255 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

3256 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

3257 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

3259 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

3260 (i.e. intersections of classes),

3262 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

3263 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

3264 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

3267 *** Isar ***

3269 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

3270 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

3271 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

3272 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

3273 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

3274 emulations.

3275 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

3276 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

3277 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

3279 * Attributes "where" and "of":

3280 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

3281 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

3282 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

3283 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

3285 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

3286 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

3287 and derived forms.

3289 * Locales:

3290 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

3291 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

3292 "_axioms") in the premise.

3293 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

3294 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

3295 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

3296 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

3297 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

3298 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

3299 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

3300 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

3301 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

3302 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

3303 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

3304 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

3305 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

3306 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

3307 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

3308 with "locale (open)".

3309 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

3311 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

3312 (Isar) contexts.

3315 *** HOL ***

3317 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

3318 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

3319 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

3320 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

3321 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

3323 * Simplifier:

3324 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

3325 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

3326 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

3327 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

3328 to solve goals from the assumptions.

3329 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

3330 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

3331 is solved by simplification already.

3333 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

3334 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

3336 * Numerics:

3337 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

3338 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

3339 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

3340 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

3341 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

3342 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

3343 exponentiation).

3345 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

3347 * Records:

3348 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

3349 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

3350 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

3351 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

3352 (not enabled by default).

3353 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

3354 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

3355 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

3357 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

3358 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

3359 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

3361 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

3363 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

3365 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

3366 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

3368 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

3369 matrix theory to linear programming.

3371 * Unions and Intersections:

3372 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

3373 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

3374 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

3375 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

3377 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

3378 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

3379 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

3380 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

3382 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

3383 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

3385 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

3386 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

3388 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

3389 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

3390 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

3392 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

3393 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

3394 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

3395 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

3396 for examples.

3399 *** HOLCF ***

3401 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

3405 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

3406 ------------------------------

3408 *** General ***

3410 * Provers/simplifier:

3412 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

3413 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

3414 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

3415 the order of assumptions.

3417 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3419 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

3420 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

3422 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

3424 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

3426 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

3428 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

3429 kind of problem.

3431 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

3432 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

3433 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

3434 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

3435 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

3436 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

3437 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

3439 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

3441 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

3442 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

3443 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

3444 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

3445 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

3446 the simplifier would diverge.

3448 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

3450 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

3451 congruence is ignored.

3453 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

3454 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

3455 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

3457 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

3458 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

3459 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

3460 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

3462 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

3463 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

3464 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

3465 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

3466 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

3467 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

3468 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

3470 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

3471 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

3472 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

3473 assumption failed.

3475 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

3476 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

3477 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

3478 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

3479 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

3480 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

3481 on the old view without predicates;

3483 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

3484 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

3485 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

3487 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

3488 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

3489 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

3490 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

3491 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

3492 be given (the default is 40);

3494 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

3495 (batch-mode only);

3497 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

3498 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

3499 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

3501 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

3502 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

3503 for slight decrease in efficiency;

3505 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

3506 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

3508 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

3509 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

3512 *** HOL ***

3514 * arith(_tac)

3516 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

3517 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

3518 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

3519 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

3521 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

3523 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

3524 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

3525 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

3527 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

3528 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

3530 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

3531 are distributed over a sum of terms;

3533 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

3534 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

3535 "<=", "<" and "=").

3537 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

3538 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

3540 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

3541 definition;

3543 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

3544 Finite_Set);

3546 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

3547 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

3549 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

3550 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

3552 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

3553 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

3554 of the empty set.

3556 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

3557 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

3558 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

3559 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

3561 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

3563 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

3564 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

3565 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

3567 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

3569 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

3570 Fleuriot);

3572 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

3574 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

3575 Gray and Kramer);

3577 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

3579 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

3580 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

3582 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

3583 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

3584 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

3585 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

3586 assignment, exceptions.

3589 *** ZF ***

3591 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

3592 universe, etc.);

3594 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

3597 *** ML ***

3599 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

3600 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

3601 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

3603 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

3605 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

3606 up simprocs;

3609 *** Document preparation ***

3611 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

3612 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

3613 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

3615 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

3616 other packages

3618 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

3619 broke \Rightarrow)

3621 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

3622 textcomp package)

3626 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

3627 --------------------------------

3629 *** Document preparation ***

3631 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

3632 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

3633 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

3634 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

3635 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

3636 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

3638 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

3639 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

3640 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

3642 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

3643 blocks after section headings;

3645 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

3646 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

3648 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

3649 better in printed text;

3651 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

3652 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

3653 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

3655 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

3656 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

3657 location;

3660 *** Isar ***

3662 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

3663 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

3664 "case (Suc n)");

3665 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

3666 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

3667 instantiation of cases;

3668 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

3669 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

3670 rules without further ado;

3671 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

3672 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

3673 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

3674 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

3675 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

3676 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

3677 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

3678 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

3679 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

3680 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

3681 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

3682 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

3683 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

3684 below);

3685 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

3686 success (no backtracking);

3687 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

3688 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

3689 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

3690 General versions);

3691 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

3692 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

3694 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

3695 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

3696 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

3697 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

3698 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

3699 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

3700 fails:

3702 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

3704 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

3705 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

3707 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

3708 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

3709 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

3710 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

3711 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

3712 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

3713 some examples;

3715 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

3716 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

3717 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

3718 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

3719 qualified by the locale name);

3721 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

3722 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

3723 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

3724 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

3725 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

3727 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

3728 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

3729 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

3730 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

3731 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

3733 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

3735 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

3736 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

3737 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

3739 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

3741 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

3743 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

3745 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

3746 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

3747 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

3749 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

3750 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

3751 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

3752 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

3753 proof *scripts*;

3755 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

3756 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

3757 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

3758 especially important for locales);

3760 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

3761 mode;

3763 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

3764 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

3765 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

3766 situations;

3768 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

3769 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

3771 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

3772 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

3773 discontinued;

3775 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

3776 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

3777 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

3779 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

3780 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

3781 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

3782 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

3783 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

3784 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

3785 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3787 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

3788 of introduction rules;

3790 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

3791 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

3792 conditional rules;

3794 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

3796 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

3797 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

3799 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

3800 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

3802 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

3803 wf_induct_rule;

3806 *** HOL ***

3808 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

3809 follows:

3811 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

3812 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

3814 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

3815 binary representation internally;

3817 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

3818 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

3820 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

3821 are some hints on converting existing sources:

3823 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

3824 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

3825 to be spaced properly;

3827 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

3828 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

3830 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

3832 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

3834 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

3835 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

3837 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

3839 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

3840 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

3841 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

3842 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

3843 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

3845 * HOL/record package improvements:

3846 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

3847 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

3848 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

3849 declared as simp by default;

3850 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

3851 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

3852 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

3853 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3854 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3855 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

3856 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

3857 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

3858 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

3859 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

3861 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

3862 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

3863 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

3864 via 'generate_code' theory section;

3866 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

3868 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

3869 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

3870 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

3872 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

3873 (beware of argument permutation!);

3875 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

3877 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

3879 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

3880 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3881 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

3883 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

3884 in this (rare) case use:

3886 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

3887 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

3889 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

3890 MAY FAIL;

3892 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

3893 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

3894 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

3895 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

3897 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

3898 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

3899 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

3901 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

3902 expressions;

3904 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

3905 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3907 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3908 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

3909 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

3911 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

3913 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

3914 the "cases" method);

3916 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

3917 Florian Kammller);

3919 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

3920 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

3921 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

3923 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

3925 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

3928 *** HOLCF ***

3930 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

3931 operations;

3933 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

3934 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

3936 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

3937 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

3938 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

3940 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

3943 *** ZF ***

3945 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

3946 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

3947 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

3948 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

3950 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

3951 your theory on Main_ZFC;

3953 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

3954 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

3956 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

3957 typeless version of the formalism;

3959 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

3960 format;

3962 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

3963 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

3964 new-style theory format;

3966 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

3969 *** General ***

3971 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

3972 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

3973 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

3974 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

3976 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

3977 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

3979 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

3980 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

3981 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

3982 properly;

3984 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

3985 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

3987 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

3988 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

3989 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

3990 type variable);

3992 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

3993 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

3994 "type_brackets";

3996 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

3997 tokens into AST constants;

3999 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

4000 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

4001 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

4003 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

4004 practice);

4006 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

4007 addSafter;

4009 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

4010 as well;

4012 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

4013 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

4014 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

4015 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

4016 support requires further installations, e.g. from

4017 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

4019 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

4021 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

4022 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

4024 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

4025 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

4027 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

4028 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

4029 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

4031 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

4032 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

4033 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

4034 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

4035 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

4037 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

4038 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

4039 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

4040 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

4042 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

4043 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

4044 terminal);

4048 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

4049 -----------------------------------

4051 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4053 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

4054 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

4055 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

4057 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

4058 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

4059 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

4060 'split_rule (complete)';

4062 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

4063 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

4065 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

4067 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

4068 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

4069 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

4071 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

4072 operation;

4074 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

4076 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

4078 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

4079 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

4080 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

4082 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

4083 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

4086 *** Document preparation ***

4088 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

4089 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

4090 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

4091 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

4092 type-writer);

4094 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

4095 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

4097 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

4098 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

4100 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

4101 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

4102 definitions);

4104 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

4105 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

4106 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

4107 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

4109 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

4110 fonts;

4112 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

4113 generation;

4115 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

4118 *** Isar ***

4120 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

4121 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

4122 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

4123 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

4124 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

4126 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

4127 rules as well;

4129 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

4130 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

4131 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

4132 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

4134 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

4135 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

4137 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

4138 statements as well;

4140 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

4142 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

4143 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

4145 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

4146 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

4148 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

4150 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

4152 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

4153 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

4155 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

4156 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

4157 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

4159 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

4160 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

4161 the result to be shown in each case;

4163 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

4165 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

4168 *** HOL ***

4170 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

4171 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

4172 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

4173 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

4174 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

4176 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

4177 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

4178 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

4180 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

4181 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

4182 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

4183 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

4184 literature;

4186 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

4187 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

4188 operator \<Sum>;

4190 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

4191 HOL/subset.thy);

4193 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

4194 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

4195 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

4197 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

4198 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

4200 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

4201 rules with string literals);

4203 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

4204 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

4205 functions for the reals;

4207 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

4210 *** CTT ***

4212 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

4213 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

4215 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

4216 and Arith);

4219 *** General ***

4221 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

4222 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

4223 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

4224 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

4226 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

4227 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

4229 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

4230 as assumptions as well;

4232 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

4234 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

4238 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

4239 ----------------------------------

4241 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4243 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

4244 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

4245 issue the following ML commands:

4247 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

4248 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

4250 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

4251 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

4253 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

4255 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

4256 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

4258 select_equality -> some_equality

4259 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

4260 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

4261 selectI2 -> someI2

4262 selectI -> someI

4263 select1_equality -> some1_equality

4264 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

4265 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

4267 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

4269 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

4270 instead);

4272 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

4273 f.simps instead of f.rules;

4275 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

4277 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

4278 sometimes be needed;

4280 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

4282 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

4284 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

4285 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

4286 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

4288 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

4289 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

4291 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

4292 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

4294 syntax (symbols)

4295 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

4296 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

4298 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4300 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

4301 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

4302 internally;

4304 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

4305 changed from A/r to A//r;

4307 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

4308 proofs;

4310 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

4311 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

4313 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4314 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

4315 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

4316 "rule del";

4318 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

4320 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

4322 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

4323 lib/texinputs);

4326 *** Document preparation ***

4328 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

4329 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

4330 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

4331 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

4333 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

4334 including proper document sources;

4336 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

4337 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

4338 of isatool usedir;

4340 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

4341 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

4342 LaTeX debugging;

4344 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

4346 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

4347 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

4348 graph for 'all sessions';

4350 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

4351 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

4352 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

4355 *** Isar ***

4357 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

4358 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

4359 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

4361 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

4362 generalized existence reasoning;

4364 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

4365 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

4366 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

4367 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

4368 premises;

4370 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

4371 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

4372 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

4373 to theorems as "tags";

4375 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

4376 class/type/const name spaces;

4378 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

4379 indicate potential overloading;

4381 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

4383 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

4384 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

4386 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

4387 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

4388 with the version in Provers/classical;

4390 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

4391 case name 'antecedent';

4393 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

4394 to the current context is now done automatically);

4396 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

4397 for definining proof methods in ML;

4399 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4400 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

4401 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

4402 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

4404 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

4405 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

4407 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

4408 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

4409 well (including splits);

4411 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

4412 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

4414 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

4415 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

4417 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

4418 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

4419 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

4421 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

4422 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

4423 calculations;

4425 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

4426 method anyway;

4428 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

4429 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

4430 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

4432 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

4433 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

4434 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

4435 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

4437 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

4439 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

4441 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

4442 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

4443 proof states;

4445 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

4446 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

4447 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

4449 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

4450 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

4451 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

4452 (for HOL datatypes);

4454 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

4455 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

4456 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

4458 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

4460 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

4461 should instead use individual commands for printing items

4462 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

4464 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

4467 *** HOL ***

4469 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

4470 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

4471 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

4472 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

4473 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

4474 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

4476 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

4477 Clemens Ballarin;

4479 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

4480 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

4481 Rasmussen;

4483 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

4484 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

4485 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

4486 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

4487 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

4488 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

4490 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

4491 von Oheimb;

4493 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

4494 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

4496 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

4498 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

4499 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

4500 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

4502 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

4503 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

4504 well; admit "r" as field name;

4506 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

4507 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

4509 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

4510 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

4512 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

4513 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

4514 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

4515 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

4516 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

4517 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

4518 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

4520 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

4521 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

4522 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

4524 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

4525 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

4526 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

4528 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

4529 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

4530 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

4531 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

4532 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

4534 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

4535 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

4536 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

4537 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

4538 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

4539 each equation;

4541 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

4542 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

4543 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

4544 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

4546 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

4547 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

4549 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

4551 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

4552 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

4553 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

4555 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4557 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

4558 main HOL, but was unused);

4560 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

4561 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

4563 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

4564 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

4565 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

4566 bogus);

4569 *** ZF ***

4571 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

4572 expressions over nat and int;

4574 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

4575 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

4576 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

4578 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

4579 using the function intify;

4581 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

4582 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

4584 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

4585 simplification;

4587 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

4588 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4591 *** General ***

4593 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

4594 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

4596 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

4597 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

4599 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

4600 explicit make_elim);

4602 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

4603 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4604 use instead the strong form,

4605 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4606 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

4607 from destruct-rules;

4609 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

4610 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

4612 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

4614 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

4615 for hiding of names;

4617 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

4618 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

4619 situations;

4621 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

4622 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

4623 Poly/ML);

4625 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

4626 useful for remote X11);

4628 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

4630 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

4631 order;

4633 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

4634 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

4636 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

4637 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

4639 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

4640 overloading (usually false);

4642 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

4643 results;

4647 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

4648 --------------------------------

4650 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4652 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

4653 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

4654 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

4656 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

4658 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

4659 complement;

4661 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

4663 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

4664 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

4666 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4667 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4669 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

4670 to constants declared in the same theory;

4672 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

4673 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

4674 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

4676 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4678 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

4679 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

4680 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

4681 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

4682 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

4683 where the string argument is only a comment.

4686 *** Proof tools ***

4688 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

4689 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

4690 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

4691 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

4693 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

4694 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

4695 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

4696 matching.

4699 *** General ***

4701 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

4702 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

4703 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

4704 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

4705 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

4706 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

4708 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

4709 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

4710 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

4711 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

4712 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

4714 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

4715 Isabelle/Isar;

4717 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

4718 using the graph browser tool;

4720 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

4722 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

4723 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

4724 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

4725 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

4726 isatool doc ref);

4728 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

4729 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

4731 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

4732 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

4734 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

4735 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

4736 Isabelle;

4738 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

4740 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

4741 empty;

4743 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

4744 long arrows);

4746 * new print_mode "HTML";

4748 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

4749 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

4751 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

4752 mode and goal output format:

4754 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

4755 244c244

4756 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

4757 ---

4758 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

4759 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

4760 181c181

4761 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

4762 ---

4763 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

4765 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

4767 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

4769 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

4770 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

4771 result still apply;

4773 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

4774 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

4777 *** HOL ***

4779 ** HOL arithmetic **

4781 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

4782 int:

4784 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

4785 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

4786 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

4787 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

4788 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

4789 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

4790 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

4791 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

4793 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

4794 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

4795 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

4796 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

4797 simplifier.

4799 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

4800 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

4801 int(m) < int(n)'.

4803 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

4804 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

4805 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

4806 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

4807 type constraints;

4809 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

4810 arguments;

4812 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

4813 are now available;

4815 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

4816 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

4817 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

4818 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

4819 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

4820 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

4822 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

4825 ** HOL misc **

4827 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

4828 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

4830 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

4831 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

4833 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

4834 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

4835 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

4836 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

4838 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

4839 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

4840 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

4841 "mono" attribute);

4843 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

4844 (using function types) such as

4846 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

4848 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

4849 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

4850 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

4851 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

4853 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

4854 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

4856 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4857 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4859 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

4860 names rather than an ML expression;

4862 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

4863 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

4864 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

4865 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

4867 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4868 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

4869 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

4871 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

4872 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

4873 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

4875 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

4876 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

4878 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

4879 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

4880 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

4882 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

4884 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

4885 thus available for user theories;

4887 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

4888 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

4889 time;

4891 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

4892 several times and then mp;

4895 *** LK ***

4897 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

4898 formulas;

4900 * the simplifier is now installed

4902 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

4904 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

4907 *** ZF ***

4909 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

4910 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4912 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

4913 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4915 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

4917 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

4918 constructors;

4920 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

4921 type-checking rules;

4923 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

4924 to the claset;

4926 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

4927 if(P,x,y);

4930 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4932 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

4934 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

4935 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

4937 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

4939 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

4940 printing empty lines;

4942 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

4943 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

4944 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

4945 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

4947 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

4948 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

4949 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

4951 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

4952 now of type real instead of int;

4954 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

4955 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

4956 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

4957 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

4959 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

4960 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

4961 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

4962 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

4963 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

4967 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

4968 ----------------------------------

4970 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4972 * several changes of automated proof tools;

4974 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

4975 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

4977 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

4978 called `inj_on';

4980 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

4981 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

4982 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

4984 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

4985 required);

4987 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

4988 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

4989 now taken as an integer constant.

4991 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

4994 *** Proof tools ***

4996 * Simplifier:

4997 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

4998 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

4999 simplify.

5000 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

5001 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

5002 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

5003 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

5004 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

5006 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

5007 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

5008 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

5009 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

5010 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

5011 one (emitting a warning).

5012 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

5013 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

5014 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

5015 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

5016 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

5018 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

5019 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

5020 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

5021 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

5022 by Force_tac;

5024 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

5025 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

5027 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

5028 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

5029 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

5030 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

5031 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

5032 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

5033 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

5034 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

5035 split_all_tac for record fields.

5037 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

5038 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

5039 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

5040 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

5042 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

5043 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

5044 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

5045 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

5046 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

5047 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

5048 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

5049 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

5050 t is the name of the datatype).

5052 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

5053 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

5054 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

5055 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

5058 *** General ***

5060 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

5061 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

5062 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

5063 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

5064 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

5065 (backup your sources first!);

5067 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

5068 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

5070 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

5071 definitions that have local scope;

5073 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

5075 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

5076 (e.g. package initialization);

5078 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

5079 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

5081 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

5082 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

5084 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

5086 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

5088 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

5090 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

5093 *** HOL ***

5095 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

5097 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

5098 definitions such as

5100 inductive EVEN ODD

5101 intrs

5102 null "0 : EVEN"

5103 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

5104 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

5106 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

5107 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

5108 correctly (also ZF);

5110 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

5111 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

5112 contained in "induct";

5115 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

5116 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

5118 datatype

5119 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5120 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5121 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5122 | NUM 'a

5123 and

5124 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5125 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5126 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5128 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

5130 datatype

5131 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

5132 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

5134 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

5135 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

5137 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

5138 <function_name>.simps.

5140 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5142 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

5143 ancestor.

5144 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

5145 generic induct_tac instead.

5146 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

5147 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

5148 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

5149 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

5150 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

5151 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

5152 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

5153 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

5154 sort constraints.

5155 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

5156 of recursive argument.

5158 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

5159 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

5162 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

5163 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

5164 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

5165 support is as follows:

5167 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

5168 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

5170 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

5171 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

5173 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

5174 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

5176 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

5177 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

5178 the name of your record type.

5180 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

5182 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

5184 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

5185 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

5186 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

5187 solve record problems automatically.

5190 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

5191 default; theory Main includes everything;

5193 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

5195 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

5197 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

5199 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

5201 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

5202 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

5203 with add/delsplits);

5205 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

5206 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

5207 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

5208 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

5209 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

5210 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

5211 %u.f();

5213 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

5214 makes more sense);

5216 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5217 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5218 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5220 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

5221 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

5222 literature);

5224 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

5225 the well-founded relation;

5227 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

5228 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

5229 release ONLY.

5231 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

5232 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

5233 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5235 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

5237 * HOL/List:

5238 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

5239 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

5240 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

5241 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

5242 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

5243 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

5245 * HOL/Arith:

5246 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

5247 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

5248 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

5249 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

5251 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

5252 instead of "inverse";

5254 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

5255 of the multiset ordering;

5257 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

5258 (not included by default);

5260 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

5262 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

5263 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

5265 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5266 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5267 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5270 *** ZF ***

5272 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

5273 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

5275 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5276 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5277 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5279 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

5280 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

5281 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5283 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

5285 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5286 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5287 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5289 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

5290 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

5293 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5295 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

5296 also src/Pure/README;

5298 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

5299 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

5300 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

5301 print_data function becomes basically useless;

5303 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

5304 are qualified by default;

5306 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

5307 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

5308 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

5310 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

5311 cterm -> thm;

5313 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

5314 subgoal;

5316 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

5318 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

5319 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

5320 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

5321 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

5322 for example;

5326 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

5327 --------------------------------

5329 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5331 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

5332 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

5334 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

5335 simpset / simpset_ref;

5337 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

5338 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

5340 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

5342 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

5345 *** General Changes ***

5347 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

5348 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

5349 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

5350 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

5351 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

5352 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

5353 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

5354 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

5355 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

5356 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

5357 section;

5359 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

5360 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

5361 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

5362 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

5363 to patch your ML files accordingly;

5365 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

5366 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

5367 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

5369 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

5370 conditional equations;

5372 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

5374 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

5375 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

5376 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

5377 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

5379 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

5380 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

5382 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

5383 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

5385 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

5386 show_types);

5388 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

5390 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

5392 * removed old README and Makefiles;

5394 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

5396 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

5398 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

5399 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

5401 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

5402 (which abbreviates $HOME);

5404 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

5405 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

5406 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

5408 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

5409 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

5412 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5414 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

5415 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

5416 splitting it into several subgoals;

5418 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

5421 *** Simplifier ***

5423 * added simplification meta rules:

5424 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

5426 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

5427 logics (again);

5429 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

5431 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

5432 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

5433 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

5436 *** Syntax ***

5438 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

5440 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

5442 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

5444 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

5447 *** HOL ***

5449 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5450 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5452 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

5454 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

5455 protocol TLS;

5457 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

5459 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

5460 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

5461 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

5462 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

5463 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

5464 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

5466 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

5467 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

5468 are rewritten to

5469 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

5470 and those of the form

5471 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

5472 are rewritten to

5473 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

5475 * HOL/datatype

5476 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

5478 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5479 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

5480 ...

5481 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5482 )

5484 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

5486 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5487 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

5488 ...

5489 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5490 )

5491 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

5492 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

5493 split_list_case and split_option_case.

5495 * HOL/Arithmetic:

5496 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

5497 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

5498 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

5499 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

5500 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

5501 `standard'.

5503 * HOL/Lists:

5504 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

5505 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

5506 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

5508 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

5510 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

5511 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

5513 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

5514 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

5515 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

5518 *** HOLCF ***

5520 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

5522 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

5523 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

5525 * domain package:

5526 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

5527 . creates hierachical name space,

5528 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

5529 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

5530 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

5531 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

5532 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

5533 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

5535 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

5537 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

5538 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

5541 *** FOL and ZF ***

5543 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5544 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5546 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

5547 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

5551 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

5552 ------------------------------

5554 *** General Changes ***

5556 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

5557 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

5559 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

5561 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

5563 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

5564 messages and clean internal interface;

5566 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

5567 setting goals_limit);

5570 *** Syntax ***

5572 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

5573 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

5575 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

5576 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

5577 "symbols" syntax table;

5579 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

5580 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

5581 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

5582 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

5583 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

5585 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

5586 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

5587 version of xterm);

5589 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

5591 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

5592 access type of constant);

5595 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5597 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

5598 some limitations. Blast_tac...

5599 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

5600 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

5601 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

5602 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

5603 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

5604 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

5605 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

5607 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

5608 assumptions;

5610 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

5611 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

5612 (and access functions for it);

5614 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

5615 + functions for handling clasimpsets

5616 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

5617 safe steps.

5618 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

5619 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

5620 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

5622 *** Simplifier ***

5624 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

5625 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

5626 redex);

5628 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

5630 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

5632 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

5633 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

5634 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

5635 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

5638 *** HOL ***

5640 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

5641 also for type `nat';

5643 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

5644 datatypes and also for type `nat';

5646 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

5648 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

5649 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

5651 * primrec now also works with type nat;

5653 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

5654 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

5656 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

5657 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

5659 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

5660 infinite lists;

5662 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

5664 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

5665 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

5667 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

5669 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

5671 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

5673 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

5675 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

5676 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

5677 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

5678 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

5679 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

5680 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

5681 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

5682 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

5683 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

5686 *** ZF ***

5688 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

5689 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

5690 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

5694 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

5695 ---------------------------------

5697 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

5699 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

5701 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

5702 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

5703 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

5704 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

5706 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

5708 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

5709 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

5711 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

5713 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

5714 examples on HOL/Auth);

5716 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

5717 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

5719 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

5720 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

5724 New in Isabelle94-6

5725 -------------------

5727 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

5728 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

5730 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

5732 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

5734 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

5736 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

5738 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

5742 New in Isabelle94-5

5743 -------------------

5745 * reduced space requirements;

5747 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

5749 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

5751 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

5753 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

5757 New in Isabelle94-4

5758 -------------------

5760 * greatly reduced space requirements;

5762 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

5764 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

5765 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

5767 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

5768 Axiom of Choice;

5770 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

5772 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

5773 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

5775 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

5777 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

5778 translates to the operator "split";

5782 New in Isabelle94-3

5783 -------------------

5785 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

5786 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

5787 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

5789 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

5790 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

5791 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

5793 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

5795 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

5796 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

5798 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

5799 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

5801 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

5802 of the Axiom of Choice;

5806 New in Isabelle94-2

5807 -------------------

5809 * Significantly faster resolution;

5811 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

5812 freely;

5814 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

5815 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

5817 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

5818 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

5819 (theory_of_thm);

5821 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

5823 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

5824 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

5826 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

5827 have been removed;

5829 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

5831 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

5833 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

5834 types;

5836 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72:

5839 $Id$