NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Jul 29 15:09:20 2013 +0200 (2013-07-29 ago)
changeset 52770 8c7cf864e270
parent 52746 eec610972763
child 52779 82707f95a783
permissions -rw-r--r--
pro-forma Goal.reset_futures, despite lack of final join/commit;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    10 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    11 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    12 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    13 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    14 
    15 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    16 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    17 
    18 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    19 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    20 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    21 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    22 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    23 presentation of theories.
    24 
    25 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    26 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    27 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    28 
    29 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    30 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    31 
    32 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    33 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    34 
    35 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    36 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    37 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    38 
    39 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    40 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    41 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    45 
    46 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancelation of
    47 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    48 such command executions while editing.
    49 
    50 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    51 document content.
    52 
    53 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    54 toplevel theorem statements.
    55 
    56 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    57 documentation.
    58 
    59 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    60 timing information.
    61 
    62 * Option to skip over proofs, using implicit 'sorry' internally.
    63 
    64 
    65 *** Pure ***
    66 
    67 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
    68 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
    69 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
    70 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    71 
    72 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
    73 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
    74 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    75 
    76 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
    77 Particulary, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
    78 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.
    79 See "isar-ref" manual for details.
    80 
    81 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
    82 
    83 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    84 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    85 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    86 
    87 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
    88 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    89 
    90 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
    91 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
    92 situations.
    93 
    94 
    95 *** HOL ***
    96 
    97 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code equations uniformly.
    98 Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract' to distinguish both when desired.
    99 
   100 * Code generator:
   101   * 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' / 'code_instance'.
   102   * 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in generated code,
   103     subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   104   See the Isar reference manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for examples.
   105 
   106 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   107   * Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   108   * Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for generated code.
   109   * Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   110   * Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   111   * Fact renames:
   112     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   113     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   114     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   115 IMCOMPATIBILTIY.
   116 
   117 * Reification and reflection:
   118   * Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure "Reification".
   119   * Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   120   * The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Weaker precendence of syntax for big intersection and union on sets,
   124 in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check
   127   phase rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators
   128   is separated from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   129   "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   130 
   131   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   132 
   133 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   134 
   135 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   136   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   137     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   138     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   139   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   140     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   141   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   142     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   143     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   144     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   145     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   146     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   147     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   148     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
   149   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   150     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   151   - Fact renames:
   152       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   153       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   154 
   155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   158 
   159 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.
   160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   161 
   162 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
   163 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
   164 
   165 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
   166 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
   167 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   168 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   169 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
   170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   173 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   174 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
   175 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   176 
   177 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a complete
   178   lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and bottom elements.
   179   Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and extended reals.
   180   Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation of
   181   conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   182   conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from Inf_...
   183   to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice lemmas.
   184 
   185   Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of conditionally-complete
   186   lattices and inner dense linorders which have more than one element.
   187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without top
   190   and bottom elements.
   191 
   192 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   193 
   194 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   195   HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   196 
   197  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   198    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   199    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   200 
   201  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   202    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   203    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   204 
   205    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   206    filter.
   207 
   208  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   209    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   210    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   211    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   212 
   213  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   214    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   215    linear_continuum_topology).
   216 
   217  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   218    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   219    all sequences converging to x.
   220 
   221  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   222    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   223    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   224    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   225 
   226  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   227 
   228      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   229 
   230  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   231    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   232 
   233  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   234    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   235    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   236    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   237    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   238    equivalence by the simplifier.
   239 
   240  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   241 
   242    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   243 
   244    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   245      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   246 
   247    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   248 
   249    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   250      Limits
   251 
   252    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   253 
   254    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   255 
   256  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   257 
   258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   261 
   262     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   263     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   264 
   265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266 
   267 * Sledgehammer:
   268 
   269   - Renamed option:
   270       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   271 
   272 * HOL-Spec_Check: a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle's ML environment.
   273   
   274   With HOL-Spec_Check, ML developers can check specifications with the
   275   ML function check_property. The specifications must be of the form
   276   "ALL x1 ... xn. Prop x1 ... xn". Simple examples are in
   277   src/HOL/Spec_Check/Examples.thy.
   278 
   279 
   280 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   281 
   282 * Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and .../poly.
   283 Existing theories should be based on src/HOL/Library/Polynomial
   284 instead.  The latter provides integration with HOL's type classes for
   285 rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 
   288 *** ML ***
   289 
   290 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   291 
   292     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   293     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   294 
   295 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   296 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   297 
   298 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   299 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   300 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   301 clasets separately from the context.
   302 
   303 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   304 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   305 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   306 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   307 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   308 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   309 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   310 
   311 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   312 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   313 
   314 
   315 *** System ***
   316 
   317 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   318 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   321 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   324 settings variable.
   325 
   326 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   327 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   328 always pdf.
   329 
   330 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   331 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   332 
   333 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   334 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   335 
   336 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   337 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   338 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   339 
   340 
   341 
   342 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   343 -----------------------------------
   344 
   345 *** General ***
   346 
   347 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   348 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   349 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   350 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   351 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   352 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   353 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   354 
   355 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   356 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   357 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   358 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   359 
   360 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   361 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   362 
   363 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   364 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   365 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   366 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   367 dependencies properly.
   368 
   369 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   370 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   371 
   372 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   373 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   374 
   375 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   376 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   377 and "class ... context ...".
   378 
   379 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   380 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   381 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   382 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   383 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   384 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   385 
   386 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   387 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   388 
   389 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   390 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   391 
   392 
   393 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   394 
   395 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   396 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   397 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   398 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   399 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   400 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   401 
   402 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   403 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   404 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   405 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   406 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   407 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   408 
   409 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   410 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   411 browser on demand.
   412 
   413 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   414 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   415 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   416 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   417 
   418 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   419 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   420 
   421 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   422 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   423 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   424 potentially infinite message streams.
   425 
   426 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   427 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   428 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   429 schemes.
   430 
   431 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   432 symbols.
   433 
   434 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   435 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   436 
   437 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   438 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   439 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   440 
   441 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   442 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   443 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   444 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   445 
   446 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   447 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   448 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   449 
   450 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   451 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   452 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   453 Isabelle distribution.
   454 
   455 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   456 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   457 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   458 
   459 
   460 *** Pure ***
   461 
   462 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   463 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   464 
   465 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   466 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   467 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   470 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   471 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   472 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   473 with some care where this is really required.
   474 
   475 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   476 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   477 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   478 
   479   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   480 
   481 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   482 a Hasse diagram.
   483 
   484 
   485 *** HOL ***
   486 
   487 * Sledgehammer:
   488 
   489   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   490     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   491   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   492   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   493   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   494   - Renamed options:
   495       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   496       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   497       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   498       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   499 
   500 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   501 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   502 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   503 
   504 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 * Lifting:
   508   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   509   - quot_del attribute
   510   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   511 
   512 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   513 expressions.
   514 
   515 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   516 pointfree expressions.
   517 
   518 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   519 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   520 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   521 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   523 
   524 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   525 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   526 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   527 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   528 accordingly.
   529 
   530 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   531 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   534 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   537 
   538 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   539 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   540 
   541 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   542 
   543 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   544 
   545   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   546   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   547 
   548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   549 
   550 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   551 
   552   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   553   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   554 
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   558 
   559   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   560     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   561     output f x converges to G.
   562 
   563   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   564     infinity (at_bot).
   565 
   566   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   567     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   568 
   569   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   570     at_top".
   571 
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   575 lattice type classes.
   576 
   577 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   578 
   579     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   580     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   581 
   582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   583 
   584 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   585 changes as follows.
   586 
   587   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   588 
   589       prefix ~> prefixeq
   590       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   591 
   592   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   593     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   594     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   595     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   596 
   597   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   598     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   599     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   600 
   601   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   602     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   603     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   604     Library/Prefix_Order.
   605 
   606   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   607     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   608 
   609       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   610       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   611       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   612       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   613       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   614       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   615       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   616       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   617       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   618       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   619       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   620       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   621       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   622       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   623       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   624       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   625 
   626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   629 
   630 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   631 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   632 
   633 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   634 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   635 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   636 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   637 
   638   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   639   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   640   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   641   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   642   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   643   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   644   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   645   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   646   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   647   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   648 
   649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   652 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   653 Data").
   654 
   655 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   656 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   657 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   658 code.
   659 
   660 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   661 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   662 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   666 
   667 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   668 
   669 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   670 
   671   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   672   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   673 
   674 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   675 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   676 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   677 
   678   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   679 
   680     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   681     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   682     cart_base i  removed
   683     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   684 
   685   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   686 
   687   Renamed lemmas:
   688 
   689     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   690     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   691     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   692     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   693     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   694     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   695     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   696     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   697     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   698     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   699 
   700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * HOL/Probability:
   703 
   704   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   705 
   706   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   707     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   708     (borel_measurable_induct).
   709 
   710   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   711     projective family).
   712 
   713 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   714 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   715 
   716 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   717 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   718 datatypes.
   719 
   720 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   721 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   722 
   723 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   724 trees for the code generator.
   725 
   726 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   727 Lifting/Transfer.
   728 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   729 
   730 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 
   734 *** Document preparation ***
   735 
   736 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   737 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   738 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   739 
   740 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   741 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   742 
   743 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   744 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   745 document/root.tex.
   746 
   747 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   748 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 
   751 *** ML ***
   752 
   753 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   754 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   755 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   756 
   757 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   758 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   759 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   760 
   761 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   762 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   763 necessarily printing visible text.
   764 
   765 
   766 *** System ***
   767 
   768 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   769 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   770 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   771 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   772 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   773 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   774 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   775 
   776 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   777 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   778 
   779   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   780 
   781 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   782 
   783 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   784 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   785 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   786 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   787 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   788 
   789 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   790 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   791 
   792 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   793 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   794 
   795 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797 
   798 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   799 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   800 version of Isabelle.
   801 
   802 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   803 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   804 
   805 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   806 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   807 for home-made settings.
   808 
   809 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   810 
   811 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   812 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   813 configuration.
   814 
   815 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   816 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   817 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   818 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   819 bundled as Isabelle component.
   820 
   821 
   822 
   823 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   824 ------------------------------
   825 
   826 *** General ***
   827 
   828 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   829 
   830   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   831     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   832   - markup for bound variables
   833   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   834   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   835   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   836     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   837 
   838 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   839 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   840 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   841 
   842 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   843 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   844 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   845 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   846 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   847 
   848   context
   849     fixes x y z :: 'a
   850     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   851   begin
   852 
   853   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   854 
   855   end
   856 
   857   thm my_trans
   858 
   859 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   860 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   861 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   862 
   863 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   864 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   865 
   866 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   867 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   868 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   869 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   870 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   871 
   872 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   873 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   874 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   875 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   876 indices of schematic variables.
   877 
   878 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   879 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   880 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   881 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   882 etc. was exploited.
   883 
   884 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   885 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   886 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   887 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   888 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   889 of the material of that old tutorial.
   890 
   891 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   892 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   893 manual.
   894 
   895 
   896 *** Pure ***
   897 
   898 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   899 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   900 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   901 
   902 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   903 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   904 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   905 undocumented feature.)
   906 
   907 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   908 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   909 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   910 
   911   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   912 
   913   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   914     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   915 
   916 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   917 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   918 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   919 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   920 
   921 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   922 
   923     num ~> num_token
   924     xnum ~> xnum_token
   925     xstr ~> str_token
   926 
   927 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   928 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   929 position information via constraints).
   930 
   931 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   932 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   933 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   936 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   937 
   938 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   939 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   940 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941 
   942 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   943 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   946 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   947 
   948   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   949 
   950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   953 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   956 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   957 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   958 
   959 
   960 *** HOL ***
   961 
   962 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   963 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   964 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   965 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   966 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   967 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   968 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   969 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   970 possible.
   971 
   972 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   973 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   974 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   975 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   976 
   977 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   978 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   981 
   982 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   983 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   984 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   985 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   986 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   987 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   988 
   989   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   990     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   991 
   992   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   993     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   994     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   995 
   996   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   997     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   998 
   999   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1000     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1001     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1002 
  1003   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1004     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1005 
  1006 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1007 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1008 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1009 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1010 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1011 
  1012   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1013     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1014     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1015     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1016     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1017 
  1018     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1019     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1020 
  1021   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1022     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1023     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1024     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1025     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1026     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1027     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1028     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1029 
  1030   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1031     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1032     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1033     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1034 
  1035   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1036     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1037     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1038     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1039 
  1040   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1041     from type nat to type int.
  1042 
  1043 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1044 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1045 
  1046   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1047     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1048     type.  Example syntax:
  1049 
  1050     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1051       is List.insert
  1052 
  1053     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1054     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1055     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1056     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1057     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1058     by the package.
  1059 
  1060   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1061     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1062     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1063     code generation for each constant.
  1064 
  1065   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1066     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1067     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1068     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1069     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1070 
  1071   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1072     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1073     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1074 
  1075 * Quotient package:
  1076 
  1077   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1078     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1079 
  1080   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1081     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1082 
  1083   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1084     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1085     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1086 
  1087   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1088     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1089 
  1090 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1091 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1092 
  1093 * Quickcheck:
  1094 
  1095   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1096     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1097     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1098     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1099     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1100 
  1101     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1102     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1103     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1104 
  1105     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1106     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1107 
  1108     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1109     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1110     show genuine counterexamples.
  1111 
  1112   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1113     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1114 
  1115     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1116     constructors of that type.
  1117 
  1118   - Support for multisets.
  1119 
  1120   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1121 
  1122   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1123     conjectures in a locale context.
  1124 
  1125 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1126 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1127 
  1128 * Sledgehammer:
  1129   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1130     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1131   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1132   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1133     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1134   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1135   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1136   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1137   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1138 
  1139 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1140 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1141 
  1142 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1143 
  1144 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1147 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1148 
  1149   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1150 
  1151 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1152 a list and a nat.
  1153 
  1154 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1155 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1156 
  1157 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1158 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1159 default.
  1160 
  1161 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1162 
  1163   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1164 
  1165 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1166 
  1167 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1168 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1169 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1170 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1171 one_case.
  1172 
  1173 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1174 the result of the fact expression.
  1175 
  1176 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1177 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1178 of some relation theorems:
  1179 
  1180   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1181   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1182   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1183   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1184   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1185   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1186 
  1187 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1188 
  1189 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1190 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1191 
  1192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1195 to match the constant's name:
  1196 
  1197   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1198   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1199   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1200   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1201   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1202   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1203   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1204   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1205   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1206   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1207   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1208   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1209   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1210   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1211   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1212   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1213   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1214   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1215   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1216   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1217   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1218   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1219   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1220   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1221 
  1222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1225 and corresponding theorem names:
  1226 
  1227   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1228 
  1229   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1230 
  1231   - Renamed theorems:
  1232 
  1233     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1234     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1235     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1236     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1237     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1238     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1239     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1240     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1241     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1242     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1243     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1244     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1245     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1246     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1247     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1248     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1249     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1250     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1251     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1252     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1253     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1254     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1255     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1256 
  1257     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1258 
  1259     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1260 
  1261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1264 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1265 
  1266   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1267   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1268   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1269   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1270   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1271   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1272   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1273   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1274   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1275   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1276   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1277   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1278   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1279   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1280   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1281   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1282   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1283   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1284   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1285   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1286   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1287 
  1288 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1289 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1290 
  1291 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1294 
  1295   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1296   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1297   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1298   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1299   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1300   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1301   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1302   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1303   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1304   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1305   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1306   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1307   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1308   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1309   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1310   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1311   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1312   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1313 
  1314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1317 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1318 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1319 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1320 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1321 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1322 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1323 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1324 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1325 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1326 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1327 
  1328 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1329 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1330 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1331 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1332 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1333 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1334 
  1335 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1336 through option types.
  1337 
  1338 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1339 relations.
  1340 
  1341 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1344 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1345 
  1346   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1347   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1348   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1349   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1350   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1351   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1352   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1353   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1354   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1355   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1356   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1357   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1358   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1359   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1360   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1361   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1362   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1363   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1364   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1365   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1366   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1367   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1368   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1369   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1370   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1371   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1372   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1373   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1374   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1375   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1376   zless_le ~> less_le
  1377   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1378   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1379   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1380 
  1381 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1382 
  1383   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1384 
  1385 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1386 
  1387 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1388 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1389 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1390 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392 
  1393 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1394 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1395 
  1396 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1397 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1398 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1399 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1400 follows:
  1401 
  1402   Operations:
  1403   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1404   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1405   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1406   del -> rbt_del
  1407   delete -> rbt_delete
  1408   ins -> rbt_ins
  1409   insert -> rbt_insert
  1410   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1411   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1412   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1413   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1414   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1415   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1416   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1417   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1418   union -> rbt_union
  1419   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1420   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1421 
  1422   Lemmas:
  1423   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1424   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1425   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1426   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1427   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1428   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1429   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1430   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1431   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1432   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1433   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1434   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1435   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1436   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1437   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1438   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1439   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1440   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1441   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1442   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1443   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1444   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1445   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1446   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1447   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1448   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1449   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1450   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1451   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1452   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1453   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1454   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1455   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1456   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1457   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1458   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1459   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1460   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1461   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1462   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1463   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1464   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1465   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1466   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1467   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1468   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1469   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1470   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1471   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1472   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1473   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1474   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1475   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1476   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1477   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1478   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1479   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1480   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1481   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1482   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1483   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1484   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1485   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1486   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1487   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1488   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1489   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1490   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1491   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1492   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1493   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1494   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1495   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1496   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1497   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1498   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1499   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1500   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1501   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1502   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1503   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1504   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1505   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1506 
  1507 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1508 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1509 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511   Changed Operations:
  1512   float_abs -> abs
  1513   float_nprt -> nprt
  1514   float_pprt -> pprt
  1515   pow2 -> use powr
  1516   round_down -> float_round_down
  1517   round_up -> float_round_up
  1518   scale -> exponent
  1519 
  1520   Removed Operations:
  1521   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1522 
  1523   Renamed Lemmas:
  1524   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1525   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1526   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1527   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1528   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1529   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1530   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1531   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1532   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1533   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1534   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1535   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1536   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1537   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1538   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1539   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1540   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1541   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1542   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1543   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1544   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1545   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1546   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1547   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1548   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1549   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1550   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1551   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1552   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1553   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1554   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1555   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1556   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1557   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1558   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1559   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1560 
  1561   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1562   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1563   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1564   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1565   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1566   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1567   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1568   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1569   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1570   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1571 
  1572 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1573 association lists with distinct keys.
  1574 
  1575 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1576 annotated commands.
  1577 
  1578 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1579 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1580 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1581 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582 
  1583 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1584 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1585 instead.
  1586 
  1587   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1588   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1589   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1590   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1591   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1592   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1593   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1594   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1595   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1596   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1597   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1598   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1599   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1600   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1601   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1602   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1603   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1604   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1605   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1606   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1607   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1608   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1609   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1610   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1611   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1612   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1613   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1614   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1615   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1616   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1617   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1618   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1619   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1620   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1621   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1622   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1623   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1624   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1625   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1626   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1627   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1628 
  1629 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1630 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1631 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1632 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1633 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1634 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1635 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1636 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1637 
  1638 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1639 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1640 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1641 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1642 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1643 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1644 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1645 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1646 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1647 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1648 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1649 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651   Renamed constants:
  1652   measure -> emeasure
  1653   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1654   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1655   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1656   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1657 
  1658   Removed locales:
  1659   completeable_measure_space
  1660   finite_measure_space
  1661   finite_prob_space
  1662   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1663   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1664   finite_sigma_algebra
  1665   measure_space
  1666   pair_finite_prob_space
  1667   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1668   pair_finite_space
  1669   pair_sigma_algebra
  1670   product_sigma_algebra
  1671 
  1672   Removed constants:
  1673   conditional_space
  1674   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1675   image_space
  1676   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1677   pair_measure_generator
  1678   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1679   subvimage
  1680 
  1681   Replacement theorems:
  1682   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1683   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1684   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1685   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1686   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1687   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1688   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1689   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1690   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1691   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1692   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1693   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1694   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1695   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1696   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1697   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1698   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1699   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1700   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1701   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1702   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1703   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1704   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1705   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1706   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1707   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1708   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1709   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1710   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1711   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1712   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1713   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1714   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1715   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1716   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1717   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1718   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1719   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1720   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1721   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1722   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1723   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1724   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1725   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1726   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1727   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1728   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1729   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1730   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1731   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1732   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1733   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1734   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1735   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1736   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1737   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1738   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1739   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1740   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1741   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1742   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1743   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1744   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1745   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1746   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1747   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1748   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1749   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1750   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1751   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1752   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1753   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1754   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1755   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1756   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1757   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1758   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1759   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1760   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1761   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1762   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1763   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1764   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1765   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1766   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1767   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1768   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1769   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1770   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1771   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1772   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1773   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1774   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1775   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1776   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1777   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1778   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1779   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1780   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1781   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1782   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1783   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1784   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1785   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1786   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1787   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1788   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1789   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1790   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1791   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1792   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1793   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1794   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1795   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1796   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1797   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1798   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1799   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1800   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1801   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1802   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1803   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1804   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1805   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1806   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1807   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1808   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1809   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1810 
  1811 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1812 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1813 
  1814 
  1815 *** FOL ***
  1816 
  1817 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1818 
  1819 
  1820 *** ZF ***
  1821 
  1822 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1823 analysis.
  1824 
  1825 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1826 
  1827 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 
  1830 *** ML ***
  1831 
  1832 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1833 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1834 
  1835 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1836 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1837 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1838 
  1839 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1840 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1841 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1842 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1843 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1844 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1845 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1846 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1847 
  1848 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1849 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1850 
  1851 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1852 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1853 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1854 
  1855 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1856 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1857 
  1858 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1859 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1860 context as well.
  1861 
  1862 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1863 
  1864   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1865   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1866   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1867   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1868   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1869   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1870   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1871   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1872   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1873   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1874   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1875   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1876 
  1877 
  1878 *** System ***
  1879 
  1880 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1881 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1882 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1883 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1884 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1885 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1886 the generic user home was intended.
  1887 
  1888 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1889 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1890 
  1891 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1892 (not just JRE).
  1893 
  1894 
  1895 
  1896 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1897 ------------------------------------
  1898 
  1899 *** General ***
  1900 
  1901 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1902 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1903 
  1904   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1905     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1906     files for checking).
  1907 
  1908   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1909     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1910     positions.
  1911 
  1912   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1913     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1914     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1915 
  1916   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1917     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1918     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1919 
  1920   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1921     cores.
  1922 
  1923   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1924     versions (garbage collection).
  1925 
  1926 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1927 including some remaining limitations.
  1928 
  1929 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1930 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1931 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1932 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1933 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1935 
  1936 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1937 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1938 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1939 
  1940 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1941 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1942 usedir option -Q.
  1943 
  1944 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1945 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1946 
  1947   long_names   ~> names_long
  1948   short_names  ~> names_short
  1949   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1950 
  1951 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1952 
  1953   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1954 
  1955 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1956 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1957 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1958 
  1959 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1960 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1961 
  1962 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1963   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1964   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1965   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1966     "Classical Reasoner".
  1967 
  1968 
  1969 *** HOL ***
  1970 
  1971 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1972 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1973 
  1974 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1975 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1976 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1977 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1978 class complete_linorder.
  1979 
  1980 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1981 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1982 
  1983 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1984 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1985 
  1986   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1987   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1988   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1989   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1990   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1991   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1992   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1993   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1994   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1995   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1996   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1997 
  1998 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1999 
  2000   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2001   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2002   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2003   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2004   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2005   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2006   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2007   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2008   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2009   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2010   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2011   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2012   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2013   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2014   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2015   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2016 
  2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2023 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2024 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2025 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2028 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2029 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2033 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2034 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2035 
  2036 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2037 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2038 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2041 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2042 
  2043 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2044 
  2045     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2046     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2047 
  2048 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2049 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2052 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2053 
  2054 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2055 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2056 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2057 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2058 
  2059   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2060   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2061   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2062   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2063   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2064   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2065   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2066 
  2067 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2068 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2071   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2072   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2073   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2074   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2075   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2076   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2077   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2078   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2079   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2080   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2081   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2082   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2083   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2084   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2085   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2086   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2087   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2088   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2089   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2090   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2091   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2092   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2093   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2094   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2095   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2096   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2097   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2098   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2099   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2100   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2101   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2102   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2103   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2104   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2105   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2106   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2107   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2108   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2109   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2110   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2111   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2112   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2113   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2114   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2115   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2116   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2117   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2118   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2119   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2120   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2121   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2122   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2123   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2124   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2125   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2126   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2127   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2128   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2129   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2130   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2131   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2132   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2133   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2134   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2135   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2136   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2137   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2138   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2139   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2140   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2141   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2142   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2143   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2144   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2145   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2146   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2147   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2148   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2149   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2150   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2151   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2152 
  2153 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2154 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2155 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2156 
  2157 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2158 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2159 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2160 
  2161 * Code generation:
  2162 
  2163   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2164     characters in the target language.
  2165 
  2166   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2167     instead.
  2168 
  2169   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2170 
  2171   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2172     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2173 
  2174       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2175 
  2176 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2179 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2180 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2181 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2182 syntax.
  2183 
  2184 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2185 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2186 
  2187 * Nitpick:
  2188   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2189   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2190   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2191     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * Sledgehammer:
  2194   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2195   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2196     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2197   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2198     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2199   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2200     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2201   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2202     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2203   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2204     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Metis:
  2207   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2209     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211 * Command 'try':
  2212   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2213     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2215     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2216 
  2217 * Quickcheck:
  2218   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2219     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2220   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2221     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2222   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2223     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2224     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2225     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2226   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2227     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2228 
  2229 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2230 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2231 
  2232 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2233 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2234 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2235 
  2236 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2237 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2239 
  2240 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2241 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2244 arithmetic.
  2245 
  2246 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2247 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2248 and lattice type classes.
  2249 
  2250 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2251 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2252 
  2253 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2254 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2255 
  2256 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2257 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2258 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259 
  2260   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2261   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2262   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2263   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2264 
  2265 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2266 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2267 constants:
  2268 
  2269   type inat   ~> type enat
  2270   Fin         ~> enat
  2271   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2272   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2273   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2274 
  2275 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2276 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2279 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2280 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2281 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2282 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2283 
  2284 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2285 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2286 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2287 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2288 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2289 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2290 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2291 
  2292   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2293   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2294   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2295   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2296 
  2297 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2298 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2299 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2300 
  2301   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2302   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2303   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2304   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2305   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2306   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2307   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2308   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2309   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2310   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2311   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2312   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2313   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2314   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2315   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2316   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2317   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2318   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2319   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2320   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2321   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2322   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2323   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2324   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2325   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2326   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2327   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2328   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2329   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2330   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2331   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2332   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2333   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2334   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2335   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2336   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2337   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2338   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2339   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2340   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2341   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2342   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2343   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2344   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2345   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2346   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2347   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2348   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2349   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2350   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2351   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2352 
  2353 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2354   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2355   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2356   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2357   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2358     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2363   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2364   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2365   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2366   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2367   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2368   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2369   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2370   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2371   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2372   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2373   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2374   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2375   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2376   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2377   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2378   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2379   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2380   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2381   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2382   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2383   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2384   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2385   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2386   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2387 
  2388 
  2389 *** Document preparation ***
  2390 
  2391 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2392 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2393 same.
  2394 
  2395 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2396 result.
  2397 
  2398 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2399 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2400 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2401 
  2402 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2403 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2404 
  2405 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2406 like this:
  2407 
  2408   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2409   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2410 
  2411 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2412 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2413 layouts.
  2414 
  2415 
  2416 *** ML ***
  2417 
  2418 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2419 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2420 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2421 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2422 under external program control.
  2423 
  2424 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2425 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2426 
  2427 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2428 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2429 (better known as Proof General).
  2430 
  2431 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2432 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2433 
  2434 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2435 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2436 
  2437 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2438 (including quotes etc.).
  2439 
  2440 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2441 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2442 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2443 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2444 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2445 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2446 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2447 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2448 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2449 
  2450 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2451 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2452 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2453 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2454 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2455 
  2456 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2457 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2458 
  2459 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2460 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2461 
  2462 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2463 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2464 
  2465 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2466 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2467 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2468 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2469 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2470 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2471 proper Proof.context.
  2472 
  2473 
  2474 *** System ***
  2475 
  2476 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2477 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2478 
  2479 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2480 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2481 
  2482 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2483 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2484 
  2485   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2486   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2487   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2488   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2489   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2490 
  2491 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2492 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2495 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2496 example:
  2497 
  2498   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2499 
  2500 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2501 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2502 
  2503 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2504 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2505 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2506 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2507 
  2508 
  2509 
  2510 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2511 ----------------------------------
  2512 
  2513 *** General ***
  2514 
  2515 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2516 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2517 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2518 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2519 like this:
  2520 
  2521   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2522 
  2523 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2524 
  2525 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2526 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2527 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2528 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2529 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2530 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2531 
  2532 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2533 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2534 the following package declarations:
  2535 
  2536   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2537   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2538 
  2539 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2540 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2541 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2542 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2543 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2544 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2545 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2546 
  2547 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2548 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2549 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2550 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2551 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2552 
  2553 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2554 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2555 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2556 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2557 
  2558 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2559 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2560 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2561 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2562 
  2563   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2564 
  2565   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2566   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2567   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2568   show_types                    show_types
  2569   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2570   show_consts                   show_consts
  2571   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2572 
  2573   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2574   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2575   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2576 
  2577   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2578   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2579 
  2580   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2581 
  2582   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2583   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2584   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2585   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2586   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2587 
  2588 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2589 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2590 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2591 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2592 
  2593 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2597   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2598 
  2599 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2600 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2601 float_token.
  2602 
  2603 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2604 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2608 DejaVu Sans.
  2609 
  2610 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2611 
  2612 
  2613 *** Pure ***
  2614 
  2615 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2616 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2617 time.
  2618 
  2619 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2620 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2623 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2626 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2627 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2628 command already provided this functionality.
  2629 
  2630 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2631 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2632 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2633 without interpretations.
  2634 
  2635 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2636 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2637 
  2638 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2639 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2640 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2641 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2642 
  2643 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2644 'definition' instead.
  2645 
  2646 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2647 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2648 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2649 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2650 
  2651 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2652 constructors.
  2653 
  2654 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2655 the local file system.
  2656 
  2657 
  2658 *** HOL ***
  2659 
  2660 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2661 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2662 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2663 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2664 
  2665   declare [[coercion f]]
  2666 
  2667 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2668 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2669 
  2670   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2671 
  2672 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2673 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2674 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2675 other theories like this:
  2676 
  2677   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2678 
  2679 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2680 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2681 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2682 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2683 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2684 for examples.
  2685 
  2686 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2687 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2690 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2691 
  2692 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2693 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2694 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2695 
  2696 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2697 functorial structure of types.
  2698 
  2699 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2700 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2701 
  2702 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2703 languages.
  2704 
  2705 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2706 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2708 
  2709 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2710 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2713 combinators any longer.
  2714 
  2715 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2716 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2717 
  2718 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2719 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2720 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2721 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2722 
  2723   record 'a foo = ...
  2724   ...
  2725   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2726 
  2727 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2728 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2732 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2733 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2734 
  2735 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2736 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2737 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2738 
  2739 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2740 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2743 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2744 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2745 independently.
  2746 
  2747 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2748 counter example search.
  2749 
  2750 * Sledgehammer:
  2751   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2752     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2753     sledgehammer").
  2754   - Renamed commands:
  2755     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2756     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2757     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2758     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759   - Renamed options:
  2760     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2761     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2762     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2763     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2764     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * Nitpick:
  2767   - Renamed options:
  2768     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2769     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2770     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2771   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2772   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2773   - Added "whack" option.
  2774   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2775   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2776   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2777   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2778     higher cardinalities.
  2779   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2780 
  2781 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2782 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2783 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2784 
  2785     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2786 
  2787 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2788 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2789 
  2790 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2791 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2792 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2793 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2794 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2795 "smt_solver".
  2796 
  2797 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2798 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2799 
  2800 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2801 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2802 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2803 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2806   - Renamed:
  2807     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2808     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2809     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810   - Added:
  2811     smt_verbose
  2812     smt_random_seed
  2813     smt_datatypes
  2814     smt_infer_triggers
  2815     smt_monomorph_limit
  2816     cvc3_options
  2817     remote_cvc3_options
  2818     remote_z3_options
  2819     yices_options
  2820 
  2821 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2822 header.
  2823 
  2824 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2825 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2827 
  2828   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2829 
  2830 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2833 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2838 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2841 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2842 
  2843 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2844 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2847 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2848 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851 
  2852 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2854 
  2855 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2856 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2859 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2860 for congruent(2)).
  2861 
  2862 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2863 
  2864   types
  2865     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2866     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2867 
  2868   constants
  2869     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2870     True ~> HOL.True
  2871     False ~> HOL.False
  2872     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2873     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2874     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2875     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2876     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2877     The ~> HOL.The
  2878     All ~> HOL.All
  2879     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2880     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2881     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2882     If ~> HOL.If
  2883     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2884     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2885     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2886     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2887     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2888     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2889     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2890     op : ~> Set.member
  2891     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2892 
  2893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2896 
  2897     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2898     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2899     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2900     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2901     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2902     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2903     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2904     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2905 
  2906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2907 
  2908 * More stylized fact names:
  2909 
  2910   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2911   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2912   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2913   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2914 
  2915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2918 
  2919   constants
  2920     null ~> List.null
  2921 
  2922   facts
  2923     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2924     null_empty ~> null_def
  2925 
  2926 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2927 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2928 generation.
  2929 
  2930 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2931 Haskell code.
  2932 
  2933 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2934 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2935 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2938 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2941 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2942 
  2943 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2944 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2945 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2948 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2949 
  2950 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2954 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2955 referred to by its qualified name.
  2956 
  2957   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2958   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2959   product ~>  Enum.product
  2960 
  2961 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2962 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2966 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2967 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2971 sort_key.
  2972 
  2973 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975 
  2976 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2977 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2978 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2979 
  2980   types
  2981     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2982               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2983               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2984         (depends on your needs)
  2985 
  2986   constants
  2987      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2988      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2989      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2990 
  2991 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2992 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2993 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2994 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2997 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2998 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2999 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3000 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3006 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3007 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3008 
  3009 
  3010 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3011 
  3012 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3013 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3014 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3015 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3016 compatibility.
  3017 
  3018 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3019 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3020 
  3021 
  3022 *** HOLCF ***
  3023 
  3024 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3025 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3026 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3030 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3031 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3034   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3035   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3036 
  3037 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3038 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3039 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040 
  3041 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3042 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3043 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3044 domain definition now works:
  3045 
  3046   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3047 
  3048 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3049 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3050 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3051 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3052 
  3053   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3054     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3055 
  3056   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3057 
  3058 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3059 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3060 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3063 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3066 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3067 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3068 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3069 
  3070 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3071 
  3072 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3080 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3081 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3082 
  3083 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3084 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3085 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3088 still supported as an input translation.
  3089 
  3090 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3091 
  3092   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3093   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3094   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3095   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3096   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3097   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3098   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3099 
  3100 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3101 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3104   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3105   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3106   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3107   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3108   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3109 
  3110 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3111 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3114 
  3115   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3116   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3117   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3118   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3119 
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3123 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3126 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3129   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3130   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3131   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3132   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3133   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3134   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3135   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3136   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3137   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3138   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3139   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3140   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3141   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3142   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3143   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3144   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3145   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3146   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3147   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3148 
  3149 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3152   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3153   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3154   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3155   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3156   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3157   box_less             ~> box_below
  3158   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3159   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3160   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3161   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3162   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3163   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3164   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3165   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3166   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3167   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3168   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3169   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3170   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3171   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3172   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3173   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3174   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3175   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3176   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3177   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3178   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3179   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3180   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3181   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3182   up_less              ~> up_below
  3183   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3184   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3185   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3186   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3187   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3188   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3189   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3190   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3191   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3192   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3193   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3194   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3195   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3196 
  3197 
  3198 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3199 
  3200 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3201 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 
  3204 *** ML ***
  3205 
  3206 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3207 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3208 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3209 
  3210 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3211 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3212 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3213 
  3214 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3215 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3216 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3217 
  3218 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3219 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3220 
  3221 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3222 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3223 
  3224 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3225 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3226 
  3227 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3228 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3229 
  3230 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3231 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3232 almost all situations.
  3233 
  3234 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3235 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3236 Isabelle/ML.
  3237 
  3238 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3239 meaning.
  3240 
  3241 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3242 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3243 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3244 
  3245 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3246 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3247 
  3248 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3249 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3250 
  3251 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3252 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3253 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3254 
  3255 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3256 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3257 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3258 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3259 configuration options.
  3260 
  3261 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3262 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3263 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3264 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3265 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3266 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3267 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3268 
  3269 
  3270 
  3271 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3272 ---------------------------------
  3273 
  3274 *** General ***
  3275 
  3276 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3277 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3278 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3279 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3280 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3281 their full internal name.
  3282 
  3283 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3284 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3285 Some hints on upgrading:
  3286 
  3287   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3288     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3289     which are independent of this issue.
  3290 
  3291   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3292     provides the following special forms:
  3293 
  3294       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3295       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3296       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3297 
  3298     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3299     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3300     extra variables".
  3301 
  3302     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3303     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3304     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3305     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3306     "logic".
  3307 
  3308   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3309     antiquotations:
  3310 
  3311       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3312       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3313       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3314       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3315 
  3316   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3317     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3318     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3319     antiquotations.
  3320 
  3321 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3322 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3323 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3324 diagnose syntax problems.
  3325 
  3326 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3327 
  3328 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3329 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3330 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3331 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3332 
  3333 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3334 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3335 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3336 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3339 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3340 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3341 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3342 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3345 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3346 
  3347 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3348 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3349 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3350 
  3351   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3352 
  3353 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3354 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3355 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3356 
  3357 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3358 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3362 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3363 
  3364 
  3365 *** Pure ***
  3366 
  3367 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3368 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3369 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3370 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3371 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3372 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3373 inspect proof terms.
  3374 
  3375 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3376 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3377 are added internally.  For example:
  3378 
  3379   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3380 
  3381 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3382 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3387 'class' instead.
  3388 
  3389 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3390 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3394 invariants.
  3395 
  3396 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3397 user space functionality any longer.
  3398 
  3399 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3400 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3404 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3405 
  3406 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3407 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3408 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3409 
  3410 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3411 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3412 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3413 
  3414 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3415 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 
  3418 *** HOL ***
  3419 
  3420 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3421 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3422 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3423 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3424 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3425 
  3426 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3427 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3428 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3429 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3430 
  3431   fun
  3432     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3433   where
  3434     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3435 
  3436   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3437     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3438 
  3439   quotient_definition
  3440     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3441 
  3442 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3443 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3444 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3445 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3446 
  3447 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3448 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3449 
  3450 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3451 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3452 
  3453 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3457 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3458 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3459 
  3460 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3461 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3470 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3473 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3474 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3477   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3478   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3479   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3480   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3481   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3482   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3483   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3484   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3485   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3486   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3487   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3488   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3489   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3490   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3491   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3492   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3493   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3494   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3495   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3496   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3497   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3498   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3499   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3500   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3501   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3502   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3503   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3504   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3505   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3506 
  3507 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3508 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3509 
  3510 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3511 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3512 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3513 
  3514 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3515 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3516 
  3517 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3518 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3521 
  3522 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3523 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3526 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3531 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3532 
  3533 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3534 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3535 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3536 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3539   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3540   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3541   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3545 lattices):
  3546 
  3547     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3548     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3549 
  3550     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3551 
  3552     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3553     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3554     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3555     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3556     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3557     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3558     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3559     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3560     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3561     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3562     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3563     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3564     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3565 
  3566     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3567     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3568     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3569     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3570     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3571     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3572     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3573     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3574     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3575     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3576     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3577     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3578     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3579     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3580     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3581     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3582     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3583     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3584 
  3585   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3586   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3587 
  3588     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3589     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3590     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3591     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3592     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3593 
  3594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3595 
  3596 * Refined field classes:
  3597   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3598     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3599     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3600   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3604   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3605   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3606   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3607     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3608   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3609     equal_neg_zero.
  3610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3613 sets to lattices:
  3614 
  3615   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3616   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3617   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3618   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3619   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3620   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3621   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3622   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3623   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3624   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3625 
  3626 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3627 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3628 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3629 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3630 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3631 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3634 multiset order:
  3635 
  3636   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3637     <= and <;
  3638   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3639     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3640     multiset_order;
  3641   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3642     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3643     generation;
  3644   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3645     if needed.
  3646 
  3647 Renamed:
  3648 
  3649   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3650   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3651   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3652 
  3653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3656 
  3657 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3658 
  3659 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3660 
  3661 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3662 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3663 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665   Constants:
  3666   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3667   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3668   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3669   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3670   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3671   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3672   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3673   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3674   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3675   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3676   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3677   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3678   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3679 
  3680   Lemmas:
  3681   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3682   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3683   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3684   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3685   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3686   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3687   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3688   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3689   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3690   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3691   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3692   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3693   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3694 
  3695 * Sledgehammer:
  3696   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3697     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3698     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3699     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3700     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3701     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3702     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3704   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3705     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3706   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3707     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3708     is still experimental.)
  3709   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3710     full-typed mode.
  3711   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3712 
  3713 * Nitpick:
  3714   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3715   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3716   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3717     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3718   - Added support for quotient types.
  3719   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3720     constructs.
  3721   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3722     "termination" proofs).
  3723   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3724   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3725   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3726   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3727     record getters.
  3728   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3729   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3730   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3731   - Added "atoms" option.
  3732   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3733     problems.
  3734   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3735     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3736     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3737   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3738     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3740 
  3741 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3742   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3743   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3744   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3745   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3746   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3747   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3748   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3749   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3750   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 
  3753 *** HOLCF ***
  3754 
  3755 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3756 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3757 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3760 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3761 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3762 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3765 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3766 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3767 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3768 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3771 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3772 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3775 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3778   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3779 
  3780 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3781 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3784   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3785   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3786   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3787   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3788 
  3789 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3790 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3793   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3794   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3795 
  3796 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3797 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3801 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3806 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3807 
  3808 
  3809 *** ML ***
  3810 
  3811 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3812 
  3813     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3814     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3815 
  3816     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3817     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3818     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3819     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3820 
  3821     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3822     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3823     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3824 
  3825 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3826 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3827 
  3828 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3829 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3830 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3831 
  3832 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3833 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3834 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3835 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3836 
  3837 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3838 the context or even global references.
  3839 
  3840 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3841 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3842 
  3843 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3844 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3845 
  3846   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3847   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3848   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3849   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3850   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3851   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3852   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3853   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3854   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3855   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3856 
  3857 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3858 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3859 
  3860 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3861 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3862 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3863 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3864 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3865 
  3866 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3867 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3868 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3869 Theory_Data version.
  3870 
  3871 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3872 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3873 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3874 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3875 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3876 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3877 explicitly in rare situations.
  3878 
  3879 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3880 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3884 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3887 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3888 quite rare).
  3889 
  3890 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3891 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3894 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3895 terms.
  3896 
  3897 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3898 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3899 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3900 
  3901 
  3902 *** System ***
  3903 
  3904 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3905 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3906 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3907 
  3908 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3909 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3910 respectively.
  3911 
  3912 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3913 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3914 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3915 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3916 
  3917   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3918 
  3919 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3920 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3921 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3922 component.
  3923 
  3924 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3925 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3926 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3927 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3928 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3929 the user for manual installation.
  3930 
  3931 
  3932 
  3933 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3934 -------------------------------------
  3935 
  3936 *** General ***
  3937 
  3938 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3939 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3940 
  3941 
  3942 *** Pure ***
  3943 
  3944 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3945 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3946 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3947 
  3948 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3949 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3950 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3951 
  3952 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3953 interpretation.
  3954 
  3955 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3956 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 
  3959 *** Document preparation ***
  3960 
  3961 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3962 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3963 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3964 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3965 
  3966 
  3967 *** HOL ***
  3968 
  3969 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3970 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3971 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3972 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3973 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3974 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3975 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3976 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3977 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3978 
  3979 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3980 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3981 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3982 
  3983 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3984 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3985 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3986 
  3987 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3988 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3989 
  3990 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3991 
  3992 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3993 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3994 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3995 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3996 
  3997 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3998 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3999 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4000 "mirabelle" utility.
  4001 
  4002 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4003 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4004 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4005 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4006 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4007 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4008 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4009 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4010 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4011 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4012 
  4013 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4014 procedure only.
  4015 
  4016 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4017 
  4018 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4019 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4020 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4021 that fail later.
  4022 
  4023 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4024 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4025 
  4026 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4027 the same method as the approximation method.
  4028 
  4029 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4030 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4031 series expansion.
  4032 
  4033 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4034 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4035 
  4036 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4037 reals.
  4038 
  4039 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4040 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4041 
  4042 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4043 fixpoint theorem.
  4044 
  4045 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4046   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4047     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4048   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4049     accordingly
  4050   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4051     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4052   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4053     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4054 
  4055 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4056 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4057 lattice.
  4058 
  4059 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4060 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4061 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4062 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4063 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4064 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4068   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4069     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4070   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4071     le_inf_iff
  4072   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4073     sup_aci)
  4074   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4075   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4076   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4077     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4078     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4079     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4080     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4081     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4082     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4083     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4084     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4085     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4086     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4087   - authentic syntax for
  4088     Set.Pow
  4089     Set.image
  4090   - mere abbreviations:
  4091     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4092     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4093     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4094     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4095     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4096     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4097     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4098     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4099   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4100 
  4101 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4102 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4103 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4104 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4105 
  4106 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4107 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4108 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4109 
  4110 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4111 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4114 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4115 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4116 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4119 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4120 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4121 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4122 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4123 
  4124 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4125 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4129 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4132 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4133 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4134 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4135 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4136 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4137 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4141     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4142     code_post       replaces    code post
  4143     etc.
  4144   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * Renamed methods:
  4147     sizechange -> size_change
  4148     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4149   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150 
  4151 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4152 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4153 
  4154 * Renamed theorems:
  4155     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4156     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4157     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4158     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4159     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4160   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4161 
  4162 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 
  4169 *** HOLCF ***
  4170 
  4171 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4172 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4173 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4174 
  4175 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4176 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4177 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4178 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4179 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4180 
  4181 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4182 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4183 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4184 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4185 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4186 
  4187 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4188 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4189 constructor are pre-configured.
  4190 
  4191 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4192 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4193 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4194 
  4195 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4196 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4197 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4198 as well.)
  4199 
  4200 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4201 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4202 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4203 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4204 examples.
  4205 
  4206 
  4207 *** ML ***
  4208 
  4209 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4210 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4211 
  4212 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4213 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4214 position, logical grouping etc.
  4215 
  4216 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4217 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4218 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4219 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4220 
  4221 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4222 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4223 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4224 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4225 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4226 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4227 
  4228 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4229 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4230 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4231 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4232 experiments with references.
  4233 
  4234 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4235 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4236 
  4237 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4238 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4239 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4240 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4241 
  4242 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4243 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4244 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4245 
  4246 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4247 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4248 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4256 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4257 
  4258 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4259 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4260 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4261 
  4262 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4263 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4264 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4267 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4268 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270 
  4271 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4272 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4273 instead of global theory.
  4274 
  4275 
  4276 *** System ***
  4277 
  4278 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4279 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4280 usedir option -q.
  4281 
  4282 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4283 also the system manual.
  4284 
  4285 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4286 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4287 
  4288 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4289 this is always enabled.
  4290 
  4291 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4292 
  4293 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4294 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4295 currently supported on Linux only.
  4296 
  4297 
  4298 
  4299 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4300 --------------------------------
  4301 
  4302 *** General ***
  4303 
  4304 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4305 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4306 
  4307   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4308     "isatool."
  4309 
  4310   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4311     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4312 
  4313   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4314     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4315 
  4316 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4317 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4318 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4319 
  4320 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4321 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4322 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4323 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4324 via "isabelle emacs".
  4325 
  4326 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4327 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4328 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4329 
  4330 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4331 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4332 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4333 
  4334 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4335 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4336 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4337 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4338 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4339 
  4340 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4341 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4342 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4343 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4344 
  4345 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4346 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4347 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4348 
  4349 
  4350 *** Pure ***
  4351 
  4352 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4353 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4354 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4355 
  4356 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4357 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4358 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4359 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4360 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4361 
  4362 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4363 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4364 useful in locale declarations.
  4365 
  4366 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4367 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4368 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4369 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4370 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4371 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4372 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4373 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4374 no longer generated.
  4375 
  4376 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4377 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4378 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4379 
  4380 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4381 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4382 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4383 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4384 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4385 
  4386 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4388 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4389 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4390 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4391 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4392 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4393 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4394 
  4395 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4396 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4397 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4398 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4399 
  4400 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4403 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4404 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4405 
  4406 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4407 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4408 
  4409 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4410 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4411 in HOL, write
  4412 
  4413     class foo = ...
  4414 
  4415 instead of
  4416 
  4417     class foo = type + ...
  4418 
  4419 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4420 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4423 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4424 
  4425 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4426 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4427 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4428 
  4429 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4430 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4431 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4432 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4433 directly in regular applications.
  4434 
  4435 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4436 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4437 
  4438 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4439 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4440 
  4441 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4442 theory context.
  4443 
  4444 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4445 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4446 
  4447 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4448 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4449 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4450 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4451 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4452 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4453 
  4454   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4455 
  4456 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4457 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4458 normalization.
  4459 
  4460 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4461 addressing etc.
  4462 
  4463 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4464 
  4465   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4466   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4467 
  4468 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4469 
  4470   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4471      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4472      parts of the code generator framework).
  4473 
  4474   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4475      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4476      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4477 
  4478 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4481 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482 
  4483 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4484 patterns, e.g.
  4485 
  4486     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4487 
  4488 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4489 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4490 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4491 hyphen:
  4492 
  4493     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4494 
  4495 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4496 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4497 
  4498 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4499 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4500 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4501 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4502 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4503 higher-order unification.
  4504 
  4505 
  4506 *** Document preparation ***
  4507 
  4508 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4509 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4510 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4511 
  4512 
  4513 *** HOL ***
  4514 
  4515 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4516 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4517 
  4518 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4519 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4520 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4521 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4522 Main, as before.
  4523 
  4524 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4525 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4526 
  4527 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4528 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4529 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4530 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4531 
  4532 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4533 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4534 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4535 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4536 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4537 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4538 
  4539 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4540 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4541 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4542 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4543 
  4544 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4545 menu.
  4546 
  4547 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4548 (contains the empty clause).
  4549 
  4550 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4551 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4552 
  4553 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4554 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4555 
  4556 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4557 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4558 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4559 
  4560 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4561 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4562 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4563 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4564 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4565 
  4566 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4567 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4568 
  4569 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4570 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4571 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4572 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4573 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4574 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4575 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4576 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4577 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4578 
  4579 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4580 
  4581 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4582 
  4583 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4584 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4587 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4588 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4589 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4590 
  4591 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4592 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4593 
  4594     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4595     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4596     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4597     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4598     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4599     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4600     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4601     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4602 
  4603 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4604 theory Set.
  4605 
  4606 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4607 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4608 
  4609 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4610 
  4611 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4612 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4613 
  4614 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4615 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4616 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4617 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4618 allowed. For examples see
  4619 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4620 
  4621 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4622 
  4623 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4627 structure:
  4628 
  4629     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4630     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4631     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4632     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4633     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4634     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4635     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4636     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4637     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4638     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4639     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4640     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4641     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4642     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4643     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4644     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4645     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4646     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4647     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4648     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4649     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4650     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4651     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4652     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4653     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4654     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4655     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4656     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4657     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4658     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4659     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4660     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4661     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4662 
  4663     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4664     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4665     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4666     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4667     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4668     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4669     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4670     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4671     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4672     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4673 
  4674     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4675     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4676     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4677     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4678     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4679     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4680 
  4681 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4682 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4683 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4684 
  4685 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4686 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4687 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4688 
  4689 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4690 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4691 
  4692 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4693 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4694 
  4695 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4696 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4697 proofs, e.g.
  4698 
  4699   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4700 
  4701 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4702 
  4703 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4704 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4705 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4708 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4712 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4713 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4717 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4718 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4719 preorder_class.*.
  4720 
  4721 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4722 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4723 
  4724 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4725 
  4726   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4727 
  4728 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4729 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4730 fold_image.
  4731 
  4732 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4733 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4734 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4735 the former will disappear at some point.
  4736 
  4737 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4738 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4739 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4740 
  4741 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4742 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4743 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4744 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4745 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4746 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4747 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4748 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4749 
  4750 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4751 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4752 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4753 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4754 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4755 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4756 
  4757     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4758     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4759     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4760     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4761     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4762     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4763     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4764 
  4765 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4766 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4767 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4768 
  4769 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4770 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4771 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4772 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4773 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4774 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4775 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4776 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4777 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4778 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4779 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4780 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4781 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4782 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4783 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4784 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4785 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4786 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4787 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4788 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4789 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4790 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4791 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4792 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4793 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4794 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4795 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4796 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4797 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4798 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4799 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4800 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4801 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4802 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4803 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4804 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4805 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4806 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4807 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4808 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4809 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4810 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4811 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4812 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4813 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4814 
  4815 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4818 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4819 
  4820 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4821 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4822 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4823 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4824 
  4825 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4826 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4827 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4828 theory RealVector.
  4829 
  4830 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4831 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4832 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4833 and inner products are included.
  4834 
  4835 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4836 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4837 supported.
  4838 
  4839 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4840 first diagonalization argument.
  4841 
  4842 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4843 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4844 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4845 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4846 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4847 
  4848     hide (open) const gcd
  4849     abbreviation gcd where
  4850       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4851     notation (output)
  4852       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4853 
  4854 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4855 
  4856 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4857 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4858 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4861 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4862 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4863 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4864 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4865 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4866 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4867 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4868 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4869 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4870 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4871 cases.
  4872 
  4873 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4874 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4875 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4876 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4877 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4878 
  4879     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4880     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4881     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4882     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4883     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4884 
  4885 
  4886 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4887 
  4888 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4889 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4890 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4891 
  4892 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4893 
  4894 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4895 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4896 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4897 
  4898 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4899 
  4900 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4901 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4902 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4903 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4904 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4905 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4906 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4907 
  4908 
  4909 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4910 
  4911 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4912 
  4913 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4914 theory targets.
  4915 
  4916 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4917 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4918 'inductive' etc.
  4919 
  4920 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4921 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4922 
  4923 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4924 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4925 
  4926 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4927 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4928 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4929 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4930 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4931 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4932 the algorithm W:
  4933 
  4934  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4935  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4936          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4937 
  4938 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4939 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4940 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4941 
  4942 
  4943 *** HOLCF ***
  4944 
  4945 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4946 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4947 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4948 
  4949 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4950 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4951 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4952 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4953 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4956 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4957 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4958 
  4959 
  4960 *** ZF ***
  4961 
  4962 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4963 
  4964 
  4965 *** ML ***
  4966 
  4967 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4968 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4969 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4970 5.2.1!
  4971 
  4972 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4973 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4974 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4975 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4976 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4977 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4978 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4979 
  4980 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4981 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4982 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4983 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4984 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4985 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4986 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4987 
  4988 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4989 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4990 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4991 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4992 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4993 
  4994 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4995 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4996 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4997 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4998 Method.add_method.
  4999 
  5000 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5001 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5002 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5003 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5004 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5005 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5006 
  5007 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5008 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5009 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5010 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5011 examples.
  5012 
  5013 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5014 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5015 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5016 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5017 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5018 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5019 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5020 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5021 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5022 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5023 
  5024 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5025 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5026 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5027 
  5028 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5029 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5030 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5031 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5032 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5033 resort for legacy applications.
  5034 
  5035 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5036 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5037 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5038 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5039 explicit runtime argument.
  5040 
  5041 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5042 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5043 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5044 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5045 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5048 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5049 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5050 theory state.
  5051 
  5052 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5053 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5054 
  5055   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5056   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5057   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5058   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5059   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5060   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5061   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5062   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5063   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5064   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5065 
  5066 
  5067 *** System ***
  5068 
  5069 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5070 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5071 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5072 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5073 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5074 
  5075 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5076 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5077 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5078 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5079 
  5080 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5081 
  5082 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5083 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5084 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5085 prover operations.
  5086 
  5087 
  5088 
  5089 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5090 -------------------------------
  5091 
  5092 *** General ***
  5093 
  5094 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5095 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5096 
  5097 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5098 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5099 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5100 provides a proper context already.
  5101 
  5102 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5103 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5104 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5105 
  5106 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5107 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5108 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5109 swap theory imports.
  5110 
  5111 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5112 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5113 
  5114 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5115 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5116 white space without escapes.
  5117 
  5118 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5119 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5120 "foo_bar".
  5121 
  5122 
  5123 *** Pure ***
  5124 
  5125 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5126 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5127 
  5128 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5129 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5130 
  5131 (1) unused_thms
  5132      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5133 
  5134 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5135      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5136      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5137 
  5138 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5139      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5140      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5141      their ancestors.
  5142 
  5143 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5144 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5145 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5146 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5147 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5148 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5149 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5150 
  5151 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5152 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5153 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5154 
  5155 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5156 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5157 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5158 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5159 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5160 
  5161 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5162 
  5163 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5164 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5165 update of theories within ML code.
  5166 
  5167 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5168 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5169 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5170 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5171 
  5172 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5173 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5174 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5176 
  5177 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5178 
  5179 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5180 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5181 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5182 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5183 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5184 
  5185 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5186 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5187 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5188 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5189 situations.
  5190 
  5191 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5192 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5193 proof text.
  5194 
  5195 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5196 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5197 
  5198 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5199 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5200 predicates.
  5201 
  5202 
  5203 *** Document preparation ***
  5204 
  5205 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5206 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5207 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5208 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5209 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5210 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5211 
  5212 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5213 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5214 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5215 
  5216 
  5217 *** HOL ***
  5218 
  5219 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5220 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5221 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5222 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5223 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5224 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5225 
  5226 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5227 with multithreading.
  5228 
  5229 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5230 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5231 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5232 
  5233 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5234 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5235 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5236 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5237 
  5238 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5239 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5240 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5241 and makes them available separately.  See
  5242 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5243 
  5244 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5245 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5246 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5247 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5248 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5249 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5250 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5251 the declared rules.
  5252 
  5253 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5254 
  5255   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5256 
  5257 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5258 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5259 
  5260 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5261 
  5262   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5263 
  5264   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5265     definitions on => and bool.
  5266 
  5267   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5268     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5269     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5270 
  5271       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5272       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5273       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5274       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5275       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5276       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5277       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5278       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5279 
  5280   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5281     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5282     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5283 
  5284   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5285     The proof pattern
  5286 
  5287       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5288       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5289 
  5290     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5291     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5292 
  5293       have "EX S. P S"
  5294       proof
  5295         show "P S" <...>
  5296       qed
  5297 
  5298   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5299     The proof pattern
  5300 
  5301       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5302       also have "S = T" <...>
  5303       finally have "P T" .
  5304 
  5305     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5306     must be replaced by something like
  5307 
  5308       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5309       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5310       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5311 
  5312   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5313     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5314 
  5315       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5316 
  5317     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5318     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5319     type of the form
  5320 
  5321       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5322 
  5323     rather than
  5324 
  5325       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5326 
  5327 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5328 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5329 
  5330 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5331 
  5332 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5333 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5335 
  5336 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5337 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5338 
  5339 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5340 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5341 
  5342 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5343 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5344 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5345 
  5346 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5347 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5348 
  5349   less_trans
  5350   less_linear
  5351   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5352   le_less_trans
  5353   less_le_trans
  5354   less_not_sym
  5355   less_asym
  5356 
  5357 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5358 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5359 and different variable names.
  5360 
  5361 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5362 
  5363 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5364 finite maps.
  5365 
  5366 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5367 
  5368 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5369 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5370 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5371 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5372 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5373 accordingly.
  5374 
  5375 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5376 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5377 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5378 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5379 
  5380 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5381 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5382 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5383 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5384 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5386 
  5387 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5388 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5389 
  5390 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5391 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5392 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5393 
  5394 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5396 
  5397 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5398 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5399 
  5400 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5401 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5402 
  5403 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5404 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5405 
  5406 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5407 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5409 
  5410 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5411 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5412 
  5413 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5414 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5415 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5416 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5417 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5418 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5419 
  5420 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5421 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5422 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5423 
  5424 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5425 
  5426 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5427 
  5428 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5429 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5430 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5431 
  5432 
  5433 *** ZF ***
  5434 
  5435 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5436 same session:
  5437 
  5438   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5439   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5440   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5441   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5442   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5443   List      -> List_ZF
  5444   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5445 
  5446 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5447 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5448 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5449 
  5450 
  5451 *** ML ***
  5452 
  5453 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5454 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5455 
  5456 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5457 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5458 
  5459 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5460 
  5461 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5462 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5463 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5464 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5465 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5466 
  5467 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5468 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5469 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5470 
  5471 
  5472 *** System ***
  5473 
  5474 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5475 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5476 
  5477 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5478 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5479 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5480 
  5481 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5482 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5483 
  5484 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5485 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5486 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5487 
  5488 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5489 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5490 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5491 
  5492 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5493 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5494 
  5495 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5496 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5497 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5498 script.
  5499 
  5500 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5501 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5502 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5503 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5504 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5505 
  5506 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5507 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5508 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5509 
  5510 
  5511 
  5512 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5513 -----------------------------------
  5514 
  5515 *** General ***
  5516 
  5517 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5518 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5519 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5520 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5521 
  5522 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5523 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5524 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525 
  5526 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5527 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5528 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5529 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5532 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5533 quotes.
  5534 
  5535 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5536 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5537 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5538 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5539 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5540 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5541 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5542 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5543 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5544 
  5545 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5546 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5547 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5548 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5549 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5550 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5551 
  5552 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5553 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5554 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5555 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5556 
  5557 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5558 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5559 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5560 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5561 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5562 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5563 
  5564 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5565 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5566 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5567 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5568 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5569 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5570 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5571 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5572 
  5573 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5574 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5575 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5576 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5577 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5578 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5579 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5580 
  5581 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5582 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5583 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5584 
  5585 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5586 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5587 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5588 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5589 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5590 limit is imposed.
  5591 
  5592 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5593 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5594 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5595 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5596 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5597 and scalability.
  5598 
  5599 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5600 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5601 
  5602 
  5603 *** Document preparation ***
  5604 
  5605 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5606 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5607 current context.
  5608 
  5609 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5610 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5611 
  5612 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5613 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5614 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5615 
  5616 
  5617 *** Pure ***
  5618 
  5619 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5620 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5621 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5622 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5623 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5624 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5625 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5626 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5627 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5628 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5629 
  5630 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5631 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5632 sketch:
  5633 
  5634     internal compilation:
  5635         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5636     writing SML code to a file:
  5637         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5638     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5639         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5640     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5641         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5642 
  5643     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5644         method ``eval''
  5645 
  5646 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5647 
  5648 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5649 
  5650     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5651     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5652     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5653     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5654 
  5655 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5656 
  5657     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5658       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5659 
  5660     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5661       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5662 
  5663     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5664       {(target)}+
  5665         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5666 
  5667     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5668       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5669         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5670 
  5671 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5672 
  5673 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5674 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5675 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5676 codegen".
  5677 
  5678 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5679 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5680 annotations).
  5681 
  5682 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5683 syntax.
  5684 
  5685 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5686 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5687 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5688 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5689 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5690 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5691 
  5692 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5693 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5694 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5695 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5696 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5697 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5698 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5699 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5700 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5701 equations, see section "definitions".
  5702 
  5703 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5704 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5705 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5706 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5707 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5708 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5709 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5710 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5711 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5712 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5713 
  5714 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5715 configuration options:
  5716 
  5717   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5718   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5719   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5720   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5721   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5722   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5723   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5724   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5725   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5726 
  5727 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5728 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5729 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5730 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5731 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5732 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5733 order.
  5734 
  5735 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5736 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5737 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5738 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5739 context encountered later on.
  5740 
  5741 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5742 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5743 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5744 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5745 
  5746 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5747 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5748 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5749 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5750 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5751 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5752 
  5753 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5754 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5755 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5756 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5757 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5758 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5759 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5760 more permissive.
  5761 
  5762 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5763 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5764 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5765 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5766 maintainability of proof texts.
  5767 
  5768 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5769 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5770 
  5771   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5772   then guess x and y by clarify
  5773 
  5774 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5775 proof tools being involved here.
  5776 
  5777 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5778 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5779 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5780 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5781 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5782 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5783 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5784 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5785 
  5786 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5787 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5788 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5789 
  5790   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5791   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5792   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5793   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5794 
  5795 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5796 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5797 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5798 
  5799 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5800 both named and unnamed ones.
  5801 
  5802 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5803 
  5804   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5805 
  5806 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5807 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5808 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5809 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5810 
  5811 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5812 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5813 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5814 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5815 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5816 
  5817 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5818 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5819 
  5820 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5821 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5822 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5823 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5824 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5825 originally first one.
  5826 
  5827 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5828 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5829 expected.
  5830 
  5831 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5832 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5833 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5834 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5835 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5836 
  5837   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5838     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5839     obtains x where "P x"
  5840 
  5841   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5842     assumes "A & B"
  5843     obtains A and B
  5844 
  5845   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5846     assumes "A | B"
  5847     obtains
  5848       A
  5849     | B
  5850 
  5851 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5852 explicitly:
  5853 
  5854   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5855     obtains "~ thesis"
  5856 
  5857   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5858     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5859 
  5860 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5861 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5862 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5863 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5864 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5865 case_names).
  5866 
  5867 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5868 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5869 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5870 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5871 
  5872 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5873 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5874 top-level lemma.
  5875 
  5876 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5877 introduction rule (default "that").
  5878 
  5879 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5880 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5881 to occur.
  5882 
  5883 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5884 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5885 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5886 representations independently of name spaces.
  5887 
  5888 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5889 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5890 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5891 
  5892 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5893 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5894 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5895 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5896 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5897 current context.
  5898 
  5899 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5900 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5901 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5902 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5903 
  5904   axiomatization
  5905     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5906     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5907 
  5908   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5909   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5910 
  5911   abbreviation
  5912     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5913     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5914 
  5915 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5916 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5917 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5918 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5919 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5920 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5921 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5922 
  5923 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5924 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5925 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5926 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5927 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5928 
  5929 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5930 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5931 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5932 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5933 
  5934 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5935 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5936 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5937 
  5938   definition "K x _ = x"
  5939 
  5940   inductive conj for A B
  5941   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5942 
  5943 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5944 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5945 abbreviations on output.
  5946 
  5947 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5948 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5949 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5950 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5951 
  5952 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5953 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5954 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5955 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5956 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5957 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5958 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5959 
  5960 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5961 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5962 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5963 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5964 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5965 
  5966 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5967 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5968 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5969 
  5970 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5971 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5972 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5973 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5974 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5975 
  5976   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5977     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5978 
  5979 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5980 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5981 partial_order.
  5982 
  5983 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5984 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5985 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5986 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5987 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5988 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5989 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5990 examples.
  5991 
  5992 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5993 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5994 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5995 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5996 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5997 
  5998 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5999 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6000 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6001 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6002 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6003 
  6004   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6005   (induct set: foo bar)
  6006   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6007   (induct type: foo bar)
  6008 
  6009 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6010 new format.
  6011 
  6012 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6013 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6014 
  6015 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6016 considered a legacy feature.
  6017 
  6018 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6019 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6020 
  6021 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6022 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6023 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6024 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6025   
  6026 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6027 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6028 manipulating the claset.
  6029 
  6030 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6031 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6032 least one premise.
  6033 
  6034 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6035 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6036 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6037 rule steps.
  6038 
  6039 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6040 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6041 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6042 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6043 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6044 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6045 
  6046 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6047 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6048 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6049 
  6050 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6051 the graph browser tool.
  6052 
  6053 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6054 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6055 
  6056 
  6057 *** HOL ***
  6058 
  6059 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6060 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6061 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6062 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6063 multi-threading.
  6064   
  6065 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6066 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6067 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6068 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6069 work with multi-threading.
  6070 
  6071 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6072 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6073 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6074 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6075 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6076 
  6077 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6078 
  6079 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6080 equality.
  6081 
  6082 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6083 the new 'class' package:
  6084 
  6085     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6086     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6087     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6088     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6089     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6090     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6091     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6092     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6093     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6094     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6095     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6096     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6097     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6098     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6099     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6100     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6101     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6102     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6103     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6104     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6105 
  6106 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6107 
  6108 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6109 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6110 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6111 names.
  6112 
  6113 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  6114 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  6115 
  6116 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  6117 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  6118 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  6119 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  6120 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  6121 
  6122 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  6123 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  6124 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  6125 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  6126 
  6127 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  6128 
  6129 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  6130 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  6131 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  6132 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  6133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6134 
  6135 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  6136 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6137 
  6138 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  6139 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  6140 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6141 
  6142 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  6143 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  6144 
  6145 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  6146 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  6147 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  6148 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  6149 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  6150 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  6151 in the current context.
  6152 
  6153 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  6154 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  6155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6156 
  6157 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  6158 with new class dense_linear_order.
  6159 
  6160 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  6161 
  6162     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  6163     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  6164 
  6165     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  6166       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  6167     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  6168     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  6169 
  6170     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  6171     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  6172 
  6173   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  6174 
  6175     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  6176     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  6177     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  6178     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  6179     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  6180     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  6181     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  6182     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  6183     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  6184     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  6185     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  6186     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  6187     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  6188     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  6189     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  6190     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  6191     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  6192     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  6193     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  6194     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  6195     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  6196     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  6197     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  6198     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  6199     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  6200     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  6201     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  6202     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  6203     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  6204     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  6205     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  6206     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  6207     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  6208     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  6209     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  6210 
  6211     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  6212     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  6213     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  6214     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  6215     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  6216     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  6217     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  6218     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  6219     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  6220     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  6221     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  6222     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  6223     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  6224     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  6225     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  6226     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  6227     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  6228 
  6229     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  6230     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  6231     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  6232     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  6233     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  6234     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  6235     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  6236     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  6237     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  6238     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  6239     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  6240     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  6241     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  6242     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  6243     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  6244     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  6245     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  6246     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  6247     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  6248     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  6249     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6250     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  6251     join1I