NEWS
author fleury <Mathias.Fleury@mpi-inf.mpg.de>
Mon Oct 29 18:16:12 2018 +0100 (12 months ago ago)
changeset 69208 99bc66bc52a4
parent 69190 f714114b0571
child 69218 ab98f058f9dc
permissions -rw-r--r--
add reconstruction by veriT in method smt
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    13 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    14 
    15 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    16 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    17 
    18 
    19 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    20 
    21 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    22 OpenJDK 11.
    23 
    24 
    25 *** Isar ***
    26 
    27 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    28 precedence over goal/proof.
    29 
    30 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    31 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    32 
    33 
    34 *** HOL ***
    35 
    36 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
    37 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
    38 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
    39 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
    40 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
    43 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
    44 
    45 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
    46 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
    47 
    48 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
    49 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    51 
    52 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
    53 are now uniformly called f_cong_strong. 
    54 
    55 * Sledgehammer: The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote
    56 provers, has been updated.
    57 
    58 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
    59 
    60 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
    61 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
    62 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
    63 
    64   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
    65 
    66 
    67 *** ML ***
    68 
    69 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
    70 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
    71 
    72 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
    73 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
    74 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
    75 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
    76 ">" as separator. For example:
    77 
    78   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
    79   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
    80 
    81   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
    82   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
    83 
    84   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
    85   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
    86 
    87 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
    88 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
    89 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
    90 observes the official standard).
    91 
    92 
    93 *** System ***
    94 
    95 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
    96 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
    97 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
    98 
    99 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   100 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   101 is no longer required.
   102 
   103 * Support for OCaml via command-line tools "isabelle ocaml_setup",
   104 "isabelle ocaml", "isabelle ocamlc", "isabelle ocaml_opam". Existing
   105 settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and ISABELLE_OCAMLC are maintained
   106 dynamically according the state of ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT and
   107 ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION.
   108 
   109 * Support for Glasgow Haskell Compiler via command-line tools "isabelle
   110 ghc_setup", "isabelle ghci", "isabelle ghc", "isabelle ghc_stack".
   111 Existing settings variable ISABELLE_GHC is maintained dynamically
   112 according to the state of ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT and
   113 ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER.
   114 
   115 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   116 
   117 
   118 
   119 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   120 ---------------------------------
   121 
   122 *** General ***
   123 
   124 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   125 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   126 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   127 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   128 
   129 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   130 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   131 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   132 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   133 
   134 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   135 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   138 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   139 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   140 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   141 avoid this.
   142 
   143 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   144 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   145 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   146 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   147 
   148 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   149 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   150 instead.
   151 
   152 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   153 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   154 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   155 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   156 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   157 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   158 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   159 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   160 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   161 syntax), use option "-m".
   162 
   163 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   167 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   168 without specific Prover IDE management.
   169 
   170 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   171 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   172 context.
   173 
   174 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   175 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   176 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   177 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   178 
   179   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   180 
   181 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   182 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   183 
   184 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   185 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   186 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   187 output.
   188 
   189 
   190 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   191 
   192 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   193 for session management:
   194 
   195   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   196     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   197 
   198   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   199     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   200 
   201   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   202     and -S
   203 
   204   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   205     theories
   206 
   207   Examples:
   208     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   209     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   210     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   211     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   212     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   213 
   214 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   215 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   216 
   217 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   218 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   219 
   220 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   221 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   222 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   223 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   224 arguments into this format.
   225 
   226 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   227 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   228 
   229 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   230 functions (e.g. State output).
   231 
   232 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   233 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   234 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   235 
   236 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   237 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   238 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   241 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   242 
   243 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   244 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   245 Isabelle".
   246 
   247 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   248 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   249 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   250 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   251 Unicode content when saving the file.
   252 
   253 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   254 
   255 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   256 
   257 
   258 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   259 
   260 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   261 Isabelle/jEdit.
   262 
   263 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   264 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   265 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   266 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   267 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   268 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   269 
   270 
   271 *** Document preparation ***
   272 
   273 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   274 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   275 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   276 are supported:
   277 
   278   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   279   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   280   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   281 
   282 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   283 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   284 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   285 
   286 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   287 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   288 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   289 
   290 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   291 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   292 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   293 
   294 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   295 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   296 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   297 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   298 
   299 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   300 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   301 
   302 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   303 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   304 normally need to import.
   305 
   306 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   307 session name verbatim.
   308 
   309 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   310 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   311 
   312 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   313 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   314 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   317 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   318 anymore.
   319 
   320 
   321 *** Isar ***
   322 
   323 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   324 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   325 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   326 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   327 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   328 
   329 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   330 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   331 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   332 
   333 
   334 *** Pure ***
   335 
   336 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   337 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   338 
   339 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   340 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   341 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   342 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   343 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   344 
   345 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   346 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   347 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   348 duplicate constant declarations.
   349 
   350 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   351 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   352 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   353 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   354 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   355 
   356 
   357 *** HOL ***
   358 
   359 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   360 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   361 
   362 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   363 
   364   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   365 
   366   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   367     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   368     constraints instead.
   369 
   370   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   371 
   372   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   373     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   374     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   375     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   376 
   377   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   378     standard target languages.
   379 
   380   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   381     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   382     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   383     HOL string values and vice versa.
   384 
   385   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   386     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   387 
   388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   391 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   392 
   393 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   394 
   395 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   396 former axioms:
   397 
   398   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   399 
   400 are replaced by:
   401 
   402   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   403 
   404 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   405 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   406 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   407 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   408 
   409 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   410 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   411 
   412 * Clarifed theorem names:
   413 
   414   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   415   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   416 
   417 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * SMT module:
   420 
   421   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   422     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   425     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   426     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   429 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   430 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   431 
   432 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   437 
   438 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   439 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441 
   442 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   443 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   444 Renamed:
   445 
   446   span_inc ~> span_superset
   447   span_superset ~> span_base
   448   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   449 
   450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   451 
   452 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   453 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   456 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   457 
   458 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   459 
   460   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   461     input syntax
   462 
   463   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   464 
   465 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   466 
   467 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   470 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   474   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   475   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   476   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   477 
   478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   479 
   480 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   481 
   482   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   483   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   484   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   485   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   486   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   487 
   488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   491 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   492 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   493 broken proofs.
   494 
   495 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   496 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   497 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   498 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   499 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   500 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   501 
   502 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   503 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   504 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   505 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   506 examples.
   507 
   508 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   509 
   510 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   511 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   514 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   515 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   517 
   518 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   519 infix/prefix notation.
   520 
   521 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   522 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   526 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   530 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   534 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   535 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   536 
   537 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   538 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   539 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   540 
   541 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   542 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   543 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   544 
   545 
   546 *** ML ***
   547 
   548 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   549 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   550 
   551 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   552 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   553 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   554 "isabelle process".
   555 
   556 
   557 *** System ***
   558 
   559 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   560 longer supported.
   561 
   562 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   563 support has been discontinued.
   564 
   565 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   566 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   567 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   568 
   569 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   570 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   571 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   572 quotes):
   573 
   574   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   575   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   576 
   577   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   578   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   579 
   580   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   581   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   582 
   583 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   584   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   585   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   586   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   587 
   588 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   589 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   590 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   591 only.
   592 
   593 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   594 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   595 up-to-date status of a session.
   596 
   597 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   598 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   599 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   600 directory.
   601 
   602 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   603 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   604 
   605 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   606 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   607 
   608 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   609 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   610 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   611 See also the "system" manual.
   612 
   613 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   614 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   615 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   616 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   617 been discontinued.
   618 
   619 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   620 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   621 
   622 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   623 repository for the generated session files.
   624 
   625 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   626 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   627 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   628 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   629 ISABELLE_HOME).
   630 
   631 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   632 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   633 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   634 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   635 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   636 
   637 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   638 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   639 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   640 
   641 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   642 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   643 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   644 32/64 bit.
   645 
   646 
   647 
   648 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   649 ----------------------------------
   650 
   651 *** General ***
   652 
   653 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   654 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   655 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   656 
   657 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   658 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   659 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   660 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   661 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   662 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   663 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   664 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   665 
   666 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   667 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   668 just the theory base name as before).
   669 
   670 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   671 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   672 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   673 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   674 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   675 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   676 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   677 
   678 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   679 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   680 leads to the follow renamings:
   681 
   682   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   683   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   684   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   685   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   686   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   687 
   688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   691 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   692 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   693 
   694 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   695 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   696 
   697 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   698 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   699 antiquotations:
   700 
   701   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   702     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   703   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   704     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   705   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   706 
   707 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   708 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   709 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   710 tutorial on code generation.
   711 
   712 
   713 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   714 
   715 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   716 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   717 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   718 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   719 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   720 
   721 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   722 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   723 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   724 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   725 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   726 effectively always enabled.
   727 
   728 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   729 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   730 buffers.
   731 
   732 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   733 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   734 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   735 represented by a different border color.
   736 
   737 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   738 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   739 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   740 
   741 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   742 document in the default web browser.
   743 
   744 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   745 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   746 used for formal checking.
   747 
   748 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   749 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   750 enabled at all times.
   751 
   752 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   753 
   754 
   755 *** Pure ***
   756 
   757 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   758 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   759 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   760 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   763   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   764     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   765   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   766     malformed.
   767   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   768     malformed.
   769 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   772 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   773 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 
   776 *** HOL ***
   777 
   778 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   779 
   780 * SMT module:
   781   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   782     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   783     disabled by default.
   784   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   785   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   786 
   787 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   788 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   789 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791 
   792 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   793 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   794 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   798 of "Complex_Main").
   799 
   800 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   801 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   802 
   803 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   805 
   806 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   807 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
   810 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   811 
   812 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
   813 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
   814 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
   815 
   816 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
   817 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
   820 
   821 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
   822 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823 
   824 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
   825 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
   826 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
   827 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829 * Generalized some facts:
   830     measure_induct_rule
   831     measure_induct
   832     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
   833     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
   834     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
   835     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
   836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   837 
   838 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
   839 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
   840 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
   841 euclidean size.
   842 
   843 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
   844   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
   845   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
   846     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
   847     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
   848   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
   849     available as "bezout_coefficients".
   850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
   853 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
   854 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
   855 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
   858   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
   859   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
   860 
   861 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
   862 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   863 
   864 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
   865 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
   866 
   867 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
   868 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
   869 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
   872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
   875 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
   876 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
   877 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
   878 
   879 syntax (ASCII)
   880   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
   881   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
   882   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
   883 
   884 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
   885 multisets have been renamed:
   886 
   887   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
   888   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
   889 
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
   893 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
   894 
   895 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
   896 
   897 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
   898 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
   899 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
   900 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
   901 
   902 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
   903 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
   904 
   905 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
   906 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
   907 
   908 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
   909 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
   910 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
   911 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
   912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 
   915 *** System ***
   916 
   917 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
   918 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
   919 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
   920 
   921 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
   922 "Application File Format" in the sense of
   923 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
   924 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
   925 
   926 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
   927 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
   928 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
   929 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
   930 
   931 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
   932 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
   933 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
   934 unchanged.
   935 
   936 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
   937 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   938 
   939 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
   940 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
   941 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
   942 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
   943 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
   944 
   945 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
   946 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
   947 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
   948 
   949 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
   950 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
   951 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
   952 
   953 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
   954 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
   955 
   956   isabelle imports -I -a
   957   isabelle imports -U -a
   958   isabelle imports -U -i -a
   959   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
   960 
   961 
   962 
   963 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
   964 -------------------------------------
   965 
   966 *** General ***
   967 
   968 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
   969   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
   970     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
   972     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
   973     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
   974     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
   975     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
   976 
   977 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
   978 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
   979 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
   980 
   981 bundle foo
   982 begin
   983   declare a [simp]
   984   declare b [intro]
   985 end
   986 
   987 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
   988 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
   989 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
   990 
   991 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
   992 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
   993 discontinued.
   994 
   995 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
   996 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
   997 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
   998 
   999 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1000 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1001 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1002 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1003 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1004 
  1005 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1006 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1007 
  1008 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1009 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1010 
  1011 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1012 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1013 examples.
  1014 
  1015 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1016 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1017 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1018 
  1019 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1020 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1021 
  1022 
  1023 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1024 
  1025 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1026 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1027 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1028 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1029 
  1030 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1031 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1032 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1033 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1034 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1035 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1036 
  1037 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1038 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1039 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1040 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1041 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1042 
  1043 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1044 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1045 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1046 
  1047 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1048 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1049 
  1050 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1051 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1052 
  1053 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1054 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1055 
  1056 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1057 
  1058 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1059 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1060 systematic renaming.
  1061 
  1062 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1063 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1064 theorem statement.
  1065 
  1066 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1067 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1068 
  1069 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1070 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1071 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1072 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1073 
  1074 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1075 following independent stages:
  1076 
  1077   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1078   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1079   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1080   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1081 
  1082 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1083 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1084 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1085 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1086 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1087 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1088 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1089 
  1090 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1091 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1092 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1093 
  1094 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1095 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1096 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1097 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1098 
  1099 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1100 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1101 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1102 
  1103 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1104 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1105 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1106 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1107 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1108 old keymaps.
  1109 
  1110 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1111 and diverse:
  1112 
  1113   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1114   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1115   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1116 
  1117 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1118 have to be changed.
  1119 
  1120 
  1121 *** Document preparation ***
  1122 
  1123 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1124 
  1125 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1126 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1127 
  1128 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1129 this allows special forms of document output.
  1130 
  1131 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1132 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1133 derivatives.
  1134 
  1135 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1136 
  1137 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1138 Isabelle2015).
  1139 
  1140 
  1141 *** Isar ***
  1142 
  1143 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1144 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1145 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1146 
  1147 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1148 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1149 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1150 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1151 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1154 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1155 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1156 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1157 
  1158 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1159 context.
  1160 
  1161 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1162 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1163 
  1164 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1165 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1166 
  1167 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1168 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1169 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1170 
  1171 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1172 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1176 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1177 definitions.
  1178 
  1179 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1180 expression, e.g.
  1181 
  1182   (use facts in simp)
  1183   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1184 
  1185 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1186 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1187 
  1188 
  1189 *** Pure ***
  1190 
  1191 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1192 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1193 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1194 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1195 
  1196 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1197 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1198 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1199 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1200 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1201 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1202 
  1203 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1204 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1205 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1206 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1207 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1208 types where this is really intended.
  1209 
  1210 
  1211 *** HOL ***
  1212 
  1213 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1214 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1215 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1216 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1217 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1218 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1219 
  1220 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1221 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1222 
  1223 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1224 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1225 
  1226 * Sledgehammer:
  1227   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1228   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1229 
  1230 * (Co)datatype package:
  1231   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1232     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1233     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1234     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1235   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1236     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1237   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1238     to the map function.
  1239   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1240   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1241        terms of map and set
  1242        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1243   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1244        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1245     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1246   - Renamed lemmas:
  1247       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1248       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1250   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1251   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1252     equivalent) form.
  1253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1256 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1257 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1258 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1259 
  1260 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1261 
  1262   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1263   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1264 
  1265 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1266 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1267 eliminated altogether.
  1268 
  1269 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1270 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1271 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1272 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1273 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1274 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1275 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1276 
  1277 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1279 
  1280 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1281 
  1282     setsum ~> sum
  1283     setprod ~> prod
  1284     listsum ~> sum_list
  1285     listprod ~> prod_list
  1286 
  1287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1290     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1291     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1292     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1293     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1294     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1295     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1296     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1297     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1298     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1299     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1300     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1301     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1302     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1303     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1304     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1305     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1306     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1307     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1308     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1309     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1310     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1311     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1312     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1313     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1314     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1315     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1316     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1317     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1318     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1320 
  1321 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1322 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1323 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1326 
  1327 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1328 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1329 
  1330   - Logical representation:
  1331     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1332     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1333       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1334     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1335       are non-canonical.
  1336   - Printing and parsing:
  1337     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1338       (as before).
  1339     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1340     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1341       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1342       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1343     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1344       printed as their logical representation.
  1345   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1346     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1347   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1348 
  1349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1350 
  1351 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1352 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1353 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1354 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1355 
  1356 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1357 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1358 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1359 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1360 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1361 
  1362 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1363 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1364 
  1365 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1366 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1367 
  1368 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1369 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1370 interface for the generated code.
  1371 
  1372 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1373 spelt out explicitly.
  1374 
  1375 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1376 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1377 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1378 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1379 
  1380 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1381 products.
  1382 
  1383 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1384 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1385 
  1386 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1387 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1388 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1389 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1390 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1391 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1392 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1394 
  1395 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1396 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1397 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1403   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1404   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1405 
  1406 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1407   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1408     le_add_same_cancel1
  1409     le_add_same_cancel2
  1410     less_add_same_cancel1
  1411     less_add_same_cancel2
  1412     add_le_same_cancel1
  1413     add_le_same_cancel2
  1414     add_less_same_cancel1
  1415     add_less_same_cancel2
  1416 
  1417 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1418   superseeded by a more general version:
  1419     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1420     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1421     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1422     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1423     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1424     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1425     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1426     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1430 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1433 
  1434 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1435 
  1436   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1437   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1438 
  1439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1445 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1446 A)".
  1447 
  1448 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1451 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1452 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1453 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454 
  1455 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1456 dioid.
  1457 
  1458 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1459 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1460 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1461 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1464 of a more general type also:
  1465   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1466   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1467   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1468   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1469   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1470   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1471   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1472   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1473   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1474   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1475   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1476   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1477   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1478   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1479   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1480   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1481   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1482   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1483   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1484   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1485   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1486   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1487   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1488   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1489   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1490   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1491   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1492   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1493   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1494   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1495   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1496   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1497   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1498   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1499   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1500   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1501   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1502   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1503   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1504   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1505   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1506   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1507   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1508   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1509   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1510   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1511   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1512   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1513   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1514   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1515   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1516   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1517   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1518   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1519   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1520   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1521   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1522   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1523   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1524   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1525   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1526   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1527   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1528   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1529   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1530   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1531   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1532   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1533   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1534   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1535   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1536   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1537   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1538   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1539   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1540   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1541   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1542   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1543   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1544   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1545   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1546   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1547   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1548   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1549   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1550   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1551   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1552   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1556 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1559 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1560 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1561 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1562 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1563 
  1564 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1565 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1566 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1567 once.
  1568 
  1569 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1570 set_mset rather than count.
  1571 
  1572   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1573     by default.
  1574 
  1575   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1576     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1577 
  1578   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1579     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1580 
  1581   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1582     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1583 
  1584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585 
  1586 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1587 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1588 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1589 underscores.
  1590 
  1591 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1592 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1593 relation.
  1594 
  1595 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1596 everywhere fix bijections.
  1597 
  1598 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1599 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1600 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1601 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1602 
  1603 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1604 
  1605 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1606 
  1607 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1608 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1609 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1610 
  1611 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1612 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1613 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1614 
  1615 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1616 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1617 
  1618 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1619 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1620 domain.
  1621 
  1622 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1623 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1626   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1627 
  1628 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1629 Probability Mass Functions.
  1630 
  1631 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1632 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1633 folding over a list in random order.
  1634 
  1635 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1636 subprobability distributions.
  1637 
  1638 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1639 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1640 
  1641     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1642     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1643     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1644     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1645     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1646     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1647     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1648     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1649     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1650     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1651     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1652     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1653     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1654     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1655     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1656     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1657     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1658     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1659     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1660     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1661     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1662     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1663 
  1664 Some functions have been renamed:
  1665     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1666 
  1667 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1668     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1669     #\<subset># ~> <
  1670     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1671     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1675 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1676 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1677 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1678 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1681 been renamed:
  1682 
  1683     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1684     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1685     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1686     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1687     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1688     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1689     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1690     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1691     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1692 
  1693     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1694     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1695     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1696     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1697     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1698     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1699     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1700     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1701     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1702     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1703     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705 
  1706 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1708 
  1709 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1710 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1711 
  1712     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1713     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1714     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1715     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1716     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1717     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1718     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1719     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1720     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1721     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1722     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1723     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1724     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1725     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1726     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1727     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1728     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1729 
  1730 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1731 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1732 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1733 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1734 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1735 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1736 
  1737 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1738 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1742 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1743 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1746 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1747 removed or changed:
  1748 
  1749   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1750   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1751   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1752   union_single_eq_diff
  1753   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1754   diff_single_eq_union
  1755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1758 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1759 
  1760   mset_add
  1761   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1762   diff_single_eq_union
  1763   union_single_eq_diff
  1764   union_single_eq_member
  1765   add_eq_conv_diff
  1766   insert_noteq_member
  1767   add_eq_conv_ex
  1768   multi_member_split
  1769   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1770   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1771   mset_subset_insertD
  1772   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1773   insert_union_subset_iff
  1774   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1775   inter_add_left1
  1776   inter_add_left2
  1777   inter_add_right1
  1778   inter_add_right2
  1779   sup_union_left1
  1780   sup_union_left2
  1781   sup_union_right1
  1782   sup_union_right2
  1783   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1784   multi_nonempty_split
  1785   mset_insort
  1786   mset_update
  1787   mult1I
  1788   less_add
  1789   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1790   rel_mset_Zero
  1791   msed_map_invL
  1792   msed_map_invR
  1793   msed_rel_invL
  1794   msed_rel_invR
  1795   le_multiset_right_total
  1796   multiset_induct
  1797   multiset_induct2_size
  1798   multiset_induct2
  1799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1802 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1803 element:
  1804 
  1805   image_mset
  1806   mset
  1807   replicate_mset
  1808   mult1
  1809   pred_mset
  1810   rel_mset'
  1811   mset_insort
  1812 
  1813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1814 
  1815 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  1816 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  1817 
  1818   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  1819   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  1820   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  1821   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  1822   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  1823   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1824   count_single [simp] ~> []
  1825   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1826   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  1827   size_single [simp] ~> []
  1828   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1829   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1830   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1831   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1832   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  1833   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  1834   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  1835   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  1836   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  1837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  1840 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  1841 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  1842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  1845 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  1846 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1847 
  1848 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  1849 multisets:
  1850 
  1851   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  1852   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  1853 
  1854 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  1855 and union of multisets have been changed:
  1856 
  1857   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  1858   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  1859 
  1860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  1863 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  1864 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  1867 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  1868 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  1869 
  1870 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  1871 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  1872 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  1873 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  1874 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  1875 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  1878 the following renaming
  1879 
  1880   prefixeq -> prefix
  1881   prefix -> strict_prefix
  1882   suffixeq -> suffix
  1883   suffix -> strict_suffix
  1884 
  1885 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  1886 
  1887 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  1888 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  1889 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  1890 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  1891 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  1892 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  1895 theories.
  1896 
  1897 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  1898 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  1899 
  1900 
  1901 *** ML ***
  1902 
  1903 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  1904 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  1905 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  1906 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  1907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1908 
  1909 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  1910 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  1911 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  1912 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  1913 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1914 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  1915 superseded by General.Div.
  1916 
  1917 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  1918 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1919 
  1920 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  1921 with approximative output quality.
  1922 
  1923 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  1924 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  1927 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  1928 requiring separate files.
  1929 
  1930 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  1931 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  1932 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  1933 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  1934 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  1935 
  1936 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  1937 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  1938 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  1939 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  1940 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  1941 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  1942 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1943 
  1944 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  1945 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  1946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  1949 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  1950 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  1951 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1952 
  1953 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  1954 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1955 
  1956 
  1957 *** System ***
  1958 
  1959 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  1960 
  1961 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  1962 much less disk space.
  1963 
  1964 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  1965 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  1966 particular:
  1967 
  1968   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  1969     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  1970   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  1971   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  1972 
  1973 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  1974 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  1975 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  1978 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  1979 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  1980 return code 1.
  1981 
  1982 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  1983 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  1984 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  1985 
  1986 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  1987 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  1988 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  1989 
  1990 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  1991 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  1992 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  1993 by default).
  1994 
  1995 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  1996 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  1997 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  1998 resulting log files.
  1999 
  2000 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2001 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2002 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2003 implicit default via option -p.
  2004 
  2005 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2006 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2007 
  2008 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2009 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2010 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2011 
  2012 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2013 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2014 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2015 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2016 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2017 
  2018 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2019 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2020 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2021 
  2022 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2023 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2024 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2025 
  2026 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2027 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2028 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2029 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2030 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2031 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2032 been discontinued.
  2033 
  2034 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2035 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2036 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2037 
  2038 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2039 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2040 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2041 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2042 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2043 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2044 
  2045 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2046 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2047 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2048 connection).
  2049 
  2050 
  2051 
  2052 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2053 -----------------------------------
  2054 
  2055 *** General ***
  2056 
  2057 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2058 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2059 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2060 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2061 examples that do require HOL.
  2062 
  2063 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2064 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2065 
  2066 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2067 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2068 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2069 has been removed (see below).
  2070 
  2071 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2072 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2073 
  2074 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2075 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2076 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2077 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2078 
  2079 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2080 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2081 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2082 meaning.
  2083 
  2084 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2085 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2086 to update old sources.
  2087 
  2088 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2089 
  2090   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2091   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2092   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2093   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2094 
  2095 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2096 accordingly.
  2097 
  2098 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2099 'theorem'.
  2100 
  2101 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2102 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2103 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2104 
  2105 
  2106 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2107 
  2108 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2109 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2110 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2111 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2112 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2113 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2114 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2115 any effect on the running ML program.
  2116 
  2117 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2118 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2119 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2120 update.
  2121 
  2122 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2123 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2124 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2125 
  2126 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2127 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2128 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2129 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2130 visibility.
  2131 
  2132 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2133 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2134 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2135 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2136 panel.
  2137 
  2138 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2139 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2140 
  2141 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2142 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2143 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2144 
  2145 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2146 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2147 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2148 
  2149 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2150 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2151 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2152 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2153 
  2154 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2155 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2156 the editor.
  2157 
  2158 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2159 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2160 
  2161 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2162 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2163 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2164 instead.
  2165 
  2166 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2167 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2168 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2169 
  2170 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2171 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2172 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2173 
  2174 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2175 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2176 
  2177 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2178 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2179 
  2180 
  2181 *** Document preparation ***
  2182 
  2183 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2184 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2185 
  2186 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2187 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2188 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2189 
  2190 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2191 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2192 follows:
  2193 
  2194   \<^item>  itemize
  2195   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2196   \<^descr>  description
  2197 
  2198 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2199 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2200 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2201 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2202 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2203 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2204 
  2205 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2206 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2207 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2208 
  2209 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2210 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2211 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2212 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2213 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2214 
  2215 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2216 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2217 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2218 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2219 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2220 
  2221 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2222 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2223 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2224 
  2225 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2226 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2227 
  2228 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2229 
  2230 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2231 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2232 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2233 
  2234 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2235 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2236 
  2237 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2238 entities of the Isar language.
  2239 
  2240 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2241 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2242 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2243 
  2244 
  2245 *** Isar ***
  2246 
  2247 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2248 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2249 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2250 example:
  2251 
  2252   have result: "C x y"
  2253     if "A x" and "B y"
  2254     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2255     <proof>
  2256 
  2257 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2258 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2259 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2260 
  2261   {
  2262     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2263     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2264     have "C x y" <proof>
  2265   }
  2266   note result = this
  2267 
  2268 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2269 instead of 'assume' above.
  2270 
  2271 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2272 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2273 
  2274   assume result: "C x y"
  2275     if "A x" and "B y"
  2276     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2277 
  2278 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2279 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2280 
  2281 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2282 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2283 example:
  2284 
  2285   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2286 
  2287 is equivalent to:
  2288 
  2289   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2290 
  2291 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2292 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2293 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2294 follows:
  2295 
  2296   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2297 
  2298 or:
  2299 
  2300   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2301 
  2302 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2303 
  2304   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2305 
  2306 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2307 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2308 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2309 of the local context elements yet.
  2310 
  2311 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2312 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2313 
  2314   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2315   then have something
  2316   proof cases
  2317     case a
  2318     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2319   next
  2320     case b
  2321     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2322   next
  2323     case c
  2324     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2325   qed
  2326 
  2327 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2328 
  2329   case a: (c xs)
  2330   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2331 
  2332 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2333 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2334 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2335 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2336 and always put attributes in front.
  2337 
  2338 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2339 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2340 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2341 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2342 
  2343 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2344 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2345 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2346 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2347 
  2348   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2349     supply [simp] = a
  2350   proof
  2351     show A by simp
  2352   next
  2353     show A by simp
  2354   qed
  2355 
  2356 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2357 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2358 
  2359 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2360 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2361 
  2362 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2363 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2364 
  2365 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2366 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2367 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2368 manual.
  2369 
  2370 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2371 ('apply' scripts).
  2372 
  2373 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2374 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2375 example:
  2376 
  2377 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2378   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2379 proof goal_cases
  2380   case (1 x)
  2381   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2382 next
  2383   case (2 y z)
  2384   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2385 qed
  2386 
  2387 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2388   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2389 proof goal_cases
  2390   case prems: 1
  2391   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2392 next
  2393   case prems: 2
  2394   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2395 qed
  2396 
  2397 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2398 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2399 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2400 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2401 
  2402 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2403 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2404 
  2405 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2406 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2407 
  2408 
  2409 *** Pure ***
  2410 
  2411 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2412 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2413 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2414 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2415 
  2416 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2417 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2420 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2421 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2422 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2423 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2424 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2425 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2426 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2427 
  2428   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2429   begin
  2430     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2431   end
  2432 
  2433   locale morphism =
  2434     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2435     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2436   begin
  2437     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2438   end
  2439 
  2440 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2441 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2442 
  2443 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2444 'defines'.
  2445 
  2446 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2447 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2450 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2451 
  2452 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2453 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2456 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2457 exploited.
  2458 
  2459 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2460 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2461 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2462 
  2463 
  2464 *** HOL ***
  2465 
  2466 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2467 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2468 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2469 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2470 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2471 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2472 
  2473 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2474 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2475 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2476 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2477 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2478 
  2479 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2480 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2481 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2482 simplify porting old theories:
  2483 
  2484   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2485 
  2486   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2487 
  2488   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2489   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2490 
  2491   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2492 
  2493   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2494   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2495 
  2496   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2497 
  2498   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2499     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2500 
  2501   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2502   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2503   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2504 
  2505   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2506   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2507   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2508 
  2509 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2510 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2511 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2512 
  2513 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2514 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2515 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2516 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2517 
  2518 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2519 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2520 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2521 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2524 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2525 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2526 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2529 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2530 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2532 
  2533 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2534 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2535 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2536 
  2537 Consolidated facts:
  2538   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2539   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2540   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2541   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2542   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2543   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2544   split_split ~> prod.split
  2545   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2546   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2547   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2548   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2549   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2550   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2551   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2552   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2553   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2554   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2555   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2556   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2557   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2558   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2559   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2560   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2561   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2562   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2563   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2564   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2565   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2566   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2567   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2568   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2569   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2570   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2571   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2572   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2573 
  2574 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2575   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2576   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2577   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2578   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2579 
  2580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2581 
  2582 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2583 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2584 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2585 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2586 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2587 
  2588 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2589   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2590   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2591   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2592   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2593   real_of_one of_int_1
  2594   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2595   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2596   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2597   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2598   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2599   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2600   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2601   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2602   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2603   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2604   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2605   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2606   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2607   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2608   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2609   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2610   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2611 
  2612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2615 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2618 
  2619 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Sledgehammer:
  2622   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2623   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2624     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2625   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2626   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2627   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2628     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2630 
  2631 * Nitpick:
  2632   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2633   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2634   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2635   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2636   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2637 
  2638 * (Co)datatype package:
  2639   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2640     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2641   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2642   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2643     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2645     being defined.
  2646   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2647 
  2648 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2649 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2650 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2651 
  2652 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2653 
  2654 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2655 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2656 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2657 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2658 
  2659 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2663 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2664 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2665 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2666 
  2667 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2668 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2669 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2670 
  2671 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2672 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2673 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2674 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2675 
  2676 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2677 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2678 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2679 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2680 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2681 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2682 during instantiation.
  2683 
  2684 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2685 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2686 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2689 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2690 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2691 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2692 
  2693   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2694   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2695 
  2696 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698 * Library/Multiset:
  2699   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2700       < ~> <#
  2701       > ~> >#
  2702       <= ~> <=#
  2703       >= ~> >=#
  2704       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2705       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2706     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2708       \<subset>#
  2709       \<subseteq>#
  2710       \<supset>#
  2711       \<supseteq>#
  2712   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2713     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2714     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2715     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2716     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2717     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2718     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2719   - Renamed conversions:
  2720       multiset_of ~> mset
  2721       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2722       set_of ~> set_mset
  2723     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2724   - Renamed lemmas:
  2725       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2726       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2727       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2728     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2729   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2730     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2731     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2732     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2733 
  2734 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2735 
  2736 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2737 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2738 chain-complete partial orders.
  2739 
  2740 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2741 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2742 
  2743 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2744 periodic functions.
  2745 
  2746 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2747 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2748 GCD.
  2749 
  2750 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2751 
  2752 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2753 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2754 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2755 
  2756 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2757 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2758 
  2759 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2760 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2761 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2762 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2763 
  2764 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2765 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2766 
  2767 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2768 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2769 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2770 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2771 properties.
  2772 
  2773 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2774 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2775 
  2776 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2777 structures.
  2778 
  2779 
  2780 *** ML ***
  2781 
  2782 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2783 system are available:
  2784 
  2785   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2786   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2787   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2788 
  2789 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2790 
  2791 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2792 Isar proof method.
  2793 
  2794 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2795 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2796 breaks.
  2797 
  2798 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2799 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2800 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801 
  2802 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2803 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2804 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2805 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2806 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2809 
  2810   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  2811   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  2812 
  2813   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  2814   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  2815 
  2816 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  2817 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  2818 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  2819 
  2820 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  2821 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  2822 instead (with proper context).
  2823 
  2824 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  2825 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  2826 
  2827 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  2828 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  2829 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  2830 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  2831 the proof context discipline.
  2832 
  2833 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  2834 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  2835 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  2836 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  2837 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839 
  2840 *** System ***
  2841 
  2842 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  2843 
  2844 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  2845 conflations:
  2846 
  2847     hence  ~>  then have
  2848     thus   ~>  then show
  2849 
  2850 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  2851 maintainability of proofs.
  2852 
  2853 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  2854 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  2855 performance.
  2856 
  2857 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  2858 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  2859 
  2860     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  2861 
  2862 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  2863 space.
  2864 
  2865 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  2866 platforms as follows.
  2867 
  2868   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  2869     associated with the main app bundle
  2870 
  2871   - isabelle jedit: settings
  2872     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  2873     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2874 
  2875   - isabelle build: settings
  2876     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2877 
  2878 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  2879 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  2880 
  2881 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  2882 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  2883 required after change.
  2884 
  2885 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  2886 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  2887 
  2888 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  2889 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  2890 
  2891 
  2892 
  2893 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  2894 ------------------------------
  2895 
  2896 *** General ***
  2897 
  2898 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  2899 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  2900 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  2901 
  2902   context
  2903   begin
  2904 
  2905   private definition ...
  2906   private lemma ...
  2907 
  2908   qualified definition ...
  2909   qualified lemma ...
  2910 
  2911   lemma ...
  2912   theorem ...
  2913 
  2914   end
  2915 
  2916 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  2917 naming policy.
  2918 
  2919 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  2920 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  2921 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  2922 
  2923 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  2924 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  2925 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  2926 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  2927 
  2928 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  2929 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  2930 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  2931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  2934 theory context.
  2935 
  2936 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  2937 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  2938 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  2939 
  2940 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  2941 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  2942 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  2943 sources.
  2944 
  2945 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  2946 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  2947 
  2948 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  2949 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  2950 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  2951 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  2952 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  2953 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  2954 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  2955 
  2956 
  2957 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2958 
  2959 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  2960 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  2961 
  2962 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  2963 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  2964 in the buffer.
  2965 
  2966 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  2967 marker, SideKick parser.
  2968 
  2969 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  2970 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  2971 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  2972 
  2973 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  2974 Options / Text Area).
  2975 
  2976 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  2977 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  2978 
  2979 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  2980 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  2981 
  2982 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  2983 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  2984 
  2985 
  2986 *** Document preparation ***
  2987 
  2988 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  2989 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  2990 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  2991 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  2992 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  2993 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  2994 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  2995 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  2998 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  2999 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3000 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3001 
  3002 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3003 style.
  3004 
  3005 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3006 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3007 
  3008 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3009 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3010 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3011 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3012 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3013 
  3014 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3015 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3016 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3017 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3018 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3019 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3020 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3023 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3024 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 
  3028 *** Pure ***
  3029 
  3030 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3031 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3032 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3033 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3034 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3035 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3036 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3037 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3038 
  3039 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3040 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3041 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3042 
  3043 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3044 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3045 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3046 different index.
  3047 
  3048 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3049 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3050 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3051 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3052 
  3053 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3054 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3055 token category instead.
  3056 
  3057 
  3058 *** HOL ***
  3059 
  3060 * New (co)datatype package:
  3061   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3062     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3063     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3064     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3065     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066   - Renamed theorems:
  3067       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3068       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3069       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3070       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3071       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3072       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3073       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3074       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3075       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3076       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3077       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3078       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3079       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3080     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3082     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3083     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3085     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3086     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3088     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3089     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3090     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3091     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3092     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3093     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094   - Renamed theories:
  3095       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3096       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3097       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3098       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3099       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3100       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3101     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3103     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3104     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3105     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3106     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3107     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3108     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3109     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3110     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3111   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3112     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3113     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3114     rules.
  3115 
  3116 * Old datatype package:
  3117   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3118     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3119     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3120     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3121     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122   - Renamed theorems:
  3123       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3124     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3125   - Renamed theory:
  3126       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3127     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Nitpick:
  3130   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3131     operations.
  3132 
  3133 * Sledgehammer:
  3134   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3135     default.
  3136   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3137     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3138   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3139     Removed sub-command:
  3140       min
  3141   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3142     dramatically improved.
  3143   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3144 
  3145 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3146   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3147     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3148     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3149     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3150     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3151     point to it.
  3152     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3154     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3155   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3156     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3157   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3158     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3159 
  3160 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3161 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3162 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3163 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3164 
  3165 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3166 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3167 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3170 
  3171 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3172 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3173 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3174 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3177 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3183 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3184 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3187 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3190 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3191 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3192 
  3193 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3194 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3195 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3196 needed.
  3197 
  3198 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3199 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3200 
  3201 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3202 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3203 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3204 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3205 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3206 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3207 
  3208 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3209 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3210 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3211 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3212 
  3213 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3214 type class hierarchy:
  3215   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3216   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3217   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3218   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3219 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3220 
  3221 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3222   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3223   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3224 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3227 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3228 
  3229 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3230   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3231   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3232   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3233 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3236 and part of theory Main.
  3237   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3244 Fact rename:
  3245     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3249 
  3250 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3251 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3252 
  3253 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3254 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3255 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3256 
  3257 * Library/Multiset:
  3258   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3259   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3260     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3261   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3262       <# ~> #<#
  3263       <=# ~> #<=#
  3264       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3265       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3266     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3268       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3269       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3270     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271   - Renamed
  3272       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3273       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3274       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3275     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3277   - Added attributes:
  3278       image_mset.id [simp]
  3279       image_mset_id [simp]
  3280       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3281       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3282       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3283       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3284       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3285       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3286     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3289 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3290 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3291 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3294 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3295 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3296 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3297 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3298 examples.
  3299 
  3300 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3301   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3302   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3303   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3304     projection
  3305 
  3306 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3307 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3308 
  3309 
  3310 *** ML ***
  3311 
  3312 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3313 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3314 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3315 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3316 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3317 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3318 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3319 
  3320 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3321 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3322 
  3323 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3324 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3325 
  3326 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3330 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3331 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3332 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3333 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3334 nested.
  3335 
  3336 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3337 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3340 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3341 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3345 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3346 Thm.term_of etc.
  3347 
  3348 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3349 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3350 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3353 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3354 
  3355 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3356 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3357 
  3358 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3359 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3360 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3361 
  3362 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3363 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3364 
  3365 
  3366 *** System ***
  3367 
  3368 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3369 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3370 
  3371 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3372 
  3373 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3374 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3375 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3376 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3380 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3381 
  3382 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3383 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3384 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3385 
  3386 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3387 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3388 
  3389 
  3390 
  3391 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3392 ---------------------------------
  3393 
  3394 *** General ***
  3395 
  3396 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3397 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3398 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3399 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3400 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3401 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3402 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3403 some examples.
  3404 
  3405 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3406 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3407 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3408 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3409 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3410 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3411 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3412 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3413 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3414 
  3415 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3416 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3417 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3418 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3419 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3420 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3421 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3422 proof tools.
  3423 
  3424 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3425 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3426 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3427 
  3428 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3429 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3430 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3431 
  3432 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3433 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3434 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3435 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3438 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3439 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3443 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3444 
  3445 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3446 not check existence within the file-system.
  3447 
  3448 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3449 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3450 
  3451 
  3452 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3453 
  3454 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3455 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3456 buffer.
  3457 
  3458 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3459 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3460 
  3461 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3462 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3463 
  3464 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3465 auxiliary ML files.
  3466 
  3467 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3468 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3469 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3470 
  3471 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3472 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3473 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3474 
  3475 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3476 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3477 
  3478 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3479 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3480 caret".
  3481 
  3482 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3483 completion popup and context-menu.
  3484 
  3485 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3486 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3487 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3488 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3489 
  3490 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3491 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3492 
  3493 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3494 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3495 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3496 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3497 
  3498 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3499 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3500 
  3501 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3502 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3503 
  3504 * Improved monitor panel.
  3505 
  3506 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3507 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3508 
  3509 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3510 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3511 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3512 
  3513 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3514 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3515 within the context.
  3516 
  3517 
  3518 *** Pure ***
  3519 
  3520 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3521 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3522 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3523 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3524 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3525 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3526 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3527 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3528 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3529 
  3530 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3531 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3532 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3533 renaming needs to be applied:
  3534 
  3535   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3536   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3537   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3538   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3539   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3540 
  3541 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3542 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3543 old constants:
  3544 
  3545 setup {*
  3546   fn thy => thy
  3547     |> Sign.root_path
  3548     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3549     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3550     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3551     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3552 *}
  3553 
  3554 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3555 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3556 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3557 
  3558 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3559 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3560 instantiated theorem.
  3561 
  3562 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3563 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3564 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3565 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3566 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3567 
  3568   attribute_setup standard =
  3569     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3570 
  3571 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3572 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3573 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3574 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3575 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3576 
  3577 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3578 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3579 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3580 
  3581 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3582 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3583 
  3584 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3585 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3586 
  3587 
  3588 *** HOL ***
  3589 
  3590 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3591 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592 
  3593 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3595 
  3596 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3600 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3606 with the given constants.
  3607 
  3608 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3609 operations on records.
  3610 
  3611 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3612 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3617 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3618 
  3619 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3622 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3623 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3624 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3625 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3628 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3631   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3632   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3633   part of theory "Main".
  3634 
  3635   Theory renamings:
  3636     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3637     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3638     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3639     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3640     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3641     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3642     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3643     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3644     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3645     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3646     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3647     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3648     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3649     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3650     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3651     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3652     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3653     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3654     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3655     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3656     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3657     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3658 
  3659   New theories:
  3660     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3661     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3662     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3663     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3664     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3665 
  3666   Discontinued theories:
  3667     BNF/BNF.thy
  3668     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3669 
  3670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * New (co)datatype package:
  3673   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3674   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3675     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3676   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3677     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3678   - Renamed commands:
  3679       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3680       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3681       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3682     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3684     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3685     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3687     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3688     using "prim(co)rec".
  3689     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3691     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3692     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3694     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3695     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3696     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * Old datatype package:
  3699   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3700     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3701     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3702   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3703     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3704     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3707   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3708   BNF-based datatype package.
  3709 
  3710   Renamed constants:
  3711     Option.set ~> set_option
  3712     Option.map ~> map_option
  3713     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3714 
  3715   Renamed theorems:
  3716     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3717     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3718     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3719     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3720     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3721     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3722     map.simps ~> list.map
  3723     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3724     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3725     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3726 
  3727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3730     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3731     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3732     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3733     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3734     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3735     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3736     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3737     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3738     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3739     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3740 
  3741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3744   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3745   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3746   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3747   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3748     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3749     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3750       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3751       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3752       automatically
  3753     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3754     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3755       automatically for datatypes
  3756   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3757     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3758       more
  3759       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3761       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3762       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3764       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3765       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3767     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3769     form
  3770     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3772     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3774     Code_Numeral.natural
  3775     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3777     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3780 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3781 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3782 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3783 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3784 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3785 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3786 
  3787 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3788 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3789 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3790 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3791 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3792 
  3793 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3794 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3795 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3796 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3797 
  3798 * Sledgehammer:
  3799   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3800   - MaSh overhaul:
  3801     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3802       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3803     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3804       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3805       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3806       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3807   - New option:
  3808       smt_proofs
  3809   - Renamed options:
  3810       isar_compress ~> compress
  3811       isar_try0 ~> try0
  3812 
  3813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3814 
  3815 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  3816 
  3817 * Nitpick:
  3818   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  3819     take infinite values.
  3820   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  3821     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  3822   - Removed "std" option.
  3823   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  3824     "hide_types".
  3825 
  3826 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  3827 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  3830 
  3831 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  3832   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  3833   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  3834     SUP instead uniformly.
  3835   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  3836     or SUP and Sup.
  3837   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  3838   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  3839   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  3840     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  3841     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  3842 
  3843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3844 
  3845 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  3846 
  3847 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  3848 
  3849   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3850   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3851   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3852   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3853 
  3854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  3857 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  3858 
  3859 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  3860 
  3861     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  3862     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  3863     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  3864     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  3865     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  3866     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  3867     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  3868     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  3869     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  3870     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  3871     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  3872     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  3873     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  3874     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  3875     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3876     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3877     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  3878     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  3879     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  3880     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  3881     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  3882     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  3883     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  3884     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  3885     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  3886     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  3887     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  3888     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  3889     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  3890     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  3891     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  3892     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  3893     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  3894     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  3895     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  3896     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  3897     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  3898     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  3899     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  3900     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  3901     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  3902     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  3903     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  3904     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3905     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3906     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  3907     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  3908     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  3909     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  3910     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  3911     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  3912     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  3913     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  3914     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  3915     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  3916     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  3917     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  3918     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  3919     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  3920 
  3921   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  3922   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  3923   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  3924     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  3925 
  3926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  3929 
  3930   Fact consolidations:
  3931     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  3932     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  3933     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  3934     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  3935     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  3936     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  3937     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  3938     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  3939     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  3940     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  3941     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  3942     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  3943     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  3944     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  3945     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  3946     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  3947     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  3948     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  3949     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  3950     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  3951     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  3952     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  3953     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  3954     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  3955     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  3956     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  3957     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  3958     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  3959     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  3960     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  3961     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  3962     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  3963     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  3964     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  3965     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  3966     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  3967     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  3968     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  3969     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  3970     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  3971 
  3972 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  3973 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  3974 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  3975 
  3976 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  3977 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  3978 
  3979 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  3980 
  3981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982 
  3983 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  3984 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3985 
  3986 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  3987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  3990     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  3991 
  3992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  3995   consolidation:
  3996     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  3997     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  3998 
  3999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4002   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4003   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4004   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4005     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4006   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4007     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4008   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4009 
  4010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4013 
  4014     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4015     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4016     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4017     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4018     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4019     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4020     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4021     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4022     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4023     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4024     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4025     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4026     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4027 
  4028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4031 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4032 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4033 
  4034 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4035     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4036     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4037     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4038     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4039 
  4040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4041 
  4042 * Fact name consolidation:
  4043     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4044     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4045     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4046     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4047     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4048 
  4049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4052 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4053 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4054 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4055 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4056 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4057 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4061 
  4062 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4063 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4064 
  4065 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4066 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4067 
  4068 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4069 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4070 or the brute way with
  4071 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4072 
  4073 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4074 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4075 stating boundedness of sets.
  4076 
  4077 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4078 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4079 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4082   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4083   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4084   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4085   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4086   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4087   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4088   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4089   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4090   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4091   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4092   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4093 
  4094   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4095 
  4096   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4097 
  4098     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4099     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4100     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4101     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4102     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4103 
  4104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4107   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4108 
  4109   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4110 
  4111   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4112 
  4113   - removed constant isDiff
  4114 
  4115   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4116     input syntax.
  4117 
  4118   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4119 
  4120   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4121 
  4122   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4123 
  4124   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4125 
  4126   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4127     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4128     has_vector_derivative.
  4129 
  4130   - Other renamings:
  4131     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4132     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4133     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4134     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4135     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4136     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4137     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4138 
  4139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4142 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4143 in continuous_intros.
  4144 
  4145 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4146 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4147 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4148 
  4149 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4150 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4151 especially removes
  4152 
  4153     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4154 
  4155 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4156     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4157 
  4158 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4159 
  4160   Renamings:
  4161     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4162     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4163     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4164     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4165     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4166     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4167     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4168     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4169     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4170     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4171     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4172     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4173 
  4174     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4175     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4176     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4177 
  4178   Removed theorems:
  4179     complex_zero_def
  4180     complex_add_def
  4181     complex_minus_def
  4182     complex_diff_def
  4183     complex_one_def
  4184     complex_mult_def
  4185     complex_inverse_def
  4186     complex_scaleR_def
  4187 
  4188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4191 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4192 
  4193 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4194 
  4195 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4196 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4197 
  4198 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4199 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4202 
  4203 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * HOL-Word:
  4207   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4208     of "word_arith_wis".
  4209   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4210     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4211     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4212 
  4213 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4214   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4215   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4216   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4217     (except the AFP)
  4218 
  4219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4222   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4223   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4224     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4225   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4226     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4227     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4228     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4229     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4230     intervals.
  4231   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4232     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4233     - renamed theorems:
  4234         interval ~> box
  4235         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4236         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4237         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4238         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4239         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4240         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4241         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4242         open_interval ~> open_box
  4243         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4244         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4245         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4246         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4247         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4248         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4249         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4250         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4251         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4252         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4253         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4254         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4255         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4256         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4257         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4258         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4259         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4260         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4261         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4262         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4263         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4264         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4265         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4266         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4267 
  4268     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4269         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4270         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4271         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4272         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4273         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4274         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4275         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4276         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4277         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4278         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4279         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4280         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4281         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4282         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4283         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4284         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4285         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4286 
  4287   - renamed theorems:
  4288     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4289     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4290     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4291 
  4292 * HOL-Probability:
  4293   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4294 
  4295     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4296       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4297 
  4298     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4299 
  4300   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4301     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4302 
  4303     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4304     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4305     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4306     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4307     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4308     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4309     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4310     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4311     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4312     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4313     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4314     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4315     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4316     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4317     integral_indicator          ~>
  4318          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4319     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4320     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4321     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4322 
  4323     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4324          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4325 
  4326     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4327          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4328 
  4329     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4330          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4331 
  4332     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4333          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4334          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4335 
  4336     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4337          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4338 
  4339     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4340          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4341 
  4342     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4343          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4344          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4345 
  4346     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4347          nn_integral_real_affine
  4348 
  4349     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4350          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4351 
  4352     The following theorems where removed:
  4353 
  4354     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4355     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4356     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4357     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4358     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4359     integral_cmul_indicator
  4360     integral_real
  4361 
  4362   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4363     distributed random variables.
  4364 
  4365 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4366 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 
  4370 *** Scala ***
  4371 
  4372 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4373 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4374 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4375 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4376 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4379 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 
  4382 *** ML ***
  4383 
  4384 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4385 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4386 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4387 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4388 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4389 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4390 
  4391 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4392 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4393 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4394 actually belongs to it).
  4395 
  4396 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4397 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4398 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4399 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4400 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4401 of schematic variables.
  4402 
  4403 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4404 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4407 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4408 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4414 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4415 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4419 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4421 formal context.
  4422 
  4423 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4424 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4427 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4428 
  4429 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4430 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4431 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4432 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4433 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4434 
  4435 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4436 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4437 purposes.
  4438 
  4439 
  4440 *** System ***
  4441 
  4442 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4443 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4444 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4445 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4446 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4447 
  4448 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4449 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4450 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4451 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4452 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4453 settings variable.
  4454 
  4455 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4456 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4457 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4458 
  4459 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4460 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4461 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4462 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4463 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4464 
  4465 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4466 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4467 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4468 
  4469 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4470 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4471 
  4472 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4473 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4474 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4475 
  4476 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4477 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4478 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4479 processing is started.
  4480 
  4481 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4482 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4483 
  4484 
  4485 
  4486 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4487 -------------------------------------
  4488 
  4489 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4490 
  4491 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4492 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4493 
  4494 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4495 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4496 
  4497 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4498 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4499 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4500 
  4501 
  4502 *** System ***
  4503 
  4504 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4505 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4506 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4507 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4508 
  4509 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4510 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4511 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4512 
  4513 
  4514 
  4515 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4516 -------------------------------------
  4517 
  4518 *** General ***
  4519 
  4520 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4521 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4522 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4523 
  4524 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4525 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4528 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4529 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4530 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4531 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4532 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4533 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4534 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4535 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4536 syntax.
  4537 
  4538 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4539 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4540 
  4541 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4542 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4543 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4544 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4545 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4546 
  4547 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4549 
  4550 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4551 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4552 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4553 
  4554 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4555 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4556 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4557 
  4558 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4559 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4560 
  4561 
  4562 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4563 
  4564 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4565 Documentation panel.
  4566 
  4567 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4568 documentation.
  4569 
  4570 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4571 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4572 
  4573 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4574 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4575 normal editing and checking process.
  4576 
  4577 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4578 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4579 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4580 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4581 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4582 
  4583 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4584 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4585 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4586 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4587 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4588 
  4589 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4590 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4591 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4592 
  4593 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4594 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4595 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4596 to resolve conflict.
  4597 
  4598 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4599 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4600 
  4601 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4602 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4603 such command executions while editing.
  4604 
  4605 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4606 document content.
  4607 
  4608 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4609 toplevel theorem statements.
  4610 
  4611 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4612 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4613 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4614 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4615 
  4616 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4617 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4618 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4619 
  4620 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4621 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4622 
  4623 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4624 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4625 
  4626 
  4627 *** Pure ***
  4628 
  4629 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4630 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4631 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4632 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4633 details.
  4634 
  4635 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4636 
  4637 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4638 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4639 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4640 
  4641 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4645 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4646 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4647 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4650 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4651 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4652 
  4653 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4654 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4655 
  4656 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4657 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4658 situations.
  4659 
  4660 
  4661 *** HOL ***
  4662 
  4663 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4664 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4668 
  4669 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4670 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4671 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4672 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4673 
  4674   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4675 
  4676 * Code generator:
  4677   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4678     'code_instance'.
  4679   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4680     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4681 
  4682 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4683 examples.
  4684 
  4685 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4686 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4687 to distinguish both when desired.
  4688 
  4689 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4690 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4691 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4692 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4695 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4696 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4697 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4698 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4699 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4702 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4703 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4704 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4705 
  4706 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4707 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4708 
  4709 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4710 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4711 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4712 
  4713 * Lifting:
  4714   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4715     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4716       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4717       transfer rules
  4718     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4719       correspondence relation can be generated
  4720     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4721       parametricity
  4722     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4723   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4724   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4725     copies
  4726   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4727     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4728     anonymous context)
  4729   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4730     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4731   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4732     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4733   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4734     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4735 
  4736 * Transfer:
  4737   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4738     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4739   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4740   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4741     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4742   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4743 
  4744 * Reification and reflection:
  4745   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4746     "Reification".
  4747   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4748   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4750 
  4751 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4752   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4753     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4754     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4755   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4756     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4757   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4758     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4759     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4760     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4761     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4762     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4763     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4764     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4765   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4766     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4767   - Fact renames:
  4768       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4769       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4771 
  4772 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4773 
  4774 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4775 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4776 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4780 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4781 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4782 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4783 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4784 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4785 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4786 lemmas.
  4787 
  4788 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4789 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4790 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4791 
  4792 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4793 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4794 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4795 
  4796 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4797 top and bottom elements.
  4798 
  4799 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4800 
  4801 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4802 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4803 
  4804  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4805    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4806    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4807 
  4808  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4809    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  4810    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  4811 
  4812    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  4813    arbitrary filter.
  4814 
  4815  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  4816    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  4817    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  4818    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  4819    on a compact set.
  4820 
  4821  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  4822    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  4823    linear_continuum_topology).
  4824 
  4825  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  4826    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  4827    on all sequences converging to x.
  4828 
  4829  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  4830    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  4831    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  4832    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  4833    left or right.
  4834 
  4835  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  4836 
  4837      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  4838 
  4839  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  4840    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  4841 
  4842  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  4843    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  4844    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  4845    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  4846    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  4847    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  4848 
  4849  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  4850 
  4851    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  4852 
  4853    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  4854      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  4855 
  4856    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  4857 
  4858    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  4859      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  4860 
  4861    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  4862 
  4863    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  4864 
  4865  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  4866 
  4867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Nitpick:
  4870   - Added option "spy".
  4871   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  4872 
  4873 * Sledgehammer:
  4874   - Renamed option:
  4875       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  4876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  4878   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  4879   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  4880 
  4881 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  4882 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  4883 
  4884 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  4885   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  4886   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  4887     generated code.
  4888   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  4889   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  4890   - Fact renames:
  4891     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  4892     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  4893     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  4894 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  4897 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  4898 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  4899 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  4900 
  4901 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  4902 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  4903 
  4904 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4905 
  4906 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  4907 
  4908     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  4909     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  4910 
  4911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  4914 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  4915 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  4916 
  4917 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  4918 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  4919 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  4920 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4921 
  4922 * HOL-BNF:
  4923   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  4924     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  4925     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  4926     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  4927   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  4928     coinduct).
  4929   - Renamed keywords:
  4930     data ~> datatype_new
  4931     codata ~> codatatype
  4932     bnf_def ~> bnf
  4933   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  4934     discs ~> disc
  4935     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  4936     map_id' ~> map_id
  4937     sels ~> sel
  4938     set_map' ~> set_map
  4939     sets ~> set
  4940 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4941 
  4942 
  4943 *** ML ***
  4944 
  4945 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  4946 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  4947 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  4948 Examples.thy in particular.
  4949 
  4950 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  4951 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  4952 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  4953 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  4954 
  4955 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  4956 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  4957 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  4958 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  4959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  4962 
  4963     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  4964     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  4965 
  4966 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4967 
  4968 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  4969 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  4970 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  4971 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  4972 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  4973 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  4974 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  4975 
  4976 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  4977 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  4978 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  4979 clasets separately from the context.
  4980 
  4981 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  4982 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  4983 
  4984 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  4985 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  4986 
  4987 
  4988 *** System ***
  4989 
  4990 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  4991 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4992 
  4993 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  4994 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4995 
  4996 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  4997 settings variable.
  4998 
  4999 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5000 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5001 always pdf.
  5002 
  5003 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5004 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5005 
  5006 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5007 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5008 
  5009 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5010 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5011 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5012 
  5013 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5014 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5015 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5016 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5017 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5018 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5019 
  5020 
  5021 
  5022 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5023 -----------------------------------
  5024 
  5025 *** General ***
  5026 
  5027 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5028 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5029 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5030 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5031 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5032 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5033 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5034 
  5035 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5036 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5037 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5038 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5039 
  5040 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5041 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5042 
  5043 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5044 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5045 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5046 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5047 dependencies properly.
  5048 
  5049 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5050 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5051 
  5052 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5053 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5054 
  5055 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5056 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5057 and "class ... context ...".
  5058 
  5059 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5060 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5061 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5062 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5063 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5064 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5065 
  5066 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5067 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5068 
  5069 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5070 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5071 
  5072 
  5073 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5074 
  5075 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5076 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5077 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5078 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5079 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5080 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5081 
  5082 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5083 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5084 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5085 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5086 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5087 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5088 
  5089 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5090 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5091 browser on demand.
  5092 
  5093 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5094 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5095 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5096 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5097 
  5098 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5099 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5100 
  5101 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5102 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5103 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5104 potentially infinite message streams.
  5105 
  5106 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5107 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5108 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5109 schemes.
  5110 
  5111 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5112 symbols.
  5113 
  5114 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5115 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5116 
  5117 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5118 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5119 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5120 
  5121 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5122 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5123 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5124 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5125 
  5126 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5127 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5128 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5129 
  5130 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5131 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5132 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5133 Isabelle distribution.
  5134 
  5135 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5136 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5137 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5138 
  5139 
  5140 *** Pure ***
  5141 
  5142 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5143 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5144 
  5145 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5146 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5147 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5150 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5151 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5152 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5153 with some care where this is really required.
  5154 
  5155 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5156 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5157 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5158 
  5159   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5160 
  5161 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5162 a Hasse diagram.
  5163 
  5164 
  5165 *** HOL ***
  5166 
  5167 * Sledgehammer:
  5168 
  5169   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5170     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5171   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5172   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5173   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5174   - Renamed options:
  5175       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5176       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5177       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5178       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5179 
  5180 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5181 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5182 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5183 
  5184 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5186 
  5187 * Lifting:
  5188   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5189   - quot_del attribute
  5190   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5191 
  5192 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5193 expressions.
  5194 
  5195 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5196 pointfree expressions.
  5197 
  5198 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5199 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5200 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5201 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5205 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5206 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5207 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5208 accordingly.
  5209 
  5210 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5211 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5212 
  5213 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5214 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5215 
  5216 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5219 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5220 
  5221 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5222 
  5223 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5224 
  5225   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5226   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5227 
  5228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5229 
  5230 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5231 
  5232   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5233   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5234 
  5235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5236 
  5237 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5238 
  5239   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5240     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5241     output f x converges to G.
  5242 
  5243   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5244     infinity (at_bot).
  5245 
  5246   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5247     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5248 
  5249   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5250     at_top".
  5251 
  5252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5253 
  5254 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5255 lattice type classes.
  5256 
  5257 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5258 
  5259     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5260     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5261 
  5262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5263 
  5264 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5265 changes as follows.
  5266 
  5267   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5268 
  5269       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5270       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5271 
  5272   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5273     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5274     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5275     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5276 
  5277   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5278     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5279     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5280 
  5281   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5282     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5283     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5284     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5285 
  5286   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5287     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5288 
  5289       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5290       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5291       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5292       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5293       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5294       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5295       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5296       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5297       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5298       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5299       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5300       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5301       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5302       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5303       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5304       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5305 
  5306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5309 
  5310 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5311 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5312 
  5313 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5314 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5315 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5316 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5317 
  5318   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5319   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5320   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5321   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5322   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5323   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5324   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5325   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5326   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5327   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5328 
  5329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5330 
  5331 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5332 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5333 Data").
  5334 
  5335 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5336 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5337 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5338 code.
  5339 
  5340 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5341 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5342 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5344 
  5345 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5346 
  5347 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5348 
  5349 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5350 
  5351   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5352   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5353 
  5354 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5355 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5356 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5357 
  5358   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5359 
  5360     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5361     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5362     cart_base i  removed
  5363     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5364 
  5365   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5366 
  5367   Renamed lemmas:
  5368 
  5369     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5370     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5371     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5372     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5373     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5374     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5375     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5376     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5377     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5378     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5379 
  5380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * HOL/Probability:
  5383 
  5384   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5385 
  5386   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5387     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5388     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5389 
  5390   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5391     projective family).
  5392 
  5393 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5394 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5395 
  5396 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5397 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5398 datatypes.
  5399 
  5400 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5401 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5402 
  5403 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5404 trees for the code generator.
  5405 
  5406 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5407 Lifting/Transfer.
  5408 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5409 
  5410 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5412 
  5413 
  5414 *** Document preparation ***
  5415 
  5416 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5417 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5418 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5419 
  5420 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5421 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5422 
  5423 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5424 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5425 document/root.tex.
  5426 
  5427 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5428 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5429 
  5430 
  5431 *** ML ***
  5432 
  5433 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5434 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5435 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5436 
  5437 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5438 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5439 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5440 
  5441 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5442 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5443 necessarily printing visible text.
  5444 
  5445 
  5446 *** System ***
  5447 
  5448 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5449 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5450 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5451 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5452 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5453 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5454 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5455 
  5456 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5457 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5458 
  5459   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5460 
  5461 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5462 
  5463 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5464 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5465 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5466 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5467 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5468 
  5469 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5470 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5471 
  5472 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5473 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5474 
  5475 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5479 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5480 version of Isabelle.
  5481 
  5482 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5483 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5484 
  5485 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5486 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5487 for home-made settings.
  5488 
  5489 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5490 
  5491 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5492 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5493 configuration.
  5494 
  5495 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5496 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5497 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5498 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5499 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5500 
  5501 
  5502 
  5503 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5504 ------------------------------
  5505 
  5506 *** General ***
  5507 
  5508 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5509 
  5510   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5511     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5512   - markup for bound variables
  5513   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5514   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5515   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5516     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5517 
  5518 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5519 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5520 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5521 
  5522 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5523 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5524 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5525 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5526 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5527 
  5528   context
  5529     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5530     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5531   begin
  5532 
  5533   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5534 
  5535   end
  5536 
  5537   thm my_trans
  5538 
  5539 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5540 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5541 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5542 
  5543 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5544 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5545 
  5546 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5547 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5548 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5549 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5550 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5551 
  5552 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5553 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5554 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5555 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5556 indices of schematic variables.
  5557 
  5558 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5559 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5560 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5561 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5562 etc. was exploited.
  5563 
  5564 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5565 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5566 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5567 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5568 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5569 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5570 
  5571 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5572 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5573 manual.
  5574 
  5575 
  5576 *** Pure ***
  5577 
  5578 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5579 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5580 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5581 
  5582 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5583 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5584 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5585 undocumented feature.)
  5586 
  5587 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5588 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5589 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5590 
  5591   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5592 
  5593   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5594     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5595 
  5596 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5597 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5598 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5599 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5600 
  5601 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5602 
  5603     num ~> num_token
  5604     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5605     xstr ~> str_token
  5606 
  5607 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5608 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5609 position information via constraints).
  5610 
  5611 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5612 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5613 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5614 
  5615 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5616 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5617 
  5618 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5619 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5620 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5621 
  5622 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5623 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5624 
  5625 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5626 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5627 
  5628   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5629 
  5630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5631 
  5632 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5633 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5634 
  5635 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5636 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5637 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5638 
  5639 
  5640 *** HOL ***
  5641 
  5642 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5643 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5644 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5645 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5646 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5647 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5648 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5649 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5650 possible.
  5651 
  5652 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5653 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5654 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5655 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5656 
  5657 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5658 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5659 
  5660 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5661 
  5662 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5663 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5664 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5665 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5666 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5667 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5668 
  5669   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5670     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5671 
  5672   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5673     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5674     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5675 
  5676   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5677     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5678 
  5679   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5680     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5681     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5682 
  5683   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5684     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5685 
  5686 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5687 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5688 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5689 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5690 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5691 
  5692   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5693     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5694     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5695     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5696     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5697 
  5698     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5699     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5700 
  5701   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5702     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5703     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5704     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5705     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5706     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5707     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5708     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5709 
  5710   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5711     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5712     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5713     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5714 
  5715   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5716     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5717     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5718     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5719 
  5720   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5721     from type nat to type int.
  5722 
  5723 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5724 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5725 
  5726   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5727     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5728     type.  Example syntax:
  5729 
  5730     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5731       is List.insert
  5732 
  5733     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5734     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5735     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5736     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5737     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5738     by the package.
  5739 
  5740   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5741     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5742     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5743     code generation for each constant.
  5744 
  5745   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5746     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5747     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5748     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5749     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5750 
  5751   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5752     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5753     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5754 
  5755 * Quotient package:
  5756 
  5757   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5758     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5759 
  5760   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5761     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5762 
  5763   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5764     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5765     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5766 
  5767   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5768     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5769 
  5770 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5771 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5772 
  5773 * Quickcheck:
  5774 
  5775   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5776     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5777     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5778     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5779     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5780 
  5781     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5782     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5783     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5784 
  5785     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5786     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5787 
  5788     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5789     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5790     show genuine counterexamples.
  5791 
  5792   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5793     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5794 
  5795     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5796     constructors of that type.
  5797 
  5798   - Support for multisets.
  5799 
  5800   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5801 
  5802   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5803     conjectures in a locale context.
  5804 
  5805 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5806 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5807 
  5808 * Sledgehammer:
  5809   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  5810     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  5811   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  5812   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  5813     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  5814   - Sped up the minimizer.
  5815   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  5816   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  5817   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  5818 
  5819 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  5820 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  5821 
  5822 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  5823 
  5824 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  5827 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  5828 
  5829   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  5830 
  5831 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  5832 a list and a nat.
  5833 
  5834 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  5835 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  5836 
  5837 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  5838 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  5839 default.
  5840 
  5841 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  5842 
  5843   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  5844 
  5845 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  5846 
  5847 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  5848 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  5849 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  5850 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  5851 one_case.
  5852 
  5853 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  5854 the result of the fact expression.
  5855 
  5856 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  5857 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  5858 of some relation theorems:
  5859 
  5860   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  5861   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5862   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  5863   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  5864   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  5865   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  5866 
  5867 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  5868 
  5869 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  5870 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  5871 
  5872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5873 
  5874 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  5875 to match the constant's name:
  5876 
  5877   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  5878   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  5879   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  5880   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  5881   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  5882   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  5883   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  5884   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  5885   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  5886   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  5887   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  5888   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  5889   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  5890   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  5891   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  5892   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  5893   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  5894   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  5895   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  5896   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  5897   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  5898   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5899   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5900   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  5901 
  5902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  5905 and corresponding theorem names:
  5906 
  5907   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  5908 
  5909   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  5910 
  5911   - Renamed theorems:
  5912 
  5913     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  5914     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  5915     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  5916     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  5917     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  5918     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  5919     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  5920     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  5921     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  5922     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  5923     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  5924     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  5925     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5926     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  5927     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  5928     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  5929     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  5930     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  5931     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  5932     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  5933     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  5934     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  5935     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  5936 
  5937     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  5938 
  5939     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  5940 
  5941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  5944 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5945 
  5946   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  5947   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  5948   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  5949   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  5950   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  5951   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  5952   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  5953   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  5954   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  5955   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  5956   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  5957   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  5958   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  5959   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  5960   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  5961   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  5962   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  5963   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  5964   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  5965   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  5966   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  5967 
  5968 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  5969 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5972 
  5973 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  5974 
  5975   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  5976   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  5977   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  5978   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  5979   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  5980   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  5981   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  5982   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  5983   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  5984   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  5985   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  5986   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  5987   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  5988   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  5989   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  5990   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  5991   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  5992   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  5993 
  5994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5995 
  5996 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  5997 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  5998 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  5999 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6000 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6001 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6002 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6003 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6004 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6005 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6006 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6007 
  6008 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6009 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6010 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6011 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6012 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6013 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6014 
  6015 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6016 through option types.
  6017 
  6018 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6019 relations.
  6020 
  6021 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6022 
  6023 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6024 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6025 
  6026   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6027   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6028   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6029   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6030   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6031   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6032   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6033   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6034   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6035   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6036   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6037   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6038   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6039   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6040   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6041   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6042   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6043   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6044   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6045   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6046   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6047   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6048   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6049   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6050   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6051   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6052   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6053   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6054   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6055   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6056   zless_le ~> less_le
  6057   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6058   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6059   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6060 
  6061 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6062 
  6063   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6064 
  6065 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  6066 
  6067 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  6068 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  6069 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  6070 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  6071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6072 
  6073 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6074 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  6075 
  6076 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  6077 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  6078 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  6079 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  6080 follows:
  6081 
  6082   Operations:
  6083   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  6084   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  6085   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  6086   del -> rbt_del
  6087   delete -> rbt_delete
  6088   ins -> rbt_ins
  6089   insert -> rbt_insert
  6090   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  6091   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  6092   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  6093   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  6094   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  6095   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  6096   tree_less -> rbt_less
  6097   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  6098   union -> rbt_union
  6099   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  6100   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  6101 
  6102   Lemmas:
  6103   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  6104   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  6105   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  6106   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  6107   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  6108   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  6109   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  6110   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  6111   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  6112   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  6113   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  6114   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  6115   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  6116   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  6117   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  6118   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  6119   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  6120   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  6121   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  6122   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  6123   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  6124   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  6125   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  6126   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  6127   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  6128   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  6129   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  6130   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  6131   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  6132   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  6133   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  6134   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  6135   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  6136   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  6137   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  6138   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  6139   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  6140   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  6141   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  6142   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  6143   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  6144   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  6145   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  6146   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  6147   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  6148   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  6149   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  6150   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  6151   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  6152   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  6153   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  6154   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  6155   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  6156   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  6157   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  6158   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  6159   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  6160   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  6161   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  6162   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  6163   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  6164   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  6165   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  6166   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  6167   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  6168   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  6169   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  6170   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  6171   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  6172   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  6173   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  6174   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  6175   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  6176   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  6177   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  6178   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  6179   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  6180   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  6181   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  6182   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  6183   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  6184   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  6185   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  6186 
  6187 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  6188 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  6189 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6190 
  6191   Changed Operations:
  6192   float_abs -> abs
  6193   float_nprt -> nprt
  6194   float_pprt -> pprt
  6195   pow2 -> use powr
  6196   round_down -> float_round_down
  6197   round_up -> float_round_up
  6198   scale -> exponent
  6199 
  6200   Removed Operations:
  6201   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  6202 
  6203   Renamed Lemmas:
  6204   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  6205   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  6206   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  6207   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  6208   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  6209   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  6210   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  6211   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  6212   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  6213   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  6214   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  6215   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  6216   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  6217   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  6218   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  6219   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  6220   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  6221   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  6222   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  6223   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  6224   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  6225   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  6226   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  6227   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  6228   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  6229   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  6230   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  6231   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  6232   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  6233   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  6234   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  6235   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  6236   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  6237   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  6238   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  6239   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  6240 
  6241   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  6242   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  6243   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  6244   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  6245   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  6246   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  6247   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  6248   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  6249   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  6250   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  6251 
  6252 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  6253 association lists with distinct keys.
  6254 
  6255 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  6256 annotated commands.
  6257 
  6258 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  6259 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  6260 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  6261 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6262 
  6263 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  6264 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  6265 instead.
  6266 
  6267   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  6268   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  6269   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  6270   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  6271   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  6272   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  6273   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  6274   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6275   word_mult_