src/Doc/JEdit/JEdit.thy
author wenzelm
Wed May 02 19:18:29 2018 +0200 (21 months ago ago)
changeset 68068 b91c4acc1aaf
parent 68043 c3b55728941b
child 68227 1f7308050349
permissions -rw-r--r--
clarified menu actions;
     1 (*:maxLineLen=78:*)
     2 
     3 theory JEdit
     4 imports Base
     5 begin
     6 
     7 chapter \<open>Introduction\<close>
     8 
     9 section \<open>Concepts and terminology\<close>
    10 
    11 text \<open>
    12   Isabelle/jEdit is a Prover IDE that integrates \<^emph>\<open>parallel proof checking\<close>
    13   @{cite "Wenzel:2009" and "Wenzel:2013:ITP"} with \<^emph>\<open>asynchronous user
    14   interaction\<close> @{cite "Wenzel:2010" and "Wenzel:2012:UITP-EPTCS" and
    15   "Wenzel:2014:ITP-PIDE" and "Wenzel:2014:UITP"}, based on a document-oriented
    16   approach to \<^emph>\<open>continuous proof processing\<close> @{cite "Wenzel:2011:CICM" and
    17   "Wenzel:2012"}. Many concepts and system components are fit together in
    18   order to make this work. The main building blocks are as follows.
    19 
    20     \<^descr>[Isabelle/ML] is the implementation and extension language of Isabelle,
    21     see also @{cite "isabelle-implementation"}. It is integrated into the
    22     logical context of Isabelle/Isar and allows to manipulate logical entities
    23     directly. Arbitrary add-on tools may be implemented for object-logics such
    24     as Isabelle/HOL.
    25 
    26     \<^descr>[Isabelle/Scala] is the system programming language of Isabelle. It
    27     extends the pure logical environment of Isabelle/ML towards the outer
    28     world of graphical user interfaces, text editors, IDE frameworks, web
    29     services, SSH servers, SQL databases etc. Special infrastructure allows to
    30     transfer algebraic datatypes and formatted text easily between ML and
    31     Scala, using asynchronous protocol commands.
    32 
    33     \<^descr>[PIDE] is a general framework for Prover IDEs based on Isabelle/Scala. It
    34     is built around a concept of parallel and asynchronous document
    35     processing, which is supported natively by the parallel proof engine that
    36     is implemented in Isabelle/ML. The traditional prover command loop is
    37     given up; instead there is direct support for editing of source text, with
    38     rich formal markup for GUI rendering.
    39 
    40     \<^descr>[jEdit] is a sophisticated text editor\<^footnote>\<open>\<^url>\<open>http://www.jedit.org\<close>\<close>
    41     implemented in Java\<^footnote>\<open>\<^url>\<open>http://www.java.com\<close>\<close>. It is easily extensible by
    42     plugins written in any language that works on the JVM. In the context of
    43     Isabelle this is always Scala\<^footnote>\<open>\<^url>\<open>http://www.scala-lang.org\<close>\<close>.
    44 
    45     \<^descr>[Isabelle/jEdit] is the main application of the PIDE framework and the
    46     default user-interface for Isabelle. It targets both beginners and
    47     experts. Technically, Isabelle/jEdit consists of the original jEdit code
    48     base with minimal patches and a special plugin for Isabelle. This is
    49     integrated as a desktop application for the main operating system
    50     families: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
    51 
    52   End-users of Isabelle download and run a standalone application that exposes
    53   jEdit as a text editor on the surface. Thus there is occasionally a tendency
    54   to apply the name ``jEdit'' to any of the Isabelle Prover IDE aspects,
    55   without proper differentiation. When discussing these PIDE building blocks
    56   in public forums, mailing lists, or even scientific publications, it is
    57   particularly important to distinguish Isabelle/ML versus Standard ML,
    58   Isabelle/Scala versus Scala, Isabelle/jEdit versus jEdit.
    59 \<close>
    60 
    61 
    62 section \<open>The Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE\<close>
    63 
    64 text \<open>
    65   \begin{figure}[!htb]
    66   \begin{center}
    67   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{isabelle-jedit}
    68   \end{center}
    69   \caption{The Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE}
    70   \label{fig:isabelle-jedit}
    71   \end{figure}
    72 
    73   Isabelle/jEdit (\figref{fig:isabelle-jedit}) consists of some plugins for
    74   the jEdit text editor, while preserving its general look-and-feel as far as
    75   possible. The main plugin is called ``Isabelle'' and has its own menu
    76   \<^emph>\<open>Plugins~/ Isabelle\<close> with access to several actions and add-on panels (see
    77   also \secref{sec:dockables}), as well as \<^emph>\<open>Plugins~/ Plugin Options~/
    78   Isabelle\<close> (see also \secref{sec:options}).
    79 
    80   The options allow to specify a logic session name, but the same selector is
    81   also accessible in the \<^emph>\<open>Theories\<close> panel (\secref{sec:theories}). After
    82   startup of the Isabelle plugin, the selected logic session image is provided
    83   automatically by the Isabelle build tool @{cite "isabelle-system"}: if it is
    84   absent or outdated wrt.\ its sources, the build process updates it within
    85   the running text editor. Prover IDE functionality is fully activated after
    86   successful termination of the build process. A failure may require changing
    87   some options and restart of the Isabelle plugin or application. Changing the
    88   logic session, or the underlying ML system platform (32\,bit versus 64\,bit)
    89   requires a restart of the whole application to take effect.
    90 
    91   \<^medskip>
    92   The main job of the Prover IDE is to manage sources and their changes,
    93   taking the logical structure as a formal document into account (see also
    94   \secref{sec:document-model}). The editor and the prover are connected
    95   asynchronously in a lock-free manner. The prover is free to organize the
    96   checking of the formal text in parallel on multiple cores, and provides
    97   feedback via markup, which is rendered in the editor via colors, boxes,
    98   squiggly underlines, hyperlinks, popup windows, icons, clickable output etc.
    99 
   100   Using the mouse together with the modifier key \<^verbatim>\<open>CONTROL\<close> (Linux, Windows)
   101   or \<^verbatim>\<open>COMMAND\<close> (Mac OS X) exposes formal content via tooltips and/or
   102   hyperlinks (see also \secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}). Output (in popups
   103   etc.) may be explored recursively, using the same techniques as in the
   104   editor source buffer.
   105 
   106   Thus the Prover IDE gives an impression of direct access to formal content
   107   of the prover within the editor, but in reality only certain aspects are
   108   exposed, according to the possibilities of the prover and its add-on tools.
   109 \<close>
   110 
   111 
   112 subsection \<open>Documentation\<close>
   113 
   114 text \<open>
   115   The \<^emph>\<open>Documentation\<close> panel of Isabelle/jEdit provides access to some example
   116   theory files and the standard Isabelle documentation. PDF files are opened
   117   by regular desktop operations of the underlying platform. The section
   118   ``Original jEdit Documentation'' contains the original \<^emph>\<open>User's Guide\<close> of
   119   this sophisticated text editor. The same is accessible via the \<^verbatim>\<open>Help\<close> menu
   120   or \<^verbatim>\<open>F1\<close> keyboard shortcut, using the built-in HTML viewer of Java/Swing.
   121   The latter also includes \<^emph>\<open>Frequently Asked Questions\<close> and documentation of
   122   individual plugins.
   123 
   124   Most of the information about jEdit is relevant for Isabelle/jEdit as well,
   125   but users need to keep in mind that defaults sometimes differ, and the
   126   official jEdit documentation does not know about the Isabelle plugin with
   127   its support for continuous checking of formal source text: jEdit is a plain
   128   text editor, but Isabelle/jEdit is a Prover IDE.
   129 \<close>
   130 
   131 
   132 subsection \<open>Plugins\<close>
   133 
   134 text \<open>
   135   The \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Manager\<close> of jEdit allows to augment editor functionality by JVM
   136   modules (jars) that are provided by the central plugin repository, which is
   137   accessible via various mirror sites.
   138 
   139   Connecting to the plugin server-infrastructure of the jEdit project allows
   140   to update bundled plugins or to add further functionality. This needs to be
   141   done with the usual care for such an open bazaar of contributions. Arbitrary
   142   combinations of add-on features are apt to cause problems. It is advisable
   143   to start with the default configuration of Isabelle/jEdit and develop some
   144   sense how it is meant to work, before loading too many other plugins.
   145 
   146   \<^medskip>
   147   The \<^emph>\<open>Isabelle\<close> plugin is responsible for the main Prover IDE functionality
   148   of Isabelle/jEdit: it manages the prover session in the background. A few
   149   additional plugins are bundled with Isabelle/jEdit for convenience or out of
   150   necessity, notably \<^emph>\<open>Console\<close> with its \<^emph>\<open>Scala\<close> sub-plugin
   151   (\secref{sec:scala-console}) and \<^emph>\<open>SideKick\<close> with some Isabelle-specific
   152   parsers for document tree structure (\secref{sec:sidekick}). The
   153   \<^emph>\<open>Navigator\<close> plugin is particularly important for hyperlinks within the
   154   formal document-model (\secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}). Further plugins
   155   (e.g.\ \<^emph>\<open>ErrorList\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>Code2HTML\<close>) are included to saturate the dependencies
   156   of bundled plugins, but have no particular use in Isabelle/jEdit.
   157 \<close>
   158 
   159 
   160 subsection \<open>Options \label{sec:options}\<close>
   161 
   162 text \<open>
   163   Both jEdit and Isabelle have distinctive management of persistent options.
   164 
   165   Regular jEdit options are accessible via the dialogs \<^emph>\<open>Utilities~/ Global
   166   Options\<close> or \<^emph>\<open>Plugins~/ Plugin Options\<close>, with a second chance to flip the
   167   two within the central options dialog. Changes are stored in @{path
   168   "$JEDIT_SETTINGS/properties"} and @{path "$JEDIT_SETTINGS/keymaps"}.
   169 
   170   Isabelle system options are managed by Isabelle/Scala and changes are stored
   171   in @{path "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/preferences"}, independently of
   172   other jEdit properties. See also @{cite "isabelle-system"}, especially the
   173   coverage of sessions and command-line tools like @{tool build} or @{tool
   174   options}.
   175 
   176   Those Isabelle options that are declared as \<^verbatim>\<open>public\<close> are configurable in
   177   Isabelle/jEdit via \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options~/ Isabelle~/ General\<close>. Moreover, there
   178   are various options for rendering document content, which are configurable
   179   via \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options~/ Isabelle~/ Rendering\<close>. Thus \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options~/
   180   Isabelle\<close> in jEdit provides a view on a subset of Isabelle system options.
   181   Note that some of these options affect general parameters that are relevant
   182   outside Isabelle/jEdit as well, e.g.\ @{system_option threads} or
   183   @{system_option parallel_proofs} for the Isabelle build tool @{cite
   184   "isabelle-system"}, but it is possible to use the settings variable
   185   @{setting ISABELLE_BUILD_OPTIONS} to change defaults for batch builds
   186   without affecting the Prover IDE.
   187 
   188   The jEdit action @{action_def isabelle.options} opens the options dialog for
   189   the Isabelle plugin; it can be mapped to editor GUI elements as usual.
   190 
   191   \<^medskip>
   192   Options are usually loaded on startup and saved on shutdown of
   193   Isabelle/jEdit. Editing the generated @{path "$JEDIT_SETTINGS/properties"}
   194   or @{path "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/preferences"} manually while the
   195   application is running may cause surprise due to lost updates!
   196 \<close>
   197 
   198 
   199 subsection \<open>Keymaps\<close>
   200 
   201 text \<open>
   202   Keyboard shortcuts are managed as a separate concept of \<^emph>\<open>keymap\<close> that is
   203   configurable via \<^emph>\<open>Global Options~/ Shortcuts\<close>. The \<^verbatim>\<open>imported\<close> keymap is
   204   derived from the initial environment of properties that is available at the
   205   first start of the editor; afterwards the keymap file takes precedence and
   206   is no longer affected by change of default properties.
   207 
   208   Users may change their keymap later, but this may lead to conflicts with
   209   \<^verbatim>\<open>shortcut\<close> properties in \<^file>\<open>$JEDIT_HOME/src/jEdit.props\<close>.
   210 
   211   The action @{action_def "isabelle.keymap-merge"} helps to resolve pending
   212   Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit keymap;
   213   while non-conflicting changes are applied implicitly. This action is
   214   automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup.
   215 \<close>
   216 
   217 
   218 section \<open>Command-line invocation \label{sec:command-line}\<close>
   219 
   220 text \<open>
   221   Isabelle/jEdit is normally invoked as a single-instance desktop application,
   222   based on platform-specific executables for Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
   223 
   224   It is also possible to invoke the Prover IDE on the command-line, with some
   225   extra options and environment settings. The command-line usage of @{tool_def
   226   jedit} is as follows:
   227   @{verbatim [display]
   228 \<open>Usage: isabelle jedit [OPTIONS] [FILES ...]
   229 
   230   Options are:
   231     -A           specify ancestor for base session image (default: parent)
   232     -B           use base session image, with theories from other sessions
   233     -F           focus on selected logic session: ignore unrelated theories
   234     -D NAME=X    set JVM system property
   235     -J OPTION    add JVM runtime option
   236                  (default $JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS $JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS)
   237     -P           use parent session image
   238     -R           open ROOT entry of logic session
   239     -S NAME      edit specified logic session, abbreviates -B -F -R -l NAME
   240     -b           build only
   241     -d DIR       include session directory
   242     -f           fresh build
   243     -j OPTION    add jEdit runtime option
   244                  (default $JEDIT_OPTIONS)
   245     -l NAME      logic image name
   246     -m MODE      add print mode for output
   247     -n           no build of session image on startup
   248     -p CMD       ML process command prefix (process policy)
   249     -s           system build mode for session image
   250 
   251   Start jEdit with Isabelle plugin setup and open FILES
   252   (default "$USER_HOME/Scratch.thy" or ":" for empty buffer).\<close>}
   253 
   254   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-l\<close> option specifies the session name of the logic image to be used
   255   for proof processing. Additional session root directories may be included
   256   via option \<^verbatim>\<open>-d\<close> to augment the session name space (see also @{cite
   257   "isabelle-system"}).
   258 
   259   By default, the specified image is checked and built on demand. The \<^verbatim>\<open>-s\<close>
   260   option determines where to store the result session image of @{tool build}.
   261   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-n\<close> option bypasses the implicit build process for the selected
   262   session image.
   263 
   264   Option \<^verbatim>\<open>-P\<close> and \<^verbatim>\<open>-B\<close> and are mutually exclusive and modify the meaning of
   265   option \<^verbatim>\<open>-l\<close> as follows. Option \<^verbatim>\<open>-P\<close> opens the parent session image. Option
   266   \<^verbatim>\<open>-B\<close> prepares a logic image on the spot, based on the required theory
   267   imports from other sessions, relative to an ancestor session given by option
   268   \<^verbatim>\<open>-A\<close> (default: parent session).
   269 
   270   Option \<^verbatim>\<open>-F\<close> focuses on the effective logic session: the accessible
   271   namespace of theories is restricted to sessions that are connected to it.
   272 
   273   Option \<^verbatim>\<open>-R\<close> opens the ROOT entry of the specified logic session in the
   274   editor. Option \<^verbatim>\<open>-S\<close> sets up the development environment to edit the
   275   specified session: it abbreviates \<^verbatim>\<open>-B\<close> \<^verbatim>\<open>-F\<close> \<^verbatim>\<open>-R\<close> \<^verbatim>\<open>-l\<close>.
   276 
   277   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-m\<close> option specifies additional print modes for the prover process.
   278   Note that the system option @{system_option_ref jedit_print_mode} allows to
   279   do the same persistently (e.g.\ via the \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options\<close> dialog of
   280   Isabelle/jEdit), without requiring command-line invocation.
   281 
   282   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-J\<close> and \<^verbatim>\<open>-j\<close> options pass additional low-level options to the JVM or
   283   jEdit, respectively. The defaults are provided by the Isabelle settings
   284   environment @{cite "isabelle-system"}, but note that these only work for the
   285   command-line tool described here, and not the regular application.
   286 
   287   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-D\<close> option allows to define JVM system properties; this is passed
   288   directly to the underlying \<^verbatim>\<open>java\<close> process.
   289 
   290   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-b\<close> and \<^verbatim>\<open>-f\<close> options control the self-build mechanism of
   291   Isabelle/jEdit. This is only relevant for building from sources, which also
   292   requires an auxiliary \<^verbatim>\<open>jedit_build\<close> component from
   293   \<^url>\<open>http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components\<close>. The official Isabelle release
   294   already includes a pre-built version of Isabelle/jEdit.
   295 
   296   \<^bigskip>
   297   It is also possible to connect to an already running Isabelle/jEdit process
   298   via @{tool_def jedit_client}:
   299   @{verbatim [display]
   300 \<open>Usage: isabelle jedit_client [OPTIONS] [FILES ...]
   301 
   302   Options are:
   303     -c           only check presence of server
   304     -n           only report server name
   305     -s NAME      server name (default Isabelle)
   306 
   307   Connect to already running Isabelle/jEdit instance and open FILES\<close>}
   308 
   309   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-c\<close> option merely checks the presence of the server, producing a
   310   process return code accordingly.
   311 
   312   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-n\<close> option reports the server name, and the \<^verbatim>\<open>-s\<close> option provides a
   313   different server name. The default server name is the official distribution
   314   name (e.g.\ \<^verbatim>\<open>Isabelle2017\<close>). Thus @{tool jedit_client} can connect to the
   315   Isabelle desktop application without further options.
   316 
   317   The \<^verbatim>\<open>-p\<close> option allows to override the implicit default of the system
   318   option @{system_option_ref ML_process_policy} for ML processes started by
   319   the Prover IDE, e.g. to control CPU affinity on multiprocessor systems.
   320 
   321   The JVM system property \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle.jedit_server\<close> provides a different server
   322   name, e.g.\ use \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle jedit -Disabelle.jedit_server=\<close>\<open>name\<close> and
   323   \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle jedit_client -s\<close>~\<open>name\<close> to connect later on.
   324 \<close>
   325 
   326 
   327 section \<open>GUI rendering\<close>
   328 
   329 subsection \<open>Look-and-feel \label{sec:look-and-feel}\<close>
   330 
   331 text \<open>
   332   jEdit is a Java/AWT/Swing application with the ambition to support
   333   ``native'' look-and-feel on all platforms, within the limits of what Oracle
   334   as Java provider and major operating system distributors allow (see also
   335   \secref{sec:problems}).
   336 
   337   Isabelle/jEdit enables platform-specific look-and-feel by default as
   338   follows.
   339 
   340     \<^descr>[Linux:] The platform-independent \<^emph>\<open>Metal\<close> is used by default.
   341 
   342     The Linux-specific \<^emph>\<open>GTK+\<close> often works as well, but the overall GTK theme
   343     and options need to be selected to suite Java/AWT/Swing. Note that Java
   344     Virtual Machine has no direct influence of GTK rendering.
   345 
   346     \<^descr>[Windows:] Regular \<^emph>\<open>Windows\<close> is used by default.
   347 
   348     \<^descr>[Mac OS X:] Regular \<^emph>\<open>Mac OS X\<close> is used by default.
   349 
   350     The bundled \<^emph>\<open>MacOSX\<close> plugin provides various functions that are expected
   351     from applications on that particular platform: quit from menu or dock,
   352     preferences menu, drag-and-drop of text files on the application,
   353     full-screen mode for main editor windows. It is advisable to have the
   354     \<^emph>\<open>MacOSX\<close> plugin enabled all the time on that platform.
   355 
   356   Users may experiment with different Swing look-and-feels, but need to keep
   357   in mind that this extra variance of GUI functionality often causes problems.
   358   The platform-independent \<^emph>\<open>Metal\<close> and \<^emph>\<open>Nimbus\<close> should always work on all
   359   platforms, although they are technically and stylistically outdated. The
   360   historic \<^emph>\<open>CDE/Motif\<close> should be ignored.
   361 
   362   Changing the look-and-feel in \<^emph>\<open>Global Options~/ Appearance\<close> may update the
   363   GUI only partially: proper restart of Isabelle/jEdit is usually required.
   364 \<close>
   365 
   366 
   367 subsection \<open>Displays with very high resolution \label{sec:hdpi}\<close>
   368 
   369 text \<open>
   370   In distant past, displays with $1024 \times 768$ or $1280 \times 1024$
   371   pixels were considered ``high resolution'' and bitmap fonts with 12 or 14
   372   pixels as adequate for text rendering. In 2017, we routinely see much higher
   373   resolutions, e.g. ``Full HD'' at $1920 \times 1080$ pixels or ``Ultra HD'' /
   374   ``4K'' at $3840 \times 2160$.
   375 
   376   GUI frameworks are usually lagging behind, with hard-wired icon sizes and
   377   tiny fonts. Java and jEdit do provide reasonable support for very high
   378   resolution, but this requires manual adjustments as described below.
   379 
   380   \<^medskip>
   381   The \<^bold>\<open>operating-system\<close> usually provides some configuration for global
   382   scaling of text fonts, e.g.\ $120\%$--$250\%$ on Windows. This impacts
   383   regular GUI elements, when used with native look-and-feel: Linux \<^emph>\<open>GTK+\<close>,
   384   \<^emph>\<open>Windows\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>Mac OS X\<close>, respectively. Alternatively, it is possible to use
   385   the platform-independent \<^emph>\<open>Metal\<close> look-and-feel and readjust its main font
   386   sizes via jEdit options explained below. The Isabelle/jEdit \<^bold>\<open>application\<close>
   387   provides further options to adjust font sizes in particular GUI elements.
   388   Here is a summary of all relevant font properties:
   389 
   390     \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Global Options / Text Area / Text font\<close>: the main text area font,
   391     which is also used as reference point for various derived font sizes,
   392     e.g.\ the \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> (\secref{sec:output}) and \<^emph>\<open>State\<close>
   393     (\secref{sec:state-output}) panels.
   394 
   395     \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Global Options / Gutter / Gutter font\<close>: the font for the gutter area
   396     left of the main text area, e.g.\ relevant for display of line numbers
   397     (disabled by default).
   398 
   399     \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Global Options / Appearance / Button, menu and label font\<close> as well as
   400     \<^emph>\<open>List and text field font\<close>: this specifies the primary and secondary font
   401     for the \<^emph>\<open>Metal\<close> look-and-feel (\secref{sec:look-and-feel}).
   402 
   403     \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options / Isabelle / General / Reset Font Size\<close>: the main text
   404     area font size for action @{action_ref "isabelle.reset-font-size"}, e.g.\
   405     relevant for quick scaling like in common web browsers.
   406 
   407     \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options / Console / General / Font\<close>: the console window font,
   408     e.g.\ relevant for Isabelle/Scala command-line.
   409 
   410   In \figref{fig:isabelle-jedit-hdpi} the \<^emph>\<open>Metal\<close> look-and-feel is configured
   411   with custom fonts at 30 pixels, and the main text area and console at 36
   412   pixels. This leads to decent rendering quality, despite the old-fashioned
   413   appearance of \<^emph>\<open>Metal\<close>.
   414 
   415   \begin{figure}[!htb]
   416   \begin{center}
   417   \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{isabelle-jedit-hdpi}
   418   \end{center}
   419   \caption{Metal look-and-feel with custom fonts for very high resolution}
   420   \label{fig:isabelle-jedit-hdpi}
   421   \end{figure}
   422 \<close>
   423 
   424 
   425 chapter \<open>Augmented jEdit functionality\<close>
   426 
   427 section \<open>Dockable windows \label{sec:dockables}\<close>
   428 
   429 text \<open>
   430   In jEdit terminology, a \<^emph>\<open>view\<close> is an editor window with one or more \<^emph>\<open>text
   431   areas\<close> that show the content of one or more \<^emph>\<open>buffers\<close>. A regular view may
   432   be surrounded by \<^emph>\<open>dockable windows\<close> that show additional information in
   433   arbitrary format, not just text; a \<^emph>\<open>plain view\<close> does not allow dockables.
   434   The \<^emph>\<open>dockable window manager\<close> of jEdit organizes these dockable windows,
   435   either as \<^emph>\<open>floating\<close> windows, or \<^emph>\<open>docked\<close> panels within one of the four
   436   margins of the view. There may be any number of floating instances of some
   437   dockable window, but at most one docked instance; jEdit actions that address
   438   \<^emph>\<open>the\<close> dockable window of a particular kind refer to the unique docked
   439   instance.
   440 
   441   Dockables are used routinely in jEdit for important functionality like
   442   \<^emph>\<open>HyperSearch Results\<close> or the \<^emph>\<open>File System Browser\<close>. Plugins often provide
   443   a central dockable to access their main functionality, which may be opened
   444   by the user on demand. The Isabelle/jEdit plugin takes this approach to the
   445   extreme: its plugin menu provides the entry-points to many panels that are
   446   managed as dockable windows. Some important panels are docked by default,
   447   e.g.\ \<^emph>\<open>Documentation\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>State\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>Theories\<close> \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>Query\<close>. The user
   448   can change this arrangement easily and persistently.
   449 
   450   Compared to plain jEdit, dockable window management in Isabelle/jEdit is
   451   slightly augmented according to the the following principles:
   452 
   453   \<^item> Floating windows are dependent on the main window as \<^emph>\<open>dialog\<close> in
   454   the sense of Java/AWT/Swing. Dialog windows always stay on top of the view,
   455   which is particularly important in full-screen mode. The desktop environment
   456   of the underlying platform may impose further policies on such dependent
   457   dialogs, in contrast to fully independent windows, e.g.\ some window
   458   management functions may be missing.
   459 
   460   \<^item> Keyboard focus of the main view vs.\ a dockable window is carefully
   461   managed according to the intended semantics, as a panel mainly for output or
   462   input. For example, activating the \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> (\secref{sec:output}) or State
   463   (\secref{sec:state-output}) panel via the dockable window manager returns
   464   keyboard focus to the main text area, but for \<^emph>\<open>Query\<close> (\secref{sec:query})
   465   or \<^emph>\<open>Sledgehammer\<close> \secref{sec:sledgehammer} the focus is given to the main
   466   input field of that panel.
   467 
   468   \<^item> Panels that provide their own text area for output have an additional
   469   dockable menu item \<^emph>\<open>Detach\<close>. This produces an independent copy of the
   470   current output as a floating \<^emph>\<open>Info\<close> window, which displays that content
   471   independently of ongoing changes of the PIDE document-model. Note that
   472   Isabelle/jEdit popup windows (\secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}) provide a
   473   similar \<^emph>\<open>Detach\<close> operation as an icon.
   474 \<close>
   475 
   476 
   477 section \<open>Isabelle symbols \label{sec:symbols}\<close>
   478 
   479 text \<open>
   480   Isabelle sources consist of \<^emph>\<open>symbols\<close> that extend plain ASCII to allow
   481   infinitely many mathematical symbols within the formal sources. This works
   482   without depending on particular encodings and varying Unicode
   483   standards.\<^footnote>\<open>Raw Unicode characters within formal sources would compromise
   484   portability and reliability in the face of changing interpretation of
   485   special features of Unicode, such as Combining Characters or Bi-directional
   486   Text.\<close> See @{cite "Wenzel:2011:CICM"}.
   487 
   488   For the prover back-end, formal text consists of ASCII characters that are
   489   grouped according to some simple rules, e.g.\ as plain ``\<^verbatim>\<open>a\<close>'' or symbolic
   490   ``\<^verbatim>\<open>\<alpha>\<close>''. For the editor front-end, a certain subset of symbols is rendered
   491   physically via Unicode glyphs, in order to show ``\<^verbatim>\<open>\<alpha>\<close>'' as ``\<open>\<alpha>\<close>'', for
   492   example. This symbol interpretation is specified by the Isabelle system
   493   distribution in \<^file>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols\<close> and may be augmented by the
   494   user in @{path "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/symbols"}.
   495 
   496   The appendix of @{cite "isabelle-isar-ref"} gives an overview of the
   497   standard interpretation of finitely many symbols from the infinite
   498   collection. Uninterpreted symbols are displayed literally, e.g.\
   499   ``\<^verbatim>\<open>\<foobar>\<close>''. Overlap of Unicode characters used in symbol
   500   interpretation with informal ones (which might appear e.g.\ in comments)
   501   needs to be avoided. Raw Unicode characters within prover source files
   502   should be restricted to informal parts, e.g.\ to write text in non-latin
   503   alphabets in comments.
   504 \<close>
   505 
   506 paragraph \<open>Encoding.\<close>
   507 
   508 text \<open>Technically, the Unicode interpretation of Isabelle symbols is an
   509   \<^emph>\<open>encoding\<close> called \<^verbatim>\<open>UTF-8-Isabelle\<close> in jEdit (\<^emph>\<open>not\<close> in the underlying
   510   JVM). It is provided by the Isabelle Base plugin and enabled by default for
   511   all source files in Isabelle/jEdit.
   512 
   513   Sometimes such defaults are reset accidentally, or malformed UTF-8 sequences
   514   in the text force jEdit to fall back on a different encoding like
   515   \<^verbatim>\<open>ISO-8859-15\<close>. In that case, verbatim ``\<^verbatim>\<open>\<alpha>\<close>'' will be shown in the text
   516   buffer instead of its Unicode rendering ``\<open>\<alpha>\<close>''. The jEdit menu operation
   517   \<^emph>\<open>File~/ Reload with Encoding~/ UTF-8-Isabelle\<close> helps to resolve such
   518   problems (after repairing malformed parts of the text).
   519 
   520   If the loaded text already contains Unicode sequences that are in conflict
   521   with the Isabelle symbol encoding, the fallback-encoding UTF-8 is used and
   522   Isabelle symbols remain in literal \<^verbatim>\<open>\<symbol>\<close> form. The jEdit menu
   523   operation \<^emph>\<open>Utilities~/ Buffer Options~/ Character encoding\<close> allows to
   524   enforce the UTF-8-Isabelle, but this will also change original Unicode
   525   text into Isabelle symbols when saving the file!
   526 \<close>
   527 
   528 paragraph \<open>Font.\<close>
   529 text \<open>Correct rendering via Unicode requires a font that contains glyphs for
   530   the corresponding codepoints. There are also various unusual symbols with
   531   particular purpose in Isabelle, e.g.\ control symbols and very long arrows.
   532   Isabelle/jEdit prefers its own application fonts \<^verbatim>\<open>IsabelleText\<close>, which
   533   ensures that standard collection of Isabelle symbols is actually shown on
   534   the screen (or printer) as expected.
   535 
   536   Note that a Java/AWT/Swing application can load additional fonts only if
   537   they are not installed on the operating system already! Some outdated
   538   version of \<^verbatim>\<open>IsabelleText\<close> that happens to be provided by the operating
   539   system would prevent Isabelle/jEdit to use its bundled version. This could
   540   lead to missing glyphs (black rectangles), when the system version of
   541   \<^verbatim>\<open>IsabelleText\<close> is older than the application version. This problem can be
   542   avoided by refraining to ``install'' any version of \<^verbatim>\<open>IsabelleText\<close> in the
   543   first place, although it might be tempting to use the same font in other
   544   applications.
   545 
   546   HTML pages generated by Isabelle refer to the same \<^verbatim>\<open>IsabelleText\<close> font as a
   547   server-side resource. Thus a web-browser can use that without requiring a
   548   locally installed copy.
   549 \<close>
   550 
   551 paragraph \<open>Input methods.\<close>
   552 text \<open>In principle, Isabelle/jEdit could delegate the problem to produce
   553   Isabelle symbols in their Unicode rendering to the underlying operating
   554   system and its \<^emph>\<open>input methods\<close>. Regular jEdit also provides various ways to
   555   work with \<^emph>\<open>abbreviations\<close> to produce certain non-ASCII characters. Since
   556   none of these standard input methods work satisfactorily for the
   557   mathematical characters required for Isabelle, various specific
   558   Isabelle/jEdit mechanisms are provided.
   559 
   560   This is a summary for practically relevant input methods for Isabelle
   561   symbols.
   562 
   563   \<^enum> The \<^emph>\<open>Symbols\<close> panel: some GUI buttons allow to insert certain symbols in
   564   the text buffer. There are also tooltips to reveal the official Isabelle
   565   representation with some additional information about \<^emph>\<open>symbol
   566   abbreviations\<close> (see below).
   567 
   568   \<^enum> Copy/paste from decoded source files: text that is rendered as Unicode
   569   already can be re-used to produce further text. This also works between
   570   different applications, e.g.\ Isabelle/jEdit and some web browser or mail
   571   client, as long as the same Unicode interpretation of Isabelle symbols is
   572   used.
   573 
   574   \<^enum> Copy/paste from prover output within Isabelle/jEdit. The same principles
   575   as for text buffers apply, but note that \<^emph>\<open>copy\<close> in secondary Isabelle/jEdit
   576   windows works via the keyboard shortcuts \<^verbatim>\<open>C+c\<close> or \<^verbatim>\<open>C+INSERT\<close>, while jEdit
   577   menu actions always refer to the primary text area!
   578 
   579   \<^enum> Completion provided by the Isabelle plugin (see \secref{sec:completion}).
   580   Isabelle symbols have a canonical name and optional abbreviations. This can
   581   be used with the text completion mechanism of Isabelle/jEdit, to replace a
   582   prefix of the actual symbol like \<^verbatim>\<open>\<lambda>\<close>, or its name preceded by backslash
   583   \<^verbatim>\<open>\lambda\<close>, or its ASCII abbreviation \<^verbatim>\<open>%\<close> by the Unicode rendering.
   584 
   585   The following table is an extract of the information provided by the
   586   standard \<^file>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols\<close> file:
   587 
   588   \<^medskip>
   589   \begin{tabular}{lll}
   590     \<^bold>\<open>symbol\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>name with backslash\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>abbreviation\<close> \\\hline
   591     \<open>\<lambda>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\lambda\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>%\<close> \\
   592     \<open>\<Rightarrow>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\Rightarrow\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>=>\<close> \\
   593     \<open>\<Longrightarrow>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\Longrightarrow\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>==>\<close> \\[0.5ex]
   594     \<open>\<And>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\And\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>!!\<close> \\
   595     \<open>\<equiv>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\equiv\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>==\<close> \\[0.5ex]
   596     \<open>\<forall>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\forall\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>!\<close> \\
   597     \<open>\<exists>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\exists\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>?\<close> \\
   598     \<open>\<longrightarrow>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\longrightarrow\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>-->\<close> \\
   599     \<open>\<and>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\and\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>&\<close> \\
   600     \<open>\<or>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\or\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>|\<close> \\
   601     \<open>\<not>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\not\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>~\<close> \\
   602     \<open>\<noteq>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\noteq\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>~=\<close> \\
   603     \<open>\<in>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\in\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>:\<close> \\
   604     \<open>\<notin>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>\notin\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>~:\<close> \\
   605   \end{tabular}
   606   \<^medskip>
   607 
   608   Note that the above abbreviations refer to the input method. The logical
   609   notation provides ASCII alternatives that often coincide, but sometimes
   610   deviate. This occasionally causes user confusion with old-fashioned Isabelle
   611   source that use ASCII replacement notation like \<^verbatim>\<open>!\<close> or \<^verbatim>\<open>ALL\<close> directly in
   612   the text.
   613 
   614   On the other hand, coincidence of symbol abbreviations with ASCII
   615   replacement syntax syntax helps to update old theory sources via explicit
   616   completion (see also \<^verbatim>\<open>C+b\<close> explained in \secref{sec:completion}).
   617 \<close>
   618 
   619 paragraph \<open>Control symbols.\<close>
   620 text \<open>There are some special control symbols to modify the display style of a
   621   single symbol (without nesting). Control symbols may be applied to a region
   622   of selected text, either using the \<^emph>\<open>Symbols\<close> panel or keyboard shortcuts or
   623   jEdit actions. These editor operations produce a separate control symbol for
   624   each symbol in the text, in order to make the whole text appear in a certain
   625   style.
   626 
   627   \<^medskip>
   628   \begin{tabular}{llll}
   629     \<^bold>\<open>style\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>symbol\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>shortcut\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>action\<close> \\\hline
   630     superscript & \<^verbatim>\<open>\<^sup>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>C+e UP\<close> & @{action_ref "isabelle.control-sup"} \\
   631     subscript & \<^verbatim>\<open>\<^sub>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>C+e DOWN\<close> & @{action_ref "isabelle.control-sub"} \\
   632     bold face & \<^verbatim>\<open>\<^bold>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>C+e RIGHT\<close> & @{action_ref "isabelle.control-bold"} \\
   633     emphasized & \<^verbatim>\<open>\<^emph>\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>C+e LEFT\<close> & @{action_ref "isabelle.control-emph"} \\
   634     reset & & \<^verbatim>\<open>C+e BACK_SPACE\<close> & @{action_ref "isabelle.control-reset"} \\
   635   \end{tabular}
   636   \<^medskip>
   637 
   638   To produce a single control symbol, it is also possible to complete on
   639   \<^verbatim>\<open>\sup\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>\sub\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>\bold\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>\emph\<close> as for regular symbols.
   640 
   641   The emphasized style only takes effect in document output (when used with a
   642   cartouche), but not in the editor.
   643 \<close>
   644 
   645 
   646 section \<open>Scala console \label{sec:scala-console}\<close>
   647 
   648 text \<open>
   649   The \<^emph>\<open>Console\<close> plugin manages various shells (command interpreters), e.g.\
   650   \<^emph>\<open>BeanShell\<close>, which is the official jEdit scripting language, and the
   651   cross-platform \<^emph>\<open>System\<close> shell. Thus the console provides similar
   652   functionality than the Emacs buffers \<^verbatim>\<open>*scratch*\<close> and \<^verbatim>\<open>*shell*\<close>.
   653 
   654   Isabelle/jEdit extends the repertoire of the console by \<^emph>\<open>Scala\<close>, which is
   655   the regular Scala toplevel loop running inside the same JVM process as
   656   Isabelle/jEdit itself. This means the Scala command interpreter has access
   657   to the JVM name space and state of the running Prover IDE application. The
   658   default environment imports the full content of packages \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle\<close> and
   659   \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle.jedit\<close>.
   660 
   661   For example, \<^verbatim>\<open>PIDE\<close> refers to the Isabelle/jEdit plugin object, and \<^verbatim>\<open>view\<close>
   662   to the current editor view of jEdit. The Scala expression
   663   \<^verbatim>\<open>PIDE.snapshot(view)\<close> makes a PIDE document snapshot of the current buffer
   664   within the current editor view.
   665 
   666   This helps to explore Isabelle/Scala functionality interactively. Some care
   667   is required to avoid interference with the internals of the running
   668   application.
   669 \<close>
   670 
   671 
   672 section \<open>File-system access\<close>
   673 
   674 text \<open>
   675   File specifications in jEdit follow various formats and conventions
   676   according to \<^emph>\<open>Virtual File Systems\<close>, which may be also provided by
   677   additional plugins. This allows to access remote files via the \<^verbatim>\<open>http:\<close>
   678   protocol prefix, for example. Isabelle/jEdit attempts to work with the
   679   file-system model of jEdit as far as possible. In particular, theory sources
   680   are passed directly from the editor to the prover, without indirection via
   681   physical files.
   682 
   683   Despite the flexibility of URLs in jEdit, local files are particularly
   684   important and are accessible without protocol prefix. The file path notation
   685   is that of the Java Virtual Machine on the underlying platform. On Windows
   686   the preferred form uses backslashes, but happens to accept forward slashes
   687   like Unix/POSIX as well. Further differences arise due to Windows drive
   688   letters and network shares.
   689 
   690   The Java notation for files needs to be distinguished from the one of
   691   Isabelle, which uses POSIX notation with forward slashes on \<^emph>\<open>all\<close>
   692   platforms. Isabelle/ML on Windows uses Unix-style path notation, too, and
   693   driver letter representation as in Cygwin (e.g.\ \<^verbatim>\<open>/cygdrive/c\<close>). Moreover,
   694   environment variables from the Isabelle process may be used freely, e.g.\
   695   \<^file>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols\<close> or \<^file>\<open>$POLYML_HOME/README\<close>. There are special
   696   shortcuts: \<^dir>\<open>~\<close> for \<^dir>\<open>$USER_HOME\<close> and \<^dir>\<open>~~\<close> for \<^dir>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME\<close>.
   697 
   698   \<^medskip>
   699   Since jEdit happens to support environment variables within file
   700   specifications as well, it is natural to use similar notation within the
   701   editor, e.g.\ in the file-browser. This does not work in full generality,
   702   though, due to the bias of jEdit towards platform-specific notation and of
   703   Isabelle towards POSIX. Moreover, the Isabelle settings environment is not
   704   yet active when starting Isabelle/jEdit via its standard application
   705   wrapper, in contrast to @{tool jedit} run from the command line
   706   (\secref{sec:command-line}).
   707 
   708   Isabelle/jEdit imitates important system settings within the Java process
   709   environment, in order to allow easy access to these important places from
   710   the editor: \<^verbatim>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME_USER\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>$JEDIT_HOME\<close>,
   711   \<^verbatim>\<open>$JEDIT_SETTINGS\<close>. The file browser of jEdit also includes \<^emph>\<open>Favorites\<close> for
   712   these two important locations.
   713 
   714   \<^medskip>
   715   Path specifications in prover input or output usually include formal markup
   716   that turns it into a hyperlink (see also \secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}).
   717   This allows to open the corresponding file in the text editor, independently
   718   of the path notation. If the path refers to a directory, the jEdit file
   719   browser is opened on it.
   720 
   721   Formally checked paths in prover input are subject to completion
   722   (\secref{sec:completion}): partial specifications are resolved via directory
   723   content and possible completions are offered in a popup.
   724 \<close>
   725 
   726 
   727 section \<open>Indentation\<close>
   728 
   729 text \<open>
   730   Isabelle/jEdit augments the existing indentation facilities of jEdit to take
   731   the structure of theory and proof texts into account. There is also special
   732   support for unstructured proof scripts.
   733 
   734     \<^descr>[Syntactic indentation] follows the outer syntax of Isabelle/Isar.
   735 
   736     Action @{action "indent-lines"} (shortcut \<^verbatim>\<open>C+i\<close>) indents the current line
   737     according to command keywords and some command substructure: this
   738     approximation may need further manual tuning.
   739 
   740     Action @{action "isabelle.newline"} (shortcut \<^verbatim>\<open>ENTER\<close>) indents the old
   741     and the new line according to command keywords only: this leads to precise
   742     alignment of the main Isar language elements. This depends on option
   743     @{system_option_def "jedit_indent_newline"} (enabled by default).
   744 
   745     Regular input (via keyboard or completion) indents the current line
   746     whenever an new keyword is emerging at the start of the line. This depends
   747     on option @{system_option_def "jedit_indent_input"} (enabled by default).
   748 
   749     \<^descr>[Semantic indentation] adds additional white space to unstructured proof
   750     scripts (\<^theory_text>\<open>apply\<close> etc.) via number of subgoals. This requires information
   751     of ongoing document processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is
   752     editing too quickly; see also option @{system_option_def
   753     "jedit_script_indent"} and @{system_option_def
   754     "jedit_script_indent_limit"}.
   755 
   756   The above options are accessible in the menu \<^emph>\<open>Plugins / Plugin Options /
   757   Isabelle / General\<close>. A prerequisite for advanced indentation is \<^emph>\<open>Utilities
   758   / Buffer Options / Automatic indentation\<close>: it needs to be set to \<^verbatim>\<open>full\<close>
   759   (default).
   760 \<close>
   761 
   762 
   763 section \<open>SideKick parsers \label{sec:sidekick}\<close>
   764 
   765 text \<open>
   766   The \<^emph>\<open>SideKick\<close> plugin provides some general services to display buffer
   767   structure in a tree view. Isabelle/jEdit provides SideKick parsers for its
   768   main mode for theory files, ML files, as well as some minor modes for the
   769   \<^verbatim>\<open>NEWS\<close> file (see \figref{fig:sidekick}), session \<^verbatim>\<open>ROOT\<close> files, system
   770   \<^verbatim>\<open>options\<close>, and Bib{\TeX} files (\secref{sec:bibtex}).
   771 
   772   \begin{figure}[!htb]
   773   \begin{center}
   774   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{sidekick}
   775   \end{center}
   776   \caption{The Isabelle NEWS file with SideKick tree view}
   777   \label{fig:sidekick}
   778   \end{figure}
   779 
   780   The default SideKick parser for theory files is \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle\<close>: it provides a
   781   tree-view on the formal document structure, with section headings at the top
   782   and formal specification elements at the bottom. The alternative parser
   783   \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle-context\<close> shows nesting of context blocks according to \<^theory_text>\<open>begin \<dots>
   784   end\<close> structure.
   785 
   786   \<^medskip>
   787   Isabelle/ML files are structured according to semi-formal comments that are
   788   explained in @{cite "isabelle-implementation"}. This outline is turned into
   789   a tree-view by default, by using the \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle-ml\<close> parser. There is also a
   790   folding mode of the same name, for hierarchic text folds within ML files.
   791 
   792   \<^medskip>
   793   The special SideKick parser \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle-markup\<close> exposes the uninterpreted
   794   markup tree of the PIDE document model of the current buffer. This is
   795   occasionally useful for informative purposes, but the amount of displayed
   796   information might cause problems for large buffers.
   797 \<close>
   798 
   799 
   800 chapter \<open>Prover IDE functionality \label{sec:document-model}\<close>
   801 
   802 section \<open>Document model \label{sec:document-model}\<close>
   803 
   804 text \<open>
   805   The document model is central to the PIDE architecture: the editor and the
   806   prover have a common notion of structured source text with markup, which is
   807   produced by formal processing. The editor is responsible for edits of
   808   document source, as produced by the user. The prover is responsible for
   809   reports of document markup, as produced by its processing in the background.
   810 
   811   Isabelle/jEdit handles classic editor events of jEdit, in order to connect
   812   the physical world of the GUI (with its singleton state) to the mathematical
   813   world of multiple document versions (with timeless and stateless updates).
   814 \<close>
   815 
   816 
   817 subsection \<open>Editor buffers and document nodes \label{sec:buffer-node}\<close>
   818 
   819 text \<open>
   820   As a regular text editor, jEdit maintains a collection of \<^emph>\<open>buffers\<close> to
   821   store text files; each buffer may be associated with any number of visible
   822   \<^emph>\<open>text areas\<close>. Buffers are subject to an \<^emph>\<open>edit mode\<close> that is determined
   823   from the file name extension. The following modes are treated specifically
   824   in Isabelle/jEdit:
   825 
   826   \<^medskip>
   827   \begin{tabular}{lll}
   828   \<^bold>\<open>mode\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>file name\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>content\<close> \\\hline
   829   \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>*.thy\<close> & theory source \\
   830   \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle-ml\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>*.ML\<close> & Isabelle/ML source \\
   831   \<^verbatim>\<open>sml\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>*.sml\<close> or \<^verbatim>\<open>*.sig\<close> & Standard ML source \\
   832   \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle-root\<close> & \<^verbatim>\<open>ROOT\<close> & session root \\
   833   \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle-options\<close> & & Isabelle options \\
   834   \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle-news\<close> & & Isabelle NEWS \\
   835   \end{tabular}
   836   \<^medskip>
   837 
   838   All jEdit buffers are automatically added to the PIDE document-model as
   839   \<^emph>\<open>document nodes\<close>. The overall document structure is defined by the theory
   840   nodes in two dimensions:
   841 
   842     \<^enum> via \<^bold>\<open>theory imports\<close> that are specified in the \<^emph>\<open>theory header\<close> using
   843     concrete syntax of the @{command_ref theory} command @{cite
   844     "isabelle-isar-ref"};
   845 
   846     \<^enum> via \<^bold>\<open>auxiliary files\<close> that are included into a theory by \<^emph>\<open>load
   847     commands\<close>, notably @{command_ref ML_file} and @{command_ref SML_file}
   848     @{cite "isabelle-isar-ref"}.
   849 
   850   In any case, source files are managed by the PIDE infrastructure: the
   851   physical file-system only plays a subordinate role. The relevant version of
   852   source text is passed directly from the editor to the prover, using internal
   853   communication channels.
   854 \<close>
   855 
   856 
   857 subsection \<open>Theories \label{sec:theories}\<close>
   858 
   859 text \<open>
   860   The \<^emph>\<open>Theories\<close> panel (see also \figref{fig:theories}) provides an overview
   861   of the status of continuous checking of theory nodes within the document
   862   model.
   863 
   864   \begin{figure}[!htb]
   865   \begin{center}
   866   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{theories}
   867   \end{center}
   868   \caption{Theories panel with an overview of the document-model, and jEdit
   869   text areas as editable views on some of the document nodes}
   870   \label{fig:theories}
   871   \end{figure}
   872 
   873   Theory imports are resolved automatically by the PIDE document model: all
   874   required files are loaded and stored internally, without the need to open
   875   corresponding jEdit buffers. Opening or closing editor buffers later on has
   876   no direct impact on the formal document content: it only affects visibility.
   877 
   878   In contrast, auxiliary files (e.g.\ from @{command ML_file} commands) are
   879   \<^emph>\<open>not\<close> resolved within the editor by default, but the prover process takes
   880   care of that. This may be changed by enabling the system option
   881   @{system_option jedit_auto_resolve}: it ensures that all files are uniformly
   882   provided by the editor.
   883 
   884   \<^medskip>
   885   The visible \<^emph>\<open>perspective\<close> of Isabelle/jEdit is defined by the collective
   886   view on theory buffers via open text areas. The perspective is taken as a
   887   hint for document processing: the prover ensures that those parts of a
   888   theory where the user is looking are checked, while other parts that are
   889   presently not required are ignored. The perspective is changed by opening or
   890   closing text area windows, or scrolling within a window.
   891 
   892   The \<^emph>\<open>Theories\<close> panel provides some further options to influence the process
   893   of continuous checking: it may be switched off globally to restrict the
   894   prover to superficial processing of command syntax. It is also possible to
   895   indicate theory nodes as \<^emph>\<open>required\<close> for continuous checking: this means
   896   such nodes and all their imports are always processed independently of the
   897   visibility status (if continuous checking is enabled). Big theory libraries
   898   that are marked as required can have significant impact on performance!
   899 
   900   The \<^emph>\<open>Purge\<close> button restricts the document model to theories that are
   901   required for open editor buffers: inaccessible theories are removed and will
   902   be rechecked when opened or imported later.
   903 
   904   \<^medskip>
   905   Formal markup of checked theory content is turned into GUI rendering, based
   906   on a standard repertoire known from mainstream IDEs for programming
   907   languages: colors, icons, highlighting, squiggly underlines, tooltips,
   908   hyperlinks etc. For outer syntax of Isabelle/Isar there is some traditional
   909   syntax-highlighting via static keywords and tokenization within the editor;
   910   this buffer syntax is determined from theory imports. In contrast, the
   911   painting of inner syntax (term language etc.)\ uses semantic information
   912   that is reported dynamically from the logical context. Thus the prover can
   913   provide additional markup to help the user to understand the meaning of
   914   formal text, and to produce more text with some add-on tools (e.g.\
   915   information messages with \<^emph>\<open>sendback\<close> markup by automated provers or
   916   disprovers in the background). \<close>
   917 
   918 
   919 subsection \<open>Auxiliary files \label{sec:aux-files}\<close>
   920 
   921 text \<open>
   922   Special load commands like @{command_ref ML_file} and @{command_ref
   923   SML_file} @{cite "isabelle-isar-ref"} refer to auxiliary files within some
   924   theory. Conceptually, the file argument of the command extends the theory
   925   source by the content of the file, but its editor buffer may be loaded~/
   926   changed~/ saved separately. The PIDE document model propagates changes of
   927   auxiliary file content to the corresponding load command in the theory, to
   928   update and process it accordingly: changes of auxiliary file content are
   929   treated as changes of the corresponding load command.
   930 
   931   \<^medskip>
   932   As a concession to the massive amount of ML files in Isabelle/HOL itself,
   933   the content of auxiliary files is only added to the PIDE document-model on
   934   demand, the first time when opened explicitly in the editor. There are
   935   further tricks to manage markup of ML files, such that Isabelle/HOL may be
   936   edited conveniently in the Prover IDE on small machines with only 8\,GB of
   937   main memory. Using \<^verbatim>\<open>Pure\<close> as logic session image, the exploration may start
   938   at the top \<^file>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME/src/HOL/Main.thy\<close> or the bottom
   939   \<^file>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME/src/HOL/HOL.thy\<close>, for example. It is also possible to
   940   explore the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process (a virtual copy) by opening
   941   \<^file>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME/src/Pure/ROOT.ML\<close> like a theory in the Prover IDE.
   942 
   943   Initially, before an auxiliary file is opened in the editor, the prover
   944   reads its content from the physical file-system. After the file is opened
   945   for the first time in the editor, e.g.\ by following the hyperlink
   946   (\secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}) for the argument of its @{command
   947   ML_file} command, the content is taken from the jEdit buffer.
   948 
   949   The change of responsibility from prover to editor counts as an update of
   950   the document content, so subsequent theory sources need to be re-checked.
   951   When the buffer is closed, the responsibility remains to the editor: the
   952   file may be opened again without causing another document update.
   953 
   954   A file that is opened in the editor, but its theory with the load command is
   955   not, is presently inactive in the document model. A file that is loaded via
   956   multiple load commands is associated to an arbitrary one: this situation is
   957   morally unsupported and might lead to confusion.
   958 
   959   \<^medskip>
   960   Output that refers to an auxiliary file is combined with that of the
   961   corresponding load command, and shown whenever the file or the command are
   962   active (see also \secref{sec:output}).
   963 
   964   Warnings, errors, and other useful markup is attached directly to the
   965   positions in the auxiliary file buffer, in the manner of standard IDEs. By
   966   using the load command @{command SML_file} as explained in
   967   \<^file>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy\<close>, Isabelle/jEdit may be used as
   968   fully-featured IDE for Standard ML, independently of theory or proof
   969   development: the required theory merely serves as some kind of project file
   970   for a collection of SML source modules.
   971 \<close>
   972 
   973 
   974 section \<open>Output \label{sec:output}\<close>
   975 
   976 text \<open>
   977   Prover output consists of \<^emph>\<open>markup\<close> and \<^emph>\<open>messages\<close>. Both are directly
   978   attached to the corresponding positions in the original source text, and
   979   visualized in the text area, e.g.\ as text colours for free and bound
   980   variables, or as squiggly underlines for warnings, errors etc.\ (see also
   981   \figref{fig:output}). In the latter case, the corresponding messages are
   982   shown by hovering with the mouse over the highlighted text --- although in
   983   many situations the user should already get some clue by looking at the
   984   position of the text highlighting, without seeing the message body itself.
   985 
   986   \begin{figure}[!htb]
   987   \begin{center}
   988   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{output}
   989   \end{center}
   990   \caption{Multiple views on prover output: gutter with icon, text area with
   991   popup, text overview column, \<^emph>\<open>Theories\<close> panel, \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> panel}
   992   \label{fig:output}
   993   \end{figure}
   994 
   995   The ``gutter'' on the left-hand-side of the text area uses icons to
   996   provide a summary of the messages within the adjacent text line. Message
   997   priorities are used to prefer errors over warnings, warnings over
   998   information messages; other output is ignored.
   999 
  1000   The ``text overview column'' on the right-hand-side of the text area uses
  1001   similar information to paint small rectangles for the overall status of the
  1002   whole text buffer. The graphics is scaled to fit the logical buffer length
  1003   into the given window height. Mouse clicks on the overview area move the
  1004   cursor approximately to the corresponding text line in the buffer.
  1005 
  1006   The \<^emph>\<open>Theories\<close> panel provides another course-grained overview, but without
  1007   direct correspondence to text positions. The coloured rectangles represent
  1008   the amount of messages of a certain kind (warnings, errors, etc.) and the
  1009   execution status of commands. The border of each rectangle indicates the
  1010   overall status of processing: a thick border means it is \<^emph>\<open>finished\<close> or
  1011   \<^emph>\<open>failed\<close> (with color for errors). A double-click on one of the theory
  1012   entries with their status overview opens the corresponding text buffer,
  1013   without moving the cursor to a specific point.
  1014 
  1015   \<^medskip>
  1016   The \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> panel displays prover messages that correspond to a given
  1017   command, within a separate window. The cursor position in the presently
  1018   active text area determines the prover command whose cumulative message
  1019   output is appended and shown in that window (in canonical order according to
  1020   the internal execution of the command). There are also control elements to
  1021   modify the update policy of the output wrt.\ continued editor movements:
  1022   \<^emph>\<open>Auto update\<close> and \<^emph>\<open>Update\<close>. This is particularly useful for multiple
  1023   instances of the \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> panel to look at different situations.
  1024   Alternatively, the panel can be turned into a passive \<^emph>\<open>Info\<close> window via the
  1025   \<^emph>\<open>Detach\<close> menu item.
  1026 
  1027   Proof state is handled separately (\secref{sec:state-output}), but it is
  1028   also possible to tick the corresponding checkbox to append it to regular
  1029   output (\figref{fig:output-including-state}). This is a globally persistent
  1030   option: it affects all open panels and future editor sessions.
  1031 
  1032   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1033   \begin{center}
  1034   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{output-including-state}
  1035   \end{center}
  1036   \caption{Proof state display within the regular output panel}
  1037   \label{fig:output-including-state}
  1038   \end{figure}
  1039 
  1040   \<^medskip>
  1041   Following the IDE principle, regular messages are attached to the original
  1042   source in the proper place and may be inspected on demand via popups. This
  1043   excludes messages that are somehow internal to the machinery of proof
  1044   checking, notably \<^emph>\<open>proof state\<close> and \<^emph>\<open>tracing\<close>.
  1045 
  1046   In any case, the same display technology is used for small popups and big
  1047   output windows. The formal text contains markup that may be explored
  1048   recursively via further popups and hyperlinks (see
  1049   \secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}), or clicked directly to initiate certain
  1050   actions (see \secref{sec:auto-tools} and \secref{sec:sledgehammer}).
  1051 \<close>
  1052 
  1053 
  1054 section \<open>Proof state \label{sec:state-output}\<close>
  1055 
  1056 text \<open>
  1057   The main purpose of the Prover IDE is to help the user editing proof
  1058   documents, with ongoing formal checking by the prover in the background.
  1059   This can be done to some extent in the main text area alone, especially for
  1060   well-structured Isar proofs.
  1061 
  1062   Nonetheless, internal proof state needs to be inspected in many situations
  1063   of exploration and ``debugging''. The \<^emph>\<open>State\<close> panel shows exclusively such
  1064   proof state messages without further distraction, while all other messages
  1065   are displayed in \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> (\secref{sec:output}).
  1066   \Figref{fig:output-and-state} shows a typical GUI layout where both panels
  1067   are open.
  1068 
  1069   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1070   \begin{center}
  1071   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{output-and-state}
  1072   \end{center}
  1073   \caption{Separate proof state display (right) and other output (bottom).}
  1074   \label{fig:output-and-state}
  1075   \end{figure}
  1076 
  1077   Another typical arrangement has more than one \<^emph>\<open>State\<close> panel open (as
  1078   floating windows), with \<^emph>\<open>Auto update\<close> disabled to look at an old situation
  1079   while the proof text in the vicinity is changed. The \<^emph>\<open>Update\<close> button
  1080   triggers an explicit one-shot update; this operation is also available via
  1081   the action @{action "isabelle.update-state"} (keyboard shortcut \<^verbatim>\<open>S+ENTER\<close>).
  1082 
  1083   On small screens, it is occasionally useful to have all messages
  1084   concatenated in the regular \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> panel, e.g.\ see
  1085   \figref{fig:output-including-state}.
  1086 
  1087   \<^medskip>
  1088   The mechanics of \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> versus \<^emph>\<open>State\<close> are slightly different:
  1089 
  1090     \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> shows information that is continuously produced and already
  1091     present when the GUI wants to show it. This is implicitly controlled by
  1092     the visible perspective on the text.
  1093 
  1094     \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>State\<close> initiates a real-time query on demand, with a full round trip
  1095     including a fresh print operation on the prover side. This is controlled
  1096     explicitly when the cursor is moved to the next command (\<^emph>\<open>Auto update\<close>)
  1097     or the \<^emph>\<open>Update\<close> operation is triggered.
  1098 
  1099   This can make a difference in GUI responsibility and resource usage within
  1100   the prover process. Applications with very big proof states that are only
  1101   inspected in isolation work better with the \<^emph>\<open>State\<close> panel.
  1102 \<close>
  1103 
  1104 
  1105 section \<open>Query \label{sec:query}\<close>
  1106 
  1107 text \<open>
  1108   The \<^emph>\<open>Query\<close> panel provides various GUI forms to request extra information
  1109   from the prover, as a replacement of old-style diagnostic commands like
  1110   @{command find_theorems}. There are input fields and buttons for a
  1111   particular query command, with output in a dedicated text area.
  1112 
  1113   The main query modes are presented as separate tabs: \<^emph>\<open>Find Theorems\<close>,
  1114   \<^emph>\<open>Find Constants\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>Print Context\<close>, e.g.\ see \figref{fig:query}. As usual
  1115   in jEdit, multiple \<^emph>\<open>Query\<close> windows may be active at the same time: any
  1116   number of floating instances, but at most one docked instance (which is used
  1117   by default).
  1118 
  1119   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1120   \begin{center}
  1121   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{query}
  1122   \end{center}
  1123   \caption{An instance of the Query panel: find theorems}
  1124   \label{fig:query}
  1125   \end{figure}
  1126 
  1127   \<^medskip>
  1128   The following GUI elements are common to all query modes:
  1129 
  1130     \<^item> The spinning wheel provides feedback about the status of a pending query
  1131     wrt.\ the evaluation of its context and its own operation.
  1132 
  1133     \<^item> The \<^emph>\<open>Apply\<close> button attaches a fresh query invocation to the current
  1134     context of the command where the cursor is pointing in the text.
  1135 
  1136     \<^item> The \<^emph>\<open>Search\<close> field allows to highlight query output according to some
  1137     regular expression, in the notation that is commonly used on the Java
  1138     platform.\<^footnote>\<open>\<^url>\<open>https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html\<close>\<close>
  1139     This may serve as an additional visual filter of the result.
  1140 
  1141     \<^item> The \<^emph>\<open>Zoom\<close> box controls the font size of the output area.
  1142 
  1143   All query operations are asynchronous: there is no need to wait for the
  1144   evaluation of the document for the query context, nor for the query
  1145   operation itself. Query output may be detached as independent \<^emph>\<open>Info\<close>
  1146   window, using a menu operation of the dockable window manager. The printed
  1147   result usually provides sufficient clues about the original query, with some
  1148   hyperlink to its context (via markup of its head line).
  1149 \<close>
  1150 
  1151 
  1152 subsection \<open>Find theorems\<close>
  1153 
  1154 text \<open>
  1155   The \<^emph>\<open>Query\<close> panel in \<^emph>\<open>Find Theorems\<close> mode retrieves facts from the theory
  1156   or proof context matching all of given criteria in the \<^emph>\<open>Find\<close> text field. A
  1157   single criterion has the following syntax:
  1158 
  1159   @{rail \<open>
  1160     ('-'?) ('name' ':' @{syntax name} | 'intro' | 'elim' | 'dest' |
  1161       'solves' | 'simp' ':' @{syntax term} | @{syntax term})
  1162   \<close>}
  1163 
  1164   See also the Isar command @{command_ref find_theorems} in @{cite
  1165   "isabelle-isar-ref"}.
  1166 \<close>
  1167 
  1168 
  1169 subsection \<open>Find constants\<close>
  1170 
  1171 text \<open>
  1172   The \<^emph>\<open>Query\<close> panel in \<^emph>\<open>Find Constants\<close> mode prints all constants whose type
  1173   meets all of the given criteria in the \<^emph>\<open>Find\<close> text field. A single
  1174   criterion has the following syntax:
  1175 
  1176   @{rail \<open>
  1177     ('-'?)
  1178       ('name' ':' @{syntax name} | 'strict' ':' @{syntax type} | @{syntax type})
  1179   \<close>}
  1180 
  1181   See also the Isar command @{command_ref find_consts} in @{cite
  1182   "isabelle-isar-ref"}.
  1183 \<close>
  1184 
  1185 
  1186 subsection \<open>Print context\<close>
  1187 
  1188 text \<open>
  1189   The \<^emph>\<open>Query\<close> panel in \<^emph>\<open>Print Context\<close> mode prints information from the
  1190   theory or proof context, or proof state. See also the Isar commands
  1191   @{command_ref print_context}, @{command_ref print_cases}, @{command_ref
  1192   print_term_bindings}, @{command_ref print_theorems}, described in @{cite
  1193   "isabelle-isar-ref"}.
  1194 \<close>
  1195 
  1196 
  1197 section \<open>Tooltips and hyperlinks \label{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}\<close>
  1198 
  1199 text \<open>
  1200   Formally processed text (prover input or output) contains rich markup that
  1201   can be explored by using the \<^verbatim>\<open>CONTROL\<close> modifier key on Linux and Windows,
  1202   or \<^verbatim>\<open>COMMAND\<close> on Mac OS X. Hovering with the mouse while the modifier is
  1203   pressed reveals a \<^emph>\<open>tooltip\<close> (grey box over the text with a yellow popup)
  1204   and/or a \<^emph>\<open>hyperlink\<close> (black rectangle over the text with change of mouse
  1205   pointer); see also \figref{fig:tooltip}.
  1206 
  1207   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1208   \begin{center}
  1209   \includegraphics[scale=0.5]{popup1}
  1210   \end{center}
  1211   \caption{Tooltip and hyperlink for some formal entity}
  1212   \label{fig:tooltip}
  1213   \end{figure}
  1214 
  1215   Tooltip popups use the same rendering technology as the main text area, and
  1216   further tooltips and/or hyperlinks may be exposed recursively by the same
  1217   mechanism; see \figref{fig:nested-tooltips}.
  1218 
  1219   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1220   \begin{center}
  1221   \includegraphics[scale=0.5]{popup2}
  1222   \end{center}
  1223   \caption{Nested tooltips over formal entities}
  1224   \label{fig:nested-tooltips}
  1225   \end{figure}
  1226 
  1227   The tooltip popup window provides some controls to \<^emph>\<open>close\<close> or \<^emph>\<open>detach\<close> the
  1228   window, turning it into a separate \<^emph>\<open>Info\<close> window managed by jEdit. The
  1229   \<^verbatim>\<open>ESCAPE\<close> key closes \<^emph>\<open>all\<close> popups, which is particularly relevant when
  1230   nested tooltips are stacking up.
  1231 
  1232   \<^medskip>
  1233   A black rectangle in the text indicates a hyperlink that may be followed by
  1234   a mouse click (while the \<^verbatim>\<open>CONTROL\<close> or \<^verbatim>\<open>COMMAND\<close> modifier key is still
  1235   pressed). Such jumps to other text locations are recorded by the
  1236   \<^emph>\<open>Navigator\<close> plugin, which is bundled with Isabelle/jEdit and enabled by
  1237   default. There are usually navigation arrows in the main jEdit toolbar.
  1238 
  1239   Note that the link target may be a file that is itself not subject to formal
  1240   document processing of the editor session and thus prevents further
  1241   exploration: the chain of hyperlinks may end in some source file of the
  1242   underlying logic image, or within the ML bootstrap sources of Isabelle/Pure.
  1243 \<close>
  1244 
  1245 
  1246 section \<open>Formal scopes and semantic selection\<close>
  1247 
  1248 text \<open>
  1249   Formal entities are semantically annotated in the source text as explained
  1250   in \secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}. A \<^emph>\<open>formal scope\<close> consists of the
  1251   defining position with all its referencing positions. This correspondence is
  1252   highlighted in the text according to the cursor position, see also
  1253   \figref{fig:scope1}. Here the referencing positions are rendered with an
  1254   additional border, in reminiscence to a hyperlink: clicking there moves the
  1255   cursor to the original defining position.
  1256 
  1257   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1258   \begin{center}
  1259   \includegraphics[scale=0.5]{scope1}
  1260   \end{center}
  1261   \caption{Scope of formal entity: defining vs.\ referencing positions}
  1262   \label{fig:scope1}
  1263   \end{figure}
  1264 
  1265   The action @{action_def "isabelle.select-entity"} (shortcut \<^verbatim>\<open>CS+ENTER\<close>)
  1266   supports semantic selection of all occurrences of the formal entity at the
  1267   caret position. This facilitates systematic renaming, using regular jEdit
  1268   editing of a multi-selection, see also \figref{fig:scope2}.
  1269 
  1270   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1271   \begin{center}
  1272   \includegraphics[scale=0.5]{scope2}
  1273   \end{center}
  1274   \caption{The result of semantic selection and systematic renaming}
  1275   \label{fig:scope2}
  1276   \end{figure}
  1277 \<close>
  1278 
  1279 
  1280 section \<open>Completion \label{sec:completion}\<close>
  1281 
  1282 text \<open>
  1283   Smart completion of partial input is the IDE functionality \<^emph>\<open>par
  1284   excellance\<close>. Isabelle/jEdit combines several sources of information to
  1285   achieve that. Despite its complexity, it should be possible to get some idea
  1286   how completion works by experimentation, based on the overview of completion
  1287   varieties in \secref{sec:completion-varieties}. The remaining subsections
  1288   explain concepts around completion more systematically.
  1289 
  1290   \<^medskip>
  1291   \<^emph>\<open>Explicit completion\<close> is triggered by the action @{action_ref
  1292   "isabelle.complete"}, which is bound to the keyboard shortcut \<^verbatim>\<open>C+b\<close>, and
  1293   thus overrides the jEdit default for @{action_ref "complete-word"}.
  1294 
  1295   \<^emph>\<open>Implicit completion\<close> hooks into the regular keyboard input stream of the
  1296   editor, with some event filtering and optional delays.
  1297 
  1298   \<^medskip>
  1299   Completion options may be configured in \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options~/ Isabelle~/
  1300   General~/ Completion\<close>. These are explained in further detail below, whenever
  1301   relevant. There is also a summary of options in
  1302   \secref{sec:completion-options}.
  1303 
  1304   The asynchronous nature of PIDE interaction means that information from the
  1305   prover is delayed --- at least by a full round-trip of the document update
  1306   protocol. The default options already take this into account, with a
  1307   sufficiently long completion delay to speculate on the availability of all
  1308   relevant information from the editor and the prover, before completing text
  1309   immediately or producing a popup. Although there is an inherent danger of
  1310   non-deterministic behaviour due to such real-time parameters, the general
  1311   completion policy aims at determined results as far as possible.
  1312 \<close>
  1313 
  1314 
  1315 subsection \<open>Varieties of completion \label{sec:completion-varieties}\<close>
  1316 
  1317 subsubsection \<open>Built-in templates\<close>
  1318 
  1319 text \<open>
  1320   Isabelle is ultimately a framework of nested sub-languages of different
  1321   kinds and purposes. The completion mechanism supports this by the following
  1322   built-in templates:
  1323 
  1324     \<^descr> \<^verbatim>\<open>`\<close> (single ASCII back-quote) or \<^verbatim>\<open>"\<close> (double ASCII quote) support
  1325     \<^emph>\<open>quotations\<close> via text cartouches. There are three selections, which are
  1326     always presented in the same order and do not depend on any context
  1327     information. The default choice produces a template ``\<open>\<open>\<box>\<close>\<close>'', where the
  1328     box indicates the cursor position after insertion; the other choices help
  1329     to repair the block structure of unbalanced text cartouches.
  1330 
  1331     \<^descr> \<^verbatim>\<open>@{\<close> is completed to the template ``\<open>@{\<box>}\<close>'', where the box indicates
  1332     the cursor position after insertion. Here it is convenient to use the
  1333     wildcard ``\<^verbatim>\<open>__\<close>'' or a more specific name prefix to let semantic
  1334     completion of name-space entries propose antiquotation names.
  1335 
  1336   With some practice, input of quoted sub-languages and antiquotations of
  1337   embedded languages should work fluently. Note that national keyboard layouts
  1338   might cause problems with back-quote as dead key, but double quote can be
  1339   used instead.
  1340 \<close>
  1341 
  1342 
  1343 subsubsection \<open>Syntax keywords\<close>
  1344 
  1345 text \<open>
  1346   Syntax completion tables are determined statically from the keywords of the
  1347   ``outer syntax'' of the underlying edit mode: for theory files this is the
  1348   syntax of Isar commands according to the cumulative theory imports.
  1349 
  1350   Keywords are usually plain words, which means the completion mechanism only
  1351   inserts them directly into the text for explicit completion
  1352   (\secref{sec:completion-input}), but produces a popup
  1353   (\secref{sec:completion-popup}) otherwise.
  1354 
  1355   At the point where outer syntax keywords are defined, it is possible to
  1356   specify an alternative replacement string to be inserted instead of the
  1357   keyword itself. An empty string means to suppress the keyword altogether,
  1358   which is occasionally useful to avoid confusion, e.g.\ the rare keyword
  1359   @{command simproc_setup} vs.\ the frequent name-space entry \<open>simp\<close>.
  1360 \<close>
  1361 
  1362 
  1363 subsubsection \<open>Isabelle symbols\<close>
  1364 
  1365 text \<open>
  1366   The completion tables for Isabelle symbols (\secref{sec:symbols}) are
  1367   determined statically from \<^file>\<open>$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols\<close> and @{path
  1368   "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/symbols"} for each symbol specification as follows:
  1369 
  1370   \<^medskip>
  1371   \begin{tabular}{ll}
  1372   \<^bold>\<open>completion entry\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>example\<close> \\\hline
  1373   literal symbol & \<^verbatim>\<open>\<forall>\<close> \\
  1374   symbol name with backslash & \<^verbatim>\<open>\\<close>\<^verbatim>\<open>forall\<close> \\
  1375   symbol abbreviation & \<^verbatim>\<open>ALL\<close> or \<^verbatim>\<open>!\<close> \\
  1376   \end{tabular}
  1377   \<^medskip>
  1378 
  1379   When inserted into the text, the above examples all produce the same Unicode
  1380   rendering \<open>\<forall>\<close> of the underlying symbol \<^verbatim>\<open>\<forall>\<close>.
  1381 
  1382   A symbol abbreviation that is a plain word, like \<^verbatim>\<open>ALL\<close>, is treated like a
  1383   syntax keyword. Non-word abbreviations like \<^verbatim>\<open>-->\<close> are inserted more
  1384   aggressively, except for single-character abbreviations like \<^verbatim>\<open>!\<close> above.
  1385 
  1386   Completion via abbreviations like \<^verbatim>\<open>ALL\<close> or \<^verbatim>\<open>-->\<close> depends on the semantic
  1387   language context (\secref{sec:completion-context}). In contrast, backslash
  1388   sequences like \<^verbatim>\<open>\forall\<close> \<^verbatim>\<open>\<forall>\<close> are always possible, but require
  1389   additional interaction to confirm (via popup).
  1390 
  1391   The latter is important in ambiguous situations, e.g.\ for Isabelle document
  1392   source, which may contain formal symbols or informal {\LaTeX} macros.
  1393   Backslash sequences also help when input is broken, and thus escapes its
  1394   normal semantic context: e.g.\ antiquotations or string literals in ML,
  1395   which do not allow arbitrary backslash sequences.
  1396 \<close>
  1397 
  1398 
  1399 subsubsection \<open>User-defined abbreviations\<close>
  1400 
  1401 text \<open>
  1402   The theory header syntax supports abbreviations via the \<^theory_text>\<open>abbrevs\<close> keyword
  1403   @{cite "isabelle-isar-ref"}. This is a slight generalization of built-in
  1404   templates and abbreviations for Isabelle symbols, as explained above.
  1405   Examples may be found in the Isabelle sources, by searching for
  1406   ``\<^verbatim>\<open>abbrevs\<close>'' in \<^verbatim>\<open>*.thy\<close> files.
  1407 
  1408   The \<^emph>\<open>Symbols\<close> panel shows the abbreviations that are available in the
  1409   current theory buffer (according to its \<^theory_text>\<open>imports\<close>) in the \<^verbatim>\<open>Abbrevs\<close> tab.
  1410 \<close>
  1411 
  1412 
  1413 subsubsection \<open>Name-space entries\<close>
  1414 
  1415 text \<open>
  1416   This is genuine semantic completion, using information from the prover, so
  1417   it requires some delay. A \<^emph>\<open>failed name-space lookup\<close> produces an error
  1418   message that is annotated with a list of alternative names that are legal.
  1419   The list of results is truncated according to the system option
  1420   @{system_option_ref completion_limit}. The completion mechanism takes this
  1421   into account when collecting information on the prover side.
  1422 
  1423   Already recognized names are \<^emph>\<open>not\<close> completed further, but completion may be
  1424   extended by appending a suffix of underscores. This provokes a failed
  1425   lookup, and another completion attempt while ignoring the underscores. For
  1426   example, in a name space where \<^verbatim>\<open>foo\<close> and \<^verbatim>\<open>foobar\<close> are known, the input
  1427   \<^verbatim>\<open>foo\<close> remains unchanged, but \<^verbatim>\<open>foo_\<close> may be completed to \<^verbatim>\<open>foo\<close> or
  1428   \<^verbatim>\<open>foobar\<close>.
  1429 
  1430   The special identifier ``\<^verbatim>\<open>__\<close>'' serves as a wild-card for arbitrary
  1431   completion: it exposes the name-space content to the completion mechanism
  1432   (truncated according to @{system_option completion_limit}). This is
  1433   occasionally useful to explore an unknown name-space, e.g.\ in some
  1434   template.
  1435 \<close>
  1436 
  1437 
  1438 subsubsection \<open>File-system paths\<close>
  1439 
  1440 text \<open>
  1441   Depending on prover markup about file-system paths in the source text, e.g.\
  1442   for the argument of a load command (\secref{sec:aux-files}), the completion
  1443   mechanism explores the directory content and offers the result as completion
  1444   popup. Relative path specifications are understood wrt.\ the \<^emph>\<open>master
  1445   directory\<close> of the document node (\secref{sec:buffer-node}) of the enclosing
  1446   editor buffer; this requires a proper theory, not an auxiliary file.
  1447 
  1448   A suffix of slashes may be used to continue the exploration of an already
  1449   recognized directory name.
  1450 \<close>
  1451 
  1452 
  1453 subsubsection \<open>Spell-checking\<close>
  1454 
  1455 text \<open>
  1456   The spell-checker combines semantic markup from the prover (regions of plain
  1457   words) with static dictionaries (word lists) that are known to the editor.
  1458 
  1459   Unknown words are underlined in the text, using @{system_option_ref
  1460   spell_checker_color} (blue by default). This is not an error, but a hint to
  1461   the user that some action may be taken. The jEdit context menu provides
  1462   various actions, as far as applicable:
  1463 
  1464   \<^medskip>
  1465   \begin{tabular}{l}
  1466   @{action_ref "isabelle.complete-word"} \\
  1467   @{action_ref "isabelle.exclude-word"} \\
  1468   @{action_ref "isabelle.exclude-word-permanently"} \\
  1469   @{action_ref "isabelle.include-word"} \\
  1470   @{action_ref "isabelle.include-word-permanently"} \\
  1471   \end{tabular}
  1472   \<^medskip>
  1473 
  1474   Instead of the specific @{action_ref "isabelle.complete-word"}, it is also
  1475   possible to use the generic @{action_ref "isabelle.complete"} with its
  1476   default keyboard shortcut \<^verbatim>\<open>C+b\<close>.
  1477 
  1478   \<^medskip>
  1479   Dictionary lookup uses some educated guesses about lower-case, upper-case,
  1480   and capitalized words. This is oriented on common use in English, where this
  1481   aspect is not decisive for proper spelling (in contrast to German, for
  1482   example).
  1483 \<close>
  1484 
  1485 
  1486 subsection \<open>Semantic completion context \label{sec:completion-context}\<close>
  1487 
  1488 text \<open>
  1489   Completion depends on a semantic context that is provided by the prover,
  1490   although with some delay, because at least a full PIDE protocol round-trip
  1491   is required. Until that information becomes available in the PIDE
  1492   document-model, the default context is given by the outer syntax of the
  1493   editor mode (see also \secref{sec:buffer-node}).
  1494 
  1495   The semantic \<^emph>\<open>language context\<close> provides information about nested
  1496   sub-languages of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, and
  1497   antiquotations for languages that support them. Symbol abbreviations only
  1498   work for specific sub-languages: e.g.\ ``\<^verbatim>\<open>=>\<close>'' is \<^emph>\<open>not\<close> completed in
  1499   regular ML source, but is completed within ML strings, comments,
  1500   antiquotations. Backslash representations of symbols like ``\<^verbatim>\<open>\foobar\<close>'' or
  1501   ``\<^verbatim>\<open>\<foobar>\<close>'' work in any context --- after additional confirmation.
  1502 
  1503   The prover may produce \<^emph>\<open>no completion\<close> markup in exceptional situations, to
  1504   tell that some language keywords should be excluded from further completion
  1505   attempts. For example, ``\<^verbatim>\<open>:\<close>'' within accepted Isar syntax looses its
  1506   meaning as abbreviation for symbol ``\<open>\<in>\<close>''.
  1507 \<close>
  1508 
  1509 
  1510 subsection \<open>Input events \label{sec:completion-input}\<close>
  1511 
  1512 text \<open>
  1513   Completion is triggered by certain events produced by the user, with
  1514   optional delay after keyboard input according to @{system_option
  1515   jedit_completion_delay}.
  1516 
  1517   \<^descr>[Explicit completion] works via action @{action_ref "isabelle.complete"}
  1518   with keyboard shortcut \<^verbatim>\<open>C+b\<close>. This overrides the shortcut for @{action_ref
  1519   "complete-word"} in jEdit, but it is possible to restore the original jEdit
  1520   keyboard mapping of @{action "complete-word"} via \<^emph>\<open>Global Options~/
  1521   Shortcuts\<close> and invent a different one for @{action "isabelle.complete"}.
  1522 
  1523   \<^descr>[Explicit spell-checker completion] works via @{action_ref
  1524   "isabelle.complete-word"}, which is exposed in the jEdit context menu, if
  1525   the mouse points to a word that the spell-checker can complete.
  1526 
  1527   \<^descr>[Implicit completion] works via regular keyboard input of the editor. It
  1528   depends on further side-conditions:
  1529 
  1530     \<^enum> The system option @{system_option_ref jedit_completion} needs to be
  1531     enabled (default).
  1532 
  1533     \<^enum> Completion of syntax keywords requires at least 3 relevant characters in
  1534     the text.
  1535 
  1536     \<^enum> The system option @{system_option_ref jedit_completion_delay} determines
  1537     an additional delay (0.5 by default), before opening a completion popup.
  1538     The delay gives the prover a chance to provide semantic completion
  1539     information, notably the context (\secref{sec:completion-context}).
  1540 
  1541     \<^enum> The system option @{system_option_ref jedit_completion_immediate}
  1542     (enabled by default) controls whether replacement text should be inserted
  1543     immediately without popup, regardless of @{system_option
  1544     jedit_completion_delay}. This aggressive mode of completion is restricted
  1545     to symbol abbreviations that are not plain words (\secref{sec:symbols}).
  1546 
  1547     \<^enum> Completion of symbol abbreviations with only one relevant character in
  1548     the text always enforces an explicit popup, regardless of
  1549     @{system_option_ref jedit_completion_immediate}.
  1550 \<close>
  1551 
  1552 
  1553 subsection \<open>Completion popup \label{sec:completion-popup}\<close>
  1554 
  1555 text \<open>
  1556   A \<^emph>\<open>completion popup\<close> is a minimally invasive GUI component over the text
  1557   area that offers a selection of completion items to be inserted into the
  1558   text, e.g.\ by mouse clicks. Items are sorted dynamically, according to the
  1559   frequency of selection, with persistent history. The popup may interpret
  1560   special keys \<^verbatim>\<open>ENTER\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>TAB\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>ESCAPE\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>UP\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>DOWN\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>PAGE_UP\<close>,
  1561   \<^verbatim>\<open>PAGE_DOWN\<close>, but all other key events are passed to the underlying text
  1562   area. This allows to ignore unwanted completions most of the time and
  1563   continue typing quickly. Thus the popup serves as a mechanism of
  1564   confirmation of proposed items, while the default is to continue without
  1565   completion.
  1566 
  1567   The meaning of special keys is as follows:
  1568 
  1569   \<^medskip>
  1570   \begin{tabular}{ll}
  1571   \<^bold>\<open>key\<close> & \<^bold>\<open>action\<close> \\\hline
  1572   \<^verbatim>\<open>ENTER\<close> & select completion (if @{system_option jedit_completion_select_enter}) \\
  1573   \<^verbatim>\<open>TAB\<close> & select completion (if @{system_option jedit_completion_select_tab}) \\
  1574   \<^verbatim>\<open>ESCAPE\<close> & dismiss popup \\
  1575   \<^verbatim>\<open>UP\<close> & move up one item \\
  1576   \<^verbatim>\<open>DOWN\<close> & move down one item \\
  1577   \<^verbatim>\<open>PAGE_UP\<close> & move up one page of items \\
  1578   \<^verbatim>\<open>PAGE_DOWN\<close> & move down one page of items \\
  1579   \end{tabular}
  1580   \<^medskip>
  1581 
  1582   Movement within the popup is only active for multiple items. Otherwise the
  1583   corresponding key event retains its standard meaning within the underlying
  1584   text area.
  1585 \<close>
  1586 
  1587 
  1588 subsection \<open>Insertion \label{sec:completion-insert}\<close>
  1589 
  1590 text \<open>
  1591   Completion may first propose replacements to be selected (via a popup), or
  1592   replace text immediately in certain situations and depending on certain
  1593   options like @{system_option jedit_completion_immediate}. In any case,
  1594   insertion works uniformly, by imitating normal jEdit text insertion,
  1595   depending on the state of the \<^emph>\<open>text selection\<close>. Isabelle/jEdit tries to
  1596   accommodate the most common forms of advanced selections in jEdit, but not
  1597   all combinations make sense. At least the following important cases are
  1598   well-defined:
  1599 
  1600     \<^descr>[No selection.] The original is removed and the replacement inserted,
  1601     depending on the caret position.
  1602 
  1603     \<^descr>[Rectangular selection of zero width.] This special case is treated by
  1604     jEdit as ``tall caret'' and insertion of completion imitates its normal
  1605     behaviour: separate copies of the replacement are inserted for each line
  1606     of the selection.
  1607 
  1608     \<^descr>[Other rectangular selection or multiple selections.] Here the original
  1609     is removed and the replacement is inserted for each line (or segment) of
  1610     the selection.
  1611 
  1612   Support for multiple selections is particularly useful for \<^emph>\<open>HyperSearch\<close>:
  1613   clicking on one of the items in the \<^emph>\<open>HyperSearch Results\<close> window makes
  1614   jEdit select all its occurrences in the corresponding line of text. Then
  1615   explicit completion can be invoked via \<^verbatim>\<open>C+b\<close>, e.g.\ to replace occurrences
  1616   of \<^verbatim>\<open>-->\<close> by \<open>\<longrightarrow>\<close>.
  1617 
  1618   \<^medskip>
  1619   Insertion works by removing and inserting pieces of text from the buffer.
  1620   This counts as one atomic operation on the jEdit history. Thus unintended
  1621   completions may be reverted by the regular @{action undo} action of jEdit.
  1622   According to normal jEdit policies, the recovered text after @{action undo}
  1623   is selected: \<^verbatim>\<open>ESCAPE\<close> is required to reset the selection and to continue
  1624   typing more text.
  1625 \<close>
  1626 
  1627 
  1628 subsection \<open>Options \label{sec:completion-options}\<close>
  1629 
  1630 text \<open>
  1631   This is a summary of Isabelle/Scala system options that are relevant for
  1632   completion. They may be configured in \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options~/ Isabelle~/ General\<close>
  1633   as usual.
  1634 
  1635   \<^item> @{system_option_def completion_limit} specifies the maximum number of
  1636   items for various semantic completion operations (name-space entries etc.)
  1637 
  1638   \<^item> @{system_option_def jedit_completion} guards implicit completion via
  1639   regular jEdit key events (\secref{sec:completion-input}): it allows to
  1640   disable implicit completion altogether.
  1641 
  1642   \<^item> @{system_option_def jedit_completion_select_enter} and @{system_option_def
  1643   jedit_completion_select_tab} enable keys to select a completion item from
  1644   the popup (\secref{sec:completion-popup}). Note that a regular mouse click
  1645   on the list of items is always possible.
  1646 
  1647   \<^item> @{system_option_def jedit_completion_context} specifies whether the
  1648   language context provided by the prover should be used at all. Disabling
  1649   that option makes completion less ``semantic''. Note that incomplete or
  1650   severely broken input may cause some disagreement of the prover and the user
  1651   about the intended language context.
  1652 
  1653   \<^item> @{system_option_def jedit_completion_delay} and @{system_option_def
  1654   jedit_completion_immediate} determine the handling of keyboard events for
  1655   implicit completion (\secref{sec:completion-input}).
  1656 
  1657   A @{system_option jedit_completion_delay}~\<^verbatim>\<open>> 0\<close> postpones the processing of
  1658   key events, until after the user has stopped typing for the given time span,
  1659   but @{system_option jedit_completion_immediate}~\<^verbatim>\<open>= true\<close> means that
  1660   abbreviations of Isabelle symbols are handled nonetheless.
  1661 
  1662   \<^item> @{system_option_def completion_path_ignore} specifies ``glob''
  1663   patterns to ignore in file-system path completion (separated by colons),
  1664   e.g.\ backup files ending with tilde.
  1665 
  1666   \<^item> @{system_option_def spell_checker} is a global guard for all spell-checker
  1667   operations: it allows to disable that mechanism altogether.
  1668 
  1669   \<^item> @{system_option_def spell_checker_dictionary} determines the current
  1670   dictionary, taken from the colon-separated list in the settings variable
  1671   @{setting_def JORTHO_DICTIONARIES}. There are jEdit actions to specify local
  1672   updates to a dictionary, by including or excluding words. The result of
  1673   permanent dictionary updates is stored in the directory @{path
  1674   "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/dictionaries"}, in a separate file for each dictionary.
  1675 
  1676   \<^item> @{system_option_def spell_checker_include} specifies a comma-separated
  1677   list of markup elements that delimit words in the source that is subject to
  1678   spell-checking, including various forms of comments.
  1679 
  1680   \<^item> @{system_option_def spell_checker_exclude} specifies a comma-separated
  1681   list of markup elements that disable spell-checking (e.g.\ in nested
  1682   antiquotations).
  1683 \<close>
  1684 
  1685 
  1686 section \<open>Automatically tried tools \label{sec:auto-tools}\<close>
  1687 
  1688 text \<open>
  1689   Continuous document processing works asynchronously in the background.
  1690   Visible document source that has been evaluated may get augmented by
  1691   additional results of \<^emph>\<open>asynchronous print functions\<close>. An example for that
  1692   is proof state output, if that is enabled in the Output panel
  1693   (\secref{sec:output}). More heavy-weight print functions may be applied as
  1694   well, e.g.\ to prove or disprove parts of the formal text by other means.
  1695 
  1696   Isabelle/HOL provides various automatically tried tools that operate on
  1697   outermost goal statements (e.g.\ @{command lemma}, @{command theorem}),
  1698   independently of the state of the current proof attempt. They work
  1699   implicitly without any arguments. Results are output as \<^emph>\<open>information
  1700   messages\<close>, which are indicated in the text area by blue squiggles and a blue
  1701   information sign in the gutter (see \figref{fig:auto-tools}). The message
  1702   content may be shown as for other output (see also \secref{sec:output}).
  1703   Some tools produce output with \<^emph>\<open>sendback\<close> markup, which means that clicking
  1704   on certain parts of the text inserts that into the source in the proper
  1705   place.
  1706 
  1707   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1708   \begin{center}
  1709   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{auto-tools}
  1710   \end{center}
  1711   \caption{Result of automatically tried tools}
  1712   \label{fig:auto-tools}
  1713   \end{figure}
  1714 
  1715   \<^medskip>
  1716   The following Isabelle system options control the behavior of automatically
  1717   tried tools (see also the jEdit dialog window \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options~/ Isabelle~/
  1718   General~/ Automatically tried tools\<close>):
  1719 
  1720   \<^item> @{system_option_ref auto_methods} controls automatic use of a combination
  1721   of standard proof methods (@{method auto}, @{method simp}, @{method blast},
  1722   etc.). This corresponds to the Isar command @{command_ref "try0"} @{cite
  1723   "isabelle-isar-ref"}.
  1724 
  1725   The tool is disabled by default, since unparameterized invocation of
  1726   standard proof methods often consumes substantial CPU resources without
  1727   leading to success.
  1728 
  1729   \<^item> @{system_option_ref auto_nitpick} controls a slightly reduced version of
  1730   @{command_ref nitpick}, which tests for counterexamples using first-order
  1731   relational logic. See also the Nitpick manual @{cite "isabelle-nitpick"}.
  1732 
  1733   This tool is disabled by default, due to the extra overhead of invoking an
  1734   external Java process for each attempt to disprove a subgoal.
  1735 
  1736   \<^item> @{system_option_ref auto_quickcheck} controls automatic use of
  1737   @{command_ref quickcheck}, which tests for counterexamples using a series of
  1738   assignments for free variables of a subgoal.
  1739 
  1740   This tool is \<^emph>\<open>enabled\<close> by default. It requires little overhead, but is a
  1741   bit weaker than @{command nitpick}.
  1742 
  1743   \<^item> @{system_option_ref auto_sledgehammer} controls a significantly reduced
  1744   version of @{command_ref sledgehammer}, which attempts to prove a subgoal
  1745   using external automatic provers. See also the Sledgehammer manual @{cite
  1746   "isabelle-sledgehammer"}.
  1747 
  1748   This tool is disabled by default, due to the relatively heavy nature of
  1749   Sledgehammer.
  1750 
  1751   \<^item> @{system_option_ref auto_solve_direct} controls automatic use of
  1752   @{command_ref solve_direct}, which checks whether the current subgoals can
  1753   be solved directly by an existing theorem. This also helps to detect
  1754   duplicate lemmas.
  1755 
  1756   This tool is \<^emph>\<open>enabled\<close> by default.
  1757 
  1758 
  1759   Invocation of automatically tried tools is subject to some global policies
  1760   of parallel execution, which may be configured as follows:
  1761 
  1762   \<^item> @{system_option_ref auto_time_limit} (default 2.0) determines the timeout
  1763   (in seconds) for each tool execution.
  1764 
  1765   \<^item> @{system_option_ref auto_time_start} (default 1.0) determines the start
  1766   delay (in seconds) for automatically tried tools, after the main command
  1767   evaluation is finished.
  1768 
  1769 
  1770   Each tool is submitted independently to the pool of parallel execution tasks
  1771   in Isabelle/ML, using hardwired priorities according to its relative
  1772   ``heaviness''. The main stages of evaluation and printing of proof states
  1773   take precedence, but an already running tool is not canceled and may thus
  1774   reduce reactivity of proof document processing.
  1775 
  1776   Users should experiment how the available CPU resources (number of cores)
  1777   are best invested to get additional feedback from prover in the background,
  1778   by using a selection of weaker or stronger tools.
  1779 \<close>
  1780 
  1781 
  1782 section \<open>Sledgehammer \label{sec:sledgehammer}\<close>
  1783 
  1784 text \<open>
  1785   The \<^emph>\<open>Sledgehammer\<close> panel (\figref{fig:sledgehammer}) provides a view on
  1786   some independent execution of the Isar command @{command_ref sledgehammer},
  1787   with process indicator (spinning wheel) and GUI elements for important
  1788   Sledgehammer arguments and options. Any number of Sledgehammer panels may be
  1789   active, according to the standard policies of Dockable Window Management in
  1790   jEdit. Closing such windows also cancels the corresponding prover tasks.
  1791 
  1792   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1793   \begin{center}
  1794   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{sledgehammer}
  1795   \end{center}
  1796   \caption{An instance of the Sledgehammer panel}
  1797   \label{fig:sledgehammer}
  1798   \end{figure}
  1799 
  1800   The \<^emph>\<open>Apply\<close> button attaches a fresh invocation of @{command sledgehammer}
  1801   to the command where the cursor is pointing in the text --- this should be
  1802   some pending proof problem. Further buttons like \<^emph>\<open>Cancel\<close> and \<^emph>\<open>Locate\<close>
  1803   help to manage the running process.
  1804 
  1805   Results appear incrementally in the output window of the panel. Proposed
  1806   proof snippets are marked-up as \<^emph>\<open>sendback\<close>, which means a single mouse
  1807   click inserts the text into a suitable place of the original source. Some
  1808   manual editing may be required nonetheless, say to remove earlier proof
  1809   attempts.
  1810 \<close>
  1811 
  1812 
  1813 chapter \<open>Isabelle document preparation\<close>
  1814 
  1815 text \<open>
  1816   The ultimate purpose of Isabelle is to produce nicely rendered documents
  1817   with the Isabelle document preparation system, which is based on {\LaTeX};
  1818   see also @{cite "isabelle-system" and "isabelle-isar-ref"}. Isabelle/jEdit
  1819   provides some additional support for document editing.
  1820 \<close>
  1821 
  1822 
  1823 section \<open>Document outline\<close>
  1824 
  1825 text \<open>
  1826   Theory sources may contain document markup commands, such as @{command_ref
  1827   chapter}, @{command_ref section}, @{command subsection}. The Isabelle
  1828   SideKick parser (\secref{sec:sidekick}) represents this document outline as
  1829   structured tree view, with formal statements and proofs nested inside; see
  1830   \figref{fig:sidekick-document}.
  1831 
  1832   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1833   \begin{center}
  1834   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{sidekick-document}
  1835   \end{center}
  1836   \caption{Isabelle document outline via SideKick tree view}
  1837   \label{fig:sidekick-document}
  1838   \end{figure}
  1839 
  1840   It is also possible to use text folding according to this structure, by
  1841   adjusting \<^emph>\<open>Utilities / Buffer Options / Folding mode\<close> of jEdit. The default
  1842   mode \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle\<close> uses the structure of formal definitions, statements, and
  1843   proofs. The alternative mode \<^verbatim>\<open>sidekick\<close> uses the document structure of the
  1844   SideKick parser, as explained above.
  1845 \<close>
  1846 
  1847 
  1848 section \<open>Markdown structure\<close>
  1849 
  1850 text \<open>
  1851   Document text is internally structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using
  1852   notation that is similar to Markdown\<^footnote>\<open>\<^url>\<open>http://commonmark.org\<close>\<close>. There are
  1853   special control symbols for items of different kinds of lists, corresponding
  1854   to \<^verbatim>\<open>itemize\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>enumerate\<close>, \<^verbatim>\<open>description\<close> in {\LaTeX}. This is illustrated
  1855   in for \<^verbatim>\<open>itemize\<close> in \figref{fig:markdown-document}.
  1856 
  1857   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1858   \begin{center}
  1859   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{markdown-document}
  1860   \end{center}
  1861   \caption{Markdown structure within document text}
  1862   \label{fig:markdown-document}
  1863   \end{figure}
  1864 
  1865   Items take colour according to the depth of nested lists. This helps to
  1866   explore the implicit rules for list structure interactively. There is also
  1867   markup for individual paragraphs in the text: it may be explored via mouse
  1868   hovering with \<^verbatim>\<open>CONTROL\<close> / \<^verbatim>\<open>COMMAND\<close> as usual
  1869   (\secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}).
  1870 \<close>
  1871 
  1872 
  1873 section \<open>Citations and Bib{\TeX} entries \label{sec:bibtex}\<close>
  1874 
  1875 text \<open>
  1876   Citations are managed by {\LaTeX} and Bib{\TeX} in \<^verbatim>\<open>.bib\<close> files. The
  1877   Isabelle session build process and the @{tool latex} tool @{cite
  1878   "isabelle-system"} are smart enough to assemble the result, based on the
  1879   session directory layout.
  1880 
  1881   The document antiquotation \<open>@{cite}\<close> is described in @{cite
  1882   "isabelle-isar-ref"}. Within the Prover IDE it provides semantic markup for
  1883   tooltips, hyperlinks, and completion for Bib{\TeX} database entries.
  1884   Isabelle/jEdit does \<^emph>\<open>not\<close> know about the actual Bib{\TeX} environment used
  1885   in {\LaTeX} batch-mode, but it can take citations from those \<^verbatim>\<open>.bib\<close> files
  1886   that happen to be open in the editor; see \figref{fig:cite-completion}.
  1887 
  1888   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1889   \begin{center}
  1890   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{cite-completion}
  1891   \end{center}
  1892   \caption{Semantic completion of citations from open Bib{\TeX} files}
  1893   \label{fig:cite-completion}
  1894   \end{figure}
  1895 
  1896   Isabelle/jEdit also provides some support for editing \<^verbatim>\<open>.bib\<close> files
  1897   themselves. There is syntax highlighting based on entry types (according to
  1898   standard Bib{\TeX} styles), a context-menu to compose entries
  1899   systematically, and a SideKick tree view of the overall content; see
  1900   \figref{fig:bibtex-mode}.
  1901 
  1902   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1903   \begin{center}
  1904   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{bibtex-mode}
  1905   \end{center}
  1906   \caption{Bib{\TeX} mode with context menu and SideKick tree view}
  1907   \label{fig:bibtex-mode}
  1908   \end{figure}
  1909 \<close>
  1910 
  1911 
  1912 section \<open>Document preview\<close>
  1913 
  1914 text \<open>
  1915   The action @{action_def isabelle.preview} opens an HTML preview of the
  1916   current document node in the default web browser. The content is derived
  1917   from the semantic markup produced by the prover, and thus depends on the
  1918   status of formal processing.
  1919 
  1920   Action @{action_def isabelle.draft} is similar to @{action
  1921   isabelle.preview}, but shows a plain-text document draft.
  1922 \<close>
  1923 
  1924 
  1925 chapter \<open>ML debugging within the Prover IDE\<close>
  1926 
  1927 text \<open>
  1928   Isabelle/ML is based on Poly/ML\<^footnote>\<open>\<^url>\<open>http://www.polyml.org\<close>\<close> and thus
  1929   benefits from the source-level debugger of that implementation of Standard
  1930   ML. The Prover IDE provides the \<^emph>\<open>Debugger\<close> dockable to connect to running
  1931   ML threads, inspect the stack frame with local ML bindings, and evaluate ML
  1932   expressions in a particular run-time context. A typical debugger session is
  1933   shown in \figref{fig:ml-debugger}.
  1934 
  1935   ML debugging depends on the following pre-requisites.
  1936 
  1937     \<^enum> ML source needs to be compiled with debugging enabled. This may be
  1938     controlled for particular chunks of ML sources using any of the subsequent
  1939     facilities.
  1940 
  1941       \<^enum> The system option @{system_option_ref ML_debugger} as implicit state
  1942       of the Isabelle process. It may be changed in the menu \<^emph>\<open>Plugins /
  1943       Plugin Options / Isabelle / General\<close>. ML modules need to be reloaded and
  1944       recompiled to pick up that option as intended.
  1945 
  1946       \<^enum> The configuration option @{attribute_ref ML_debugger}, with an
  1947       attribute of the same name, to update a global or local context (e.g.\
  1948       with the @{command declare} command).
  1949 
  1950       \<^enum> Commands that modify @{attribute ML_debugger} state for individual
  1951       files: @{command_ref ML_file_debug}, @{command_ref ML_file_no_debug},
  1952       @{command_ref SML_file_debug}, @{command_ref SML_file_no_debug}.
  1953 
  1954     The instrumentation of ML code for debugging causes minor run-time
  1955     overhead. ML modules that implement critical system infrastructure may
  1956     lead to deadlocks or other undefined behaviour, when put under debugger
  1957     control!
  1958 
  1959     \<^enum> The \<^emph>\<open>Debugger\<close> panel needs to be active, otherwise the program ignores
  1960     debugger instrumentation of the compiler and runs unmanaged. It is also
  1961     possible to start debugging with the panel open, and later undock it, to
  1962     let the program continue unhindered.
  1963 
  1964     \<^enum> The ML program needs to be stopped at a suitable breakpoint, which may
  1965     be activated individually or globally as follows.
  1966 
  1967     For ML sources that have been compiled with debugger support, the IDE
  1968     visualizes possible breakpoints in the text. A breakpoint may be toggled
  1969     by pointing accurately with the mouse, with a right-click to activate
  1970     jEdit's context menu and its \<^emph>\<open>Toggle Breakpoint\<close> item. Alternatively, the
  1971     \<^emph>\<open>Break\<close> checkbox in the \<^emph>\<open>Debugger\<close> panel may be enabled to stop ML
  1972     threads always at the next possible breakpoint.
  1973 
  1974   Note that the state of individual breakpoints \<^emph>\<open>gets lost\<close> when the
  1975   coresponding ML source is re-compiled! This may happen unintentionally,
  1976   e.g.\ when following hyperlinks into ML modules that have not been loaded
  1977   into the IDE before.
  1978 
  1979   \begin{figure}[!htb]
  1980   \begin{center}
  1981   \includegraphics[scale=0.333]{ml-debugger}
  1982   \end{center}
  1983   \caption{ML debugger session}
  1984   \label{fig:ml-debugger}
  1985   \end{figure}
  1986 
  1987   The debugger panel (\figref{fig:ml-debugger}) shows a list of all threads
  1988   that are presently stopped. Each thread shows a stack of all function
  1989   invocations that lead to the current breakpoint at the top.
  1990 
  1991   It is possible to jump between stack positions freely, by clicking on this
  1992   list. The current situation is displayed in the big output window, as a
  1993   local ML environment with names and printed values.
  1994 
  1995   ML expressions may be evaluated in the current context by entering snippets
  1996   of source into the text fields labeled \<open>Context\<close> and \<open>ML\<close>, and pushing the
  1997   \<open>Eval\<close> button. By default, the source is interpreted as Isabelle/ML with the
  1998   usual support for antiquotations (like @{command ML}, @{command ML_file}).
  1999   Alternatively, strict Standard ML may be enforced via the \<^emph>\<open>SML\<close> checkbox
  2000   (like @{command SML_file}).
  2001 
  2002   The context for Isabelle/ML is optional, it may evaluate to a value of type
  2003   @{ML_type theory}, @{ML_type Proof.context}, or @{ML_type Context.generic}.
  2004   Thus the given ML expression (with its antiquotations) may be subject to the
  2005   intended dynamic run-time context, instead of the static compile-time
  2006   context.
  2007 
  2008   \<^medskip>
  2009   The buttons labeled \<^emph>\<open>Continue\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>Step\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>Step over\<close>, \<^emph>\<open>Step out\<close>
  2010   recommence execution of the program, with different policies concerning
  2011   nested function invocations. The debugger always moves the cursor within the
  2012   ML source to the next breakpoint position, and offers new stack frames as
  2013   before.
  2014 \<close>
  2015 
  2016 
  2017 chapter \<open>Miscellaneous tools\<close>
  2018 
  2019 section \<open>Timing\<close>
  2020 
  2021 text \<open>
  2022   Managed evaluation of commands within PIDE documents includes timing
  2023   information, which consists of elapsed (wall-clock) time, CPU time, and GC
  2024   (garbage collection) time. Note that in a multithreaded system it is
  2025   difficult to measure execution time precisely: elapsed time is closer to the
  2026   real requirements of runtime resources than CPU or GC time, which are both
  2027   subject to influences from the parallel environment that are outside the
  2028   scope of the current command transaction.
  2029 
  2030   The \<^emph>\<open>Timing\<close> panel provides an overview of cumulative command timings for
  2031   each document node. Commands with elapsed time below the given threshold are
  2032   ignored in the grand total. Nodes are sorted according to their overall
  2033   timing. For the document node that corresponds to the current buffer,
  2034   individual command timings are shown as well. A double-click on a theory
  2035   node or command moves the editor focus to that particular source position.
  2036 
  2037   It is also possible to reveal individual timing information via some tooltip
  2038   for the corresponding command keyword, using the technique of mouse hovering
  2039   with \<^verbatim>\<open>CONTROL\<close>~/ \<^verbatim>\<open>COMMAND\<close> modifier (\secref{sec:tooltips-hyperlinks}).
  2040   Actual display of timing depends on the global option @{system_option_ref
  2041   jedit_timing_threshold}, which can be configured in \<^emph>\<open>Plugin Options~/
  2042   Isabelle~/ General\<close>.
  2043 
  2044   \<^medskip>
  2045   The \<^emph>\<open>Monitor\<close> panel visualizes various data collections about recent
  2046   activity of the Isabelle/ML task farm and the underlying ML runtime system.
  2047   The display is continuously updated according to @{system_option_ref
  2048   editor_chart_delay}. Note that the painting of the chart takes considerable
  2049   runtime itself --- on the Java Virtual Machine that runs Isabelle/Scala, not
  2050   Isabelle/ML. Internally, the Isabelle/Scala module \<^verbatim>\<open>isabelle.ML_Statistics\<close>
  2051   provides further access to statistics of Isabelle/ML.
  2052 \<close>
  2053 
  2054 
  2055 section \<open>Low-level output\<close>
  2056 
  2057 text \<open>
  2058   Prover output is normally shown directly in the main text area or specific
  2059   panels like \<^emph>\<open>Output\<close> (\secref{sec:output}) or \<^emph>\<open>State\<close>
  2060   (\secref{sec:state-output}). Beyond this, it is occasionally useful to
  2061   inspect low-level output channels via some of the following additional
  2062   panels:
  2063 
  2064   \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Protocol\<close> shows internal messages between the Isabelle/Scala and
  2065   Isabelle/ML side of the PIDE document editing protocol. Recording of
  2066   messages starts with the first activation of the corresponding dockable
  2067   window; earlier messages are lost.
  2068 
  2069   Actual display of protocol messages causes considerable slowdown, so it is
  2070   important to undock all \<^emph>\<open>Protocol\<close> panels for production work.
  2071 
  2072   \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Raw Output\<close> shows chunks of text from the \<^verbatim>\<open>stdout\<close> and \<^verbatim>\<open>stderr\<close>
  2073   channels of the prover process. Recording of output starts with the first
  2074   activation of the corresponding dockable window; earlier output is lost.
  2075 
  2076   The implicit stateful nature of physical I/O channels makes it difficult to
  2077   relate raw output to the actual command from where it was originating.
  2078   Parallel execution may add to the confusion. Peeking at physical process I/O
  2079   is only the last resort to diagnose problems with tools that are not PIDE
  2080   compliant.
  2081 
  2082   Under normal circumstances, prover output always works via managed message
  2083   channels (corresponding to @{ML writeln}, @{ML warning}, @{ML
  2084   Output.error_message} in Isabelle/ML), which are displayed by regular means
  2085   within the document model (\secref{sec:output}). Unhandled Isabelle/ML
  2086   exceptions are printed by the system via @{ML Output.error_message}.
  2087 
  2088   \<^item> \<^emph>\<open>Syslog\<close> shows system messages that might be relevant to diagnose
  2089   problems with the startup or shutdown phase of the prover process; this also
  2090   includes raw output on \<^verbatim>\<open>stderr\<close>. Isabelle/ML also provides an explicit @{ML
  2091   Output.system_message} operation, which is occasionally useful for
  2092   diagnostic purposes within the system infrastructure itself.
  2093 
  2094   A limited amount of syslog messages are buffered, independently of the
  2095   docking state of the \<^emph>\<open>Syslog\<close> panel. This allows to diagnose serious
  2096   problems with Isabelle/PIDE process management, outside of the actual
  2097   protocol layer.
  2098 
  2099   Under normal situations, such low-level system output can be ignored.
  2100 \<close>
  2101 
  2102 
  2103 chapter \<open>Known problems and workarounds \label{sec:problems}\<close>
  2104 
  2105 text \<open>
  2106   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> Odd behavior of some diagnostic commands with global
  2107   side-effects, like writing a physical file.
  2108 
  2109   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Copy/paste complete command text from elsewhere, or disable
  2110   continuous checking temporarily.
  2111 
  2112   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> Keyboard shortcuts \<^verbatim>\<open>C+PLUS\<close> and \<^verbatim>\<open>C+MINUS\<close> for adjusting the
  2113   editor font size depend on platform details and national keyboards.
  2114 
  2115   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Rebind keys via \<^emph>\<open>Global Options~/ Shortcuts\<close>.
  2116 
  2117   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> The Mac OS X key sequence \<^verbatim>\<open>COMMAND+COMMA\<close> for application
  2118   \<^emph>\<open>Preferences\<close> is in conflict with the jEdit default keyboard shortcut for
  2119   \<^emph>\<open>Incremental Search Bar\<close> (action @{action_ref "quick-search"}).
  2120 
  2121   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Rebind key via \<^emph>\<open>Global Options~/ Shortcuts\<close> according to
  2122   national keyboard, e.g.\ \<^verbatim>\<open>COMMAND+SLASH\<close> on English ones.
  2123 
  2124   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> On Mac OS X with native Apple look-and-feel, some exotic
  2125   national keyboards may cause a conflict of menu accelerator keys with
  2126   regular jEdit key bindings. This leads to duplicate execution of the
  2127   corresponding jEdit action.
  2128 
  2129   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Disable the native Apple menu bar via Java runtime option
  2130   \<^verbatim>\<open>-Dapple.laf.useScreenMenuBar=false\<close>.
  2131 
  2132   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> Mac OS X system fonts sometimes lead to character drop-outs in
  2133   the main text area.
  2134 
  2135   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Use the default \<^verbatim>\<open>IsabelleText\<close> font.
  2136 
  2137   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> Some Linux/X11 input methods such as IBus tend to disrupt key
  2138   event handling of Java/AWT/Swing.
  2139 
  2140   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Do not use X11 input methods. Note that environment variable
  2141   \<^verbatim>\<open>XMODIFIERS\<close> is reset by default within Isabelle settings.
  2142 
  2143   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> Some Linux/X11 window managers that are not ``re-parenting''
  2144   cause problems with additional windows opened by Java. This affects either
  2145   historic or neo-minimalistic window managers like \<^verbatim>\<open>awesome\<close> or \<^verbatim>\<open>xmonad\<close>.
  2146 
  2147   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Use a regular re-parenting X11 window manager.
  2148 
  2149   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> Various forks of Linux/X11 window managers and desktop
  2150   environments (like Gnome) disrupt the handling of menu popups and mouse
  2151   positions of Java/AWT/Swing.
  2152 
  2153   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Use suitable version of Linux desktops.
  2154 
  2155   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> Full-screen mode via jEdit action @{action_ref
  2156   "toggle-full-screen"} (default keyboard shortcut \<^verbatim>\<open>F11\<close>) works on Windows,
  2157   but not on Mac OS X or various Linux/X11 window managers.
  2158 
  2159   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Use native full-screen control of the window manager (notably
  2160   on Mac OS X).
  2161 
  2162   \<^item> \<^bold>\<open>Problem:\<close> Heap space of the JVM may fill up and render the Prover IDE
  2163   unresponsive, e.g.\ when editing big Isabelle sessions with many theories.
  2164 
  2165   \<^bold>\<open>Workaround:\<close> Increase JVM heap parameters by editing platform-specific
  2166   files (for ``properties'' or ``options'') that are associated with the main
  2167   app bundle.
  2168 
  2169   Also note that jEdit provides a heap space monitor in the status line
  2170   (bottom-right). Double-clicking on that causes full garbage-collection,
  2171   which sometimes helps in low-memory situations.
  2172 \<close>
  2173 
  2174 end