NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Mar 23 19:39:31 2013 +0100 (2013-03-23 ago)
changeset 51496 cb677987b7e3
parent 51417 d266f9329368
child 51487 f4bfdee99304
permissions -rw-r--r--
retain original tooltip range, to avoid repeated window popup when the mouse is moved over the same content;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    10 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    11 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    12 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    13 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    14 presentation of theories.
    15 
    16 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    17 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    18 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    19 
    20 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    21 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 
    24 *** Pure ***
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    27 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    28 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    29 
    30 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
    31 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    32 
    33 
    34 *** HOL ***
    35 
    36 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
    40 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
    41 
    42 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
    43 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
    44 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
    45 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
    46 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
    47 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    48 
    49 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
    50 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
    51 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
    52 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    53 
    54 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    55 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    56 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
    57 
    58 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
    59 
    60     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
    61     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
    62 
    63 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    64 
    65 * Sledgehammer:
    66 
    67   - Renamed option:
    68       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
    69 
    70 
    71 *** System ***
    72 
    73 * Discontinued "isabelle usedir" option -P (remote path) and -r (reset
    74 session path).  Note that usedir is legacy and superseded by "isabelle
    75 build" since Isabelle2013.
    76 
    77 
    78 
    79 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
    80 -----------------------------------
    81 
    82 *** General ***
    83 
    84 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    85 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    86 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    87 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    88 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    89 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    90 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    91 
    92 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    93 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    94 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    95 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    96 
    97 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    98 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    99 
   100 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   101 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   102 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   103 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   104 dependencies properly.
   105 
   106 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   107 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   108 
   109 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   110 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   111 
   112 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   113 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   114 and "class ... context ...".
   115 
   116 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   117 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   118 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   119 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   120 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   121 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   122 
   123 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   124 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   125 
   126 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   127 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   128 
   129 
   130 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   131 
   132 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   133 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   134 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   135 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   136 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   137 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   138 
   139 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   140 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   141 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   142 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   143 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   144 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   145 
   146 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   147 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   148 browser on demand.
   149 
   150 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   151 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   152 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   153 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   154 
   155 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   156 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   157 
   158 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   159 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   160 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   161 potentially infinite message streams.
   162 
   163 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   164 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   165 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   166 schemes.
   167 
   168 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   169 symbols.
   170 
   171 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   172 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   173 
   174 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   175 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   176 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   177 
   178 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   179 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   180 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   181 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   182 
   183 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   184 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   185 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   186 
   187 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   188 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   189 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   190 Isabelle distribution.
   191 
   192 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   193 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   194 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   195 
   196 
   197 *** Pure ***
   198 
   199 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   200 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   201 
   202 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   203 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   204 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   207 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   208 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   209 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   210 with some care where this is really required.
   211 
   212 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   213 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   214 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   215 
   216   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   217 
   218 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   219 a Hasse diagram.
   220 
   221 
   222 *** HOL ***
   223 
   224 * Sledgehammer:
   225 
   226   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   227     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   228   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   229   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   230   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   231   - Renamed options:
   232       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   233       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   234       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   235       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   236 
   237 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   238 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   239 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   240 
   241 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Lifting:
   245   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   246   - quot_del attribute
   247   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   248 
   249 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   250 expressions.
   251 
   252 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   253 pointfree expressions.
   254 
   255 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   256 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   257 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   258 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   262 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   263 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   264 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   265 accordingly.
   266 
   267 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   268 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   269 
   270 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   271 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   276 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   277 
   278 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   279 
   280 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   281 
   282   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   283   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   284 
   285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   288 
   289   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   290   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   291 
   292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   293 
   294 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   295 
   296   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   297     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   298     output f x converges to G.
   299 
   300   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   301     infinity (at_bot).
   302 
   303   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   304     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   305 
   306   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   307     at_top".
   308 
   309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   312 lattice type classes.
   313 
   314 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   315 
   316     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   317     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   318 
   319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320 
   321 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   322 changes as follows.
   323 
   324   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   325 
   326       prefix ~> prefixeq
   327       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   328 
   329   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   330     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   331     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   332     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   333 
   334   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   335     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   336     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   337 
   338   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   339     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   340     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   341     Library/Prefix_Order.
   342 
   343   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   344     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   345 
   346       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   347       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   348       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   349       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   350       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   351       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   352       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   353       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   354       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   355       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   356       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   357       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   358       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   359       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   360       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   361       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   362 
   363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364 
   365 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   366 
   367 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   368 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   369 
   370 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   371 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   372 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   373 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   374 
   375   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   376   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   377   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   378   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   379   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   380   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   381   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   382   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   383   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   384   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   385 
   386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   389 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   390 Data").
   391 
   392 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   393 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   394 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   395 code.
   396 
   397 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   398 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   399 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   403 
   404 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   405 
   406 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   407 
   408   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   409   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   410 
   411 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   412 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   413 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   414 
   415   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   416 
   417     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   418     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   419     cart_base i  removed
   420     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   421 
   422   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   423 
   424   Renamed lemmas:
   425 
   426     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   427     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   428     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   429     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   430     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   431     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   432     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   433     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   434     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   435     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   436 
   437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 * HOL/Probability:
   440 
   441   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   442 
   443   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   444     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   445     (borel_measurable_induct).
   446 
   447   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   448     projective family).
   449 
   450 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   451 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   452 
   453 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   454 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   455 datatypes.
   456 
   457 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   458 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   459 
   460 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   461 trees for the code generator.
   462 
   463 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   464 Lifting/Transfer.
   465 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   466 
   467 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 
   471 *** Document preparation ***
   472 
   473 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   474 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   475 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   476 
   477 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   478 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   479 
   480 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   481 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   482 document/root.tex.
   483 
   484 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   485 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 
   488 *** ML ***
   489 
   490 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   491 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   492 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   493 
   494 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   495 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   496 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   497 
   498 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   499 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   500 necessarily printing visible text.
   501 
   502 
   503 *** System ***
   504 
   505 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   506 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   507 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   508 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   509 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   510 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   511 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   512 
   513 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   514 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   515 
   516   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   517 
   518 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   519 
   520 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   521 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   522 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   523 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   524 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   525 
   526 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   527 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   528 
   529 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   530 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   531 
   532 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   534 
   535 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   536 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   537 version of Isabelle.
   538 
   539 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   540 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   541 
   542 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   543 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   544 for home-made settings.
   545 
   546 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   547 
   548 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   549 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   550 configuration.
   551 
   552 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   553 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   554 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   555 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   556 bundled as Isabelle component.
   557 
   558 
   559 
   560 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   561 ------------------------------
   562 
   563 *** General ***
   564 
   565 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   566 
   567   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   568     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   569   - markup for bound variables
   570   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   571   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   572   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   573     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   574 
   575 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   576 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   577 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   578 
   579 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   580 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   581 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   582 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   583 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   584 
   585   context
   586     fixes x y z :: 'a
   587     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   588   begin
   589 
   590   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   591 
   592   end
   593 
   594   thm my_trans
   595 
   596 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   597 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   598 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   599 
   600 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   601 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   602 
   603 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   604 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   605 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   606 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   607 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   608 
   609 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   610 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   611 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   612 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   613 indices of schematic variables.
   614 
   615 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   616 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   617 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   618 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   619 etc. was exploited.
   620 
   621 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   622 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   623 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   624 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   625 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   626 of the material of that old tutorial.
   627 
   628 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   629 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   630 manual.
   631 
   632 
   633 *** Pure ***
   634 
   635 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   636 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   637 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   638 
   639 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   640 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   641 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   642 undocumented feature.)
   643 
   644 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   645 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   646 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   647 
   648   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   649 
   650   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   651     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   652 
   653 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   654 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   655 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   656 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   657 
   658 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   659 
   660     num ~> num_token
   661     xnum ~> xnum_token
   662     xstr ~> str_token
   663 
   664 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   665 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   666 position information via constraints).
   667 
   668 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   669 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   670 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   673 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   674 
   675 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   676 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   677 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678 
   679 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   680 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   681 
   682 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   683 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   684 
   685   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   686 
   687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   690 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   693 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   694 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   695 
   696 
   697 *** HOL ***
   698 
   699 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   700 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   701 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   702 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   703 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   704 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   705 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   706 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   707 possible.
   708 
   709 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   710 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   711 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   712 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   713 
   714 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   715 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   718 
   719 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   720 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   721 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   722 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   723 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   724 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   725 
   726   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   727     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   728 
   729   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   730     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   731     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   732 
   733   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   734     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   735 
   736   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   737     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   738     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   739 
   740   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   741     Redefine using other integer operations.
   742 
   743 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   744 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   745 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   746 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   747 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   748 
   749   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   750     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   751     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   752     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   753     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   754 
   755     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   756     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   757 
   758   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   759     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   760     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   761     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   762     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   763     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   764     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   765     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   766 
   767   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   768     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   769     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   770     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   771 
   772   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   773     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   774     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   775     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   776 
   777   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   778     from type nat to type int.
   779 
   780 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   781 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   782 
   783   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   784     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   785     type.  Example syntax:
   786 
   787     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   788       is List.insert
   789 
   790     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   791     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   792     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   793     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   794     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   795     by the package.
   796 
   797   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   798     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   799     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   800     code generation for each constant.
   801 
   802   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   803     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   804     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   805     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   806     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   807 
   808   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   809     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   810     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   811 
   812 * Quotient package:
   813 
   814   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   815     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   816 
   817   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   818     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   819 
   820   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   821     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   822     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823 
   824   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   825     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   828 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   829 
   830 * Quickcheck:
   831 
   832   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   833     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   834     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   835     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   836     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   837 
   838     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   839     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   840     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   841 
   842     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   843     continues searching for genuine ones.
   844 
   845     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   846     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   847     show genuine counterexamples.
   848 
   849   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   850     value generators for a given type and operations.
   851 
   852     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   853     constructors of that type.
   854 
   855   - Support for multisets.
   856 
   857   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   858 
   859   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   860     conjectures in a locale context.
   861 
   862 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   863 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   864 
   865 * Sledgehammer:
   866   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   867     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   868   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   869   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   870     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   871   - Sped up the minimizer.
   872   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   873   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   874   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   875 
   876 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   877 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   878 
   879 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   880 
   881 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   882 
   883 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   884 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   885 
   886   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   887 
   888 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   889 a list and a nat.
   890 
   891 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   892 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   893 
   894 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   895 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   896 default.
   897 
   898 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   899 
   900   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   901 
   902 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   903 
   904 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   905 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   906 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   907 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   908 one_case.
   909 
   910 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   911 the result of the fact expression.
   912 
   913 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   914 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   915 of some relation theorems:
   916 
   917   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   918   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   919   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   920   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   921   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   922   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   923 
   924 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   925 
   926 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   927 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   928 
   929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   930 
   931 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   932 to match the constant's name:
   933 
   934   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   935   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   936   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   937   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   938   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   939   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   940   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   941   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   942   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   943   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   944   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   945   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   946   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   947   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   948   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   949   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   950   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   951   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   952   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   953   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   954   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   955   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   956   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   957   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   958 
   959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   960 
   961 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   962 and corresponding theorem names:
   963 
   964   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   965 
   966   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   967 
   968   - Renamed theorems:
   969 
   970     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   971     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   972     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   973     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   974     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   975     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   976     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   977     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   978     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   979     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   980     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   981     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   982     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   983     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   984     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   985     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   986     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   987     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   988     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   989     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   990     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   991     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   992     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   993 
   994     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   995 
   996     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   997 
   998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   999 
  1000 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1001 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1002 
  1003   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1004   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1005   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1006   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1007   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1008   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1009   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1010   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1011   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1012   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1013   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1014   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1015   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1016   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1017   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1018   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1019   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1020   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1021   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1022   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1023   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1024 
  1025 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1026 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1029 
  1030 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1031 
  1032   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1033   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1034   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1035   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1036   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1037   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1038   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1039   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1040   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1041   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1042   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1043   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1044   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1045   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1046   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1047   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1048   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1049   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1050 
  1051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1054 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1055 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1056 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1057 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1058 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1059 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1060 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1061 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1062 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1063 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1064 
  1065 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1066 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1067 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1068 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1069 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1070 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1071 
  1072 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1073 through option types.
  1074 
  1075 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1076 relations.
  1077 
  1078 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079 
  1080 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1081 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1082 
  1083   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1084   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1085   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1086   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1087   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1088   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1089   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1090   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1091   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1092   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1093   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1094   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1095   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1096   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1097   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1098   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1099   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1100   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1101   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1102   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1103   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1104   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1105   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1106   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1107   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1108   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1109   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1110   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1111   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1112   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1113   zless_le ~> less_le
  1114   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1115   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1116   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1117 
  1118 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1119 
  1120   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1121 
  1122 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1123 
  1124 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1125 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1126 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1127 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1131 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1132 
  1133 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1134 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1135 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1136 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1137 follows:
  1138 
  1139   Operations:
  1140   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1141   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1142   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1143   del -> rbt_del
  1144   delete -> rbt_delete
  1145   ins -> rbt_ins
  1146   insert -> rbt_insert
  1147   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1148   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1149   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1150   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1151   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1152   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1153   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1154   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1155   union -> rbt_union
  1156   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1157   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1158 
  1159   Lemmas:
  1160   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1161   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1162   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1163   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1164   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1165   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1166   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1167   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1168   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1169   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1170   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1171   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1172   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1173   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1174   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1175   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1176   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1177   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1178   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1179   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1180   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1181   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1182   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1183   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1184   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1185   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1186   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1187   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1188   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1189   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1190   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1191   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1192   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1193   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1194   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1195   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1196   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1197   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1198   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1199   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1200   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1201   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1202   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1203   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1204   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1205   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1206   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1207   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1208   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1209   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1210   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1211   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1212   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1213   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1214   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1215   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1216   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1217   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1218   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1219   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1220   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1221   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1222   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1223   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1224   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1225   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1226   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1227   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1228   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1229   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1230   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1231   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1232   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1233   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1234   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1235   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1236   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1237   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1238   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1239   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1240   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1241   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1242   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1243 
  1244 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1245 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1246 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1247 
  1248   Changed Operations:
  1249   float_abs -> abs
  1250   float_nprt -> nprt
  1251   float_pprt -> pprt
  1252   pow2 -> use powr
  1253   round_down -> float_round_down
  1254   round_up -> float_round_up
  1255   scale -> exponent
  1256 
  1257   Removed Operations:
  1258   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1259 
  1260   Renamed Lemmas:
  1261   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1262   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1263   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1264   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1265   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1266   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1267   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1268   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1269   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1270   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1271   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1272   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1273   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1274   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1275   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1276   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1277   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1278   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1279   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1280   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1281   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1282   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1283   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1284   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1285   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1286   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1287   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1288   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1289   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1290   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1291   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1292   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1293   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1294   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1295   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1296   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1297 
  1298   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1299   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1300   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1301   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1302   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1303   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1304   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1305   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1306   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1307   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1308 
  1309 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1310 association lists with distinct keys.
  1311 
  1312 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1313 annotated commands.
  1314 
  1315 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1316 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1317 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1318 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1321 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1322 instead.
  1323 
  1324   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1325   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1326   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1327   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1328   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1329   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1330   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1331   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1332   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1333   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1334   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1335   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1336   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1337   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1338   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1339   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1340   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1341   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1342   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1343   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1344   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1345   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1346   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1347   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1348   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1349   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1350   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1351   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1352   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1353   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1354   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1355   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1356   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1357   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1358   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1359   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1360   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1361   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1362   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1363   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1364   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1365 
  1366 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1367 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1368 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1369 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1370 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1371 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1372 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1373 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1374 
  1375 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1376 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1377 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1378 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1379 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1380 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1381 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1382 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1383 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1384 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1385 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1386 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1387 
  1388   Renamed constants:
  1389   measure -> emeasure
  1390   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1391   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1392   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1393   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1394 
  1395   Removed locales:
  1396   completeable_measure_space
  1397   finite_measure_space
  1398   finite_prob_space
  1399   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1400   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1401   finite_sigma_algebra
  1402   measure_space
  1403   pair_finite_prob_space
  1404   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1405   pair_finite_space
  1406   pair_sigma_algebra
  1407   product_sigma_algebra
  1408 
  1409   Removed constants:
  1410   conditional_space
  1411   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1412   image_space
  1413   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1414   pair_measure_generator
  1415   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1416   subvimage
  1417 
  1418   Replacement theorems:
  1419   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1420   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1421   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1422   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1423   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1424   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1425   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1426   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1427   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1428   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1429   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1430   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1431   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1432   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1433   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1434   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1435   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1436   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1437   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1438   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1439   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1440   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1441   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1442   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1443   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1444   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1445   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1446   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1447   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1448   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1449   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1450   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1451   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1452   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1453   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1454   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1455   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1456   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1457   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1458   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1459   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1460   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1461   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1462   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1463   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1464   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1465   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1466   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1467   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1468   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1469   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1470   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1471   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1472   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1473   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1474   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1475   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1476   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1477   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1478   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1479   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1480   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1481   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1482   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1483   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1484   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1485   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1486   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1487   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1488   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1489   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1490   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1491   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1492   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1493   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1494   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1495   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1496   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1497   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1498   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1499   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1500   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1501   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1502   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1503   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1504   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1505   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1506   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1507   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1508   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1509   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1510   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1511   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1512   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1513   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1514   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1515   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1516   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1517   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1518   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1519   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1520   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1521   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1522   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1523   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1524   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1525   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1526   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1527   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1528   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1529   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1530   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1531   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1532   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1533   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1534   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1535   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1536   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1537   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1538   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1539   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1540   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1541   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1542   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1543   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1544   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1545   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1546   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1547 
  1548 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1549 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1550 
  1551 
  1552 *** FOL ***
  1553 
  1554 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1555 
  1556 
  1557 *** ZF ***
  1558 
  1559 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1560 analysis.
  1561 
  1562 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1563 
  1564 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1565 
  1566 
  1567 *** ML ***
  1568 
  1569 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1570 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1571 
  1572 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1573 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1574 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1575 
  1576 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1577 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1578 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1579 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1580 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1581 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1582 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1583 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1584 
  1585 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1586 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1587 
  1588 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1589 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1590 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1591 
  1592 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1593 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1594 
  1595 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1596 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1597 context as well.
  1598 
  1599 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1600 
  1601   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1602   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1603   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1604   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1605   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1606   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1607   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1608   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1609   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1610   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1611   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1612   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1613 
  1614 
  1615 *** System ***
  1616 
  1617 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1618 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1619 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1620 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1621 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1622 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1623 the generic user home was intended.
  1624 
  1625 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1626 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1627 
  1628 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1629 (not just JRE).
  1630 
  1631 
  1632 
  1633 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1634 ------------------------------------
  1635 
  1636 *** General ***
  1637 
  1638 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1639 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1640 
  1641   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1642     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1643     files for checking).
  1644 
  1645   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1646     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1647     positions.
  1648 
  1649   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1650     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1651     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1652 
  1653   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1654     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1655     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1656 
  1657   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1658     cores.
  1659 
  1660   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1661     versions (garbage collection).
  1662 
  1663 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1664 including some remaining limitations.
  1665 
  1666 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1667 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1668 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1669 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1670 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1674 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1675 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1676 
  1677 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1678 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1679 usedir option -Q.
  1680 
  1681 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1682 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1683 
  1684   long_names   ~> names_long
  1685   short_names  ~> names_short
  1686   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1687 
  1688 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1689 
  1690   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1691 
  1692 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1693 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1694 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1695 
  1696 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1697 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1698 
  1699 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1700   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1701   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1702   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1703     "Classical Reasoner".
  1704 
  1705 
  1706 *** HOL ***
  1707 
  1708 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1709 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1710 
  1711 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1712 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1713 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1714 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1715 class complete_linorder.
  1716 
  1717 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1718 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1719 
  1720 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1721 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1722 
  1723   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1724   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1725   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1726   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1727   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1728   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1729   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1730   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1731   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1732   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1733   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1734 
  1735 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1736 
  1737   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1738   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1739   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1740   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1741   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1742   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1743   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1744   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1745   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1746   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1747   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1748   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1749   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1750   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1751   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1752   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1753 
  1754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1760 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1761 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1762 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1765 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1766 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1768 
  1769 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1770 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1771 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1772 
  1773 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1774 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1775 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1778 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1779 
  1780 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1781 
  1782     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1783     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1784 
  1785 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1786 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1789 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1792 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1793 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1794 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1795 
  1796   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1797   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1798   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1799   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1800   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1801   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1802   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1803 
  1804 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1805 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1806 
  1807   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1808   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1809   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1810   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1811   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1812   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1813   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1814   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1815   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1816   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1817   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1818   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1819   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1820   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1821   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1822   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1823   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1824   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1825   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1826   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1827   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1828   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1829   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1830   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1831   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1832   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1833   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1834   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1835   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1836   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1837   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1838   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1839   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1840   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1841   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1842   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1843   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1844   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1845   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1846   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1847   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1848   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1849   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1850   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1851   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1852   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1853   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1854   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1855   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1856   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1857   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1858   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1859   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1860   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1861   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1862   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1863   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1864   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1865   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1866   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1867   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1868   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1869   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1870   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1871   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1872   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1873   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1874   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1875   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1876   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1877   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1878   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1879   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1880   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1881   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1882   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1883   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1884   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1885   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1886   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1887   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1888   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1889 
  1890 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1891 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1892 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1893 
  1894 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1895 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1896 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1897 
  1898 * Code generation:
  1899 
  1900   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1901     characters in the target language.
  1902 
  1903   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1904     instead.
  1905 
  1906   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1907 
  1908   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1909     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1910 
  1911       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1912 
  1913 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914 
  1915 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1916 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1917 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1918 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1919 syntax.
  1920 
  1921 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1922 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1923 
  1924 * Nitpick:
  1925   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1926   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1927   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1928     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Sledgehammer:
  1931   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1932   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1933     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1934   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1935     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1936   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1937     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1939     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1940   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1941     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1942 
  1943 * Metis:
  1944   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1946     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 * Command 'try':
  1949   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1950     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1951   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1952     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1953 
  1954 * Quickcheck:
  1955   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1956     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1957   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1958     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1959   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1960     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1961     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1962     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1963   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1964     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1965 
  1966 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1967 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1968 
  1969 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1970 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1971 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1972 
  1973 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1974 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1978 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1981 arithmetic.
  1982 
  1983 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1984 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1985 and lattice type classes.
  1986 
  1987 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1988 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1989 
  1990 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1991 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1992 
  1993 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1994 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1995 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1998   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1999   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2000   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2001 
  2002 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2003 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2004 constants:
  2005 
  2006   type inat   ~> type enat
  2007   Fin         ~> enat
  2008   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2009   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2010   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2011 
  2012 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2013 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2016 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2017 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2018 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2019 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2020 
  2021 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2022 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2023 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2024 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2025 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2026 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2027 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2028 
  2029   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2030   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2031   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2032   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2033 
  2034 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2035 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2036 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2039   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2040   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2041   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2042   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2043   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2044   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2045   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2046   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2047   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2048   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2049   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2050   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2051   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2052   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2053   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2054   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2055   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2056   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2057   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2058   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2059   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2060   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2061   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2062   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2063   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2064   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2065   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2066   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2067   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2068   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2069   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2070   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2071   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2072   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2073   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2074   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2075   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2076   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2077   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2078   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2079   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2080   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2081   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2082   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2083   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2084   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2085   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2086   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2087   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2088   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2089 
  2090 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2091   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2092   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2093   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2094   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2095     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2096 
  2097 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2100   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2101   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2102   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2103   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2104   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2105   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2106   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2107   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2108   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2109   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2110   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2111   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2112   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2113   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2114   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2115   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2116   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2117   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2118   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2119   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2120   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2121   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2122   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2123   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2124 
  2125 
  2126 *** Document preparation ***
  2127 
  2128 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2129 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2130 same.
  2131 
  2132 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2133 result.
  2134 
  2135 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2136 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2137 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2138 
  2139 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2140 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2141 
  2142 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2143 like this:
  2144 
  2145   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2146   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2147 
  2148 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2149 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2150 layouts.
  2151 
  2152 
  2153 *** ML ***
  2154 
  2155 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2156 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2157 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2158 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2159 under external program control.
  2160 
  2161 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2162 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2163 
  2164 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2165 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2166 (better known as Proof General).
  2167 
  2168 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2169 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2170 
  2171 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2172 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2173 
  2174 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2175 (including quotes etc.).
  2176 
  2177 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2178 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2179 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2180 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2181 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2182 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2183 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2184 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2185 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2186 
  2187 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2188 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2189 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2190 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2191 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2192 
  2193 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2194 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2195 
  2196 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2197 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2198 
  2199 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2200 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2201 
  2202 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2203 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2204 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2205 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2206 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2207 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2208 proper Proof.context.
  2209 
  2210 
  2211 *** System ***
  2212 
  2213 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2214 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2215 
  2216 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2217 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2218 
  2219 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2220 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2221 
  2222   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2223   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2224   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2225   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2226   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2227 
  2228 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2229 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2232 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2233 example:
  2234 
  2235   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2236 
  2237 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2238 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2239 
  2240 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2241 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2242 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2243 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2244 
  2245 
  2246 
  2247 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2248 ----------------------------------
  2249 
  2250 *** General ***
  2251 
  2252 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2253 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2254 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2255 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2256 like this:
  2257 
  2258   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2259 
  2260 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2261 
  2262 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2263 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2264 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2265 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2266 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2267 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2268 
  2269 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2270 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2271 the following package declarations:
  2272 
  2273   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2274   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2275 
  2276 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2277 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2278 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2279 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2280 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2281 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2282 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2283 
  2284 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2285 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2286 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2287 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2288 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2289 
  2290 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2291 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2292 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2293 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2294 
  2295 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2296 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2297 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2298 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2299 
  2300   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2301 
  2302   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2303   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2304   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2305   show_types                    show_types
  2306   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2307   show_consts                   show_consts
  2308   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2309 
  2310   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2311   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2312   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2313 
  2314   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2315   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2316 
  2317   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2318 
  2319   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2320   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2321   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2322   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2323   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2324 
  2325 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2326 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2327 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2328 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2329 
  2330 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2334   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2335 
  2336 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2337 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2338 float_token.
  2339 
  2340 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2341 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2345 DejaVu Sans.
  2346 
  2347 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2348 
  2349 
  2350 *** Pure ***
  2351 
  2352 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2353 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2354 time.
  2355 
  2356 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2357 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2360 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2363 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2364 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2365 command already provided this functionality.
  2366 
  2367 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2368 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2369 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2370 without interpretations.
  2371 
  2372 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2373 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2374 
  2375 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2376 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2377 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2378 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2379 
  2380 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2381 'definition' instead.
  2382 
  2383 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2384 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2385 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2386 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2387 
  2388 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2389 constructors.
  2390 
  2391 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2392 the local file system.
  2393 
  2394 
  2395 *** HOL ***
  2396 
  2397 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2398 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2399 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2400 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2401 
  2402   declare [[coercion f]]
  2403 
  2404 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2405 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2406 
  2407   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2408 
  2409 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2410 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2411 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2412 other theories like this:
  2413 
  2414   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2415 
  2416 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2417 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2418 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2419 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2420 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2421 for examples.
  2422 
  2423 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2424 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2425 
  2426 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2427 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2428 
  2429 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2430 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2431 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2432 
  2433 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2434 functorial structure of types.
  2435 
  2436 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2437 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2438 
  2439 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2440 languages.
  2441 
  2442 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2443 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2447 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2450 combinators any longer.
  2451 
  2452 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2453 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2454 
  2455 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2456 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2457 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2458 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2459 
  2460   record 'a foo = ...
  2461   ...
  2462   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2463 
  2464 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2465 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2469 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2470 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2471 
  2472 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2473 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2474 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2475 
  2476 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2477 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2478 
  2479 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2480 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2481 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2482 independently.
  2483 
  2484 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2485 counter example search.
  2486 
  2487 * Sledgehammer:
  2488   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2489     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2490     sledgehammer").
  2491   - Renamed commands:
  2492     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2493     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2494     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2495     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496   - Renamed options:
  2497     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2498     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2499     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2500     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2501     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2502 
  2503 * Nitpick:
  2504   - Renamed options:
  2505     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2506     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2507     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2509   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2510   - Added "whack" option.
  2511   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2512   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2513   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2514   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2515     higher cardinalities.
  2516   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2517 
  2518 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2519 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2520 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2521 
  2522     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2523 
  2524 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2525 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2526 
  2527 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2528 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2529 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2530 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2531 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2532 "smt_solver".
  2533 
  2534 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2535 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2536 
  2537 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2538 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2539 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2540 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2543   - Renamed:
  2544     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2545     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2546     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547   - Added:
  2548     smt_verbose
  2549     smt_random_seed
  2550     smt_datatypes
  2551     smt_infer_triggers
  2552     smt_monomorph_limit
  2553     cvc3_options
  2554     remote_cvc3_options
  2555     remote_z3_options
  2556     yices_options
  2557 
  2558 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2559 header.
  2560 
  2561 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2562 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2563 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2564 
  2565   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2566 
  2567 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2570 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2575 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2578 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2579 
  2580 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2581 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2582 
  2583 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2584 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2585 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2593 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2596 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2597 for congruent(2)).
  2598 
  2599 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2600 
  2601   types
  2602     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2603     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2604 
  2605   constants
  2606     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2607     True ~> HOL.True
  2608     False ~> HOL.False
  2609     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2610     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2611     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2612     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2613     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2614     The ~> HOL.The
  2615     All ~> HOL.All
  2616     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2617     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2618     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2619     If ~> HOL.If
  2620     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2621     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2622     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2623     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2624     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2625     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2626     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2627     op : ~> Set.member
  2628     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2629 
  2630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2633 
  2634     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2635     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2636     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2637     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2638     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2639     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2640     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2641     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2642 
  2643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * More stylized fact names:
  2646 
  2647   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2648   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2649   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2650   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2651 
  2652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2653 
  2654 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2655 
  2656   constants
  2657     null ~> List.null
  2658 
  2659   facts
  2660     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2661     null_empty ~> null_def
  2662 
  2663 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2664 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2665 generation.
  2666 
  2667 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2668 Haskell code.
  2669 
  2670 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2671 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2672 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673 
  2674 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2675 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2678 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2679 
  2680 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2681 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2682 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2685 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689 
  2690 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2691 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2692 referred to by its qualified name.
  2693 
  2694   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2695   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2696   product ~>  Enum.product
  2697 
  2698 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2699 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2703 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2704 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2708 sort_key.
  2709 
  2710 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2714 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2715 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2716 
  2717   types
  2718     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2719               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2720               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2721         (depends on your needs)
  2722 
  2723   constants
  2724      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2725      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2726      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2727 
  2728 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2729 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2730 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2731 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2732 
  2733 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2734 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2735 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2736 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2737 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2743 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2744 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2745 
  2746 
  2747 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2748 
  2749 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2750 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2751 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2752 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2753 compatibility.
  2754 
  2755 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2756 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2757 
  2758 
  2759 *** HOLCF ***
  2760 
  2761 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2762 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2763 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2767 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2768 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769 
  2770   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2771   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2772   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2773 
  2774 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2775 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2776 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2779 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2780 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2781 domain definition now works:
  2782 
  2783   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2784 
  2785 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2786 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2787 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2788 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2789 
  2790   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2791     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2792 
  2793   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2794 
  2795 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2796 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2797 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2800 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801 
  2802 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2803 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2804 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2805 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2806 
  2807 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2808 
  2809 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2812 
  2813 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2815 
  2816 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2817 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2818 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2819 
  2820 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2821 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2822 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2825 still supported as an input translation.
  2826 
  2827 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2828 
  2829   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2830   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2831   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2832   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2833   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2834   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2835   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2836 
  2837 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2838 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2841   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2842   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2843   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2844   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2845   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2846 
  2847 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2848 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2851 
  2852   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2853   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2854   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2855   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2856 
  2857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858 
  2859 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2860 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2861 
  2862 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2863 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2866   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2867   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2868   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2869   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2870   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2871   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2872   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2873   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2874   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2875   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2876   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2877   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2878   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2879   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2880   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2881   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2882   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2883   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2884   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2885 
  2886 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2887 
  2888   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2889   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2890   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2891   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2892   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2893   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2894   box_less             ~> box_below
  2895   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2896   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2897   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2898   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2899   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2900   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2901   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2902   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2903   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2904   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2905   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2906   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2907   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2908   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2909   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2910   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2911   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2912   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2913   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2914   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2915   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2916   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2917   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2918   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2919   up_less              ~> up_below
  2920   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2921   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2922   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2923   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2924   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2925   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2926   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2927   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2928   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2929   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2930   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2931   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2932   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2933 
  2934 
  2935 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2936 
  2937 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2938 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940 
  2941 *** ML ***
  2942 
  2943 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2944 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2945 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2946 
  2947 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2948 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2949 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2950 
  2951 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2952 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2953 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2954 
  2955 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2956 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2957 
  2958 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2959 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2960 
  2961 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2962 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2963 
  2964 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2965 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2966 
  2967 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2968 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2969 almost all situations.
  2970 
  2971 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2972 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2973 Isabelle/ML.
  2974 
  2975 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2976 meaning.
  2977 
  2978 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2979 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2980 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2981 
  2982 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2983 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2984 
  2985 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2986 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2987 
  2988 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2990 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2991 
  2992 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2993 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2994 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2995 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2996 configuration options.
  2997 
  2998 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2999 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3000 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3001 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3002 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3003 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3004 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3005 
  3006 
  3007 
  3008 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3009 ---------------------------------
  3010 
  3011 *** General ***
  3012 
  3013 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3014 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3015 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3016 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3017 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3018 their full internal name.
  3019 
  3020 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3021 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3022 Some hints on upgrading:
  3023 
  3024   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3025     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3026     which are independent of this issue.
  3027 
  3028   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3029     provides the following special forms:
  3030 
  3031       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3032       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3033       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3034 
  3035     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3036     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3037     extra variables".
  3038 
  3039     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3040     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3041     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3042     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3043     "logic".
  3044 
  3045   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3046     antiquotations:
  3047 
  3048       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3049       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3050       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3051       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3052 
  3053   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3054     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3055     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3056     antiquotations.
  3057 
  3058 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3059 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3060 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3061 diagnose syntax problems.
  3062 
  3063 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3064 
  3065 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3066 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3067 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3068 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3069 
  3070 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3071 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3072 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3073 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3076 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3077 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3078 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3079 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3082 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3083 
  3084 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3085 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3086 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3087 
  3088   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3089 
  3090 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3091 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3092 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3093 
  3094 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3095 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3099 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3100 
  3101 
  3102 *** Pure ***
  3103 
  3104 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3105 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3106 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3107 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3108 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3109 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3110 inspect proof terms.
  3111 
  3112 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3113 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3114 are added internally.  For example:
  3115 
  3116   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3117 
  3118 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3119 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3124 'class' instead.
  3125 
  3126 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3127 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3131 invariants.
  3132 
  3133 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3134 user space functionality any longer.
  3135 
  3136 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3137 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3141 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3142 
  3143 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3144 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3145 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3146 
  3147 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3148 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3149 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3150 
  3151 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3152 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 
  3155 *** HOL ***
  3156 
  3157 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3158 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3159 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3160 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3161 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3162 
  3163 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3164 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3165 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3166 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3167 
  3168   fun
  3169     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3170   where
  3171     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3172 
  3173   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3174     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3175 
  3176   quotient_definition
  3177     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3178 
  3179 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3180 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3181 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3182 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3183 
  3184 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3185 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3186 
  3187 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3188 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3189 
  3190 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3194 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3195 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3196 
  3197 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3198 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3207 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3210 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3211 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3212 
  3213   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3214   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3215   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3216   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3217   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3218   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3219   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3220   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3221   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3222   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3223   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3224   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3225   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3226   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3227   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3228   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3229   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3230   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3231   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3232   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3233   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3234   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3235   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3236   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3237   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3238   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3239   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3240   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3241   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3242   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3243 
  3244 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3245 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3246 
  3247 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3248 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3249 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3250 
  3251 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3252 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3253 
  3254 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3255 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3258 
  3259 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3260 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3263 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3268 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3269 
  3270 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3271 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3272 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3273 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3276   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3277   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3278   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3282 lattices):
  3283 
  3284     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3285     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3286 
  3287     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3288 
  3289     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3290     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3291     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3292     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3293     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3294     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3295     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3296     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3297     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3298     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3299     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3300     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3301     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3302 
  3303     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3304     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3305     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3306     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3307     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3308     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3309     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3310     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3311     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3312     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3313     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3314     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3315     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3316     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3317     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3318     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3319     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3320     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3321 
  3322   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3323   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3324 
  3325     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3326     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3327     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3328     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3329     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3330 
  3331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333 * Refined field classes:
  3334   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3335     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3336     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3337   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3341   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3342   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3343   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3344     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3345   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3346     equal_neg_zero.
  3347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3350 sets to lattices:
  3351 
  3352   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3353   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3354   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3355   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3356   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3357   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3358   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3359   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3360   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3361   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3362 
  3363 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3364 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3365 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3366 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3367 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3368 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3371 multiset order:
  3372 
  3373   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3374     <= and <;
  3375   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3376     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3377     multiset_order;
  3378   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3379     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3380     generation;
  3381   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3382     if needed.
  3383 
  3384 Renamed:
  3385 
  3386   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3387   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3388   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3389 
  3390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3393 
  3394 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3395 
  3396 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3397 
  3398 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3399 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3400 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402   Constants:
  3403   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3404   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3405   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3406   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3407   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3408   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3409   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3410   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3411   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3412   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3413   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3414   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3415   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3416 
  3417   Lemmas:
  3418   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3419   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3420   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3421   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3422   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3423   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3424   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3425   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3426   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3427   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3428   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3429   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3430   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3431 
  3432 * Sledgehammer:
  3433   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3434     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3435     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3436     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3437     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3438     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3439     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3441   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3442     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3443   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3444     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3445     is still experimental.)
  3446   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3447     full-typed mode.
  3448   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3449 
  3450 * Nitpick:
  3451   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3452   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3453   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3454     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3455   - Added support for quotient types.
  3456   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3457     constructs.
  3458   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3459     "termination" proofs).
  3460   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3461   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3462   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3463   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3464     record getters.
  3465   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3466   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3467   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3468   - Added "atoms" option.
  3469   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3470     problems.
  3471   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3472     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3473     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3475     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3479   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3480   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3481   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3482   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3483   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3484   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3485   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3486   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3487   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 
  3490 *** HOLCF ***
  3491 
  3492 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3493 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3494 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3497 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3498 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3499 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3502 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3503 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3504 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3505 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3508 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3509 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3512 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3515   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3516 
  3517 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3518 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3521   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3522   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3523   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3524   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3525 
  3526 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3527 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3530   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3531   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3532 
  3533 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3534 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3538 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3543 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3544 
  3545 
  3546 *** ML ***
  3547 
  3548 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3549 
  3550     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3551     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3552 
  3553     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3554     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3555     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3556     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3557 
  3558     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3559     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3560     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3561 
  3562 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3563 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3564 
  3565 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3566 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3567 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3568 
  3569 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3570 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3571 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3572 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3573 
  3574 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3575 the context or even global references.
  3576 
  3577 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3578 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3579 
  3580 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3581 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3582 
  3583   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3584   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3585   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3586   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3587   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3588   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3589   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3590   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3591   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3592   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3593 
  3594 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3595 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3596 
  3597 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3598 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3599 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3600 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3601 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3602 
  3603 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3604 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3605 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3606 Theory_Data version.
  3607 
  3608 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3609 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3610 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3611 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3612 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3613 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3614 explicitly in rare situations.
  3615 
  3616 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3617 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3621 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3624 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3625 quite rare).
  3626 
  3627 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3628 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3631 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3632 terms.
  3633 
  3634 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3635 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3636 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3637 
  3638 
  3639 *** System ***
  3640 
  3641 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3642 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3643 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3644 
  3645 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3646 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3647 respectively.
  3648 
  3649 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3650 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3651 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3652 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3653 
  3654   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3655 
  3656 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3657 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3658 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3659 component.
  3660 
  3661 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3662 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3663 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3664 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3665 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3666 the user for manual installation.
  3667 
  3668 
  3669 
  3670 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3671 -------------------------------------
  3672 
  3673 *** General ***
  3674 
  3675 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3676 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3677 
  3678 
  3679 *** Pure ***
  3680 
  3681 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3682 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3683 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3684 
  3685 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3686 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3687 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3688 
  3689 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3690 interpretation.
  3691 
  3692 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3693 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 
  3696 *** Document preparation ***
  3697 
  3698 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3699 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3700 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3701 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3702 
  3703 
  3704 *** HOL ***
  3705 
  3706 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3707 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3708 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3709 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3710 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3711 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3712 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3713 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3714 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3715 
  3716 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3717 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3718 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3719 
  3720 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3721 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3722 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3723 
  3724 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3725 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3726 
  3727 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3728 
  3729 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3730 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3731 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3732 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3733 
  3734 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3735 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3736 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3737 "mirabelle" utility.
  3738 
  3739 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3740 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3741 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3742 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3743 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3744 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3745 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3746 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3747 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3748 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3749 
  3750 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3751 procedure only.
  3752 
  3753 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3754 
  3755 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3756 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3757 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3758 that fail later.
  3759 
  3760 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3761 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3762 
  3763 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3764 the same method as the approximation method.
  3765 
  3766 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3767 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3768 series expansion.
  3769 
  3770 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3771 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3772 
  3773 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3774 reals.
  3775 
  3776 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3777 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3778 
  3779 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3780 fixpoint theorem.
  3781 
  3782 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3783   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3784     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3785   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3786     accordingly
  3787   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3788     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3789   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3790     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3791 
  3792 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3793 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3794 lattice.
  3795 
  3796 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3797 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3798 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3799 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3800 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3801 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3805   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3806     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3807   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3808     le_inf_iff
  3809   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3810     sup_aci)
  3811   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3812   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3813   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3814     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3815     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3816     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3817     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3818     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3819     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3820     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3821     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3822     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3823     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3824   - authentic syntax for
  3825     Set.Pow
  3826     Set.image
  3827   - mere abbreviations:
  3828     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3829     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3830     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3831     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3832     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3833     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3834     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3835     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3836   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3837 
  3838 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3839 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3840 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3841 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3842 
  3843 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3844 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3845 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3848 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3851 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3852 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3853 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3856 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3857 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3858 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3859 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3860 
  3861 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3862 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3866 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867 
  3868 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3869 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3870 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3871 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3872 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3873 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3874 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3878     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3879     code_post       replaces    code post
  3880     etc.
  3881   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Renamed methods:
  3884     sizechange -> size_change
  3885     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3886   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3889 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3890 
  3891 * Renamed theorems:
  3892     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3893     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3894     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3895     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3896     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3897   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 
  3906 *** HOLCF ***
  3907 
  3908 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3909 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3910 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3911 
  3912 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3913 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3914 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3915 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3916 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3917 
  3918 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3919 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3920 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3921 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3922 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3923 
  3924 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3925 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3926 constructor are pre-configured.
  3927 
  3928 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3929 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3930 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3931 
  3932 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3933 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3934 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3935 as well.)
  3936 
  3937 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3938 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3939 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3940 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3941 examples.
  3942 
  3943 
  3944 *** ML ***
  3945 
  3946 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3947 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3948 
  3949 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3950 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3951 position, logical grouping etc.
  3952 
  3953 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3954 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3955 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3956 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3957 
  3958 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3959 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3960 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3961 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3962 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3963 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3964 
  3965 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3966 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3967 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3968 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3969 experiments with references.
  3970 
  3971 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3972 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3973 
  3974 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3975 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3976 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3977 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3978 
  3979 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3980 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3981 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3982 
  3983 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3984 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3985 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3993 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3994 
  3995 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3996 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3997 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3998 
  3999 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4000 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4001 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4004 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4005 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4009 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4010 instead of global theory.
  4011 
  4012 
  4013 *** System ***
  4014 
  4015 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4016 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4017 usedir option -q.
  4018 
  4019 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4020 also the system manual.
  4021 
  4022 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4023 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4024 
  4025 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4026 this is always enabled.
  4027 
  4028 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4029 
  4030 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4031 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4032 currently supported on Linux only.
  4033 
  4034 
  4035 
  4036 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4037 --------------------------------
  4038 
  4039 *** General ***
  4040 
  4041 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4042 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4043 
  4044   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4045     "isatool."
  4046 
  4047   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4048     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4049 
  4050   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4051     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4052 
  4053 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4054 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4055 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4056 
  4057 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4058 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4059 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4060 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4061 via "isabelle emacs".
  4062 
  4063 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4064 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4065 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4066 
  4067 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4068 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4069 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4070 
  4071 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4072 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4073 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4074 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4075 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4076 
  4077 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4078 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4079 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4080 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4081 
  4082 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4083 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4084 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4085 
  4086 
  4087 *** Pure ***
  4088 
  4089 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4090 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4091 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4092 
  4093 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4094 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4095 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4096 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4097 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4098 
  4099 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4100 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4101 useful in locale declarations.
  4102 
  4103 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4104 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4105 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4106 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4107 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4108 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4109 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4110 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4111 no longer generated.
  4112 
  4113 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4114 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4115 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4116 
  4117 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4118 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4119 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4120 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4121 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4122 
  4123 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4125 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4126 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4127 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4128 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4129 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4130 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4131 
  4132 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4133 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4134 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4135 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4136 
  4137 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4140 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4141 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4142 
  4143 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4144 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4147 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4148 in HOL, write
  4149 
  4150     class foo = ...
  4151 
  4152 instead of
  4153 
  4154     class foo = type + ...
  4155 
  4156 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4157 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4158 
  4159 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4160 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4161 
  4162 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4163 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4164 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4165 
  4166 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4167 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4168 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4169 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4170 directly in regular applications.
  4171 
  4172 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4173 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4174 
  4175 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4176 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4177 
  4178 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4179 theory context.
  4180 
  4181 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4182 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4183 
  4184 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4185 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4186 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4187 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4188 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4189 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4190 
  4191   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4192 
  4193 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4194 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4195 normalization.
  4196 
  4197 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4198 addressing etc.
  4199 
  4200 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4201 
  4202   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4203   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4204 
  4205 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4206 
  4207   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4208      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4209      parts of the code generator framework).
  4210 
  4211   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4212      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4213      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4214 
  4215 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4218 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4221 patterns, e.g.
  4222 
  4223     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4224 
  4225 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4226 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4227 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4228 hyphen:
  4229 
  4230     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4231 
  4232 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4233 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4234 
  4235 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4236 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4237 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4238 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4239 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4240 higher-order unification.
  4241 
  4242 
  4243 *** Document preparation ***
  4244 
  4245 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4246 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4247 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4248 
  4249 
  4250 *** HOL ***
  4251 
  4252 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4253 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4254 
  4255 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4256 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4257 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4258 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4259 Main, as before.
  4260 
  4261 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4262 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4263 
  4264 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4265 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4266 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4267 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4268 
  4269 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4270 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4271 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4272 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4273 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4274 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4275 
  4276 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4277 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4278 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4279 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4280 
  4281 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4282 menu.
  4283 
  4284 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4285 (contains the empty clause).
  4286 
  4287 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4288 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4289 
  4290 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4291 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4292 
  4293 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4294 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4295 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4296 
  4297 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4298 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4299 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4300 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4301 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4302 
  4303 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4304 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4305 
  4306 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4307 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4308 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4309 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4310 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4311 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4312 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4313 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4314 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4315 
  4316 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4317 
  4318 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4319 
  4320 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4321 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4324 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4325 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4326 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4327 
  4328 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4329 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4330 
  4331     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4332     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4333     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4334     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4335     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4336     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4337     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4338     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4339 
  4340 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4341 theory Set.
  4342 
  4343 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4344 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4345 
  4346 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4347 
  4348 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4349 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4350 
  4351 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4352 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4353 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4354 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4355 allowed. For examples see
  4356 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4357 
  4358 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4359 
  4360 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4364 structure:
  4365 
  4366     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4367     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4368     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4369     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4370     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4371     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4372     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4373     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4374     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4375     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4376     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4377     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4378     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4379     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4380     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4381     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4382     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4383     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4384     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4385     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4386     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4387     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4388     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4389     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4390     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4391     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4392     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4393     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4394     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4395     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4396     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4397     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4398     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4399 
  4400     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4401     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4402     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4403     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4404     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4405     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4406     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4407     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4408     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4409     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4410 
  4411     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4412     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4413     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4414     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4415     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4416     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4417 
  4418 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4419 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4420 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4421 
  4422 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4423 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4424 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4425 
  4426 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4427 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4428 
  4429 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4430 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4431 
  4432 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4433 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4434 proofs, e.g.
  4435 
  4436   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4437 
  4438 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4439 
  4440 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4441 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4442 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4445 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4449 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4450 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4454 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4455 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4456 preorder_class.*.
  4457 
  4458 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4459 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4460 
  4461 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4462 
  4463   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4464 
  4465 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4466 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4467 fold_image.
  4468 
  4469 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4470 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4471 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4472 the former will disappear at some point.
  4473 
  4474 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4475 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4476 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4477 
  4478 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4479 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4480 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4481 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4482 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4483 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4484 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4485 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4486 
  4487 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4488 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4489 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4490 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4491 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4492 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4493 
  4494     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4495     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4496     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4497     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4498     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4499     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4500     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4501 
  4502 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4503 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4504 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4505 
  4506 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4507 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4508 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4509 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4510 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4511 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4512 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4513 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4514 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4515 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4516 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4517 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4518 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4519 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4520 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4521 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4522 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4523 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4524 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4525 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4526 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4527 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4528 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4529 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4530 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4531 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4532 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4533 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4534 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4535 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4536 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4537 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4538 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4539 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4540 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4541 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4542 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4543 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4544 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4545 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4546 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4547 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4548 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4549 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4550 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4551 
  4552 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4553 
  4554 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4555 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4556 
  4557 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4558 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4559 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4560 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4561 
  4562 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4563 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4564 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4565 theory RealVector.
  4566 
  4567 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4568 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4569 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4570 and inner products are included.
  4571 
  4572 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4573 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4574 supported.
  4575 
  4576 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4577 first diagonalization argument.
  4578 
  4579 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4580 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4581 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4582 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4583 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4584 
  4585     hide (open) const gcd
  4586     abbreviation gcd where
  4587       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4588     notation (output)
  4589       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4590 
  4591 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4592 
  4593 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4594 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4595 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4598 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4599 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4600 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4601 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4602 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4603 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4604 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4605 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4606 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4607 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4608 cases.
  4609 
  4610 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4611 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4612 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4613 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4614 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4615 
  4616     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4617     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4618     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4619     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4620     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4621 
  4622 
  4623 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4624 
  4625 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4626 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4627 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4628 
  4629 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4630 
  4631 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4632 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4633 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4634 
  4635 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4636 
  4637 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4638 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4639 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4640 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4641 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4642 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4643 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4644 
  4645 
  4646 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4647 
  4648 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4649 
  4650 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4651 theory targets.
  4652 
  4653 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4654 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4655 'inductive' etc.
  4656 
  4657 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4658 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4659 
  4660 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4661 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4662 
  4663 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4664 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4665 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4666 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4667 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4668 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4669 the algorithm W:
  4670 
  4671  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4672  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4673          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4674 
  4675 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4676 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4677 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4678 
  4679 
  4680 *** HOLCF ***
  4681 
  4682 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4683 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4684 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4685 
  4686 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4687 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4688 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4689 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4690 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4691 
  4692 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4693 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4694 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 
  4697 *** ZF ***
  4698 
  4699 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4700 
  4701 
  4702 *** ML ***
  4703 
  4704 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4705 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4706 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4707 5.2.1!
  4708 
  4709 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4710 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4711 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4712 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4713 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4714 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4715 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4716 
  4717 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4718 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4719 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4720 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4721 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4722 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4723 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4724 
  4725 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4726 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4727 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4728 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4729 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4730 
  4731 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4732 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4733 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4734 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4735 Method.add_method.
  4736 
  4737 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4738 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4739 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4740 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4741 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4742 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4743 
  4744 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4745 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4746 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4747 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4748 examples.
  4749 
  4750 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4751 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4752 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4753 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4754 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4755 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4756 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4757 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4758 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4759 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4760 
  4761 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4762 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4763 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4764 
  4765 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4766 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4767 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4768 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4769 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4770 resort for legacy applications.
  4771 
  4772 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4773 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4774 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4775 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4776 explicit runtime argument.
  4777 
  4778 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4779 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4780 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4781 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4782 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4785 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4786 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4787 theory state.
  4788 
  4789 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4790 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4791 
  4792   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4793   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4794   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4795   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4796   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4797   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4798   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4799   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4800   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4801   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4802 
  4803 
  4804 *** System ***
  4805 
  4806 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4807 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4808 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4809 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4810 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4811 
  4812 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4813 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4814 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4815 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4816 
  4817 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4818 
  4819 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4820 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4821 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4822 prover operations.
  4823 
  4824 
  4825 
  4826 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4827 -------------------------------
  4828 
  4829 *** General ***
  4830 
  4831 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4832 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4833 
  4834 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4835 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4836 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4837 provides a proper context already.
  4838 
  4839 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4840 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4841 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4842 
  4843 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4844 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4845 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4846 swap theory imports.
  4847 
  4848 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4849 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4850 
  4851 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4852 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4853 white space without escapes.
  4854 
  4855 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4856 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4857 "foo_bar".
  4858 
  4859 
  4860 *** Pure ***
  4861 
  4862 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4863 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4864 
  4865 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4866 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4867 
  4868 (1) unused_thms
  4869      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4870 
  4871 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4872      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4873      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4874 
  4875 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4876      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4877      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4878      their ancestors.
  4879 
  4880 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4881 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4882 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4883 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4884 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4885 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4886 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4887 
  4888 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4889 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4890 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4891 
  4892 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4893 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4894 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4895 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4896 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4897 
  4898 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4899 
  4900 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4901 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4902 update of theories within ML code.
  4903 
  4904 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4905 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4906 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4907 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4908 
  4909 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4910 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4911 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4915 
  4916 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4917 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4918 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4919 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4920 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4921 
  4922 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4923 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4924 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4925 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4926 situations.
  4927 
  4928 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4929 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4930 proof text.
  4931 
  4932 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4933 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4934 
  4935 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4936 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4937 predicates.
  4938 
  4939 
  4940 *** Document preparation ***
  4941 
  4942 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4943 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4944 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4945 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4946 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4947 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4948 
  4949 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4950 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4951 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4952 
  4953 
  4954 *** HOL ***
  4955 
  4956 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4957 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4958 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4959 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4960 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4961 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4962 
  4963 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4964 with multithreading.
  4965 
  4966 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4967 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4968 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4969 
  4970 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4971 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4972 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4973 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4974 
  4975 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4976 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4977 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4978 and makes them available separately.  See
  4979 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4980 
  4981 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4982 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4983 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4984 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4985 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4986 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4987 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4988 the declared rules.
  4989 
  4990 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4991 
  4992   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4993 
  4994 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4995 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4996 
  4997 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4998 
  4999   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5000 
  5001   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5002     definitions on => and bool.
  5003 
  5004   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5005     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5006     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5007 
  5008       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5009       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5010       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5011       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5012       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5013       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5014       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5015       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5016 
  5017   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5018     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5019     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5020 
  5021   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5022     The proof pattern
  5023 
  5024       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5025       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5026 
  5027     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5028     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5029 
  5030       have "EX S. P S"
  5031       proof
  5032         show "P S" <...>
  5033       qed
  5034 
  5035   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5036     The proof pattern
  5037 
  5038       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5039       also have "S = T" <...>
  5040       finally have "P T" .
  5041 
  5042     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5043     must be replaced by something like
  5044 
  5045       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5046       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5047       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5048 
  5049   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5050     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5051 
  5052       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5053 
  5054     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5055     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5056     type of the form
  5057 
  5058       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5059 
  5060     rather than
  5061 
  5062       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5063 
  5064 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5065 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5066 
  5067 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5068 
  5069 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5070 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5074 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5077 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 
  5079 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5080 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5081 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5084 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5085 
  5086   less_trans
  5087   less_linear
  5088   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5089   le_less_trans
  5090   less_le_trans
  5091   less_not_sym
  5092   less_asym
  5093 
  5094 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5095 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5096 and different variable names.
  5097 
  5098 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5099 
  5100 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5101 finite maps.
  5102 
  5103 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5104 
  5105 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5106 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5107 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5108 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5109 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5110 accordingly.
  5111 
  5112 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5113 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5114 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5115 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5116 
  5117 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5118 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5119 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5120 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5121 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5123 
  5124 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5125 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 
  5127 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5128 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5129 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5130 
  5131 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5135 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5136 
  5137 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5138 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5139 
  5140 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5141 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5142 
  5143 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5144 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5148 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5149 
  5150 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5151 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5152 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5153 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5154 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5155 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5158 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5159 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5160 
  5161 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5162 
  5163 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5164 
  5165 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5166 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5167 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5168 
  5169 
  5170 *** ZF ***
  5171 
  5172 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5173 same session:
  5174 
  5175   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5176   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5177   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5178   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5179   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5180   List      -> List_ZF
  5181   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5182 
  5183 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5184 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5185 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5186 
  5187 
  5188 *** ML ***
  5189 
  5190 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5191 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5192 
  5193 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5194 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5195 
  5196 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5197 
  5198 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5199 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5200 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5201 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5202 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5205 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5206 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5207 
  5208 
  5209 *** System ***
  5210 
  5211 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5212 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5213 
  5214 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5215 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5216 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5217 
  5218 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5219 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5220 
  5221 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5222 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5223 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5224 
  5225 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5226 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5227 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5228 
  5229 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5230 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5231 
  5232 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5233 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5234 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5235 script.
  5236 
  5237 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5238 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5239 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5240 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5241 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5242 
  5243 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5244 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5245 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5246 
  5247 
  5248 
  5249 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5250 -----------------------------------
  5251 
  5252 *** General ***
  5253 
  5254 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5255 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5256 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5257 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5258 
  5259 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5260 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5261 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5262 
  5263 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5264 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5265 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5266 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5267 
  5268 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5269 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5270 quotes.
  5271 
  5272 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5273 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5274 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5275 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5276 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5277 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5278 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5279 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5280 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5281 
  5282 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5283 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5284 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5285 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5286 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5287 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5288 
  5289 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5290 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5291 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5292 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5293 
  5294 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5295 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5296 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5297 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5298 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5299 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5300 
  5301 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5302 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5303 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5304 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5305 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5306 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5307 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5308 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5309 
  5310 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5311 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5312 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5313 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5314 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5315 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5316 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5317 
  5318 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5319 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5320 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5321 
  5322 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5323 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5324 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5325 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5326 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5327 limit is imposed.
  5328 
  5329 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5330 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5331 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5332 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5333 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5334 and scalability.
  5335 
  5336 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5337 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5338 
  5339 
  5340 *** Document preparation ***
  5341 
  5342 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5343 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5344 current context.
  5345 
  5346 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5347 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5348 
  5349 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5350 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5351 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5352 
  5353 
  5354 *** Pure ***
  5355 
  5356 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5357 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5358 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5359 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5360 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5361 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5362 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5363 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5364 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5365 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5366 
  5367 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5368 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5369 sketch:
  5370 
  5371     internal compilation:
  5372         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5373     writing SML code to a file:
  5374         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5375     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5376         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5377     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5378         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5379 
  5380     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5381         method ``eval''
  5382 
  5383 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5384 
  5385 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5386 
  5387     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5388     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5389     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5390     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5391 
  5392 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5393 
  5394     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5395       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5396 
  5397     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5398       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5399 
  5400     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5401       {(target)}+
  5402         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5403 
  5404     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5405       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5406         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5407 
  5408 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5409 
  5410 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5411 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5412 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5413 codegen".
  5414 
  5415 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5416 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5417 annotations).
  5418 
  5419 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5420 syntax.
  5421 
  5422 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5423 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5424 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5425 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5426 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5427 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5428 
  5429 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5430 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5431 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5432 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5433 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5434 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5435 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5436 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5437 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5438 equations, see section "definitions".
  5439 
  5440 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5441 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5442 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5443 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5444 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5445 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5446 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5447 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5448 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5449 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5450 
  5451 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5452 configuration options:
  5453 
  5454   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5455   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5456   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5457   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5458   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5459   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5460   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5461   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5462   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5463 
  5464 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5465 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5466 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5467 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5468 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5469 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5470 order.
  5471 
  5472 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5473 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5474 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5475 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5476 context encountered later on.
  5477 
  5478 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5479 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5480 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5481 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5482 
  5483 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5484 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5485 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5486 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5487 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5488 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5489 
  5490 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5491 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5492 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5493 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5494 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5495 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5496 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5497 more permissive.
  5498 
  5499 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5500 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5501 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5502 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5503 maintainability of proof texts.
  5504 
  5505 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5506 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5507 
  5508   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5509   then guess x and y by clarify
  5510 
  5511 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5512 proof tools being involved here.
  5513 
  5514 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5515 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5516 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5517 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5518 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5519 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5520 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5521 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5522 
  5523 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5524 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5525 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5526 
  5527   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5528   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5529   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5530   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5531 
  5532 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5533 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5534 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5535 
  5536 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5537 both named and unnamed ones.
  5538 
  5539 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5540 
  5541   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5542 
  5543 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5544 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5545 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5546 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5547 
  5548 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5549 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5550 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5551 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5552 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5553 
  5554 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5555 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5556 
  5557 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5558 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5559 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5560 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5561 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5562 originally first one.
  5563 
  5564 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5565 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5566 expected.
  5567 
  5568 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5569 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5570 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5571 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5572 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5573 
  5574   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5575     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5576     obtains x where "P x"
  5577 
  5578   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5579     assumes "A & B"
  5580     obtains A and B
  5581 
  5582   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5583     assumes "A | B"
  5584     obtains
  5585       A
  5586     | B
  5587 
  5588 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5589 explicitly:
  5590 
  5591   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5592     obtains "~ thesis"
  5593 
  5594   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5595     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5596 
  5597 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5598 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5599 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5600 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5601 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5602 case_names).
  5603 
  5604 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5605 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5606 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5607 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5608 
  5609 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5610 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5611 top-level lemma.
  5612 
  5613 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5614 introduction rule (default "that").
  5615 
  5616 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5617 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5618 to occur.
  5619 
  5620 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5621 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5622 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5623 representations independently of name spaces.
  5624 
  5625 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5626 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5627 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5628 
  5629 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5630 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5631 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5632 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5633 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5634 current context.
  5635 
  5636 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5637 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5638 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5639 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5640 
  5641   axiomatization
  5642     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5643     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5644 
  5645   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5646   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5647 
  5648   abbreviation
  5649     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5650     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5651 
  5652 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5653 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5654 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5655 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5656 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5657 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5658 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5659 
  5660 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5661 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5662 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5663 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5664 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5665 
  5666 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5667 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5668 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5669 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5670 
  5671 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5672 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5673 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5674 
  5675   definition "K x _ = x"
  5676 
  5677   inductive conj for A B
  5678   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5679 
  5680 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5681 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5682 abbreviations on output.
  5683 
  5684 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5685 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5686 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5687 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5688 
  5689 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5690 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5691 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5692 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5693 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5694 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5695 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5696 
  5697 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5698 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5699 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5700 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5701 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5702 
  5703 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5704 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5705 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5706 
  5707 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5708 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5709 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5710 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5711 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5712 
  5713   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5714     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5715 
  5716 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5717 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5718 partial_order.
  5719 
  5720 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5721 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5722 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5723 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5724 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5725 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5726 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5727 examples.
  5728 
  5729 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5730 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5731 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5732 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5733 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5734 
  5735 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5736 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5737 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5738 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5739 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5740 
  5741   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5742   (induct set: foo bar)
  5743   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5744   (induct type: foo bar)
  5745 
  5746 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5747 new format.
  5748 
  5749 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5750 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5751 
  5752 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5753 considered a legacy feature.
  5754 
  5755 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5756 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5757 
  5758 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5759 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5760 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5761 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5762   
  5763 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5764 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5765 manipulating the claset.
  5766 
  5767 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5768 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5769 least one premise.
  5770 
  5771 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5772 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5773 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5774 rule steps.
  5775 
  5776 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5777 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5778 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5779 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5780 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5781 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5782 
  5783 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5784 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5785 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5786 
  5787 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5788 the graph browser tool.
  5789 
  5790 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5791 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5792 
  5793 
  5794 *** HOL ***
  5795 
  5796 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5797 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5798 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5799 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5800 multi-threading.
  5801   
  5802 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5803 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5804 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5805 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5806 work with multi-threading.
  5807 
  5808 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5809 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5810 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5811 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5812 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5813 
  5814 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5815 
  5816 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5817 equality.
  5818 
  5819 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5820 the new 'class' package:
  5821 
  5822     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5823     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5824     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5825     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5826     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5827     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5828     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5829     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5830     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5831     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5832     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5833     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5834     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5835     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5836     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5837     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5838     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5839     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5840     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5841     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5842 
  5843 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5844 
  5845 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5846 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5847 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5848 names.
  5849 
  5850 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5851 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5852 
  5853 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5854 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5855 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5856 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5857 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5858 
  5859 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5860 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5861 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5862 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5863 
  5864 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5865 
  5866 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5867 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5868 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5869 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871 
  5872 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5873 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5876 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5877 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5878 
  5879 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5880 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5881 
  5882 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5883 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5884 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5885 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5886 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5887 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5888 in the current context.
  5889 
  5890 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5891 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5893 
  5894 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5895 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5896 
  5897 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5898 
  5899     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5900     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5901 
  5902     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5903       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5904     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5905     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5906 
  5907     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5908     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5909 
  5910   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5911 
  5912     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5913     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5914     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5915     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5916     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5917     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5918     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5919     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5920     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5921     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5922     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5923     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5924     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5925     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5926     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5927     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5928     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5929     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5930     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5931     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5932     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5933     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5934     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5935     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5936     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5937     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5938     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5939     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5940     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5941     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5942     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5943     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5944     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5945     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5946     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5947 
  5948     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5949     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5950     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5951     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5952     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5953     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5954     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5955     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5956     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5957     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5958     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5959     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5960     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5961     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5962     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5963     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5964     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5965 
  5966     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5967     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5968     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5969     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5970     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5971     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5972     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5973     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5974     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5975     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5976     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5977     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5978     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5979     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5980     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5981     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5982     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5983     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5984     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5985     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5986     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5987     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5988     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5989     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5990     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5991     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5992     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5993     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5994 
  5995     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5996     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5997     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5998     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5999     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  6000     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  6001 
  6002     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  6003     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  6004     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  6005     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  6006 
  6007     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  6008     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  6009 
  6010     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  6011     join_max                ~> sup_max
  6012 
  6013 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  6014 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  6015 
  6016 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  6017 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  6018 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  6019 "*.size".
  6020 
  6021 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  6022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  6025 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  6026 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6027 
  6028 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  6031 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  6032 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  6033 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  6034 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  6035 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  6036 numerals on all operations.
  6037 
  6038 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  6039 
  6040 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  6041 
  6042 * Code generator library theories:
  6043   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  6044     languages.
  6045   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  6046     languages.
  6047   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  6048     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  6049   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  6050   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6051     denominator).
  6052   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6053     representable by rational numbers.
  6054   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6055     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6056     includes Code_Integer.
  6057   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6058     target-language built-in integers.
  6059   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6060     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6061 
  6062 * New package for inductive predicates
  6063 
  6064   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6065 
  6066     inductive
  6067       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6068       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6069     where
  6070       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6071     | ...
  6072 
  6073   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6074 
  6075     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6076 
  6077     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6078     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6079 
  6080     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6081     intros
  6082       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6083       ...
  6084 
  6085   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6086   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6087 
  6088     inductive_set
  6089       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6090       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6091     where
  6092       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6093     | ...
  6094 
  6095   or
  6096 
  6097     inductive_set
  6098       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6099       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6100       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6101     where
  6102       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6103     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6104     | ...
  6105 
  6106   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6107 
  6108   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6109   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6110 
  6111   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6112 
  6113   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6114     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6115     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6116     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6117     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6118 
  6119   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6120     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6121     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6122     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6123     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6124     statements of the form
  6125 
  6126       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6127 
  6128     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6129     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6130 
  6131       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6132 
  6133   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6134 
  6135       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6136         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6137         ==> ... ==> P
  6138 
  6139     for predicates and
  6140 
  6141       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6142         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6143         ==> ... ==> P
  6144 
  6145     for sets rather than
  6146 
  6147       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6148         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6149         ==> ... ==> P
  6150 
  6151     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6152     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6153     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6154 
  6155   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6156     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6157     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6158 
  6159 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6160 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6161 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6162 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6163 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6164 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6165 
  6166 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6167 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6168 
  6169 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6170 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6171 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6172 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6173 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6174 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6175 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6176 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6177 variable.
  6178 
  6179 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6180 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6181 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6182 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6183   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6184   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6185 
  6186 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6187 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6188 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6189 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6190 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6191 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6192 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6193 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6194 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6195 
  6196 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6197 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6198 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6199 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6200 rat, etc.
  6201 
  6202 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6203 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6204 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6205 
  6206 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6207 
  6208 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6209 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6210 
  6211 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6212 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6213 
  6214 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6215 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6216 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6217 
  6218 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6219 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6221 
  6222 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6223 
  6224 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6225 
  6226 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6227 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6228 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6229 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6230 
  6231 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6232 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6233 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6234 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6237 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6238 algebraic operations.
  6239 
  6240 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6242 
  6243 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6245 
  6246 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6247 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6248 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally