NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Mar 01 21:29:59 2019 +0100 (4 months ago ago)
changeset 70035 cc0b3e177b49
parent 70010 3bfa28b3a5b2
child 70042 62e47f06d22c
permissions -rw-r--r--
system option "system_heaps" supersedes various command-line options for "system build mode";
clarified "isabelle jedit" options -n, -s, -u;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    45 
    46 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    47 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    48 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    49 
    50 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    51 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    52 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    53 ongoing document processing.
    54 
    55 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    56 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    57 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    58 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    59 
    60 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    61 overview column.
    62 
    63 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    64 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    65 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    66 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    67 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    68 defaults to 0.
    69 
    70 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    71 OpenJDK 11.
    72 
    73 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    74 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    75 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    76 Isabelle component).
    77 
    78 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    79 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    80 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    81 separated from option "-s".
    82 
    83 
    84 *** Isar ***
    85 
    86 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    87 precedence over goal/proof.
    88 
    89 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    90 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    91 
    92 
    93 *** HOL ***
    94 
    95 * Formal Laurent series and overhaul of Formal power series 
    96 in session HOL-Computational_Algebra.
    97 
    98 * Exponentiation by squaring in session HOL-Library; used for computing
    99 powers in class monoid_mult and modular exponentiation in session
   100 HOL-Number_Theory.
   101 
   102 * More material on residue rings in session HOL-Number_Theory:
   103 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   104 
   105 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter>
   106 (not the corresponding binding operators) now have the same precedence
   107 as any other prefix function symbol.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * Slightly more conventional naming schema in structure Inductive.
   110 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   113 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators Named_Target.theory_map[_result]
   114 to lift specifications to the global theory level.
   115 
   116 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
   117 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
   118 command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build -e" (with
   119 'export_files' in the session ROOT), or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via
   120 the "isabelle-export:" file-system. To get generated code dumped into
   121 output, use "file \<open>\<close>". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   124 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   127 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for
   131 'code_stmts' antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132 
   133 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   134 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*,
   135 are not used by default any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using
   136 declare image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   137 
   138 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   139 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   140 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   141 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   142 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   145 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   146 
   147 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
   148 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   149 
   150 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
   151 
   152 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
   153 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   157 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   158 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * Sledgehammer:
   161   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has
   162     been updated.
   163   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   164     less time (in most cases).
   165 
   166 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   167 
   168 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   169 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   170 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   171 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   172 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   176 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   177 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   178 
   179   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   180 
   181 
   182 *** ML ***
   183 
   184 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   185 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   186 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead,
   187 or the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   190 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   191 
   192 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   193 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   194 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   195 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   196 ">" as separator. For example:
   197 
   198   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   199   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   200 
   201   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   202   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   203 
   204   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   205   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   206 
   207 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   208 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   209 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   210 observes the official standard).
   211 
   212 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   213 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   214 
   215 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   216 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   217 useful.
   218 
   219 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   220 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   221 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   222 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   223 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   224 
   225   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   226   module Isabelle.Pure where
   227     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   228     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   229     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   230     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   231   \<close>
   232 
   233 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   234 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   235 external compiler is applied.
   236 
   237 
   238 *** System ***
   239 
   240 * The system option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   241 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   242 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   243 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   244 
   245 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   246 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   247 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   248 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   249 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   250 dump".
   251 
   252 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   253 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   254 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   255 
   256 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   257 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   258 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   259 component).
   260 
   261 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   262 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   263 Isabelle/PIDE.
   264 
   265 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   266 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   267 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   268 
   269 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   270 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   271 is no longer required.
   272 
   273 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   274 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   275 
   276   isabelle ghc_setup
   277   isabelle ghc_stack
   278 
   279   isabelle ocaml_setup
   280   isabelle ocaml_opam
   281 
   282 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   283 (and corresponding directory contents):
   284 
   285   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   286   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   287   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   288 
   289   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   290   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   291 
   292 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   293 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   294 
   295   ISABELLE_GHC
   296 
   297   ISABELLE_OCAML
   298   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   299 
   300 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   301 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   302 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   303 
   304 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   305 
   306 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   307 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   308 
   309 * Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without the full
   310 overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32 mode
   311 provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are allocated
   312 elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   313 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   314 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   315 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   316 are gradually phased out.
   317 
   318 
   319 
   320 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   321 ---------------------------------
   322 
   323 *** General ***
   324 
   325 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   326 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   327 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   328 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   329 
   330 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   331 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   332 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   333 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   334 
   335 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   336 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   337 
   338 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   339 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   340 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   341 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   342 avoid this.
   343 
   344 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   345 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   346 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   347 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   348 
   349 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   350 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   351 instead.
   352 
   353 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   354 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   355 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   356 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   357 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   358 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   359 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   360 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   361 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   362 syntax), use option "-m".
   363 
   364 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366 
   367 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   368 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   369 without specific Prover IDE management.
   370 
   371 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   372 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   373 context.
   374 
   375 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   376 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   377 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   378 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   379 
   380   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   381 
   382 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   383 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   384 
   385 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   386 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   387 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   388 output.
   389 
   390 
   391 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   392 
   393 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   394 for session management:
   395 
   396   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   397     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   398 
   399   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   400     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   401 
   402   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   403     and -S
   404 
   405   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   406     theories
   407 
   408   Examples:
   409     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   410     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   411     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   412     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   413     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   414 
   415 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   416 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   417 
   418 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   419 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   420 
   421 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   422 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   423 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   424 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   425 arguments into this format.
   426 
   427 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   428 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   429 
   430 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   431 functions (e.g. State output).
   432 
   433 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   434 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   435 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   436 
   437 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   438 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   439 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   442 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   443 
   444 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   445 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   446 Isabelle".
   447 
   448 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   449 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   450 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   451 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   452 Unicode content when saving the file.
   453 
   454 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   455 
   456 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   457 
   458 
   459 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   460 
   461 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   462 Isabelle/jEdit.
   463 
   464 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   465 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   466 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   467 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   468 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   469 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 
   472 *** Document preparation ***
   473 
   474 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   475 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   476 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   477 are supported:
   478 
   479   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   480   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   481   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   482 
   483 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   484 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   485 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   486 
   487 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   488 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   489 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   490 
   491 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   492 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   493 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   494 
   495 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   496 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   497 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   498 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   499 
   500 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   501 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   502 
   503 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   504 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   505 normally need to import.
   506 
   507 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   508 session name verbatim.
   509 
   510 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   511 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   512 
   513 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   514 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   515 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   516 
   517 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   518 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   519 anymore.
   520 
   521 
   522 *** Isar ***
   523 
   524 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   525 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   526 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   527 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   528 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   529 
   530 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   531 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   532 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   533 
   534 
   535 *** Pure ***
   536 
   537 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   538 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   539 
   540 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   541 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   542 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   543 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   544 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   545 
   546 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   547 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   548 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   549 duplicate constant declarations.
   550 
   551 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   552 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   553 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   554 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   555 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   556 
   557 
   558 *** HOL ***
   559 
   560 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   561 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   562 
   563 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   564 
   565   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   566 
   567   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   568     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   569     constraints instead.
   570 
   571   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   572 
   573   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   574     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   575     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   576     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   577 
   578   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   579     standard target languages.
   580 
   581   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   582     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   583     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   584     HOL string values and vice versa.
   585 
   586   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   587     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   588 
   589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   590 
   591 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   592 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   593 
   594 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   595 
   596 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   597 former axioms:
   598 
   599   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   600 
   601 are replaced by:
   602 
   603   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   604 
   605 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   606 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   607 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   608 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   609 
   610 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   611 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   612 
   613 * Clarifed theorem names:
   614 
   615   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   616   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   617 
   618 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * SMT module:
   621 
   622   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   623     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   626     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   627     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   630 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   631 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   632 
   633 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   640 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   644 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   645 Renamed:
   646 
   647   span_inc ~> span_superset
   648   span_superset ~> span_base
   649   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   650 
   651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   654 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   657 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   658 
   659 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   660 
   661   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   662     input syntax
   663 
   664   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   665 
   666 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   667 
   668 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   671 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   675   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   676   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   677   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   678 
   679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   680 
   681 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   682 
   683   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   684   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   685   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   686   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   687   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   688 
   689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   692 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   693 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   694 broken proofs.
   695 
   696 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   697 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   698 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   699 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   700 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   701 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   702 
   703 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   704 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   705 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   706 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   707 examples.
   708 
   709 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   710 
   711 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   712 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   715 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   716 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   720 infix/prefix notation.
   721 
   722 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   723 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   725 
   726 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   727 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   729 
   730 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   731 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   733 
   734 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   735 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   736 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   737 
   738 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   739 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   740 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   741 
   742 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   743 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   744 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   745 
   746 
   747 *** ML ***
   748 
   749 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   750 are stored persistently in the session build database. Command-line
   751 tools "isabelle export" and "isabelle build -e" allow to materialize
   752 exports in the physical file-system.
   753 
   754 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   755 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   756 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   757 "isabelle process".
   758 
   759 
   760 *** System ***
   761 
   762 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   763 longer supported.
   764 
   765 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   766 support has been discontinued.
   767 
   768 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   769 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   770 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   773 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   774 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   775 quotes):
   776 
   777   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   778   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   779 
   780   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   781   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   782 
   783   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   784   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   785 
   786 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   787   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   788   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   789   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   790 
   791 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   792 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   793 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   794 only.
   795 
   796 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   797 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   798 up-to-date status of a session.
   799 
   800 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   801 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   802 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   803 directory.
   804 
   805 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   806 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   807 
   808 * The command-line tool "export" and "isabelle build -e" (with
   809 'export_files' in session ROOT entries) retrieve theory exports from the
   810 session build database.
   811 
   812 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   813 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   814 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   815 See also the "system" manual.
   816 
   817 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   818 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   819 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   820 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   821 been discontinued.
   822 
   823 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   824 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   825 
   826 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   827 repository for the generated session files.
   828 
   829 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   830 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   831 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   832 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   833 ISABELLE_HOME).
   834 
   835 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   836 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   837 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   838 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   839 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   840 
   841 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   842 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   843 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   844 
   845 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   846 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   847 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   848 32/64 bit.
   849 
   850 
   851 
   852 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   853 ----------------------------------
   854 
   855 *** General ***
   856 
   857 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   858 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   859 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   860 
   861 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   862 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   863 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   864 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   865 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   866 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   867 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   868 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   869 
   870 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   871 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   872 just the theory base name as before).
   873 
   874 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   875 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   876 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   877 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   878 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   879 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   880 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   881 
   882 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   883 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   884 leads to the follow renamings:
   885 
   886   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   887   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   888   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   889   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   890   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   891 
   892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   895 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   896 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   897 
   898 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   899 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   900 
   901 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   902 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   903 antiquotations:
   904 
   905   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   906     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   907   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   908     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   909   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   910 
   911 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   912 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   913 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   914 tutorial on code generation.
   915 
   916 
   917 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   918 
   919 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   920 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   921 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   922 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   923 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   924 
   925 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   926 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   927 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   928 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   929 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   930 effectively always enabled.
   931 
   932 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   933 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   934 buffers.
   935 
   936 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   937 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   938 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   939 represented by a different border color.
   940 
   941 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   942 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   943 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   944 
   945 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   946 document in the default web browser.
   947 
   948 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   949 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   950 used for formal checking.
   951 
   952 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   953 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   954 enabled at all times.
   955 
   956 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   957 
   958 
   959 *** Pure ***
   960 
   961 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   962 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   963 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   964 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   967   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   968     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   969   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   970     malformed.
   971   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   972     malformed.
   973 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   974 
   975 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   976 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   977 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 
   980 *** HOL ***
   981 
   982 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   983 
   984 * SMT module:
   985   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   986     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   987     disabled by default.
   988   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   989   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   990 
   991 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   992 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   993 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   995 
   996 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   997 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   998 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1000 
  1001 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1002 of "Complex_Main").
  1003 
  1004 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1005 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1006 
  1007 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1011 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1014 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1017 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1018 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1019 
  1020 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1021 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022 
  1023 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1024 
  1025 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1026 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1029 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1030 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1031 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1032 
  1033 * Generalized some facts:
  1034     measure_induct_rule
  1035     measure_induct
  1036     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1037     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1038     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1039     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1041 
  1042 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1043 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1044 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1045 euclidean size.
  1046 
  1047 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1048   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1049   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1050     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1051     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1052   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1053     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1057 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1058 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1059 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1062   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1063   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1064 
  1065 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1066 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1069 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1070 
  1071 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1072 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1073 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1079 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1080 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1081 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1082 
  1083 syntax (ASCII)
  1084   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1085   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1086   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1087 
  1088 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1089 multisets have been renamed:
  1090 
  1091   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1092   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1093 
  1094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1097 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1100 
  1101 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1102 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1103 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1104 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1105 
  1106 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1107 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1108 
  1109 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1110 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1111 
  1112 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1113 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1114 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1115 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 
  1119 *** System ***
  1120 
  1121 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1122 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1123 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1124 
  1125 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1126 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1127 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1128 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1129 
  1130 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1131 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1132 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1133 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1134 
  1135 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1136 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1137 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1138 unchanged.
  1139 
  1140 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1141 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1144 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1145 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1146 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1147 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1148 
  1149 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1150 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1151 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1152 
  1153 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1154 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1155 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1156 
  1157 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1158 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1159 
  1160   isabelle imports -I -a
  1161   isabelle imports -U -a
  1162   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1163   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1164 
  1165 
  1166 
  1167 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1168 -------------------------------------
  1169 
  1170 *** General ***
  1171 
  1172 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1173   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1174     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1175   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1176     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1177     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1178     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1179     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1180 
  1181 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1182 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1183 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1184 
  1185 bundle foo
  1186 begin
  1187   declare a [simp]
  1188   declare b [intro]
  1189 end
  1190 
  1191 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1192 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1193 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1194 
  1195 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1196 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1197 discontinued.
  1198 
  1199 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1200 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1201 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1202 
  1203 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1204 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1205 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1206 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1207 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1210 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1211 
  1212 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1213 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1214 
  1215 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1216 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1217 examples.
  1218 
  1219 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1220 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1221 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1222 
  1223 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1224 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1225 
  1226 
  1227 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1228 
  1229 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1230 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1231 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1232 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1233 
  1234 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1235 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1236 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1237 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1238 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1239 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1240 
  1241 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1242 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1243 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1244 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1245 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1246 
  1247 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1248 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1249 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1250 
  1251 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1252 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1253 
  1254 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1255 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1256 
  1257 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1258 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1259 
  1260 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1261 
  1262 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1263 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1264 systematic renaming.
  1265 
  1266 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1267 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1268 theorem statement.
  1269 
  1270 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1271 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1272 
  1273 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1274 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1275 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1276 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1277 
  1278 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1279 following independent stages:
  1280 
  1281   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1282   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1283   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1284   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1285 
  1286 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1287 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1288 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1289 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1290 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1291 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1292 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1293 
  1294 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1295 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1296 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1297 
  1298 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1299 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1300 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1301 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1302 
  1303 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1304 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1305 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1306 
  1307 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1308 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1309 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1310 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1311 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1312 old keymaps.
  1313 
  1314 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1315 and diverse:
  1316 
  1317   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1318   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1319   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1320 
  1321 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1322 have to be changed.
  1323 
  1324 
  1325 *** Document preparation ***
  1326 
  1327 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1328 
  1329 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1330 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1331 
  1332 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1333 this allows special forms of document output.
  1334 
  1335 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1336 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1337 derivatives.
  1338 
  1339 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1340 
  1341 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1342 Isabelle2015).
  1343 
  1344 
  1345 *** Isar ***
  1346 
  1347 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1348 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1349 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1350 
  1351 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1352 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1353 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1354 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1355 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1358 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1359 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1360 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1361 
  1362 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1363 context.
  1364 
  1365 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1366 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1367 
  1368 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1369 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1370 
  1371 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1372 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1373 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1374 
  1375 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1376 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1380 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1381 definitions.
  1382 
  1383 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1384 expression, e.g.
  1385 
  1386   (use facts in simp)
  1387   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1388 
  1389 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1390 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1391 
  1392 
  1393 *** Pure ***
  1394 
  1395 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1396 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1397 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1398 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1399 
  1400 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1401 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1402 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1403 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1404 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1405 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1406 
  1407 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1408 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1409 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1410 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1411 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1412 types where this is really intended.
  1413 
  1414 
  1415 *** HOL ***
  1416 
  1417 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1418 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1419 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1420 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1421 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1422 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1423 
  1424 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1425 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1426 
  1427 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1428 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * Sledgehammer:
  1431   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1432   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1433 
  1434 * (Co)datatype package:
  1435   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1436     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1437     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1438     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1439   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1440     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1441   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1442     to the map function.
  1443   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1444   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1445        terms of map and set
  1446        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1447   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1448        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1449     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1450   - Renamed lemmas:
  1451       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1452       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1453     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1455   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1456     equivalent) form.
  1457     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1460 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1461 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1462 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1465 
  1466   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1467   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1468 
  1469 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1470 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1471 eliminated altogether.
  1472 
  1473 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1474 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1475 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1476 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1477 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1478 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1480 
  1481 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1485 
  1486     setsum ~> sum
  1487     setprod ~> prod
  1488     listsum ~> sum_list
  1489     listprod ~> prod_list
  1490 
  1491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1494     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1495     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1496     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1497     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1498     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1499     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1500     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1501     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1502     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1503     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1504     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1505     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1506     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1507     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1508     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1509     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1510     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1511     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1512     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1513     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1514     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1515     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1516     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1517     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1518     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1519     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1520     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1521     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1522     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1526 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1527 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1530 
  1531 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1532 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1533 
  1534   - Logical representation:
  1535     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1536     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1537       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1538     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1539       are non-canonical.
  1540   - Printing and parsing:
  1541     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1542       (as before).
  1543     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1544     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1545       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1546       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1547     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1548       printed as their logical representation.
  1549   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1550     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1551   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1552 
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1556 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1557 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1558 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1559 
  1560 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1561 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1562 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1563 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1564 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1565 
  1566 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1567 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1570 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1571 
  1572 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1573 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1574 interface for the generated code.
  1575 
  1576 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1577 spelt out explicitly.
  1578 
  1579 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1580 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1581 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1582 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1583 
  1584 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1585 products.
  1586 
  1587 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1588 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1589 
  1590 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1591 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1592 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1593 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1594 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1595 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1596 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1600 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1601 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1607   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1608   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1609 
  1610 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1611   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1612     le_add_same_cancel1
  1613     le_add_same_cancel2
  1614     less_add_same_cancel1
  1615     less_add_same_cancel2
  1616     add_le_same_cancel1
  1617     add_le_same_cancel2
  1618     add_less_same_cancel1
  1619     add_less_same_cancel2
  1620 
  1621 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1622   superseeded by a more general version:
  1623     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1624     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1625     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1626     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1627     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1628     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1629     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1630     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1634 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1637 
  1638 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1639 
  1640   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1641   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1642 
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1647 
  1648 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1649 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1650 A)".
  1651 
  1652 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1655 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1656 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1657 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1658 
  1659 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1660 dioid.
  1661 
  1662 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1663 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1664 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1665 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1668 of a more general type also:
  1669   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1670   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1671   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1672   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1673   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1674   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1675   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1676   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1677   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1678   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1679   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1680   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1681   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1682   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1683   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1684   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1685   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1686   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1687   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1688   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1689   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1690   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1691   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1692   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1693   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1694   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1695   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1696   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1697   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1698   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1699   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1700   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1701   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1702   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1703   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1704   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1705   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1706   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1707   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1708   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1709   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1710   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1711   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1712   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1713   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1714   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1715   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1716   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1717   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1718   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1719   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1720   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1721   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1722   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1723   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1724   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1725   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1726   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1727   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1728   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1729   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1730   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1731   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1732   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1733   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1734   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1735   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1736   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1737   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1738   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1739   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1740   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1741   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1742   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1743   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1744   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1745   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1746   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1747   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1748   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1749   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1750   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1751   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1752   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1753   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1754   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1755   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1756   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1760 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1763 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1764 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1765 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1766 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1767 
  1768 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1769 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1770 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1771 once.
  1772 
  1773 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1774 set_mset rather than count.
  1775 
  1776   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1777     by default.
  1778 
  1779   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1780     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1781 
  1782   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1783     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1784 
  1785   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1786     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1787 
  1788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1789 
  1790 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1791 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1792 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1793 underscores.
  1794 
  1795 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1796 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1797 relation.
  1798 
  1799 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1800 everywhere fix bijections.
  1801 
  1802 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1803 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1804 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1805 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1806 
  1807 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1808 
  1809 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1810 
  1811 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1812 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1813 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1814 
  1815 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1816 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1817 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1818 
  1819 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1820 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1821 
  1822 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1823 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1824 domain.
  1825 
  1826 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1827 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1830   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1831 
  1832 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1833 Probability Mass Functions.
  1834 
  1835 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1836 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1837 folding over a list in random order.
  1838 
  1839 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1840 subprobability distributions.
  1841 
  1842 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1843 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1844 
  1845     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1846     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1847     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1848     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1849     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1850     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1851     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1852     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1853     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1854     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1855     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1856     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1857     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1858     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1859     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1860     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1861     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1862     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1863     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1864     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1865     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1866     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1867 
  1868 Some functions have been renamed:
  1869     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1870 
  1871 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1872     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1873     #\<subset># ~> <
  1874     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1875     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1879 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1880 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1881 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1882 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1883 
  1884 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1885 been renamed:
  1886 
  1887     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1888     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1889     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1890     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1891     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1892     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1893     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1894     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1895     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1896 
  1897     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1898     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1899     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1900     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1901     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1902     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1903     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1904     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1905     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1906     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1907     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1915 
  1916     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1917     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1918     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1919     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1920     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1921     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1922     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1923     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1924     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1925     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1926     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1927     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1928     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1929     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1930     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1931     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1932     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1933 
  1934 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1935 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1936 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1937 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1938 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1939 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1942 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1946 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1947 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1948 
  1949 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1950 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1951 removed or changed:
  1952 
  1953   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1954   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1955   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1956   union_single_eq_diff
  1957   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1958   diff_single_eq_union
  1959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1960 
  1961 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1962 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1963 
  1964   mset_add
  1965   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1966   diff_single_eq_union
  1967   union_single_eq_diff
  1968   union_single_eq_member
  1969   add_eq_conv_diff
  1970   insert_noteq_member
  1971   add_eq_conv_ex
  1972   multi_member_split
  1973   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1974   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1975   mset_subset_insertD
  1976   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1977   insert_union_subset_iff
  1978   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1979   inter_add_left1
  1980   inter_add_left2
  1981   inter_add_right1
  1982   inter_add_right2
  1983   sup_union_left1
  1984   sup_union_left2
  1985   sup_union_right1
  1986   sup_union_right2
  1987   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1988   multi_nonempty_split
  1989   mset_insort
  1990   mset_update
  1991   mult1I
  1992   less_add
  1993   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1994   rel_mset_Zero
  1995   msed_map_invL
  1996   msed_map_invR
  1997   msed_rel_invL
  1998   msed_rel_invR
  1999   le_multiset_right_total
  2000   multiset_induct
  2001   multiset_induct2_size
  2002   multiset_induct2
  2003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2006 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2007 element:
  2008 
  2009   image_mset
  2010   mset
  2011   replicate_mset
  2012   mult1
  2013   pred_mset
  2014   rel_mset'
  2015   mset_insort
  2016 
  2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2020 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2021 
  2022   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2023   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2024   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2025   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2026   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2027   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2028   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2029   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2030   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2031   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2032   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2033   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2034   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2035   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2036   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2037   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2038   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2039   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2040   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2044 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2045 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2049 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2050 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2051 
  2052 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2053 multisets:
  2054 
  2055   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2056   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2057 
  2058 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2059 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2060 
  2061   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2062   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2063 
  2064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2067 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2068 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2071 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2072 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2073 
  2074 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2075 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2076 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2077 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2078 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2079 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2082 the following renaming
  2083 
  2084   prefixeq -> prefix
  2085   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2086   suffixeq -> suffix
  2087   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2088 
  2089 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2090 
  2091 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2092 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2093 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2094 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2095 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2096 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2097 
  2098 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2099 theories.
  2100 
  2101 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2102 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2103 
  2104 
  2105 *** ML ***
  2106 
  2107 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2108 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2109 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2110 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2112 
  2113 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2114 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2115 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2116 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2117 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2118 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2119 superseded by General.Div.
  2120 
  2121 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2122 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2125 with approximative output quality.
  2126 
  2127 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2128 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2129 
  2130 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2131 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2132 requiring separate files.
  2133 
  2134 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2135 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2136 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2137 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2138 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2139 
  2140 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2141 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2142 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2143 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2144 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2145 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2146 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2147 
  2148 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2149 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2153 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2154 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2155 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2156 
  2157 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2158 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 
  2161 *** System ***
  2162 
  2163 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2164 
  2165 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2166 much less disk space.
  2167 
  2168 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2169 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2170 particular:
  2171 
  2172   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2173     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2174   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2175   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2176 
  2177 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2178 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2179 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2182 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2183 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2184 return code 1.
  2185 
  2186 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2187 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2188 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2189 
  2190 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2191 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2192 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2193 
  2194 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2195 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2196 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2197 by default).
  2198 
  2199 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2200 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2201 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2202 resulting log files.
  2203 
  2204 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2205 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2206 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2207 implicit default via option -p.
  2208 
  2209 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2210 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2211 
  2212 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2213 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2214 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2215 
  2216 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2217 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2218 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2219 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2220 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2223 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2224 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2225 
  2226 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2227 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2228 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2229 
  2230 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2231 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2232 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2233 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2234 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2235 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2236 been discontinued.
  2237 
  2238 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2239 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2240 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2241 
  2242 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2243 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2244 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2245 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2246 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2247 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2248 
  2249 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2250 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2251 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2252 connection).
  2253 
  2254 
  2255 
  2256 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2257 -----------------------------------
  2258 
  2259 *** General ***
  2260 
  2261 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2262 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2263 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2264 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2265 examples that do require HOL.
  2266 
  2267 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2268 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2269 
  2270 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2271 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2272 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2273 has been removed (see below).
  2274 
  2275 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2276 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2277 
  2278 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2279 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2280 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2281 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2282 
  2283 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2284 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2285 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2286 meaning.
  2287 
  2288 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2289 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2290 to update old sources.
  2291 
  2292 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2293 
  2294   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2295   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2296   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2297   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2298 
  2299 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2300 accordingly.
  2301 
  2302 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2303 'theorem'.
  2304 
  2305 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2306 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2307 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2308 
  2309 
  2310 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2311 
  2312 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2313 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2314 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2315 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2316 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2317 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2318 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2319 any effect on the running ML program.
  2320 
  2321 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2322 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2323 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2324 update.
  2325 
  2326 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2327 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2328 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2329 
  2330 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2331 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2332 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2333 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2334 visibility.
  2335 
  2336 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2337 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2338 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2339 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2340 panel.
  2341 
  2342 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2343 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2344 
  2345 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2346 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2347 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2348 
  2349 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2350 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2351 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2352 
  2353 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2354 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2355 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2356 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2357 
  2358 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2359 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2360 the editor.
  2361 
  2362 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2363 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2364 
  2365 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2366 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2367 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2368 instead.
  2369 
  2370 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2371 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2372 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2373 
  2374 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2375 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2376 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2377 
  2378 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2379 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2380 
  2381 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2382 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2383 
  2384 
  2385 *** Document preparation ***
  2386 
  2387 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2388 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2389 
  2390 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2391 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2392 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2393 
  2394 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2395 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2396 follows:
  2397 
  2398   \<^item>  itemize
  2399   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2400   \<^descr>  description
  2401 
  2402 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2403 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2404 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2405 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2406 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2407 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2408 
  2409 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2410 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2411 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2412 
  2413 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2414 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2415 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2416 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2417 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2418 
  2419 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2420 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2421 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2422 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2423 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2424 
  2425 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2426 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2427 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2428 
  2429 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2430 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2431 
  2432 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2433 
  2434 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2435 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2436 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2437 
  2438 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2439 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2440 
  2441 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2442 entities of the Isar language.
  2443 
  2444 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2445 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2446 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2447 
  2448 
  2449 *** Isar ***
  2450 
  2451 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2452 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2453 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2454 example:
  2455 
  2456   have result: "C x y"
  2457     if "A x" and "B y"
  2458     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2459     <proof>
  2460 
  2461 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2462 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2463 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2464 
  2465   {
  2466     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2467     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2468     have "C x y" <proof>
  2469   }
  2470   note result = this
  2471 
  2472 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2473 instead of 'assume' above.
  2474 
  2475 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2476 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2477 
  2478   assume result: "C x y"
  2479     if "A x" and "B y"
  2480     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2481 
  2482 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2483 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2484 
  2485 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2486 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2487 example:
  2488 
  2489   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2490 
  2491 is equivalent to:
  2492 
  2493   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2494 
  2495 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2496 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2497 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2498 follows:
  2499 
  2500   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2501 
  2502 or:
  2503 
  2504   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2505 
  2506 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2507 
  2508   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2509 
  2510 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2511 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2512 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2513 of the local context elements yet.
  2514 
  2515 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2516 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2517 
  2518   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2519   then have something
  2520   proof cases
  2521     case a
  2522     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2523   next
  2524     case b
  2525     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2526   next
  2527     case c
  2528     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2529   qed
  2530 
  2531 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2532 
  2533   case a: (c xs)
  2534   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2535 
  2536 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2537 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2538 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2539 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2540 and always put attributes in front.
  2541 
  2542 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2543 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2544 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2545 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2546 
  2547 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2548 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2549 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2550 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2551 
  2552   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2553     supply [simp] = a
  2554   proof
  2555     show A by simp
  2556   next
  2557     show A by simp
  2558   qed
  2559 
  2560 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2561 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2562 
  2563 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2564 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2565 
  2566 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2567 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2568 
  2569 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2570 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2571 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2572 manual.
  2573 
  2574 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2575 ('apply' scripts).
  2576 
  2577 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2578 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2579 example:
  2580 
  2581 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2582   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2583 proof goal_cases
  2584   case (1 x)
  2585   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2586 next
  2587   case (2 y z)
  2588   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2589 qed
  2590 
  2591 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2592   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2593 proof goal_cases
  2594   case prems: 1
  2595   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2596 next
  2597   case prems: 2
  2598   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2599 qed
  2600 
  2601 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2602 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2603 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2604 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2605 
  2606 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2607 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2608 
  2609 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2610 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2611 
  2612 
  2613 *** Pure ***
  2614 
  2615 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2616 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2617 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2618 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2619 
  2620 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2621 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2624 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2625 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2626 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2627 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2628 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2629 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2630 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2631 
  2632   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2633   begin
  2634     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2635   end
  2636 
  2637   locale morphism =
  2638     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2639     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2640   begin
  2641     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2642   end
  2643 
  2644 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2645 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2646 
  2647 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2648 'defines'.
  2649 
  2650 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2651 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2652 
  2653 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2654 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2655 
  2656 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2657 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2660 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2661 exploited.
  2662 
  2663 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2664 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2665 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2666 
  2667 
  2668 *** HOL ***
  2669 
  2670 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2671 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2672 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2673 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2674 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2675 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2678 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2679 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2680 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2681 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2682 
  2683 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2684 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2685 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2686 simplify porting old theories:
  2687 
  2688   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2689 
  2690   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2691 
  2692   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2693   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2694 
  2695   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2696 
  2697   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2698   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2699 
  2700   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2701 
  2702   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2703     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2704 
  2705   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2706   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2707   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2708 
  2709   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2710   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2711   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2712 
  2713 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2714 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2715 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2716 
  2717 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2718 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2719 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2720 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2721 
  2722 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2723 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2724 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2725 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2728 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2729 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2730 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2733 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2734 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2738 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2739 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2740 
  2741 Consolidated facts:
  2742   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2743   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2744   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2745   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2746   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2747   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2748   split_split ~> prod.split
  2749   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2750   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2751   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2752   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2753   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2754   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2755   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2756   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2757   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2758   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2759   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2760   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2761   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2762   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2763   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2764   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2765   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2766   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2767   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2768   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2769   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2770   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2771   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2772   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2773   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2774   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2775   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2776   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2777 
  2778 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2779   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2780   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2781   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2782   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2783 
  2784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2787 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2788 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2789 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2790 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2791 
  2792 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2793   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2794   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2795   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2796   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2797   real_of_one of_int_1
  2798   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2799   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2800   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2801   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2802   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2803   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2804   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2805   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2806   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2807   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2808   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2809   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2810   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2811   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2812   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2813   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2814   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2815 
  2816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2817 
  2818 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2819 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2820 
  2821 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2822 
  2823 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2824 
  2825 * Sledgehammer:
  2826   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2827   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2828     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2829   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2830   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2831   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2832     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2834 
  2835 * Nitpick:
  2836   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2837   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2838   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2839   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2840   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2841 
  2842 * (Co)datatype package:
  2843   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2844     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2845   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2846   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2847     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2849     being defined.
  2850   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2851 
  2852 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2853 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2854 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2855 
  2856 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2857 
  2858 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2859 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2860 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2861 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2862 
  2863 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865 
  2866 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2867 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2868 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2869 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2870 
  2871 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2872 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2873 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2874 
  2875 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2876 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2877 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2878 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2879 
  2880 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2881 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2882 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2883 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2884 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2885 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2886 during instantiation.
  2887 
  2888 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2889 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2890 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2891 
  2892 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2893 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2894 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2895 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2896 
  2897   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2898   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2899 
  2900 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * Library/Multiset:
  2903   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2904       < ~> <#
  2905       > ~> >#
  2906       <= ~> <=#
  2907       >= ~> >=#
  2908       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2909       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2910     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2912       \<subset>#
  2913       \<subseteq>#
  2914       \<supset>#
  2915       \<supseteq>#
  2916   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2917     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2918     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2919     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2920     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2921     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2922     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923   - Renamed conversions:
  2924       multiset_of ~> mset
  2925       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2926       set_of ~> set_mset
  2927     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2928   - Renamed lemmas:
  2929       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2930       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2931       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2932     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2933   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2934     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2935     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2936     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2937 
  2938 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2939 
  2940 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2941 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2942 chain-complete partial orders.
  2943 
  2944 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2945 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2946 
  2947 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2948 periodic functions.
  2949 
  2950 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2951 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2952 GCD.
  2953 
  2954 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2955 
  2956 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2957 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2958 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2959 
  2960 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2961 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2962 
  2963 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2964 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2965 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2966 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2967 
  2968 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2969 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2970 
  2971 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2972 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2973 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2974 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2975 properties.
  2976 
  2977 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2978 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2979 
  2980 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2981 structures.
  2982 
  2983 
  2984 *** ML ***
  2985 
  2986 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2987 system are available:
  2988 
  2989   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2990   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2991   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2992 
  2993 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2994 
  2995 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2996 Isar proof method.
  2997 
  2998 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2999 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3000 breaks.
  3001 
  3002 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3003 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3004 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3007 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3008 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3009 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3010 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3013 
  3014   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3015   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3016 
  3017   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3018   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3019 
  3020 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3021 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3022 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3023 
  3024 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3025 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3026 instead (with proper context).
  3027 
  3028 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3029 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3030 
  3031 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3032 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3033 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3034 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3035 the proof context discipline.
  3036 
  3037 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3038 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3039 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3040 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3041 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 
  3044 *** System ***
  3045 
  3046 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3047 
  3048 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3049 conflations:
  3050 
  3051     hence  ~>  then have
  3052     thus   ~>  then show
  3053 
  3054 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3055 maintainability of proofs.
  3056 
  3057 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3058 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3059 performance.
  3060 
  3061 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3062 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3063 
  3064     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3065 
  3066 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3067 space.
  3068 
  3069 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3070 platforms as follows.
  3071 
  3072   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3073     associated with the main app bundle
  3074 
  3075   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3076     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3077     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3078 
  3079   - isabelle build: settings
  3080     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3081 
  3082 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3083 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3084 
  3085 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3086 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3087 required after change.
  3088 
  3089 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3090 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3091 
  3092 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3093 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3094 
  3095 
  3096 
  3097 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3098 ------------------------------
  3099 
  3100 *** General ***
  3101 
  3102 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3103 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3104 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3105 
  3106   context
  3107   begin
  3108 
  3109   private definition ...
  3110   private lemma ...
  3111 
  3112   qualified definition ...
  3113   qualified lemma ...
  3114 
  3115   lemma ...
  3116   theorem ...
  3117 
  3118   end
  3119 
  3120 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3121 naming policy.
  3122 
  3123 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3124 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3125 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3126 
  3127 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3128 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3129 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3130 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3131 
  3132 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3133 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3134 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3138 theory context.
  3139 
  3140 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3141 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3142 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3143 
  3144 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3145 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3146 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3147 sources.
  3148 
  3149 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3150 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3151 
  3152 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3153 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3154 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3155 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3156 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3157 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3158 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3159 
  3160 
  3161 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3162 
  3163 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3164 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3165 
  3166 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3167 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3168 in the buffer.
  3169 
  3170 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3171 marker, SideKick parser.
  3172 
  3173 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3174 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3175 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3176 
  3177 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3178 Options / Text Area).
  3179 
  3180 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3181 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3182 
  3183 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3184 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3185 
  3186 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3187 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3188 
  3189 
  3190 *** Document preparation ***
  3191 
  3192 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3193 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3194 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3195 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3196 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3197 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3198 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3199 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3200 
  3201 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3202 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3203 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3204 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3205 
  3206 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3207 style.
  3208 
  3209 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3210 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3211 
  3212 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3213 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3214 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3215 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3216 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3217 
  3218 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3219 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3220 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3221 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3222 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3223 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3224 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3227 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3228 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 
  3232 *** Pure ***
  3233 
  3234 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3235 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3236 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3237 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3238 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3239 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3240 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3241 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3242 
  3243 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3244 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3245 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3246 
  3247 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3248 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3249 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3250 different index.
  3251 
  3252 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3253 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3254 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3255 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3256 
  3257 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3258 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3259 token category instead.
  3260 
  3261 
  3262 *** HOL ***
  3263 
  3264 * New (co)datatype package:
  3265   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3266     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3267     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3268     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3269     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270   - Renamed theorems:
  3271       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3272       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3273       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3274       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3275       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3276       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3277       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3278       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3279       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3280       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3281       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3282       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3283       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3284     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3286     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3287     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3289     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3292     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3293     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3294     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3295     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3296     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298   - Renamed theories:
  3299       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3300       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3301       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3302       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3303       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3304       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3307     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3308     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3309     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3310     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3311     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3312     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3313     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3314     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3315   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3316     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3317     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3318     rules.
  3319 
  3320 * Old datatype package:
  3321   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3322     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3323     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3324     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326   - Renamed theorems:
  3327       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3328     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329   - Renamed theory:
  3330       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3331     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333 * Nitpick:
  3334   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3335     operations.
  3336 
  3337 * Sledgehammer:
  3338   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3339     default.
  3340   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3341     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3342   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3343     Removed sub-command:
  3344       min
  3345   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3346     dramatically improved.
  3347   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3348 
  3349 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3350   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3351     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3352     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3353     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3354     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3355     point to it.
  3356     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3358     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3360     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3361   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3362     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3363 
  3364 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3365 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3366 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3367 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3368 
  3369 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3370 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3371 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3374 
  3375 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3376 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3377 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3378 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3379 
  3380 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3381 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3387 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3388 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3391 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3394 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3395 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3396 
  3397 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3398 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3399 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3400 needed.
  3401 
  3402 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3403 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3404 
  3405 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3406 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3407 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3408 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3409 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3410 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3411 
  3412 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3413 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3414 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3415 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3416 
  3417 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3418 type class hierarchy:
  3419   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3420   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3421   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3422   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3423 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3426   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3427   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3428 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3431 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3432 
  3433 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3434   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3435   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3436   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3437 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3440 and part of theory Main.
  3441   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3448 Fact rename:
  3449     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451 
  3452 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3453 
  3454 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3455 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3456 
  3457 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3458 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3459 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3460 
  3461 * Library/Multiset:
  3462   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3463   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3464     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3465   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3466       <# ~> #<#
  3467       <=# ~> #<=#
  3468       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3469       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3470     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3472       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3473       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3474     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475   - Renamed
  3476       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3477       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3478       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3479     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3480   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3481   - Added attributes:
  3482       image_mset.id [simp]
  3483       image_mset_id [simp]
  3484       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3485       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3486       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3487       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3488       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3489       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3490     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3493 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3494 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3495 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3498 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3499 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3500 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3501 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3502 examples.
  3503 
  3504 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3505   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3506   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3507   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3508     projection
  3509 
  3510 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3511 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3512 
  3513 
  3514 *** ML ***
  3515 
  3516 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3517 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3518 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3519 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3520 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3521 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3523 
  3524 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3525 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3526 
  3527 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3528 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3529 
  3530 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3534 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3535 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3536 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3537 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3538 nested.
  3539 
  3540 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3541 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3544 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3545 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3549 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3550 Thm.term_of etc.
  3551 
  3552 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3553 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3554 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3557 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3558 
  3559 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3560 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3561 
  3562 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3563 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3564 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3567 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3568 
  3569 
  3570 *** System ***
  3571 
  3572 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3573 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3574 
  3575 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3576 
  3577 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3578 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3579 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3580 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3584 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3585 
  3586 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3587 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3588 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3589 
  3590 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3591 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3592 
  3593 
  3594 
  3595 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3596 ---------------------------------
  3597 
  3598 *** General ***
  3599 
  3600 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3601 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3602 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3603 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3604 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3605 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3606 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3607 some examples.
  3608 
  3609 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3610 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3611 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3612 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3613 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3614 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3615 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3616 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3617 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3618 
  3619 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3620 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3621 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3622 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3623 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3624 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3625 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3626 proof tools.
  3627 
  3628 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3629 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3630 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3631 
  3632 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3633 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3634 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3635 
  3636 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3637 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3638 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3639 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3642 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3643 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3645 
  3646 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3647 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3648 
  3649 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3650 not check existence within the file-system.
  3651 
  3652 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3653 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3654 
  3655 
  3656 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3657 
  3658 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3659 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3660 buffer.
  3661 
  3662 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3663 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3664 
  3665 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3666 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3667 
  3668 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3669 auxiliary ML files.
  3670 
  3671 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3672 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3673 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3674 
  3675 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3676 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3677 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3678 
  3679 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3680 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3681 
  3682 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3683 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3684 caret".
  3685 
  3686 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3687 completion popup and context-menu.
  3688 
  3689 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3690 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3691 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3692 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3693 
  3694 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3695 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3696 
  3697 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3698 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3699 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3700 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3701 
  3702 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3703 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3704 
  3705 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3706 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3707 
  3708 * Improved monitor panel.
  3709 
  3710 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3711 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3712 
  3713 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3714 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3715 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3716 
  3717 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3718 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3719 within the context.
  3720 
  3721 
  3722 *** Pure ***
  3723 
  3724 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3725 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3726 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3727 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3728 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3729 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3730 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3731 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3732 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3733 
  3734 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3735 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3736 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3737 renaming needs to be applied:
  3738 
  3739   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3740   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3741   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3742   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3743   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3744 
  3745 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3746 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3747 old constants:
  3748 
  3749 setup {*
  3750   fn thy => thy
  3751     |> Sign.root_path
  3752     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3753     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3754     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3755     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3756 *}
  3757 
  3758 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3759 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3760 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3761 
  3762 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3763 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3764 instantiated theorem.
  3765 
  3766 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3767 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3768 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3769 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3770 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3771 
  3772   attribute_setup standard =
  3773     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3774 
  3775 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3776 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3777 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3778 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3779 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3780 
  3781 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3782 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3783 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3784 
  3785 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3786 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3787 
  3788 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3789 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3790 
  3791 
  3792 *** HOL ***
  3793 
  3794 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3795 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3804 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3810 with the given constants.
  3811 
  3812 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3813 operations on records.
  3814 
  3815 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3816 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3817 
  3818 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3821 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3822 
  3823 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3826 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3827 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3828 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3829 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3832 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3835   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3836   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3837   part of theory "Main".
  3838 
  3839   Theory renamings:
  3840     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3841     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3842     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3843     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3844     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3845     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3846     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3847     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3848     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3849     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3850     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3851     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3852     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3853     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3854     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3855     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3856     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3857     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3858     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3859     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3860     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3861     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3862 
  3863   New theories:
  3864     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3865     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3866     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3867     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3868     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3869 
  3870   Discontinued theories:
  3871     BNF/BNF.thy
  3872     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3873 
  3874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * New (co)datatype package:
  3877   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3878   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3879     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3880   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3881     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3882   - Renamed commands:
  3883       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3884       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3885       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3886     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3888     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3889     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3891     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3892     using "prim(co)rec".
  3893     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3895     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3896     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3897   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3898     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3899     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3900     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Old datatype package:
  3903   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3904     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3905     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3907     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3908     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3911   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3912   BNF-based datatype package.
  3913 
  3914   Renamed constants:
  3915     Option.set ~> set_option
  3916     Option.map ~> map_option
  3917     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3918 
  3919   Renamed theorems:
  3920     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3921     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3922     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3923     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3924     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3925     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3926     map.simps ~> list.map
  3927     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3928     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3929     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3930 
  3931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3934     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3935     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3936     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3937     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3938     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3939     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3940     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3941     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3942     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3943     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3944 
  3945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3948   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3949   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3950   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3951   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3952     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3953     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3954       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3955       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3956       automatically
  3957     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3958     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3959       automatically for datatypes
  3960   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3961     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3962       more
  3963       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3965       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3966       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3968       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3969       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3971     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3973     form
  3974     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3976     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3978     Code_Numeral.natural
  3979     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3981     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982 
  3983 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3984 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3985 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3986 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3987 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3988 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3989 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3992 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3993 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3994 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3995 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3996 
  3997 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3998 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3999 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4000 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4001 
  4002 * Sledgehammer:
  4003   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4004   - MaSh overhaul:
  4005     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4006       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4007     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4008       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4009       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4010       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4011   - New option:
  4012       smt_proofs
  4013   - Renamed options:
  4014       isar_compress ~> compress
  4015       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4016 
  4017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4020 
  4021 * Nitpick:
  4022   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4023     take infinite values.
  4024   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4025     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4026   - Removed "std" option.
  4027   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4028     "hide_types".
  4029 
  4030 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4031 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4034 
  4035 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4036   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4037   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4038     SUP instead uniformly.
  4039   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4040     or SUP and Sup.
  4041   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4042   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4043   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4044     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4045     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4046 
  4047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4050 
  4051 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4052 
  4053   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4054   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4055   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4056   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4057 
  4058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4061 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4062 
  4063 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4064 
  4065     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4066     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4067     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4068     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4069     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4070     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4071     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4072     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4073     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4074     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4075     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4076     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4077     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4078     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4079     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4080     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4081     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4082     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4083     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4084     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4085     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4086     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4087     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4088     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4089     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4090     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4091     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4092     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4093     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4094     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4095     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4096     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4097     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4098     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4099     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4100     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4101     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4102     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4103     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4104     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4105     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4106     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4107     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4108     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4109     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4110     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4111     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4112     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4113     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4114     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4115     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4116     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4117     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4118     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4119     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4120     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4121     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4122     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4123     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4124 
  4125   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4126   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4127   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4128     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4129 
  4130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4133 
  4134   Fact consolidations:
  4135     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4136     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4137     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4138     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4139     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4140     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4141     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4142     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4143     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4144     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4145     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4146     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4147     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4148     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4149     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4150     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4151     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4152     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4153     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4154     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4155     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4156     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4157     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4158     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4159     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4160     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4161     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4162     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4163     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4164     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4165     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4166     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4167     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4168     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4169     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4170     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4171     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4172     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4173     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4174     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4175 
  4176 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4177 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4178 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4179 
  4180 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4181 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4182 
  4183 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4184 
  4185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4186 
  4187 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4188 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4192 
  4193 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4194     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4195 
  4196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4199   consolidation:
  4200     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4201     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4202 
  4203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4206   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4207   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4208   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4209     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4210   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4211     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4212   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4213 
  4214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4217 
  4218     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4219     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4220     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4221     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4222     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4223     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4224     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4225     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4226     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4227     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4228     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4229     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4230     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4231 
  4232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4233 
  4234 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4235 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4236 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4237 
  4238 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4239     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4240     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4241     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4242     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4243 
  4244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Fact name consolidation:
  4247     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4248     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4249     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4250     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4251     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4252 
  4253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4256 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4257 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4258 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4259 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4260 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4261 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4263 
  4264 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4265 
  4266 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4267 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4268 
  4269 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4270 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4271 
  4272 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4273 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4274 or the brute way with
  4275 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4276 
  4277 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4278 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4279 stating boundedness of sets.
  4280 
  4281 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4282 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4283 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4286   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4287   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4288   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4289   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4290   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4291   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4292   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4293   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4294   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4295   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4296   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4297 
  4298   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4299 
  4300   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4301 
  4302     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4303     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4304     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4305     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4306     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4307 
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4311   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4312 
  4313   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4314 
  4315   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4316 
  4317   - removed constant isDiff
  4318 
  4319   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4320     input syntax.
  4321 
  4322   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4323 
  4324   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4325 
  4326   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4327 
  4328   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4329 
  4330   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4331     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4332     has_vector_derivative.
  4333 
  4334   - Other renamings:
  4335     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4336     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4337     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4338     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4339     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4340     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4341     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4342 
  4343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4346 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4347 in continuous_intros.
  4348 
  4349 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4350 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4351 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4352 
  4353 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4354 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4355 especially removes
  4356 
  4357     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4358 
  4359 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4360     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4361 
  4362 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4363 
  4364   Renamings:
  4365     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4366     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4367     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4368     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4369     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4370     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4371     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4372     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4373     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4374     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4375     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4376     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4377 
  4378     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4379     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4380     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4381 
  4382   Removed theorems:
  4383     complex_zero_def
  4384     complex_add_def
  4385     complex_minus_def
  4386     complex_diff_def
  4387     complex_one_def
  4388     complex_mult_def
  4389     complex_inverse_def
  4390     complex_scaleR_def
  4391 
  4392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4395 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4398 
  4399 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4400 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4401 
  4402 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4403 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4406 
  4407 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * HOL-Word:
  4411   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4412     of "word_arith_wis".
  4413   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4414     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4415     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4416 
  4417 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4418   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4419   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4420   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4421     (except the AFP)
  4422 
  4423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424 
  4425 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4426   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4427   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4428     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4429   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4430     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4431     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4432     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4433     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4434     intervals.
  4435   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4436     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4437     - renamed theorems:
  4438         interval ~> box
  4439         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4440         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4441         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4442         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4443         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4444         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4445         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4446         open_interval ~> open_box
  4447         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4448         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4449         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4450         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4451         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4452         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4453         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4454         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4455         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4456         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4457         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4458         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4459         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4460         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4461         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4462         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4463         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4464         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4465         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4466         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4467         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4468         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4469         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4470         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4471 
  4472     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4473         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4474         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4475         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4476         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4477         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4478         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4479         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4480         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4481         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4482         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4483         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4484         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4485         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4486         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4487         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4488         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4489         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4490 
  4491   - renamed theorems:
  4492     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4493     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4494     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4495 
  4496 * HOL-Probability:
  4497   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4498 
  4499     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4500       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4501 
  4502     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4503 
  4504   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4505     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4506 
  4507     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4508     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4509     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4510     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4511     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4512     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4513     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4514     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4515     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4516     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4517     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4518     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4519     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4520     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4521     integral_indicator          ~>
  4522          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4523     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4524     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4525     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4526 
  4527     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4528          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4529 
  4530     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4531          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4532 
  4533     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4534          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4535 
  4536     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4537          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4538          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4539 
  4540     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4541          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4542 
  4543     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4544          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4545 
  4546     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4547          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4548          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4549 
  4550     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4551          nn_integral_real_affine
  4552 
  4553     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4554          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4555 
  4556     The following theorems where removed:
  4557 
  4558     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4559     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4560     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4561     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4562     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4563     integral_cmul_indicator
  4564     integral_real
  4565 
  4566   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4567     distributed random variables.
  4568 
  4569 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4570 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 
  4574 *** Scala ***
  4575 
  4576 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4577 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4578 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4579 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4580 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4583 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 
  4586 *** ML ***
  4587 
  4588 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4589 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4590 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4591 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4592 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4593 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4594 
  4595 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4596 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4597 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4598 actually belongs to it).
  4599 
  4600 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4601 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4602 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4603 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4604 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4605 of schematic variables.
  4606 
  4607 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4608 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4609 
  4610 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4611 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4612 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4618 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4619 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4623 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4625 formal context.
  4626 
  4627 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4628 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4629 
  4630 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4631 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4632 
  4633 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4634 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4635 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4636 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4637 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4638 
  4639 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4640 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4641 purposes.
  4642 
  4643 
  4644 *** System ***
  4645 
  4646 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4647 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4648 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4649 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4650 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4651 
  4652 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4653 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4654 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4655 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4656 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4657 settings variable.
  4658 
  4659 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4660 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4661 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4662 
  4663 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4664 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4665 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4666 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4667 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4668 
  4669 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4670 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4671 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4672 
  4673 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4674 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4675 
  4676 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4677 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4678 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4679 
  4680 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4681 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4682 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4683 processing is started.
  4684 
  4685 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4686 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4687 
  4688 
  4689 
  4690 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4691 -------------------------------------
  4692 
  4693 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4694 
  4695 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4696 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4697 
  4698 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4699 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4700 
  4701 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4702 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4703 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4704 
  4705 
  4706 *** System ***
  4707 
  4708 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4709 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4710 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4711 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4712 
  4713 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4714 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4715 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4716 
  4717 
  4718 
  4719 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4720 -------------------------------------
  4721 
  4722 *** General ***
  4723 
  4724 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4725 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4726 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4727 
  4728 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4729 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4732 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4733 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4734 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4735 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4736 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4737 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4738 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4739 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4740 syntax.
  4741 
  4742 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4743 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4744 
  4745 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4746 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4747 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4748 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4749 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4750 
  4751 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4755 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4756 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4757 
  4758 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4759 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4760 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4761 
  4762 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4763 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4764 
  4765 
  4766 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4767 
  4768 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4769 Documentation panel.
  4770 
  4771 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4772 documentation.
  4773 
  4774 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4775 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4776 
  4777 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4778 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4779 normal editing and checking process.
  4780 
  4781 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4782 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4783 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4784 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4785 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4786 
  4787 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4788 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4789 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4790 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4791 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4792 
  4793 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4794 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4795 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4796 
  4797 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4798 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4799 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4800 to resolve conflict.
  4801 
  4802 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4803 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4804 
  4805 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4806 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4807 such command executions while editing.
  4808 
  4809 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4810 document content.
  4811 
  4812 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4813 toplevel theorem statements.
  4814 
  4815 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4816 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4817 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4818 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4819 
  4820 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4821 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4822 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4823 
  4824 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4825 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4826 
  4827 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4828 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4829 
  4830 
  4831 *** Pure ***
  4832 
  4833 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4834 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4835 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4836 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4837 details.
  4838 
  4839 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4840 
  4841 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4842 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4843 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4844 
  4845 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4849 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4850 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4851 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4854 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4855 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4858 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4859 
  4860 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4861 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4862 situations.
  4863 
  4864 
  4865 *** HOL ***
  4866 
  4867 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4868 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4872 
  4873 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4874 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4875 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4876 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4877 
  4878   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4879 
  4880 * Code generator:
  4881   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4882     'code_instance'.
  4883   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4884     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4885 
  4886 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4887 examples.
  4888 
  4889 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4890 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4891 to distinguish both when desired.
  4892 
  4893 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4894 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4895 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4896 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4897 
  4898 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4899 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4900 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4901 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4902 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4903 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4906 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4907 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4908 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4909 
  4910 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4911 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4912 
  4913 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4914 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4915 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4916 
  4917 * Lifting:
  4918   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4919     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4920       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4921       transfer rules
  4922     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4923       correspondence relation can be generated
  4924     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4925       parametricity
  4926     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4927   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4928   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4929     copies
  4930   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4931     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4932     anonymous context)
  4933   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4934     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4935   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4936     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4937   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4938     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4939 
  4940 * Transfer:
  4941   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4942     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4943   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4944   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4945     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4946   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4947 
  4948 * Reification and reflection:
  4949   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4950     "Reification".
  4951   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4952   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4956   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4957     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4958     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4959   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4960     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4961   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4962     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4963     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4964     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4965     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4966     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4967     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4968     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4969   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4970     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4971   - Fact renames:
  4972       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4973       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4975 
  4976 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4977 
  4978 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4979 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4980 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4982 
  4983 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4984 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4985 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4986 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4987 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4988 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4989 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4990 lemmas.
  4991 
  4992 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4993 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4994 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4995 
  4996 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4997 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4998 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4999 
  5000 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5001 top and bottom elements.
  5002 
  5003 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5004 
  5005 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5006 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5007 
  5008  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5009    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5010    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5011 
  5012  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5013    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5014    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5015 
  5016    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5017    arbitrary filter.
  5018 
  5019  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5020    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5021    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5022    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5023    on a compact set.
  5024 
  5025  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5026    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5027    linear_continuum_topology).
  5028 
  5029  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5030    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5031    on all sequences converging to x.
  5032 
  5033  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5034    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5035    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5036    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5037    left or right.
  5038 
  5039  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5040 
  5041      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5042 
  5043  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5044    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5045 
  5046  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5047    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5048    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5049    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5050    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5051    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5052 
  5053  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5054 
  5055    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5056 
  5057    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5058      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5059 
  5060    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5061 
  5062    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5063      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5064 
  5065    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5066 
  5067    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5068 
  5069  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5070 
  5071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 * Nitpick:
  5074   - Added option "spy".
  5075   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5076 
  5077 * Sledgehammer:
  5078   - Renamed option:
  5079       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5080     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5081   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5082   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5083   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5084 
  5085 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5086 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5087 
  5088 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5089   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5090   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5091     generated code.
  5092   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5093   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5094   - Fact renames:
  5095     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5096     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5097     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5098 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5099 
  5100 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5101 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5102 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5103 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5104 
  5105 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5106 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5107 
  5108 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5109 
  5110 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5111 
  5112     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5113     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5114 
  5115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5118 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5119 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5120 
  5121 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5122 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5123 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5124 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * HOL-BNF:
  5127   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5128     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5129     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5130     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5131   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5132     coinduct).
  5133   - Renamed keywords:
  5134     data ~> datatype_new
  5135     codata ~> codatatype
  5136     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5137   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5138     discs ~> disc
  5139     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5140     map_id' ~> map_id
  5141     sels ~> sel
  5142     set_map' ~> set_map
  5143     sets ~> set
  5144 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5145 
  5146 
  5147 *** ML ***
  5148 
  5149 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5150 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5151 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5152 Examples.thy in particular.
  5153 
  5154 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5155 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5156 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5157 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5158 
  5159 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5160 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5161 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5162 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5166 
  5167     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5168     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5169 
  5170 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5173 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5174 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5175 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5176 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5177 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5178 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5179 
  5180 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5181 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5182 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5183 clasets separately from the context.
  5184 
  5185 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5186 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5187 
  5188 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5189 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5190 
  5191 
  5192 *** System ***
  5193 
  5194 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5195 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5196 
  5197 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5198 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5199 
  5200 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5201 settings variable.
  5202 
  5203 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5204 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5205 always pdf.
  5206 
  5207 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5208 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5209 
  5210 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5211 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5212 
  5213 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5214 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5215 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5216 
  5217 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5218 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5219 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5220 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5221 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5222 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5223 
  5224 
  5225 
  5226 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5227 -----------------------------------
  5228 
  5229 *** General ***
  5230 
  5231 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5232 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5233 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5234 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5235 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5236 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5237 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5238 
  5239 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5240 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5241 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5242 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5243 
  5244 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5245 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5246 
  5247 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5248 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5249 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5250 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5251 dependencies properly.
  5252 
  5253 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5254 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5255 
  5256 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5257 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5258 
  5259 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5260 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5261 and "class ... context ...".
  5262 
  5263 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5264 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5265 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5266 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5267 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5268 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5269 
  5270 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5271 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5272 
  5273 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5274 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5275 
  5276 
  5277 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5278 
  5279 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5280 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5281 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5282 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5283 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5284 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5285 
  5286 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5287 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5288 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5289 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5290 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5291 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5292 
  5293 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5294 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5295 browser on demand.
  5296 
  5297 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5298 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5299 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5300 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5301 
  5302 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5303 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5304 
  5305 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5306 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5307 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5308 potentially infinite message streams.
  5309 
  5310 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5311 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5312 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5313 schemes.
  5314 
  5315 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5316 symbols.
  5317 
  5318 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5319 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5320 
  5321 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5322 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5323 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5324 
  5325 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5326 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5327 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5328 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5329 
  5330 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5331 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5332 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5333 
  5334 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5335 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5336 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5337 Isabelle distribution.
  5338 
  5339 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5340 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5341 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5342 
  5343 
  5344 *** Pure ***
  5345 
  5346 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5347 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5348 
  5349 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5350 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5351 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5354 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5355 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5356 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5357 with some care where this is really required.
  5358 
  5359 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5360 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5361 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5362 
  5363   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5364 
  5365 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5366 a Hasse diagram.
  5367 
  5368 
  5369 *** HOL ***
  5370 
  5371 * Sledgehammer:
  5372 
  5373   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5374     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5375   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5376   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5377   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5378   - Renamed options:
  5379       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5380       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5381       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5382       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5383 
  5384 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5385 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5386 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5387 
  5388 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Lifting:
  5392   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5393   - quot_del attribute
  5394   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5395 
  5396 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5397 expressions.
  5398 
  5399 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5400 pointfree expressions.
  5401 
  5402 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5403 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5404 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5405 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5407 
  5408 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5409 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5410 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5411 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5412 accordingly.
  5413 
  5414 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5415 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5416 
  5417 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5418 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5419 
  5420 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5421 
  5422 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5423 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5424 
  5425 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5426 
  5427 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5428 
  5429   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5430   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5431 
  5432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5433 
  5434 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5435 
  5436   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5437   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5438 
  5439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5440 
  5441 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5442 
  5443   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5444     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5445     output f x converges to G.
  5446 
  5447   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5448     infinity (at_bot).
  5449 
  5450   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5451     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5452 
  5453   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5454     at_top".
  5455 
  5456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5457 
  5458 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5459 lattice type classes.
  5460 
  5461 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5462 
  5463     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5464     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5465 
  5466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5469 changes as follows.
  5470 
  5471   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5472 
  5473       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5474       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5475 
  5476   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5477     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5478     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5479     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5480 
  5481   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5482     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5483     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5484 
  5485   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5486     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5487     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5488     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5489 
  5490   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5491     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5492 
  5493       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5494       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5495       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5496       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5497       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5498       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5499       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5500       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5501       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5502       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5503       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5504       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5505       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5506       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5507       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5508       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5509 
  5510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5511 
  5512 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5513 
  5514 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5515 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5516 
  5517 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5518 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5519 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5520 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5521 
  5522   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5523   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5524   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5525   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5526   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5527   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5528   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5529   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5530   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5531   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5532 
  5533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5536 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5537 Data").
  5538 
  5539 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5540 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5541 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5542 code.
  5543 
  5544 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5545 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5546 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5550 
  5551 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5552 
  5553 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5554 
  5555   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5556   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5557 
  5558 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5559 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5560 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5561 
  5562   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5563 
  5564     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5565     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5566     cart_base i  removed
  5567     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5568 
  5569   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5570 
  5571   Renamed lemmas:
  5572 
  5573     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5574     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5575     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5576     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5577     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5578     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5579     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5580     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5581     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5582     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5583 
  5584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * HOL/Probability:
  5587 
  5588   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5589 
  5590   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5591     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5592     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5593 
  5594   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5595     projective family).
  5596 
  5597 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5598 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5599 
  5600 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5601 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5602 datatypes.
  5603 
  5604 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5605 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5606 
  5607 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5608 trees for the code generator.
  5609 
  5610 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5611 Lifting/Transfer.
  5612 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5613 
  5614 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 
  5618 *** Document preparation ***
  5619 
  5620 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5621 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5622 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5623 
  5624 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5625 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5626 
  5627 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5628 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5629 document/root.tex.
  5630 
  5631 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5632 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5633 
  5634 
  5635 *** ML ***
  5636 
  5637 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5638 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5639 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5640 
  5641 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5642 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5643 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5644 
  5645 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5646 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5647 necessarily printing visible text.
  5648 
  5649 
  5650 *** System ***
  5651 
  5652 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5653 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5654 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5655 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5656 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5657 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5658 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5659 
  5660 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5661 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5662 
  5663   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5664 
  5665 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5666 
  5667 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5668 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5669 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5670 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5671 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5672 
  5673 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5674 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5675 
  5676 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5677 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5678 
  5679 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5681 
  5682 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5683 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5684 version of Isabelle.
  5685 
  5686 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5687 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5688 
  5689 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5690 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5691 for home-made settings.
  5692 
  5693 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5694 
  5695 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5696 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5697 configuration.
  5698 
  5699 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5700 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5701 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5702 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5703 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5704 
  5705 
  5706 
  5707 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5708 ------------------------------
  5709 
  5710 *** General ***
  5711 
  5712 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5713 
  5714   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5715     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5716   - markup for bound variables
  5717   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5718   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5719   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5720     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5721 
  5722 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5723 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5724 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5725 
  5726 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5727 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5728 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5729 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5730 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5731 
  5732   context
  5733     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5734     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5735   begin
  5736 
  5737   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5738 
  5739   end
  5740 
  5741   thm my_trans
  5742 
  5743 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5744 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5745 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5746 
  5747 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5748 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5749 
  5750 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5751 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5752 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5753 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5754 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5755 
  5756 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5757 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5758 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5759 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5760 indices of schematic variables.
  5761 
  5762 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5763 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5764 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5765 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5766 etc. was exploited.
  5767 
  5768 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5769 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5770 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5771 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5772 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5773 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5774 
  5775 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5776 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5777 manual.
  5778 
  5779 
  5780 *** Pure ***
  5781 
  5782 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5783 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5784 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5785 
  5786 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5787 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5788 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5789 undocumented feature.)
  5790 
  5791 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5792 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5793 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5794 
  5795   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5796 
  5797   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5798     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5799 
  5800 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5801 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5802 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5803 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5804 
  5805 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5806 
  5807     num ~> num_token
  5808     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5809     xstr ~> str_token
  5810 
  5811 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5812 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5813 position information via constraints).
  5814 
  5815 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5816 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5817 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5818 
  5819 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5820 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5821 
  5822 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5823 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5824 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5827 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5828 
  5829 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5830 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5831 
  5832   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5833 
  5834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5835 
  5836 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5837 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5838 
  5839 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5840 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5841 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5842 
  5843 
  5844 *** HOL ***
  5845 
  5846 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5847 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5848 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5849 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5850 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5851 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5852 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5853 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5854 possible.
  5855 
  5856 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5857 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5858 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5859 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5860 
  5861 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5862 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5863 
  5864 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5865 
  5866 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5867 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5868 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5869 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5870 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5871 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5872 
  5873   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5874     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5875 
  5876   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5877     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5878     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5879 
  5880   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5881     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5882 
  5883   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5884     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5885     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5886 
  5887   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5888     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5889 
  5890 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5891 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5892 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5893 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5894 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5895 
  5896   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5897     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5898     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5899     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5900     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5901 
  5902     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5903     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5904 
  5905   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5906     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5907     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5908     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5909     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5910     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5911     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5912     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5913 
  5914   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5915     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5916     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5917     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5918 
  5919   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5920     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5921     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5922     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5923 
  5924   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5925     from type nat to type int.
  5926 
  5927 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5928 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5929 
  5930   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5931     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5932     type.  Example syntax:
  5933 
  5934     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5935       is List.insert
  5936 
  5937     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5938     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5939     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5940     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5941     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5942     by the package.
  5943 
  5944   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5945     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5946     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5947     code generation for each constant.
  5948 
  5949   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5950     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5951     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5952     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5953     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5954 
  5955   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5956     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5957     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5958 
  5959 * Quotient package:
  5960 
  5961   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5962     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5963 
  5964   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5965     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5966 
  5967   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5968     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5969     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5972     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5973 
  5974 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5975 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5976 
  5977 * Quickcheck:
  5978 
  5979   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5980     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5981     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5982     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5983     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5984 
  5985     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5986     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5987     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5988 
  5989     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5990     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5991 
  5992     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5993     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5994     show genuine counterexamples.
  5995 
  5996   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5997     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5998 
  5999     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6000     constructors of that type.
  6001 
  6002   - Support for multisets.
  6003 
  6004   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6005 
  6006   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6007     conjectures in a locale context.
  6008 
  6009 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6010 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6011 
  6012 * Sledgehammer:
  6013   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6014     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6015   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6016   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6017     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6018   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6019   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6020   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6021   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6022 
  6023 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6024 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6025 
  6026 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6027 
  6028 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6031 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6032 
  6033   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6034 
  6035 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6036 a list and a nat.
  6037 
  6038 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6039 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6040 
  6041 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6042 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6043 default.
  6044 
  6045 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6046 
  6047   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6048 
  6049 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6050 
  6051 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6052 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6053 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6054 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6055 one_case.
  6056 
  6057 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6058 the result of the fact expression.
  6059 
  6060 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6061 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6062 of some relation theorems:
  6063 
  6064   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6065   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6066   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6067   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6068   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6069   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6070 
  6071 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6072 
  6073 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6074 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6075 
  6076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6077 
  6078 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6079 to match the constant's name:
  6080 
  6081   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6082   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6083   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6084   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6085   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6086   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6087   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6088   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6089   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6090   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6091   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6092   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6093   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6094   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6095   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6096   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6097   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6098   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6099   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6100   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6101   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6102   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6103   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6104   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6105 
  6106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6107 
  6108 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6109 and corresponding theorem names:
  6110 
  6111   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6112 
  6113   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6114 
  6115   - Renamed theorems:
  6116 
  6117     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6118     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6119     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6120     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6121     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6122     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6123     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6124     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6125     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6126     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6127     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6128     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6129     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6130     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6131     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6132     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6133     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6134     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6135     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6136     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6137     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6138     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6139     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6140 
  6141     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6142 
  6143     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6144 
  6145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6146 
  6147 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6148 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6149 
  6150   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6151   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6152   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6153   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6154   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6155   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6156   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6157   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6158   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6159   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6160   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6161   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6162   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6163   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6164   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6165   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6166   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6167   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6168   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6169   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6170   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6171 
  6172 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6173 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6174 
  6175 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6176 
  6177 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6178 
  6179   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6180   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6181   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6182   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6183   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6184   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6185   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6186   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6187   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6188   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6189   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6190   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6191   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6192   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6193   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6194   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6195   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6196   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6197 
  6198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6201 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6202 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6203 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6204 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6205 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6206 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6207 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6208 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6209 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6210 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6211 
  6212 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6213 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6214 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6215 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6216 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6217 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6218 
  6219 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6220 through option types.
  6221 
  6222 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6223 relations.
  6224 
  6225 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6226 
  6227 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6228 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6229 
  6230   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6231   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6232   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6233   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6234   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6235   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6236   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6237   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6238   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6239   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6240   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6241   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6242   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6243   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6244   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6245   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6246   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6247   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6248   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6249   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6250   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6251   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6252   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6253   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6254   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6255   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6256   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6257   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6258   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6259   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6260   zless_le ~> less_le
  6261   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6262   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6263   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6264 
  6265 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6266 
  6267   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6268