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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Tue Sep 27 20:45:15 2011 +0200 (2011-09-27 ago) | |

changeset 45097 | d0f851903e55 |

parent 45089 | 24ad77c3a147 |

child 45109 | 20b3377b08d7 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

tuned README.html;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)

5 ------------------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as

10 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.

12 - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor

13 buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save

14 files for checking).

16 - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic

17 highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source

18 positions.

20 - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source

21 buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML

22 theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).

24 - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,

25 based on interactive editor view. (Note: jEdit folding and

26 narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)

28 - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few

29 cores.

31 - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document

32 versions (garbage collection).

34 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,

35 including some remaining limitations.

37 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

38 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

39 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

40 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

41 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

42 INCOMPATIBILITY.

44 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

45 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

46 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

48 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

49 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

50 usedir option -Q.

52 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

53 configuration options, with more conventional names:

55 long_names ~> names_long

56 short_names ~> names_short

57 unique_names ~> names_unique

59 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

61 declare [[names_unique = false]]

63 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

64 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

65 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

67 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case

68 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].

70 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:

71 - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.

72 - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.

73 - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about

74 "Classical Reasoner".

77 *** HOL ***

79 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than

80 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

82 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

83 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for

84 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders. Lemmas

85 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in

86 class complete_linorder.

88 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,

89 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.

91 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to

92 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):

94 Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]

95 Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]

96 Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

97 Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

98 Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

99 Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

100 Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def

101 Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def

102 INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def

103 UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def

104 INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]

106 More consistent and comprehensive names:

108 INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def

109 UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def

110 INFI_def ~> INF_def

111 SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

112 INF_leI ~> INF_lower

113 INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2

114 le_INFI ~> INF_greatest

115 le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper

116 le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2

117 SUP_leI ~> SUP_least

118 INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

119 SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

120 INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

121 SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

122 INTER_def ~> INTER_eq

123 UNION_def ~> UNION_eq

125 INCOMPATIBILITY.

127 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.

128 INCOMPATIBILITY.

130 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,

131 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,

132 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,

133 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

135 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,

136 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,

137 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp]. Minor

138 INCOMPATIBILITY.

140 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective

141 constants. INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the

142 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.

144 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems

145 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection

146 UN_ball_bex_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.

148 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a

149 separate type class floor_ceiling.

151 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

153 locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

154 locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

156 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need

157 adjustment. INCOMPATIBILITY.

159 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in

160 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.

162 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the

163 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in

164 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the

165 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

167 divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib

168 divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib

169 divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib

170 mult.add_right ~> right_distrib

171 mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib

172 mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib

173 mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib

175 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or

176 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

178 real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def

179 real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def

180 real_less_def ~> less_le

181 real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def

182 real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def

183 real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

184 real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

185 real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

186 real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib

187 real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one

188 real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse

189 INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero

190 real_le_refl ~> order_refl

191 real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym

192 real_le_trans ~> order_trans

193 real_le_linear ~> linear

194 real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0

195 real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

196 real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos

197 real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono

198 real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq

199 real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff

200 realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff

201 real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored

202 realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored

203 reals_complete2 ~> complete_real

204 real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum

205 exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique

206 expi_add ~> exp_add

207 expi_zero ~> exp_zero

208 lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong

209 LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff

210 LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const

211 LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm

212 LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add

213 LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus

214 LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel

215 LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff

216 bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

217 bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

218 LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult

219 LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

220 LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide

221 LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power

222 LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum

223 LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod

224 LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

225 LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

226 LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

227 LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]

228 LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]

229 LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]

230 LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex

231 LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at

232 LIM_const ~> tendsto_const

233 LIM_add ~> tendsto_add

234 LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero

235 LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus

236 LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff

237 LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm

238 LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero

239 LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel

240 LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

241 LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

242 LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero

243 LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel

244 LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

245 LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose

246 LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult

247 LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR

248 LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real

249 LIM_power ~> tendsto_power

250 LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

251 LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn

252 isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose

253 bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

254 bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero

255 bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

256 bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero

257 bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero

258 bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero

259 LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]

261 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was

262 generalized. Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,

263 comm_monoid_add}. Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.

265 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now

266 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus

267 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".

269 * Code generation:

271 - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of

272 characters in the target language.

274 - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code

275 instead.

277 - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.

279 - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. May be

280 reactivated by the following theory command:

282 setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}

284 * Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

286 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the

287 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come

288 from rule induction. The latter are still called "hyps". Method

289 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same

290 syntax.

292 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is

293 still available as a legacy feature for some time.

295 * Nitpick:

296 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

297 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

298 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

299 INCOMPATIBILITY.

301 * Sledgehammer:

302 - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.

303 - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,

304 Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.

305 - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if

306 this can be done within reasonable time.

307 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

308 INCOMPATIBILITY.

309 - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",

310 "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

311 - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full

312 Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

314 * Metis:

315 - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

316 - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.

317 INCOMPATIBILITY.

319 * Command 'try':

320 - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and

321 "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

322 - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also

323 'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.

325 * Quickcheck:

326 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

327 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

328 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

329 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

330 - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

331 narrowing-based testing. Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler

332 with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings

333 environment as ISABELLE_GHC.

334 - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

335 (formly in HOL/Library).

337 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec". INCOMPATIBILITY,

338 use 'partial_function' instead.

340 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended

341 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by

342 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.

344 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,

345 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.

346 INCOMPATIBILITY.

348 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has

349 been moved here. INCOMPATIBILITY.

351 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated

352 arithmetic.

354 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the

355 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order

356 and lattice type classes.

358 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof

359 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.

361 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets

362 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.

364 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories

365 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an

366 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.

368 - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.

369 - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.

370 - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.

371 - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.

373 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to

374 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and

375 constants:

377 type inat ~> type enat

378 Fin ~> enat

379 Infty ~> infinity (overloaded)

380 iSuc ~> eSuc

381 the_Fin ~> the_enat

383 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has

384 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

386 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now

387 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard

388 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of

389 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.

390 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".

392 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed

393 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants

394 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to

395 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have

396 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use

397 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have

398 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):

400 Cart_eq ~> vec_eq_iff

401 dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le

402 tendsto_vector ~> vec_tendstoI

403 Cauchy_vector ~> vec_CauchyI

405 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been

406 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more

407 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

409 finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice

410 eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj

411 eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff

412 eventually_false ~> eventually_False

413 setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum

414 Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def

415 Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident

416 Lim_const ~> tendsto_const

417 Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]

418 Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus

419 Lim_add ~> tendsto_add

420 Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff

421 Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR

422 Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]

423 Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]

424 Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

425 Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component

426 Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth

427 Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]

428 dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left

429 dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right

430 continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]

431 continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus

432 continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff

433 continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]

434 continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR

435 continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse

436 continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse

437 continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse

438 continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]

439 continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]

440 continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]

441 continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus

442 continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff

443 continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]

444 continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]

445 continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR

446 continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult

447 continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]

448 continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]

449 continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv

450 uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus

451 uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff

452 subset_interior ~> interior_mono

453 subset_closure ~> closure_mono

454 closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV

455 real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2

456 real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3

457 real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel

458 real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3

459 norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2

461 * Session HOL-Probability:

462 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

463 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

464 - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent

465 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended

466 reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

468 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

470 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

471 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

472 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

473 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

474 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

475 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

476 monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD

477 monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE

478 monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]

479 cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]

480 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

481 cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app

482 cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app

483 cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]

484 cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]

485 contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]

486 contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]

487 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

488 UU_I ~> bottomI

489 lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)

490 lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)

491 Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)

492 Def_inject ~> lift.inject

493 below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff

494 eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff

497 *** Document preparation ***

499 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

500 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the

501 same.

503 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its

504 result.

506 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of

507 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,

508 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

510 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

511 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

513 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

514 like this:

516 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

517 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

519 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators. Implicit

520 tab-width is now defined as 1. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual

521 layouts.

524 *** ML ***

526 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

527 representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

528 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

529 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

530 under external program control.

532 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

533 data, which requires explicit setup.

535 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

536 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

537 (better known as Proof General).

539 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

540 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

542 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

543 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

545 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

546 (including quotes etc.).

548 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

549 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

550 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

551 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

552 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

553 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

554 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

555 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

556 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

558 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

559 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

560 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

561 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

562 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

564 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

565 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

567 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

568 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

570 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

571 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

573 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

574 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

575 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

576 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

577 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

578 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

579 proper Proof.context.

582 *** System ***

584 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

585 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

587 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

588 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

590 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

591 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

593 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

594 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

595 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

596 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

597 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

599 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

600 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

602 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

603 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML. For

604 example:

606 Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

608 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode

609 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.

611 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the

612 Prover IDE. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have

613 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to

614 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.

618 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

619 ----------------------------------

621 *** General ***

623 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

624 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

625 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

626 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

627 like this:

629 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

631 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

633 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

634 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

635 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

636 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

637 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

638 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

640 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

641 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

642 the following package declarations:

644 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

645 \usepackage{textcomp}

647 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

648 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

649 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

650 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

651 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

652 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

653 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

655 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

656 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

657 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

658 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

659 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

661 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

662 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

663 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

664 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

666 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

667 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

668 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

669 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

671 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

673 eta_contract eta_contract

674 show_brackets show_brackets

675 show_sorts show_sorts

676 show_types show_types

677 show_question_marks show_question_marks

678 show_consts show_consts

679 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

681 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

682 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

683 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

685 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

686 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

688 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

690 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

691 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

692 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

693 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

694 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

696 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

697 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

698 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

699 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

701 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

702 INCOMPATIBILITY.

704 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

705 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

707 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

708 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

709 float_token.

711 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

712 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

713 INCOMPATIBILITY.

715 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

716 DejaVu Sans.

718 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

721 *** Pure ***

723 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

724 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

725 time.

727 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

728 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

730 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

731 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

733 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

734 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

735 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

736 command already provided this functionality.

738 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

739 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

740 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

741 without interpretations.

743 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

744 in addition to interpretations in theories.

746 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

747 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

748 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

749 feature is still required for historical reasons.

751 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

752 'definition' instead.

754 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

755 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

756 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

757 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

759 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

760 constructors.

762 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

763 the local file system.

766 *** HOL ***

768 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

769 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

770 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

771 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

773 declare [[coercion f]]

775 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

776 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

778 declare [[coercion_map map]]

780 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

781 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

782 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

783 other theories like this:

785 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

787 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

788 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

789 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

790 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

791 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

792 for examples.

794 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

795 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

797 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

798 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

800 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

801 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

802 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

804 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

805 functorial structure of types.

807 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

808 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

810 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

811 languages.

813 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

814 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

815 INCOMPATIBILITY.

817 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

818 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

820 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

821 combinators any longer.

823 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

824 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

826 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

827 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

828 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

829 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

831 record 'a foo = ...

832 ...

833 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

835 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

836 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

837 INCOMPATIBILITY.

839 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

840 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

841 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

843 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

844 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

845 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

847 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

848 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

850 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

851 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

852 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

853 independently.

855 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

856 counter example search.

858 * Sledgehammer:

859 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

860 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

861 sledgehammer").

862 - Renamed commands:

863 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

864 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

865 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

866 INCOMPATIBILITY.

867 - Renamed options:

868 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

869 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

870 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

871 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

872 INCOMPATIBILITY.

874 * Nitpick:

875 - Renamed options:

876 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

877 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

878 INCOMPATIBILITY.

879 - Added support for partial quotient types.

880 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

881 - Added "whack" option.

882 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

883 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

884 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

885 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

886 higher cardinalities.

887 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

889 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

890 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

891 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

893 using [[metis_trace = true]]

895 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

896 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

898 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

899 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

900 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

901 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

902 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

903 "smt_solver".

905 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

906 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

908 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

909 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

910 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

911 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

913 * Changed SMT configuration options:

914 - Renamed:

915 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

916 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

917 INCOMPATIBILITY.

918 - Added:

919 smt_verbose

920 smt_random_seed

921 smt_datatypes

922 smt_infer_triggers

923 smt_monomorph_limit

924 cvc3_options

925 remote_cvc3_options

926 remote_z3_options

927 yices_options

929 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

930 header.

932 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

933 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

934 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

936 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

938 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

940 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

941 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

943 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

945 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

946 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

948 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

949 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

951 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

952 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

954 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

955 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

956 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

958 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

960 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

961 INCOMPATIBILITY.

963 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

964 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

966 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

967 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

968 for congruent(2)).

970 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

972 types

973 bool ~> HOL.bool

974 nat ~> Nat.nat

976 constants

977 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

978 True ~> HOL.True

979 False ~> HOL.False

980 op & ~> HOL.conj

981 op | ~> HOL.disj

982 op --> ~> HOL.implies

983 op = ~> HOL.eq

984 Not ~> HOL.Not

985 The ~> HOL.The

986 All ~> HOL.All

987 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

988 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

989 Let ~> HOL.Let

990 If ~> HOL.If

991 Ball ~> Set.Ball

992 Bex ~> Set.Bex

993 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

994 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

995 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

996 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

997 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

998 op : ~> Set.member

999 Collect ~> Set.Collect

1001 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1003 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

1005 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

1006 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

1007 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

1008 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

1009 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

1010 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

1011 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

1012 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

1014 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1016 * More stylized fact names:

1018 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

1019 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

1020 set_ext ~> set_eqI

1021 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

1023 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1025 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

1027 constants

1028 null ~> List.null

1030 facts

1031 mem_iff ~> member_def

1032 null_empty ~> null_def

1034 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

1035 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

1036 generation.

1038 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

1039 Haskell code.

1041 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

1042 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

1043 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1045 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

1046 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1048 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

1049 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

1051 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

1052 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

1053 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1055 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

1056 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1058 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

1059 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1061 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

1062 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

1063 referred to by its qualified name.

1065 enum ~> Enum.enum

1066 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

1067 product ~> Enum.product

1069 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

1070 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

1071 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1073 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

1074 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

1075 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

1076 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1078 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

1079 sort_key.

1081 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

1082 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1084 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

1085 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

1086 instead of finite cartesian products.

1088 types

1089 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

1090 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

1091 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

1092 (depends on your needs)

1094 constants

1095 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

1096 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

1097 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

1099 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

1100 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

1101 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

1102 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1104 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

1105 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

1106 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

1107 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

1108 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1110 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

1111 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1113 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

1114 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

1115 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

1118 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1120 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

1121 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

1122 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

1123 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

1124 compatibility.

1126 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

1127 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

1130 *** HOLCF ***

1132 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

1133 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

1134 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

1135 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1137 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

1138 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

1139 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1141 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

1142 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

1143 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

1145 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

1146 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

1147 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1149 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

1150 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

1151 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

1152 domain definition now works:

1154 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

1156 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

1157 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

1158 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

1159 domain package to work with these types. For example:

1161 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

1162 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

1164 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

1166 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

1167 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

1168 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1170 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

1171 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1173 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

1174 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

1175 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

1176 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

1178 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

1180 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1182 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1184 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1187 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

1188 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

1189 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

1191 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

1192 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

1193 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1195 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

1196 still supported as an input translation.

1198 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

1200 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

1201 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

1202 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

1203 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

1204 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

1205 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

1206 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

1208 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

1209 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1211 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

1212 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

1213 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

1214 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

1215 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

1216 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

1218 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

1219 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1221 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

1223 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

1224 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

1225 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

1226 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

1228 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1230 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

1231 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1233 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

1234 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1236 thelub_const ~> lub_const

1237 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

1238 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

1239 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

1240 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

1241 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

1242 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

1243 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

1244 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

1245 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

1246 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

1247 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

1248 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

1249 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

1250 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

1251 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

1252 UU_I ~> bottomI

1253 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

1254 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

1255 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

1257 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1259 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

1260 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

1261 refl_less ~> below_refl

1262 trans_less ~> below_trans

1263 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

1264 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

1265 box_less ~> box_below

1266 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

1267 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

1268 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

1269 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

1270 adm_less ~> adm_below

1271 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

1272 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

1273 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

1274 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

1275 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

1276 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

1277 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

1278 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

1279 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

1280 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

1281 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

1282 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

1283 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

1284 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

1285 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

1286 injection_less ~> injection_below

1287 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

1288 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

1289 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

1290 up_less ~> up_below

1291 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

1292 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

1293 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

1294 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

1295 spair_less ~> spair_below

1296 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

1297 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

1298 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

1299 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

1300 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

1301 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

1302 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

1303 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

1306 *** FOL and ZF ***

1308 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

1309 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1312 *** ML ***

1314 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

1315 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

1316 failed assertions is included in the error output.

1318 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

1319 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

1320 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

1322 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

1323 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

1324 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

1326 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

1327 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

1329 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

1330 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

1332 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

1333 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

1335 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

1336 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

1338 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

1339 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

1340 almost all situations.

1342 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

1343 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

1344 Isabelle/ML.

1346 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

1347 meaning.

1349 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

1350 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

1351 rarely-used global-only stuff.

1353 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

1354 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

1356 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

1357 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

1359 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

1360 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

1361 @{thms} for most purposes.

1363 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

1364 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

1365 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

1366 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

1367 configuration options.

1369 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

1370 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

1371 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

1372 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

1373 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

1374 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

1375 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

1379 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

1380 ---------------------------------

1382 *** General ***

1384 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

1385 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

1386 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

1387 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

1388 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

1389 their full internal name.

1391 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

1392 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

1393 Some hints on upgrading:

1395 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

1396 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

1397 which are independent of this issue.

1399 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

1400 provides the following special forms:

1402 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

1403 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

1404 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

1406 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

1407 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

1408 extra variables".

1410 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

1411 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

1412 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

1413 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

1414 "logic".

1416 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

1417 antiquotations:

1419 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

1420 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

1421 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

1422 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

1424 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

1425 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

1426 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

1427 antiquotations.

1429 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

1430 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

1431 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

1432 diagnose syntax problems.

1434 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

1436 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

1437 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

1438 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

1439 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

1441 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

1442 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

1443 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

1444 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1446 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

1447 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

1448 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

1449 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

1450 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1452 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

1453 discontinued (old legacy feature).

1455 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

1456 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

1457 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

1459 using [[trace_simp = true]]

1461 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

1462 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

1463 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

1465 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

1466 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

1467 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1469 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

1470 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

1473 *** Pure ***

1475 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

1476 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

1477 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

1478 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

1479 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

1480 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

1481 inspect proof terms.

1483 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

1484 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

1485 are added internally. For example:

1487 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

1489 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

1490 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1492 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1494 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1495 'class' instead.

1497 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

1498 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

1499 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1501 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

1502 invariants.

1504 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

1505 user space functionality any longer.

1507 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

1508 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

1509 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1511 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

1512 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

1514 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

1515 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

1516 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

1518 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

1519 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

1520 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

1522 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

1523 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1526 *** HOL ***

1528 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

1529 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

1530 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

1531 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

1532 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

1534 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

1535 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

1536 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

1537 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

1539 fun

1540 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

1541 where

1542 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

1544 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

1545 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

1547 quotient_definition

1548 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

1550 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

1551 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

1552 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

1553 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

1555 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

1556 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

1558 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

1559 separate HOL-SMT session.

1561 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

1562 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1564 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

1565 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

1566 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

1568 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

1569 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1571 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

1572 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1574 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1577 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

1578 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1580 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

1581 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

1582 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1584 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

1585 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

1586 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

1587 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

1588 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

1589 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

1590 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

1591 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

1592 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

1593 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

1594 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

1595 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

1596 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

1597 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

1598 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

1599 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

1600 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

1601 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

1602 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

1603 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

1604 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

1605 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

1606 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

1607 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

1608 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

1609 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

1610 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

1611 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

1612 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

1613 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

1615 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

1616 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

1618 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

1619 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

1620 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

1622 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

1623 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

1625 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

1626 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1628 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

1630 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

1631 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1633 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

1634 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1636 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1638 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

1639 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

1641 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

1642 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

1643 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

1644 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1646 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

1647 - less_eq, less: Orderings

1648 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

1649 - inverse, divide: Rings

1650 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1652 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

1653 lattices):

1655 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

1656 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

1658 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

1660 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

1661 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

1662 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

1663 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

1664 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1665 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

1666 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

1667 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

1668 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

1669 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

1670 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

1671 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

1672 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

1674 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

1675 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

1676 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1677 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

1678 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

1679 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

1680 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

1681 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

1682 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

1683 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

1684 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

1685 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

1686 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

1687 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

1688 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

1689 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

1690 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

1691 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

1693 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

1694 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

1696 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

1697 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

1698 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

1699 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

1700 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

1702 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1704 * Refined field classes:

1705 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

1706 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

1707 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

1708 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

1709 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1711 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

1712 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

1713 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

1714 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

1715 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

1716 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

1717 equal_neg_zero.

1718 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1720 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

1721 sets to lattices:

1723 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

1724 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

1725 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

1726 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

1727 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

1728 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

1729 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

1730 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

1731 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

1732 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

1734 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

1735 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

1736 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

1737 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

1738 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

1739 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1741 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

1742 multiset order:

1744 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

1745 <= and <;

1746 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

1747 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

1748 multiset_order;

1749 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

1750 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

1751 generation;

1752 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

1753 if needed.

1755 Renamed:

1757 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

1758 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

1759 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

1761 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1763 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

1765 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

1767 * Theory List: added transpose.

1769 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

1770 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

1771 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1773 Constants:

1774 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

1775 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

1776 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

1777 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

1778 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

1779 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

1780 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

1781 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

1782 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

1783 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

1784 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

1785 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

1786 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

1788 Lemmas:

1789 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1790 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

1791 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

1792 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

1793 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

1794 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

1795 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

1796 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

1797 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

1798 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

1799 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

1800 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

1801 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1803 * Sledgehammer:

1804 - Renamed ATP commands:

1805 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

1806 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

1807 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

1808 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

1809 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

1810 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1811 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

1812 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

1813 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

1814 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

1815 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

1816 is still experimental.)

1817 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

1818 full-typed mode.

1819 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

1821 * Nitpick:

1822 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

1823 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

1824 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

1825 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

1826 - Added support for quotient types.

1827 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

1828 constructs.

1829 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

1830 "termination" proofs).

1831 - Added support for term postprocessors.

1832 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

1833 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

1834 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

1835 record getters.

1836 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

1837 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

1838 - Improved precision of set constructs.

1839 - Added "atoms" option.

1840 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

1841 problems.

1842 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

1843 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

1844 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1845 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

1846 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1847 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1849 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

1850 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

1851 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

1852 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

1853 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

1854 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

1855 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

1856 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

1857 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

1858 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1861 *** HOLCF ***

1863 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

1864 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

1865 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1867 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

1868 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

1869 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

1870 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

1872 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

1873 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

1874 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

1875 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

1876 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1878 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

1879 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

1880 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1882 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

1883 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1885 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

1886 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

1888 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

1889 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1891 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

1892 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

1893 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

1894 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

1895 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

1897 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

1898 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1900 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

1901 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

1902 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

1904 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

1905 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

1906 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1908 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

1909 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1911 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1913 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

1914 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1917 *** ML ***

1919 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

1921 @{class NAME} -- type class

1922 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

1924 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

1925 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

1926 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

1927 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1929 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

1930 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

1931 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1933 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

1934 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

1936 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

1937 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

1938 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

1940 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

1941 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

1942 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

1943 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

1945 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

1946 the context or even global references.

1948 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

1949 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

1951 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

1952 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

1954 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

1955 OuterLex ~> Token

1956 OuterParse ~> Parse

1957 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

1958 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

1959 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

1960 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

1961 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

1962 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

1963 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

1965 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

1966 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

1968 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

1969 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

1970 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

1971 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

1972 pass the proper local context through the code!

1974 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

1975 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

1976 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

1977 Theory_Data version.

1979 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

1980 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

1981 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

1982 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

1983 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

1984 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

1985 explicitly in rare situations.

1987 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

1988 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

1989 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1991 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

1992 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

1994 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

1995 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

1996 quite rare).

1998 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

1999 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

2001 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

2002 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

2003 terms.

2005 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

2006 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

2007 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

2010 *** System ***

2012 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

2013 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

2014 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

2016 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

2017 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

2018 respectively.

2020 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

2021 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

2022 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

2023 prefers 64 bit if available:

2025 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

2027 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

2028 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

2029 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

2030 component.

2032 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

2033 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

2034 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

2035 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

2036 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

2037 the user for manual installation.

2041 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

2042 -------------------------------------

2044 *** General ***

2046 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

2047 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

2050 *** Pure ***

2052 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

2053 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

2054 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

2056 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

2057 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

2058 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

2060 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

2061 interpretation.

2063 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

2064 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2067 *** Document preparation ***

2069 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

2070 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

2071 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

2072 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

2075 *** HOL ***

2077 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

2078 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

2079 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

2080 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

2081 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

2082 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

2083 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

2084 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

2085 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

2087 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

2088 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

2089 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

2091 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

2092 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

2093 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

2095 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

2096 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

2098 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

2100 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

2101 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

2102 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

2103 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

2105 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

2106 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

2107 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

2108 "mirabelle" utility.

2110 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

2111 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

2112 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

2113 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

2114 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

2115 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

2116 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

2117 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

2118 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

2119 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

2121 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

2122 procedure only.

2124 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

2126 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

2127 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

2128 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

2129 that fail later.

2131 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

2132 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

2134 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

2135 the same method as the approximation method.

2137 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

2138 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

2139 series expansion.

2141 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

2142 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

2144 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

2145 reals.

2147 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

2148 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

2150 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

2151 fixpoint theorem.

2153 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2154 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

2155 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

2156 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

2157 accordingly

2158 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

2159 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

2160 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

2161 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

2163 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

2164 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

2165 lattice.

2167 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

2168 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

2169 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

2170 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

2171 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

2172 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

2173 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2175 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

2176 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

2177 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

2178 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

2179 le_inf_iff

2180 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

2181 sup_aci)

2182 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

2183 - new class "boolean_algebra"

2184 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

2185 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

2186 renamed and with authentic syntax:

2187 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

2188 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

2189 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

2190 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

2191 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

2192 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

2193 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

2194 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

2195 - authentic syntax for

2196 Set.Pow

2197 Set.image

2198 - mere abbreviations:

2199 Set.empty (for bot)

2200 Set.UNIV (for top)

2201 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

2202 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

2203 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

2204 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

2205 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

2206 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

2207 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

2209 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

2210 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

2211 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

2212 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

2214 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

2215 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

2216 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2218 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

2219 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2221 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

2222 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

2223 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

2224 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2226 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

2227 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

2228 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

2229 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

2230 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

2232 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

2233 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

2234 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2236 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

2237 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2239 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

2240 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

2241 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

2242 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

2243 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

2244 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

2245 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

2246 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2248 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

2249 code_unfold replaces code unfold

2250 code_post replaces code post

2251 etc.

2252 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2254 * Renamed methods:

2255 sizechange -> size_change

2256 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2259 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

2260 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

2262 * Renamed theorems:

2263 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

2264 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

2265 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

2266 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

2267 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

2268 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2270 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

2271 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2273 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

2274 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2277 *** HOLCF ***

2279 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

2280 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

2281 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

2283 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

2284 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

2285 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

2286 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

2287 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

2289 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

2290 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

2291 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

2292 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

2293 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

2295 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

2296 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

2297 constructor are pre-configured.

2299 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

2300 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

2301 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

2303 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

2304 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

2305 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

2306 as well.)

2308 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

2309 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

2310 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

2311 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2312 examples.

2315 *** ML ***

2317 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

2318 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

2320 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

2321 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

2322 position, logical grouping etc.

2324 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

2325 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

2326 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

2327 copy operation) is still available for some time.

2329 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

2330 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

2331 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

2332 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

2333 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

2334 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

2336 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

2337 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

2338 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

2339 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

2340 experiments with references.

2342 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

2343 parallel tactical reasoning.

2345 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

2346 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

2347 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

2348 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

2350 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

2351 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

2352 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

2354 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

2355 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

2356 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

2358 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2360 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2363 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

2364 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

2366 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

2367 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

2368 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

2370 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

2371 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

2372 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2374 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

2375 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

2376 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

2377 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2379 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2380 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

2381 instead of global theory.

2384 *** System ***

2386 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

2387 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

2388 usedir option -q.

2390 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

2391 also the system manual.

2393 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

2394 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

2396 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

2397 this is always enabled.

2399 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

2401 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

2402 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

2403 currently supported on Linux only.

2407 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

2408 --------------------------------

2410 *** General ***

2412 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

2413 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2415 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

2416 "isatool."

2418 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

2419 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

2421 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

2422 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

2424 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

2425 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

2426 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

2428 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

2429 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

2430 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

2431 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

2432 via "isabelle emacs".

2434 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

2435 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

2436 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

2438 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

2439 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

2440 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2442 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

2443 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

2444 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

2445 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

2446 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

2448 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

2449 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

2450 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

2451 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2453 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

2454 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

2455 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

2458 *** Pure ***

2460 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

2461 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

2462 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

2464 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

2465 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

2466 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

2467 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

2468 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

2470 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

2471 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

2472 useful in locale declarations.

2474 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

2475 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

2476 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

2477 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

2478 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

2479 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

2480 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

2481 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

2482 no longer generated.

2484 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

2485 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

2486 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

2488 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

2489 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

2490 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

2491 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

2492 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

2494 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

2495 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

2496 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

2497 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

2498 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

2499 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

2500 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

2501 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

2503 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

2504 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

2505 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

2506 the parameters (context element "constrains").

2508 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2510 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

2511 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

2512 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

2514 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

2515 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2517 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

2518 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

2519 in HOL, write

2521 class foo = ...

2523 instead of

2525 class foo = type + ...

2527 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

2528 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2530 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

2531 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

2533 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

2534 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

2535 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

2537 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

2538 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

2539 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

2540 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

2541 directly in regular applications.

2543 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

2544 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

2546 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

2547 interface with 'setup' command instead.

2549 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

2550 theory context.

2552 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

2553 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2555 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

2556 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

2557 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

2558 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

2559 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

2560 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

2562 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

2564 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

2565 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

2566 normalization.

2568 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

2569 addressing etc.

2571 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

2573 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

2574 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

2576 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2578 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

2579 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

2580 parts of the code generator framework).

2582 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

2583 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

2584 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

2586 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2588 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

2589 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2591 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

2592 patterns, e.g.

2594 find_consts "_ => bool"

2596 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

2597 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

2598 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

2599 hyphen:

2601 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

2603 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

2604 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

2606 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

2607 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

2608 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

2609 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

2610 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

2611 higher-order unification.

2614 *** Document preparation ***

2616 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

2617 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

2618 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

2621 *** HOL ***

2623 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

2624 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

2626 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

2627 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

2628 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

2629 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

2630 Main, as before.

2632 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

2633 experimentation due to shorter build times.

2635 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

2636 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

2637 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

2638 new entry point Hypercomplex.

2640 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

2641 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

2642 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

2643 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

2644 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

2645 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

2647 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

2648 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

2649 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

2650 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

2652 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

2653 menu.

2655 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

2656 (contains the empty clause).

2658 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

2659 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

2661 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

2662 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

2664 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

2665 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

2666 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2668 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

2669 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

2670 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

2671 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

2672 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

2674 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

2675 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

2677 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

2678 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

2679 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

2680 are now presented as a list of individual projections

2681 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

2682 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

2683 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

2684 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

2685 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

2687 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

2689 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

2691 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

2692 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2694 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

2695 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

2696 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

2697 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

2699 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

2700 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2702 op Int ~> Set.Int

2703 op Un ~> Set.Un

2704 INTER ~> Set.INTER

2705 UNION ~> Set.UNION

2706 Inter ~> Set.Inter

2707 Union ~> Set.Union

2708 {} ~> Set.empty

2709 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

2711 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

2712 theory Set.

2714 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

2715 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

2717 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

2719 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

2720 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

2722 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

2723 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

2724 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

2725 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

2726 allowed. For examples see

2727 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

2729 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

2731 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

2732 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2734 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

2735 structure:

2737 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

2738 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

2739 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

2740 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

2741 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

2742 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

2743 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2744 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

2745 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

2746 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

2747 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

2748 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

2749 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

2750 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

2751 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

2752 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

2753 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2754 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2755 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

2756 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

2757 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

2758 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

2759 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

2760 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

2761 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

2762 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

2763 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

2764 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

2765 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

2766 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

2767 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

2768 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

2769 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

2771 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2772 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2773 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2774 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

2775 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2776 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2777 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2778 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2779 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2780 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2782 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2783 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2784 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2785 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2786 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2787 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2789 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

2790 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

2791 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

2793 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

2794 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

2795 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

2797 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

2798 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2800 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

2801 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

2803 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

2804 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

2805 proofs, e.g.

2807 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

2809 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

2811 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

2812 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

2813 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2815 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

2816 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

2817 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2819 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

2820 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

2821 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

2822 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2824 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

2825 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

2826 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

2827 preorder_class.*.

2829 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

2830 "diag" to "Id_on".

2832 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

2834 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

2836 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

2837 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

2838 fold_image.

2840 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

2841 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

2842 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

2843 the former will disappear at some point.

2845 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

2846 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

2847 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

2849 rat_power_0 -> power_0

2850 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

2851 realpow_0 -> power_0

2852 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2853 complexpow_0 -> power_0

2854 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2855 power_poly_0 -> power_0

2856 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

2858 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

2859 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

2860 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

2861 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

2862 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

2863 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

2865 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

2866 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

2867 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

2868 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

2869 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

2870 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

2871 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2873 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

2874 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

2875 rename old lemmas as follows:

2877 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

2878 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2879 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2880 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

2881 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

2882 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

2883 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2884 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2885 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

2886 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

2887 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

2888 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

2889 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

2890 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

2891 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

2892 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

2893 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

2894 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

2895 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2896 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2897 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

2898 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

2899 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2900 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

2901 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

2902 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

2903 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2904 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

2905 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

2906 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

2907 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

2908 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

2909 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

2910 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

2911 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

2912 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

2913 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2914 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2915 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

2916 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

2917 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

2918 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

2919 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

2920 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

2921 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2923 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2925 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

2926 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

2928 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

2929 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

2930 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

2931 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

2933 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

2934 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

2935 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

2936 theory RealVector.

2938 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

2939 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

2940 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

2941 and inner products are included.

2943 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

2944 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

2945 supported.

2947 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

2948 first diagonalization argument.

2950 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

2951 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

2952 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

2953 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2954 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

2956 hide (open) const gcd

2957 abbreviation gcd where

2958 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

2959 notation (output)

2960 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

2962 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

2964 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

2965 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

2966 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2968 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

2969 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

2970 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

2971 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

2972 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

2973 instrumentalizing code generation. See

2974 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

2975 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

2976 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

2977 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

2978 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

2979 cases.

2981 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

2982 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

2983 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

2984 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

2985 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

2987 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

2988 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

2989 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

2990 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

2991 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

2994 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2996 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

2997 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

2998 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

3000 * New theory of factorial domains.

3002 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

3003 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

3004 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

3006 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

3008 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

3009 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

3010 least_carrier ~> least_closed

3011 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

3012 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

3013 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

3014 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

3017 *** HOL-Nominal ***

3019 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

3021 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

3022 theory targets.

3024 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

3025 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

3026 'inductive' etc.

3028 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

3029 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

3031 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

3032 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

3034 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

3035 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

3036 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

3037 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

3038 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

3039 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

3040 the algorithm W:

3042 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

3043 -----------------------------------------------------------------

3044 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

3046 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

3047 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

3048 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

3051 *** HOLCF ***

3053 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

3054 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

3055 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

3057 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

3058 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

3059 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

3060 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

3061 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3063 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

3064 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

3065 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3068 *** ZF ***

3070 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

3073 *** ML ***

3075 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

3076 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

3077 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

3078 5.2.1!

3080 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

3081 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

3082 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

3083 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

3084 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

3085 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

3086 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

3088 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

3089 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

3090 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

3091 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

3092 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

3093 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

3094 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

3096 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

3097 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

3098 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

3099 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

3100 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

3102 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

3103 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

3104 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

3105 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

3106 Method.add_method.

3108 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

3109 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

3110 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

3111 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

3112 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

3113 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

3115 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

3116 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

3117 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

3118 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

3119 examples.

3121 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

3122 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

3123 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

3124 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

3125 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

3126 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

3127 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

3128 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

3129 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

3130 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

3132 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

3133 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

3134 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

3136 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

3137 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

3138 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

3139 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

3140 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

3141 resort for legacy applications.

3143 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

3144 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

3145 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

3146 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

3147 explicit runtime argument.

3149 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

3150 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

3151 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

3152 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

3153 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3155 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

3156 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

3157 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

3158 theory state.

3160 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

3161 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

3163 @{binding name} - basic name binding

3164 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

3165 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

3166 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

3167 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

3168 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

3169 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

3170 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

3171 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

3172 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

3175 *** System ***

3177 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

3178 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

3179 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

3180 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

3181 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

3183 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

3184 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

3185 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

3186 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

3188 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

3190 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

3191 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

3192 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

3193 prover operations.

3197 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

3198 -------------------------------

3200 *** General ***

3202 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

3203 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

3205 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

3206 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

3207 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

3208 provides a proper context already.

3210 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3211 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

3212 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

3214 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

3215 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

3216 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

3217 swap theory imports.

3219 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

3220 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

3222 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

3223 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3224 white space without escapes.

3226 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

3227 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

3228 "foo_bar".

3231 *** Pure ***

3233 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

3234 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

3236 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

3237 There are three ways of invoking it:

3239 (1) unused_thms

3240 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

3242 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

3243 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

3244 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

3246 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

3247 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

3248 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

3249 their ancestors.

3251 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

3252 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

3253 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

3254 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

3255 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

3256 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

3257 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

3259 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

3260 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

3261 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

3263 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

3264 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

3265 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

3266 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

3267 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

3269 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

3271 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

3272 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

3273 update of theories within ML code.

3275 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

3276 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

3277 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

3278 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

3280 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

3281 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

3282 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3285 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

3287 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

3288 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

3289 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

3290 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

3291 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

3293 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

3294 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

3295 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

3296 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

3297 situations.

3299 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

3300 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

3301 proof text.

3303 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

3304 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

3306 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

3307 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

3308 predicates.

3311 *** Document preparation ***

3313 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

3314 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

3315 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

3316 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

3317 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

3318 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

3320 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

3321 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

3322 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

3325 *** HOL ***

3327 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

3328 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

3329 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

3330 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

3331 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

3332 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

3334 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

3335 with multithreading.

3337 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

3338 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

3339 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

3341 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

3342 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

3343 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

3344 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3346 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

3347 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

3348 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

3349 and makes them available separately. See

3350 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

3352 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

3353 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

3354 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

3355 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

3356 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

3357 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

3358 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

3359 the declared rules.

3361 This setup also deals with rules like

3363 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

3365 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

3366 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

3368 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

3370 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3372 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

3373 definitions on => and bool.

3375 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

3376 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

3377 the following theorems have been renamed:

3379 subset_def -> subset_eq

3380 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

3381 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

3382 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

3383 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

3384 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

3385 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

3386 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

3388 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

3389 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

3390 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

3392 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

3393 The proof pattern

3395 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3396 then have "EX S. P S" ..

3398 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

3399 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

3401 have "EX S. P S"

3402 proof

3403 show "P S" <...>

3404 qed

3406 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

3407 The proof pattern

3409 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3410 also have "S = T" <...>

3411 finally have "P T" .

3413 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

3414 must be replaced by something like

3416 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3417 moreover have "S = T" <...>

3418 ultimately have "P T" by simp

3420 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

3421 Code performing pattern matching on types via

3423 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

3425 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

3426 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

3427 type of the form

3429 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

3431 rather than

3433 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

3435 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

3436 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

3438 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3440 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

3441 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

3442 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3444 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

3445 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3447 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

3448 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3450 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

3451 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

3452 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3454 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

3455 the same name in theory Orderings:

3457 less_trans

3458 less_linear

3459 le_imp_less_or_eq

3460 le_less_trans

3461 less_le_trans

3462 less_not_sym

3463 less_asym

3465 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

3466 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

3467 and different variable names.

3469 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

3471 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

3472 finite maps.

3474 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

3476 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

3477 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

3478 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

3479 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

3480 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

3481 accordingly.

3483 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

3484 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

3485 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

3486 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

3488 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

3489 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

3490 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

3491 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

3492 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3495 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

3496 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3498 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

3499 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

3500 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

3502 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

3503 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3505 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

3506 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

3508 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

3509 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3511 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

3512 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3514 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

3515 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

3516 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3518 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

3519 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3521 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

3522 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

3523 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

3524 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

3525 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

3526 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3528 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

3529 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

3530 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

3532 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

3534 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

3536 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

3537 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

3538 well-orders on sets and on types.

3541 *** ZF ***

3543 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

3544 same session:

3546 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

3547 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

3548 Int -> Int_ZF

3549 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

3550 Nat -> Nat_ZF

3551 List -> List_ZF

3552 Main -> Main_ZF

3554 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

3555 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

3556 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

3559 *** ML ***

3561 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

3562 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

3564 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

3565 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

3567 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

3569 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

3570 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

3571 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

3572 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

3573 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3575 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

3576 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

3577 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

3580 *** System ***

3582 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

3583 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

3585 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

3586 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

3587 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

3589 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

3590 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

3592 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

3593 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

3594 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

3596 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

3597 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

3598 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

3600 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

3601 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

3603 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

3604 way of changing the user's settings is via

3605 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

3606 script.

3608 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

3609 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

3610 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

3611 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

3612 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

3614 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

3615 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

3616 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

3620 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

3621 -----------------------------------

3623 *** General ***

3625 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

3626 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

3627 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

3628 legacy features will disappear eventually.

3630 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

3631 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

3632 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3634 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

3635 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

3636 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

3637 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3639 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

3640 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

3641 quotes.

3643 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

3644 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

3645 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

3646 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

3647 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

3648 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

3649 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

3650 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

3651 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

3653 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

3654 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

3655 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

3656 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

3657 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

3658 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

3660 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3661 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

3662 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

3663 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

3665 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

3666 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

3667 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

3668 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

3669 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

3670 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

3672 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

3673 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

3674 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

3675 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

3676 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

3677 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

3678 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

3679 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

3681 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

3682 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

3683 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

3684 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

3685 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

3686 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

3687 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

3689 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

3690 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

3691 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

3693 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

3694 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

3695 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

3696 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

3697 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

3698 limit is imposed.

3700 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

3701 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

3702 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

3703 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

3704 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

3705 and scalability.

3707 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

3708 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

3711 *** Document preparation ***

3713 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

3714 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

3715 current context.

3717 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

3718 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

3720 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

3721 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

3722 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

3725 *** Pure ***

3727 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

3728 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

3729 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

3730 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

3731 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

3732 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

3733 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

3734 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

3735 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

3736 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

3738 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

3739 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

3740 sketch:

3742 internal compilation:

3743 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

3744 writing SML code to a file:

3745 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

3746 writing OCaml code to a file:

3747 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

3748 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

3749 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

3751 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

3752 method ``eval''

3754 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

3756 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

3758 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3759 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3760 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3761 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3763 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

3765 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

3766 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

3768 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

3769 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

3771 code_instance <and-list of instances>

3772 {(target)}+

3773 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

3775 code_class <and_list of classes>

3776 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

3777 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

3779 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

3781 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

3782 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

3783 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

3784 codegen".

3786 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

3787 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

3788 annotations).

3790 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

3791 syntax.

3793 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

3794 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

3795 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

3796 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

3797 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

3798 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

3800 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

3801 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

3802 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

3803 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

3804 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

3805 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

3806 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

3807 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

3808 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

3809 equations, see section "definitions".

3811 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

3812 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

3813 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

3814 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

3815 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

3816 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

3817 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

3818 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

3819 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

3820 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

3822 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

3823 configuration options:

3825 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

3826 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

3827 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

3828 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

3829 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

3830 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

3831 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

3832 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

3833 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

3835 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

3836 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

3837 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

3838 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

3839 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

3840 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

3841 order.

3843 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

3844 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

3845 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

3846 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

3847 context encountered later on.

3849 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

3850 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

3851 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

3852 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

3854 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

3855 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

3856 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

3857 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

3858 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

3859 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

3861 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

3862 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

3863 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

3864 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

3865 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

3866 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

3867 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

3868 more permissive.

3870 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

3871 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

3872 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

3873 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

3874 maintainability of proof texts.

3876 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

3877 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

3879 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

3880 then guess x and y by clarify

3882 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

3883 proof tools being involved here.

3885 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

3886 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

3887 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

3888 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

3889 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

3890 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

3891 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

3892 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

3894 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

3895 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

3896 certain special cases of literal facts:

3898 have "A" by fact == note `A`

3899 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

3900 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

3901 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

3903 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

3904 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

3905 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

3907 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

3908 both named and unnamed ones.

3910 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

3912 def x == "t" and y == "u"

3914 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

3915 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

3916 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

3917 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

3919 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

3920 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

3921 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

3922 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

3923 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

3925 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

3926 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

3928 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

3929 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

3930 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

3931 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

3932 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

3933 originally first one.

3935 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

3936 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

3937 expected.

3939 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

3940 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

3941 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

3942 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

3943 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

3945 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3946 assumes "EX x. P x"

3947 obtains x where "P x"

3949 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3950 assumes "A & B"

3951 obtains A and B

3953 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3954 assumes "A | B"

3955 obtains

3956 A

3957 | B

3959 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

3960 explicitly:

3962 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3963 obtains "~ thesis"

3965 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3966 obtains "thesis ==> something"

3968 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

3969 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

3970 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

3971 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

3972 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

3973 case_names).

3975 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

3976 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

3977 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

3978 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

3980 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

3981 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

3982 top-level lemma.

3984 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

3985 introduction rule (default "that").

3987 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3988 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

3989 to occur.

3991 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

3992 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

3993 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

3994 representations independently of name spaces.

3996 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

3997 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

3998 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4000 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

4001 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

4002 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

4003 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

4004 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

4005 current context.

4007 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

4008 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

4009 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

4010 isar-ref manual. Examples:

4012 axiomatization

4013 eq (infix "===" 50) where

4014 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

4016 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

4017 definition g where "g x = f x x"

4019 abbreviation

4020 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

4021 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

4023 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

4024 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

4025 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

4026 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

4027 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

4028 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

4029 entities from a monomorphic theory.

4031 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

4032 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

4033 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

4034 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

4035 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

4037 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

4038 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

4039 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

4040 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

4042 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

4043 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

4044 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

4046 definition "K x _ = x"

4048 inductive conj for A B

4049 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

4051 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

4052 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

4053 abbreviations on output.

4055 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

4056 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

4057 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

4058 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

4060 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

4061 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

4062 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

4063 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

4064 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

4065 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

4066 `unfold_locales'; see below.

4068 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

4069 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

4070 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

4071 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

4072 unfold predicates to assumptions.

4074 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

4075 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

4076 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

4078 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

4079 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

4080 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

4081 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

4082 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

4084 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

4085 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

4087 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

4088 definition specification element in the context of locale

4089 partial_order.

4091 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

4092 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

4093 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

4094 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

4095 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

4096 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

4097 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

4098 examples.

4100 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

4101 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

4102 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

4103 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

4104 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

4106 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

4107 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

4108 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

4109 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

4110 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

4112 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

4113 (induct set: foo bar)

4114 (induct pred: foo bar)

4115 (induct type: foo bar)

4117 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

4118 new format.

4120 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

4121 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

4123 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

4124 considered a legacy feature.

4126 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

4127 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4129 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

4130 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

4131 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

4132 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

4134 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

4135 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

4136 manipulating the claset.

4138 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

4139 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

4140 least one premise.

4142 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

4143 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

4144 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

4145 rule steps.

4147 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

4148 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

4149 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

4150 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

4151 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

4152 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

4154 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

4155 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

4156 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

4158 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

4159 the graph browser tool.

4161 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

4162 default; use '!' option for full details.

4165 *** HOL ***

4167 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

4168 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

4169 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

4170 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

4171 multi-threading.

4173 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

4174 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

4175 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

4176 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

4177 work with multi-threading.

4179 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

4180 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

4181 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

4182 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

4183 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

4185 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

4187 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

4188 equality.

4190 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

4191 the new 'class' package:

4193 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

4194 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

4195 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

4196 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

4197 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

4198 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

4199 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

4200 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

4201 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

4202 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

4203 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

4204 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

4205 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

4206 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

4207 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

4208 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

4209 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

4210 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

4211 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

4212 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

4214 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

4216 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

4217 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

4218 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

4219 names.

4221 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

4222 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

4224 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

4225 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

4226 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

4227 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

4228 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

4230 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

4231 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

4232 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

4233 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

4235 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

4237 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

4238 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

4239 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

4240 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

4241 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4243 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

4244 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4246 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

4247 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

4248 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4250 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

4251 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

4253 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

4254 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

4255 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

4256 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

4257 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

4258 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

4259 in the current context.

4261 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

4262 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4265 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

4266 with new class dense_linear_order.

4268 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

4270 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

4271 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

4273 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

4274 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

4275 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

4276 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

4278 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

4279 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

4281 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

4283 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

4284 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

4285 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

4286 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

4287 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

4288 le_meetI ~> le_infI

4289 join_leI ~> le_supI

4290 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

4291 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

4292 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

4293 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

4294 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

4295 join_comm ~> sup_commute

4296 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

4297 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

4298 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

4299 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

4300 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

4301 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

4302 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

4303 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

4304 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

4305 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

4306 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

4307 join_aci ~> sup_aci

4308 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

4309 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

4310 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

4311 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

4312 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

4313 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

4314 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

4315 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

4316 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

4317 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

4319 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

4320 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

4321 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

4322 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

4323 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

4324 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

4325 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

4326 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

4327 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

4328 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

4329 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

4330 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

4331 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

4332 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

4333 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

4334 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

4335 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

4337 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

4338 mono_join ~> mono_sup

4339 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

4340 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

4341 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

4342 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

4343 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

4344 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

4345 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

4346 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

4347 meet1I ~> inf1I

4348 meet2I ~> inf2I

4349 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

4350 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

4351 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

4352 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

4353 meet1E ~> inf1E

4354 meet2E ~> inf2E

4355 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

4356 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

4357 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4358 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

4359 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4360 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

4361 join1CI ~> sup1CI

4362 join2CI ~> sup2CI

4363 join1E ~> sup1E

4364 join2E ~> sup2E

4366 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

4367 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

4368 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

4369 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

4370 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

4371 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

4373 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

4374 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

4375 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

4376 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

4378 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

4379 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

4381 meet_min ~> inf_min

4382 join_max ~> sup_max

4384 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

4385 type "'a::size ==> bool"

4387 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

4388 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

4389 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

4390 "*.size".

4392 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

4393 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4395 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

4396 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

4397 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4399 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4401 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

4402 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

4403 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

4404 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

4405 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

4406 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

4407 numerals on all operations.

4409 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

4411 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

4413 * Code generator library theories:

4414 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

4415 languages.

4416 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

4417 languages.

4418 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

4419 codes; includes Code_Integer.

4420 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

4421 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

4422 denominator).

4423 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

4424 representable by rational numbers.

4425 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

4426 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

4427 includes Code_Integer.

4428 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

4429 target-language built-in integers.

4430 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

4431 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

4433 * New package for inductive predicates

4435 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

4437 inductive

4438 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4439 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4440 where

4441 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4442 | ...

4444 with full support for type-inference, rather than

4446 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4448 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4449 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4451 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

4452 intros

4453 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4454 ...

4456 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

4457 sets to be defined with the new package via

4459 inductive_set

4460 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4461 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4462 where

4463 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4464 | ...

4466 or

4468 inductive_set

4469 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4470 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4471 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4472 where

4473 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4474 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4475 | ...

4477 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

4479 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

4480 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

4482 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4484 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

4485 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

4486 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

4487 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

4488 than before the actual inductive definition.

4490 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

4491 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

4492 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

4493 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

4494 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

4495 statements of the form

4497 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

4499 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

4500 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

4502 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

4504 - The format of the elimination rules is now

4506 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

4507 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4508 ==> ... ==> P

4510 for predicates and

4512 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4513 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4514 ==> ... ==> P

4516 for sets rather than

4518 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4519 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

4520 ==> ... ==> P

4522 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

4523 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

4524 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

4526 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

4527 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

4528 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

4530 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

4531 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

4532 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

4533 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

4534 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

4535 users are encouraged to use the new package.

4537 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

4538 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

4540 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

4541 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

4542 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

4543 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

4544 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

4545 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

4546 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

4547 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

4548 variable.

4550 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

4551 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

4552 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

4553 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

4554 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

4555 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

4557 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

4558 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

4559 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

4560 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

4561 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

4562 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

4563 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

4564 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

4565 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

4567 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

4568 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

4569 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

4570 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

4571 rat, etc.

4573 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

4574 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

4575 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

4577 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

4579 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

4580 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

4582 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

4583 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

4585 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

4586 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

4587 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4589 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

4590 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

4591 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4593 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

4595 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

4597 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

4598 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

4599 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

4600 positive/negative (in inequations).

4602 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

4603 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

4604 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

4605 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4607 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

4608 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

4609 algebraic operations.

4611 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

4612 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4614 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

4615 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4617 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

4618 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

4619 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

4620 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

4621 adapted.

4623 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

4624 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

4625 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

4626 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

4627 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

4629 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

4630 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

4631 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

4633 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

4634 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

4635 better use 'abbreviation'.

4637 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4639 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

4640 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

4641 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

4642 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

4643 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

4644 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

4645 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

4646 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

4648 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

4650 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

4651 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

4652 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

4653 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

4654 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

4655 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

4657 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

4658 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

4659 "A = B" (with priority 50).

4661 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

4662 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

4663 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

4664 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4666 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

4668 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

4669 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4671 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

4672 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

4674 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

4675 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

4676 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

4678 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

4679 True/False.

4681 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

4683 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

4685 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

4686 ``rule'' method.

4688 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

4689 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

4690 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

4691 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

4693 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

4694 zChaff is still supported as well.

4696 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

4697 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

4699 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

4700 Library.

4702 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

4704 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

4705 as greatest fixed-point.

4707 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

4708 association lists.

4710 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

4711 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

4712 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

4714 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

4715 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

4716 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4717 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

4718 behavior.

4720 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

4722 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

4723 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

4724 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

4725 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

4726 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

4727 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

4729 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

4730 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

4731 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

4732 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

4733 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

4734 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

4735 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

4737 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

4738 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

4740 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

4741 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

4742 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

4743 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

4744 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

4747 *** HOL-Complex ***

4749 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

4750 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

4751 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

4752 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

4753 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4755 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

4756 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

4757 and norm :: 'a => real.

4759 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

4760 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

4761 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4763 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

4764 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

4766 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

4767 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

4768 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

4769 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4771 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4772 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4773 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4774 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

4775 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4776 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4777 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4778 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4779 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4780 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4781 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

4782 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4783 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

4784 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

4785 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

4787 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

4788 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

4789 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

4790 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4792 approx <-- capprox

4793 HFinite <-- CFinite

4794 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

4795 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

4796 monad <-- cmonad

4797 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

4798 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

4799 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

4800 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

4803 *** HOL-Algebra ***

4805 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

4807 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

4808 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4810 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

4811 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4813 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

4814 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

4815 of algebraic structures.

4817 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

4820 *** HOL-Nominal ***

4822 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

4823 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

4824 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

4825 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

4828 *** ML ***

4830 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

4831 (even on SML/NJ).

4833 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

4834 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

4835 compile-time. For example:

4837 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

4838 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

4839 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

4840 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

4841 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

4842 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

4843 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

4844 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

4845 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

4846 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

4847 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

4848 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

4849 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

4850 ML {* @{context} *}

4851 ML {* @{theory} *}

4852 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

4853 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

4854 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

4855 ML {* @{simpset} *}

4856 ML {* @{claset} *}

4857 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

4859 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

4861 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

4862 ML_Context.trace enabled.

4864 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

4865 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

4866 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

4868 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

4869 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

4871 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

4872 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

4873 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

4875 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

4876 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

4877 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

4878 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

4879 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

4880 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

4881 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

4882 declarations and definitions.

4884 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

4885 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

4886 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

4887 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

4889 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

4890 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

4891 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

4892 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4894 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

4895 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

4896 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

4897 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

4898 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

4899 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

4901 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

4902 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

4903 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

4904 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

4905 attributes, methods, etc.

4907 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

4908 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

4909 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

4910 fold_map combinators.

4912 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

4913 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

4914 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

4915 derivation.

4917 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

4918 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

4919 achieve the old behaviour.

4921 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

4922 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

4923 statements.

4925 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

4926 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

4927 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

4929 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

4930 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

4931 some popular functions from term.ML:

4933 Term.variant -> Name.variant

4934 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

4935 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

4937 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

4938 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

4940 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

4941 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

4942 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

4943 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

4944 various freeze_thaw operations.

4946 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

4947 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

4948 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

4949 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

4950 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

4951 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

4952 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

4953 in a locale context).

4955 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

4956 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

4957 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

4958 which are considered legacy and await removal.

4960 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

4961 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

4962 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

4963 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

4964 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

4965 a mere theory instead of a full context.

4967 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

4968 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

4969 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

4970 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

4971 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

4973 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

4975 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

4976 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

4977 this:

4979 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

4981 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

4982 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

4983 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

4984 -- use plain ERROR instead.

4986 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

4987 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

4989 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

4990 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

4992 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

4993 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

4994 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

4995 batch mode.

4997 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

4998 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

4999 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

5000 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5002 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

5003 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

5004 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

5005 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

5006 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

5008 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

5009 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

5010 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

5011 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

5012 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

5013 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

5015 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

5016 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

5017 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

5018 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5020 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

5021 "Trueprop" etc.

5024 *** System ***

5026 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

5027 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

5028 Isabelle installations.

5030 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

5031 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

5032 code.

5034 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

5036 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

5037 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

5038 independent theories, according to the given theory header

5039 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

5040 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

5041 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

5042 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

5043 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

5044 Implementation manual.

5048 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

5049 ----------------------------------

5051 *** General ***

5053 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

5055 theory <name>

5056 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

5057 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

5058 begin

5060 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

5062 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

5064 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

5065 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

5066 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

5068 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

5069 relative and absolute paths.

5071 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

5072 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

5073 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

5074 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

5075 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

5076 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

5077 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

5078 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

5079 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

5081 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

5083 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

5084 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

5085 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

5087 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

5088 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

5090 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

5091 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

5092 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

5093 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

5095 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

5096 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

5098 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

5099 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

5100 faster.

5103 *** Document preparation ***

5105 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

5106 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

5107 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

5108 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

5109 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

5110 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

5112 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

5113 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

5114 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

5115 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

5116 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

5117 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

5118 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

5119 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

5120 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

5121 \isadroptag.

5123 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

5124 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

5125 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

5126 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

5127 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

5128 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

5129 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

5130 specified above.

5132 * Several new antiquotations:

5134 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

5136 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

5138 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

5139 argument is a known logical constant;

5141 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

5142 theorem applying a "style" to it

5144 @{ML text}

5146 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

5147 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

5148 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

5149 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

5150 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

5151 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

5152 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

5154 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

5155 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

5156 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

5157 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

5159 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

5160 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

5161 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

5163 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

5164 a proof context.

5166 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

5167 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

5169 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

5170 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

5172 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

5173 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

5174 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

5177 *** Pure ***

5179 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

5180 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

5181 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

5182 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

5183 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

5184 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

5185 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

5187 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

5188 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

5189 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

5190 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

5191 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

5192 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

5193 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

5194 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

5196 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

5197 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

5198 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

5200 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

5201 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

5202 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

5204 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

5205 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

5206 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

5207 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

5208 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5210 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

5211 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

5212 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

5213 axclasses vs. locales.

5215 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

5216 instead of base 26 numbers.

5218 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

5219 marks in schematic variable names.

5221 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

5222 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

5223 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

5225 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

5226 by simp

5228 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

5230 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

5231 annotations as "(00...)".

5233 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

5234 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

5235 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

5236 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

5237 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

5238 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

5239 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

5241 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

5242 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

5243 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

5244 specifications.

5246 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

5247 locally fixed variables as well.

5249 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

5250 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

5251 Limit.

5253 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

5254 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

5255 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

5256 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

5257 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

5258 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

5259 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

5261 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

5262 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

5263 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

5265 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5267 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

5268 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

5269 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

5270 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

5271 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

5272 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

5274 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

5275 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

5277 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

5278 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

5279 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

5281 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

5283 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

5284 theory development.

5286 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

5287 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

5288 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

5289 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

5291 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

5292 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

5293 quoted when used as identifier.

5296 *** Locales ***

5298 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

5299 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

5300 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

5301 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

5302 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

5303 commands is a follows:

5305 (1) interpretation expr inst

5306 (2) interpretation target < expr

5307 (3) interpret expr inst

5309 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

5310 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

5311 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

5312 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

5313 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

5314 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

5315 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

5316 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

5317 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

5318 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

5320 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

5321 'interpret' instead.

5323 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

5324 parameters.

5326 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

5327 redeclaration.

5329 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

5331 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

5332 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

5333 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

5334 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

5335 to attribute arguments as expected.

5337 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

5338 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

5339 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

5340 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

5341 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

5342 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

5343 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

5344 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

5345 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

5346 values to argument tokens explicitly.

5348 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

5349 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

5350 theorem statement in rare situations.

5352 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

5353 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

5356 *** Provers ***

5358 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

5359 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

5360 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

5361 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

5362 still available as 'simplesubst'.

5364 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

5365 and quasi orders.

5367 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

5368 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

5370 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

5371 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

5373 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

5374 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

5375 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5378 *** HOL ***

5380 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

5382 syntax (epsilon)

5383 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

5385 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

5386 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

5387 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

5388 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

5390 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

5391 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

5392 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

5393 support corresponding Isar calculations.

5395 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

5396 instead of ":".

5398 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

5400 Old New

5401 {..n(} {..<n}

5402 {)n..} {n<..}

5403 {m..n(} {m..<n}

5404 {)m..n} {m<..n}

5405 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

5407 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

5408 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

5409 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

5411 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

5412 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

5414 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

5415 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

5416 interface.

5418 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

5419 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

5420 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

5421 be a tuple pattern.

5423 Some new syntax forms are available:

5425 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

5426 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

5427 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

5428 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

5430 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

5431 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

5433 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

5434 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

5435 (insert F x)'.

5437 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

5438 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

5439 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

5441 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

5442 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

5443 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

5445 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

5446 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

5447 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

5448 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5449 in unstructured proof scripts.

5451 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

5452 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

5453 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

5454 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

5455 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

5456 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

5457 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

5458 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

5459 <record_name>_ext_type.

5461 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

5462 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

5463 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

5464 quite long.

5466 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

5467 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

5468 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

5469 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

5471 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

5472 type-variables in the term.

5474 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

5475 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

5476 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

5477 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

5478 goals than previously.

5480 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

5481 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

5482 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

5483 just like y <= x.

5485 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

5486 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

5487 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

5488 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

5489 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

5490 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

5491 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

5493 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

5495 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

5496 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

5498 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

5499 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

5500 inequalities.

5502 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5503 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5505 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

5506 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

5507 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

5508 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

5509 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

5510 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

5511 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

5512 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

5513 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

5514 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

5515 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

5517 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

5519 zero_le_square

5520 not_square_less_zero

5522 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

5524 realpow_zero_zero

5525 realpow_two

5526 realpow_less

5527 zero_le_power

5528 realpow_two_le

5529 abs_realpow_two

5530 realpow_two_abs

5532 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

5534 * Theory List:

5536 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5537 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5539 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

5540 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

5541 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

5542 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

5544 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

5545 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

5548 *** HOL-Complex ***

5550 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

5551 integers in the reals.

5553 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5554 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5556 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

5557 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5558 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5559 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5560 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5562 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

5564 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

5566 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

5567 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

5569 hypreal = real star

5570 hypnat = nat star

5571 hcomplex = complex star

5573 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

5574 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5576 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

5578 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

5579 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

5580 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

5581 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

5582 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

5584 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5585 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

5586 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

5587 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

5588 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

5590 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

5591 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5593 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

5594 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

5595 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

5596 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

5597 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

5598 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

5599 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

5600 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

5601 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

5602 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

5603 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

5604 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

5605 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

5606 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

5607 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

5608 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

5609 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

5610 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

5611 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

5612 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

5613 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

5614 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

5615 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

5616 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

5618 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

5619 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

5620 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5622 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

5623 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

5624 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

5625 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

5626 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

5627 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

5628 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

5629 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

5630 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

5631 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

5632 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

5633 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

5634 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

5635 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

5636 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

5637 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

5638 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

5639 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

5640 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

5641 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

5642 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

5643 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

5644 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

5645 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5646 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5647 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

5648 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

5649 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

5650 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

5651 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

5652 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

5653 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

5654 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

5655 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

5656 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

5657 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

5658 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

5659 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

5660 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

5661 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

5662 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

5663 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

5664 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

5665 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

5666 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

5667 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

5668 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

5669 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

5670 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

5671 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

5672 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

5673 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

5674 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

5675 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

5677 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

5678 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

5679 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

5680 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

5681 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

5682 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

5683 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

5684 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

5685 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

5686 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

5687 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

5689 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

5690 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

5691 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

5692 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

5693 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

5694 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

5695 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

5696 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

5697 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

5698 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

5699 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

5700 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

5701 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

5702 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

5703 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

5704 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

5705 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

5706 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

5707 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

5708 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

5709 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

5711 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

5712 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

5713 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

5714 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

5715 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

5716 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

5718 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

5721 *** HOLCF ***

5723 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

5724 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

5725 type-inference.

5727 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

5728 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

5729 instead of exponential time).

5731 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

5732 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

5734 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

5736 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

5737 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

5738 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

5739 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

5740 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

5741 syntax and examples.

5743 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

5744 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

5745 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

5746 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

5747 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

5749 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

5750 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5752 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

5753 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

5754 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

5755 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

5756 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

5757 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

5760 *** ZF ***

5762 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

5763 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

5764 of a homomorphism).

5766 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

5767 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

5768 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

5771 *** Cube ***

5773 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

5774 theories.

5777 *** ML ***

5779 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

5780 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

5782 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

5783 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

5784 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

5785 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

5786 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

5788 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

5789 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

5790 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

5791 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

5793 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

5794 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

5795 suggests how one can translate existing code:

5797 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

5798 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

5799 last_elem xs = List.last xs

5800 flat xss = List.concat xss

5801 seq fs = List.app fs

5802 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

5803 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

5805 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

5806 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

5808 x |> f f #> g

5809 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

5811 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

5813 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

5814 infix 2 ?;

5815 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

5816 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

5818 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

5819 infix operators.

5821 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

5822 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

5823 example:

5825 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

5826 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

5828 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

5829 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

5831 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

5832 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

5834 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

5835 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

5837 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

5838 available:

5840 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

5841 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

5842 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

5843 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

5845 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5846 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

5847 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

5848 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

5849 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

5851 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

5852 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

5853 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

5855 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5857 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

5858 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

5860 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

5861 Naive rewrites:

5863 make_keylist = AList.make

5864 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

5866 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

5867 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

5869 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

5870 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

5872 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

5873 Naive rewrites:

5875 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

5876 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

5878 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

5879 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

5880 lists.

5882 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

5883 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

5884 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

5885 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

5887 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

5888 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

5889 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

5890 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

5891 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

5892 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

5893 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

5894 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

5895 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

5896 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

5897 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

5898 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

5899 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

5900 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

5901 Output.raw have no effect.

5903 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

5904 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

5905 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

5907 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

5908 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

5909 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

5910 internal and external process view of file names are different.

5912 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

5913 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

5914 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

5915 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

5916 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

5917 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

5918 Library.sort_strings on result).

5920 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

5921 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

5922 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

5923 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

5925 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

5926 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

5927 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

5928 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

5929 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

5930 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

5931 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

5932 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

5933 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

5934 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

5935 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

5937 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

5938 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

5939 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

5940 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

5941 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

5942 with earlier declarations.

5944 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

5945 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

5946 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

5948 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

5949 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

5950 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

5951 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

5952 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

5953 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

5955 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

5956 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

5958 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

5959 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

5961 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

5962 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

5963 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

5964 Theory.merge, etc.)

5966 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

5967 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

5968 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

5970 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

5972 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

5973 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

5974 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

5975 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

5977 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

5978 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

5979 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

5980 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

5981 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

5982 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

5983 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

5984 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

5986 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

5987 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

5988 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5990 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

5991 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

5992 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

5994 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

5995 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

5997 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5998 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5999 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

6000 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

6002 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

6004 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

6005 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

6006 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

6007 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

6008 (both increase the runtime).

6010 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

6011 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

6012 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

6014 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

6015 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

6016 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

6017 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

6018 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

6019 for further details.

6021 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

6022 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

6023 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

6024 scripts for the time being.

6026 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

6027 generated HTML files. For example:

6029 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

6030 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

6033 *** System ***

6035 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

6036 isabelle, isatool etc.).

6038 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

6039 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

6041 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

6042 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

6044 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

6045 distribution being used.

6047 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

6048 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

6049 theories.

6053 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

6054 --------------------------------

6056 *** General ***

6058 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

6059 Replaces linorder.ML.

6061 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

6062 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

6063 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

6064 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

6065 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

6066 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

6067 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

6068 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

6069 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

6070 existing theory and ML files.

6072 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

6074 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

6075 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

6076 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

6077 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

6079 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

6080 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

6081 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

6082 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

6084 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

6085 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

6086 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

6088 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

6089 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

6090 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

6091 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

6092 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

6094 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

6095 (i.e. intersections of classes),

6097 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

6098 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

6099 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

6102 *** Isar ***

6104 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

6105 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

6106 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

6107 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

6108 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

6109 emulations.

6110 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

6111 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

6112 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

6114 * Attributes "where" and "of":

6115 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

6116 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

6117 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

6118 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

6120 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

6121 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

6122 and derived forms.

6124 * Locales:

6125 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

6126 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

6127 "_axioms") in the premise.

6128 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

6129 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

6130 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

6131 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

6132 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

6133 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

6134 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

6135 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

6136 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

6137 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

6138 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

6139 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

6140 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

6141 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

6142 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

6143 with "locale (open)".

6144 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

6146 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

6147 (Isar) contexts.

6150 *** HOL ***

6152 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

6153 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

6154 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

6155 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

6156 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

6158 * Simplifier:

6159 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

6160 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

6161 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

6162 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

6163 to solve goals from the assumptions.

6164 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

6165 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

6166 is solved by simplification already.

6168 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

6169 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

6171 * Numerics:

6172 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

6173 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

6174 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

6175 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

6176 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

6177 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

6178 exponentiation).

6180 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

6182 * Records:

6183 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

6184 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

6185 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

6186 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

6187 (not enabled by default).

6188 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

6189 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

6190 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

6192 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

6193 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

6194 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

6196 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

6198 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

6200 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

6201 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

6203 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

6204 matrix theory to linear programming.

6206 * Unions and Intersections:

6207 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

6208 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

6209 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

6210 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

6212 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

6213 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

6214 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

6215 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

6217 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

6218 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

6220 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

6221 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

6223 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

6224 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

6225 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

6227 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

6228 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

6229 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

6230 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"