NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Sep 27 20:45:15 2011 +0200 (2011-09-27 ago)
changeset 45097 d0f851903e55
parent 45089 24ad77c3a147
child 45109 20b3377b08d7
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned README.html;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
     5 ------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
    10 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
    11 
    12   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
    13     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
    14     files for checking).
    15 
    16   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
    17     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
    18     positions.
    19 
    20   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
    21     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
    22     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
    23 
    24   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
    25     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
    26     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
    27 
    28   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
    29     cores.
    30 
    31   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
    32     versions (garbage collection).
    33 
    34 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
    35 including some remaining limitations.
    36 
    37 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    38 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    39 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    40 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    41 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    45 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    46 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    47 
    48 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    49 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    50 usedir option -Q.
    51 
    52 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    53 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    54 
    55   long_names   ~> names_long
    56   short_names  ~> names_short
    57   unique_names ~> names_unique
    58 
    59 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
    60 
    61   declare [[names_unique = false]]
    62 
    63 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
    64 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
    65 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
    66 
    67 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
    68 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
    69 
    70 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
    71   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
    72   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
    73   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
    74     "Classical Reasoner".
    75 
    76 
    77 *** HOL ***
    78 
    79 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
    80 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    81 
    82 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
    83 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
    84 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
    85 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
    86 class complete_linorder.
    87 
    88 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
    89 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
    90 
    91 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
    92 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
    93 
    94   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
    95   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
    96   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
    97   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
    98   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
    99   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   100   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   101   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   102   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   103   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   104   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   105 
   106 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   107 
   108   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   109   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   110   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   111   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   112   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   113   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   114   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   115   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   116   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   117   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   118   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   119   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   120   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   121   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   122   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   123   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   124 
   125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   131 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   132 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   133 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   136 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   137 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   141 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   142 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   143 
   144 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   145 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   146 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   149 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   150 
   151 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   152 
   153     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   154     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   155 
   156 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   157 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   158 
   159 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   160 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   161 
   162 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   163 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   164 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   165 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   168   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   169   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   170   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   171   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   172   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   173   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   174 
   175 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   176 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   179   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   180   real_less_def ~> less_le
   181   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   182   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   183   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   184   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   185   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   186   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   187   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   188   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   189   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   190   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   191   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   192   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   193   real_le_linear ~> linear
   194   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   195   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   196   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   197   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   198   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   199   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   200   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   201   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   202   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   203   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   204   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   205   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   206   expi_add ~> exp_add
   207   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   208   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   209   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   210   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   211   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   212   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   213   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   214   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   215   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   216   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   217   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   218   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   219   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   220   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   221   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   222   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   223   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   224   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   225   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   226   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   227   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   228   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   229   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   230   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   231   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   232   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   233   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   234   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   235   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   236   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   237   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   238   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   239   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   240   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   241   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   242   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   243   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   244   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   245   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   246   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   247   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   248   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   249   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   250   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   251   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   252   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   253   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   254   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   255   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   256   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   257   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   258   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   259   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   260 
   261 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   262 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   263 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   264 
   265 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   266 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   267 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   268 
   269 * Code generation:
   270 
   271   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   272     characters in the target language.
   273 
   274   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   275     instead.
   276 
   277   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   278 
   279   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   280     reactivated by the following theory command:
   281 
   282       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   283 
   284 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285 
   286 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   287 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   288 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   289 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   290 syntax.
   291 
   292 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   293 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   294 
   295 * Nitpick:
   296   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   297   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   298   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   299     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Sledgehammer:
   302   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   303   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   304     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   305   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   306     this can be done within reasonable time.
   307   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   310     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   311   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   312     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * Metis:
   315   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   317     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Command 'try':
   320   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   321     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   323     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   324 
   325 * Quickcheck:
   326   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   327     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   328   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   329     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   330   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   331     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   332     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   333     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   334   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   335     (formly in HOL/Library).
   336 
   337 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   338 use 'partial_function' instead.
   339 
   340 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   341 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   342 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   343 
   344 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   345 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   349 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   350 
   351 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   352 arithmetic.
   353 
   354 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   355 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   356 and lattice type classes.
   357 
   358 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   359 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   360 
   361 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   362 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   363 
   364 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   365 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   366 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   369   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   370   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   371   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   372 
   373 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   374 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   375 constants:
   376 
   377   type inat   ~> type enat
   378   Fin         ~> enat
   379   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   380   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   381   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   382 
   383 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   384 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   387 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   388 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   389 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   390 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   391 
   392 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   393 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   394 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   395 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   396 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   397 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   398 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   399 
   400   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   401   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   402   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   403   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   404 
   405 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   406 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   407 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   410   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   411   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   412   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   413   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   414   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   415   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   416   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   417   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   418   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   419   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   420   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   421   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   422   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   423   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   424   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   425   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   426   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   427   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   428   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   429   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   430   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   431   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   432   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   433   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   434   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   435   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   436   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   437   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   438   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   439   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   440   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   441   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   442   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   443   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   444   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   445   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   446   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   447   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   448   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   449   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   450   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   451   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   452   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   453   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   454   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   455   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   456   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   457   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   458   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   459   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   460 
   461 * Session HOL-Probability:
   462   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   463   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   464   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   465   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   466     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   471   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   472   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   473   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   474   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   475   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   476   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   477   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   478   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   479   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   480   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   481   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   482   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   483   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   484   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   485   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   486   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   487   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   488   UU_I ~> bottomI
   489   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   490   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   491   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   492   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   493   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   494   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   495 
   496 
   497 *** Document preparation ***
   498 
   499 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   500 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   501 same.
   502 
   503 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   504 result.
   505 
   506 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   507 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   508 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   509 
   510 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   511 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   512 
   513 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   514 like this:
   515 
   516   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   517   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   518 
   519 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   520 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   521 layouts.
   522 
   523 
   524 *** ML ***
   525 
   526 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   527 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   528 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   529 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   530 under external program control.
   531 
   532 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   533 data, which requires explicit setup.
   534 
   535 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   536 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   537 (better known as Proof General).
   538 
   539 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   540 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   541 
   542 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   543 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   544 
   545 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   546 (including quotes etc.).
   547 
   548 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   549 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   550 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   551 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   552 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   553 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   554 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   555 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   556 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   557 
   558 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   559 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   560 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   561 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   562 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   563 
   564 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   565 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   566 
   567 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   568 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   569 
   570 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   571 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   572 
   573 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   574 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   575 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   576 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   577 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   578 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   579 proper Proof.context.
   580 
   581 
   582 *** System ***
   583 
   584 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
   585 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
   586 
   587 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
   588 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
   589 
   590 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
   591 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
   592 
   593   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
   594   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
   595   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
   596   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
   597   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
   598 
   599 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
   600 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   601 
   602 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   603 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   604 example:
   605 
   606   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   607 
   608 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
   609 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   610 
   611 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   612 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   613 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   614 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   615 
   616 
   617 
   618 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   619 ----------------------------------
   620 
   621 *** General ***
   622 
   623 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   624 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   625 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   626 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   627 like this:
   628 
   629   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   630 
   631 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   632 
   633 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   634 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   635 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   636 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   637 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   638 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   639 
   640 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   641 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   642 the following package declarations:
   643 
   644   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   645   \usepackage{textcomp}
   646 
   647 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   648 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   649 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   650 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   651 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   652 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   653 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   654 
   655 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   656 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   657 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   658 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   659 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   660 
   661 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   662 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   663 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   664 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   665 
   666 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   667 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   668 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   669 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   670 
   671   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   672 
   673   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   674   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   675   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   676   show_types                    show_types
   677   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   678   show_consts                   show_consts
   679   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   680 
   681   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   682   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   683   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   684 
   685   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   686   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   687 
   688   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   689 
   690   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   691   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   692   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   693   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   694   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   695 
   696 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   697 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   698 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   699 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   700 
   701 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   705   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   706 
   707 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   708 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   709 float_token.
   710 
   711 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   712 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   716 DejaVu Sans.
   717 
   718 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   719 
   720 
   721 *** Pure ***
   722 
   723 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   724 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   725 time.
   726 
   727 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   728 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   729 
   730 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   731 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   734 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   735 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   736 command already provided this functionality.
   737 
   738 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   739 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   740 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   741 without interpretations.
   742 
   743 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   744 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   745 
   746 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   747 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   748 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   749 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   750 
   751 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   752 'definition' instead.
   753 
   754 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   755 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   756 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   757 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   758 
   759 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   760 constructors.
   761 
   762 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   763 the local file system.
   764 
   765 
   766 *** HOL ***
   767 
   768 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   769 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   770 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   771 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   772 
   773   declare [[coercion f]]
   774 
   775 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   776 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   777 
   778   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   779 
   780 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   781 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   782 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   783 other theories like this:
   784 
   785   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   786 
   787 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   788 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   789 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   790 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   791 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   792 for examples.
   793 
   794 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   795 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   798 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   799 
   800 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   801 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   802 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   803 
   804 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   805 functorial structure of types.
   806 
   807 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   808 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   809 
   810 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   811 languages.
   812 
   813 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   814 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   816 
   817 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   818 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   821 combinators any longer.
   822 
   823 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   824 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   825 
   826 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   827 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   828 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   829 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   830 
   831   record 'a foo = ...
   832   ...
   833   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   834 
   835 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   836 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   838 
   839 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   840 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   841 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   842 
   843 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   844 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   845 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   846 
   847 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   848 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   851 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   852 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   853 independently.
   854 
   855 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   856 counter example search.
   857 
   858 * Sledgehammer:
   859   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   860     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   861     sledgehammer").
   862   - Renamed commands:
   863     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   864     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   865     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   866     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867   - Renamed options:
   868     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   869     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   870     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   871     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Nitpick:
   875   - Renamed options:
   876     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   877     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   878     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   880   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   881   - Added "whack" option.
   882   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   883   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   884   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   885   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   886     higher cardinalities.
   887   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   888 
   889 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   890 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   891 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   892 
   893     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   894 
   895 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   896 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   897 
   898 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   899 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   900 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   901 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   902 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   903 "smt_solver".
   904 
   905 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   906 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   907 
   908 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   909 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   910 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   911 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   914   - Renamed:
   915     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   916     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   917     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918   - Added:
   919     smt_verbose
   920     smt_random_seed
   921     smt_datatypes
   922     smt_infer_triggers
   923     smt_monomorph_limit
   924     cvc3_options
   925     remote_cvc3_options
   926     remote_z3_options
   927     yices_options
   928 
   929 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   930 header.
   931 
   932 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   933 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   934 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   935 
   936   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   937 
   938 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   939 
   940 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   941 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   942 
   943 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   946 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   949 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   950 
   951 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   952 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   955 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   956 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   964 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   967 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   968 for congruent(2)).
   969 
   970 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   971 
   972   types
   973     bool ~> HOL.bool
   974     nat ~> Nat.nat
   975 
   976   constants
   977     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   978     True ~> HOL.True
   979     False ~> HOL.False
   980     op & ~> HOL.conj
   981     op | ~> HOL.disj
   982     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   983     op = ~> HOL.eq
   984     Not ~> HOL.Not
   985     The ~> HOL.The
   986     All ~> HOL.All
   987     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   988     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   989     Let ~> HOL.Let
   990     If ~> HOL.If
   991     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   992     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   993     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   994     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   995     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   996     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   997     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   998     op : ~> Set.member
   999     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1000 
  1001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1004 
  1005     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1006     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1007     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1008     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1009     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1010     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1011     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1012     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1013 
  1014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * More stylized fact names:
  1017 
  1018   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1019   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1020   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1021   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1022 
  1023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1024 
  1025 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1026 
  1027   constants
  1028     null ~> List.null
  1029 
  1030   facts
  1031     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1032     null_empty ~> null_def
  1033 
  1034 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1035 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1036 generation.
  1037 
  1038 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1039 Haskell code.
  1040 
  1041 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1042 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1043 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1046 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1047 
  1048 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1049 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1050 
  1051 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1052 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1053 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1056 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1062 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1063 referred to by its qualified name.
  1064 
  1065   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1066   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1067   product ~>  Enum.product
  1068 
  1069 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1070 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1074 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1075 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1079 sort_key.
  1080 
  1081 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1083 
  1084 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1085 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1086 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1087 
  1088   types
  1089     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1090               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1091               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1092         (depends on your needs)
  1093 
  1094   constants
  1095      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1096      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1097      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1098 
  1099 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1100 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1101 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1102 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1105 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1106 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1107 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1108 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1114 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1115 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1116 
  1117 
  1118 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1119 
  1120 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1121 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1122 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1123 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1124 compatibility.
  1125 
  1126 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1127 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1128 
  1129 
  1130 *** HOLCF ***
  1131 
  1132 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1133 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1134 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1138 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1139 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1142   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1143   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1144 
  1145 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1146 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1147 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1150 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1151 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1152 domain definition now works:
  1153 
  1154   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1155 
  1156 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1157 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1158 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1159 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1160 
  1161   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1162     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1163 
  1164   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1165 
  1166 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1167 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1168 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1171 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1174 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1175 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1176 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1177 
  1178 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1179 
  1180 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1181 
  1182 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1183 
  1184 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1188 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1189 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1190 
  1191 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1192 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1193 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1196 still supported as an input translation.
  1197 
  1198 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1199 
  1200   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1201   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1202   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1203   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1204   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1205   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1206   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1207 
  1208 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1209 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1212   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1213   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1214   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1215   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1216   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1217 
  1218 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1219 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1222 
  1223   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1224   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1225   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1226   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1227 
  1228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1231 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232 
  1233 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1234 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1235 
  1236   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1237   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1238   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1239   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1240   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1241   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1242   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1243   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1244   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1245   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1246   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1247   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1248   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1249   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1250   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1251   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1252   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1253   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1254   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1255   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1256 
  1257 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1258 
  1259   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1260   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1261   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1262   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1263   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1264   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1265   box_less             ~> box_below
  1266   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1267   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1268   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1269   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1270   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1271   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1272   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1273   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1274   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1275   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1276   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1277   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1278   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1279   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1280   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1281   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1282   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1283   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1284   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1285   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1286   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1287   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1288   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1289   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1290   up_less              ~> up_below
  1291   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1292   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1293   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1294   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1295   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1296   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1297   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1298   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1299   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1300   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1301   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1302   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1303   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1304 
  1305 
  1306 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1307 
  1308 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1309 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1310 
  1311 
  1312 *** ML ***
  1313 
  1314 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1315 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1316 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1317 
  1318 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1319 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1320 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1321 
  1322 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1323 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1324 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1325 
  1326 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1327 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1328 
  1329 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1330 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1331 
  1332 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1333 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1334 
  1335 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1336 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1337 
  1338 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1339 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1340 almost all situations.
  1341 
  1342 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1343 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1344 Isabelle/ML.
  1345 
  1346 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1347 meaning.
  1348 
  1349 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1350 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1351 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1352 
  1353 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1354 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1355 
  1356 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1357 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1358 
  1359 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1360 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1361 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1362 
  1363 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1364 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1365 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1366 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1367 configuration options.
  1368 
  1369 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1370 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1371 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1372 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1373 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1374 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1375 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1376 
  1377 
  1378 
  1379 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1380 ---------------------------------
  1381 
  1382 *** General ***
  1383 
  1384 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1385 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1386 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1387 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1388 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1389 their full internal name.
  1390 
  1391 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1392 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1393 Some hints on upgrading:
  1394 
  1395   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1396     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1397     which are independent of this issue.
  1398 
  1399   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1400     provides the following special forms:
  1401 
  1402       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1403       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1404       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1405 
  1406     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1407     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1408     extra variables".
  1409 
  1410     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1411     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1412     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1413     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1414     "logic".
  1415 
  1416   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1417     antiquotations:
  1418 
  1419       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1420       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1421       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1422       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1423 
  1424   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1425     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1426     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1427     antiquotations.
  1428 
  1429 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1430 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1431 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1432 diagnose syntax problems.
  1433 
  1434 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1435 
  1436 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1437 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1438 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1439 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1440 
  1441 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1442 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1443 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1444 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1445 
  1446 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1447 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1448 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1449 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1450 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1451 
  1452 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1453 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1454 
  1455 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1456 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1457 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1458 
  1459   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1460 
  1461 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1462 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1463 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1464 
  1465 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1466 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1470 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1471 
  1472 
  1473 *** Pure ***
  1474 
  1475 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1476 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1477 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1478 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1479 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1480 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1481 inspect proof terms.
  1482 
  1483 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1484 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1485 are added internally.  For example:
  1486 
  1487   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1488 
  1489 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1490 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491 
  1492 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1495 'class' instead.
  1496 
  1497 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1498 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1502 invariants.
  1503 
  1504 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1505 user space functionality any longer.
  1506 
  1507 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1508 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1512 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1513 
  1514 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1515 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1516 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1517 
  1518 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1519 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1520 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1521 
  1522 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1523 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 
  1526 *** HOL ***
  1527 
  1528 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1529 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1530 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1531 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1532 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1533 
  1534 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1535 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1536 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1537 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1538 
  1539   fun
  1540     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1541   where
  1542     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1543 
  1544   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1545     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1546 
  1547   quotient_definition
  1548     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1549 
  1550 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1551 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1552 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1553 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1554 
  1555 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1556 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1557 
  1558 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1559 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1560 
  1561 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1563 
  1564 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1565 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1566 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1567 
  1568 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1569 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1578 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1581 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1582 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1585   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1586   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1587   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1588   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1589   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1590   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1591   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1592   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1593   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1594   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1595   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1596   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1597   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1598   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1599   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1600   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1601   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1602   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1603   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1604   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1605   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1606   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1607   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1608   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1609   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1610   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1611   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1612   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1613   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1614 
  1615 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1616 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1617 
  1618 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1619 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1620 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1621 
  1622 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1623 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1624 
  1625 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1626 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1627 
  1628 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1629 
  1630 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1631 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1634 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1639 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1640 
  1641 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1642 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1643 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1644 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1647   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1648   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1649   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1653 lattices):
  1654 
  1655     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1656     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1657 
  1658     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1659 
  1660     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1661     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1662     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1663     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1664     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1665     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1666     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1667     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1668     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1669     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1670     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1671     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1672     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1673 
  1674     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1675     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1676     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1677     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1678     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1679     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1680     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1681     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1682     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1683     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1684     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1685     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1686     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1687     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1688     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1689     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1690     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1691     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1692 
  1693   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1694   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1695 
  1696     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1697     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1698     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1699     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1700     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1701 
  1702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * Refined field classes:
  1705   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1706     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1707     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1708   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1710 
  1711 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1712   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1713   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1714   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1715     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1716   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1717     equal_neg_zero.
  1718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1721 sets to lattices:
  1722 
  1723   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1724   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1725   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1726   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1727   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1728   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1729   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1730   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1731   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1732   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1733 
  1734 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1735 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1736 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1737 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1738 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1739 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1742 multiset order:
  1743 
  1744   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1745     <= and <;
  1746   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1747     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1748     multiset_order;
  1749   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1750     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1751     generation;
  1752   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1753     if needed.
  1754 
  1755 Renamed:
  1756 
  1757   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1758   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1759   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1760 
  1761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1764 
  1765 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1766 
  1767 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1768 
  1769 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1770 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1771 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773   Constants:
  1774   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1775   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1776   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1777   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1778   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1779   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1780   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1781   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1782   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1783   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1784   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1785   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1786   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1787 
  1788   Lemmas:
  1789   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1790   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1791   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1792   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1793   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1794   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1795   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1796   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1797   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1798   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1799   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1800   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1801   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1802 
  1803 * Sledgehammer:
  1804   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1805     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1806     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1807     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1808     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1809     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1810     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1812   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1813     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1814   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1815     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1816     is still experimental.)
  1817   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1818     full-typed mode.
  1819   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1820 
  1821 * Nitpick:
  1822   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1823   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1824   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1825     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1826   - Added support for quotient types.
  1827   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1828     constructs.
  1829   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1830     "termination" proofs).
  1831   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1832   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1833   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1834   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1835     record getters.
  1836   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1837   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1838   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1839   - Added "atoms" option.
  1840   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1841     problems.
  1842   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1843     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1844     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1845   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1846     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1847   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1850   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1851   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1852   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1853   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1854   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1855   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1856   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1857   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1858   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1859 
  1860 
  1861 *** HOLCF ***
  1862 
  1863 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1864 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1865 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1868 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1869 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1870 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1873 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1874 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1875 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1876 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1879 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1880 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881 
  1882 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1883 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1884 
  1885   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1886   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1887 
  1888 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1889 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1890 
  1891   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1892   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1893   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1894   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1895   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1896 
  1897 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1898 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1901   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1902   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1903 
  1904 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1905 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1909 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910 
  1911 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1914 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 
  1917 *** ML ***
  1918 
  1919 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1920 
  1921     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1922     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1923 
  1924     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1925     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1926     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1927     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1928 
  1929     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1930     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1931     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1932 
  1933 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1934 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1935 
  1936 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1937 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1938 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1939 
  1940 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1941 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1942 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1943 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1944 
  1945 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1946 the context or even global references.
  1947 
  1948 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1949 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1950 
  1951 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1952 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1953 
  1954   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1955   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1956   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1957   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1958   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1959   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1960   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1961   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1962   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1963   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1964 
  1965 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1966 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1967 
  1968 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1969 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1970 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1971 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1972 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1973 
  1974 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1975 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1976 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1977 Theory_Data version.
  1978 
  1979 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1980 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1981 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1982 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1983 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1984 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1985 explicitly in rare situations.
  1986 
  1987 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1988 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1990 
  1991 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1992 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1995 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1996 quite rare).
  1997 
  1998 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1999 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2002 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2003 terms.
  2004 
  2005 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2006 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2007 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2008 
  2009 
  2010 *** System ***
  2011 
  2012 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2013 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2014 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2015 
  2016 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2017 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2018 respectively.
  2019 
  2020 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2021 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2022 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2023 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2024 
  2025   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2026 
  2027 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2028 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2029 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2030 component.
  2031 
  2032 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2033 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2034 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2035 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2036 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2037 the user for manual installation.
  2038 
  2039 
  2040 
  2041 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2042 -------------------------------------
  2043 
  2044 *** General ***
  2045 
  2046 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2047 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2048 
  2049 
  2050 *** Pure ***
  2051 
  2052 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2053 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2054 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2055 
  2056 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2057 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2058 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2059 
  2060 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2061 interpretation.
  2062 
  2063 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2064 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 
  2067 *** Document preparation ***
  2068 
  2069 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2070 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2071 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2072 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2073 
  2074 
  2075 *** HOL ***
  2076 
  2077 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2078 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2079 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2080 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2081 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2082 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2083 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2084 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2085 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2086 
  2087 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2088 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2089 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2090 
  2091 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2092 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2093 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2094 
  2095 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2096 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2097 
  2098 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2099 
  2100 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2101 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2102 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2103 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2104 
  2105 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2106 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2107 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2108 "mirabelle" utility.
  2109 
  2110 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2111 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2112 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2113 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2114 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2115 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2116 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2117 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2118 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2119 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2120 
  2121 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2122 procedure only.
  2123 
  2124 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2125 
  2126 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2127 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2128 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2129 that fail later.
  2130 
  2131 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2132 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2133 
  2134 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2135 the same method as the approximation method.
  2136 
  2137 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2138 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2139 series expansion.
  2140 
  2141 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2142 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2143 
  2144 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2145 reals.
  2146 
  2147 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2148 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2149 
  2150 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2151 fixpoint theorem.
  2152 
  2153 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2154   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2155     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2156   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2157     accordingly
  2158   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2159     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2160   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2161     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2162 
  2163 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2164 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2165 lattice.
  2166 
  2167 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2168 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2169 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2170 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2171 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2172 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2176   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2177     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2178   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2179     le_inf_iff
  2180   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2181     sup_aci)
  2182   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2183   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2184   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2185     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2186     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2187     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2188     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2189     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2190     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2191     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2192     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2193     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2194     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2195   - authentic syntax for
  2196     Set.Pow
  2197     Set.image
  2198   - mere abbreviations:
  2199     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2200     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2201     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2202     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2203     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2204     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2205     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2206     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2207   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2208 
  2209 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2210 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2211 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2212 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2213 
  2214 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2215 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2216 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2219 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2222 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2223 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2224 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2227 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2228 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2229 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2230 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2231 
  2232 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2233 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2237 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2240 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2241 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2242 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2243 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2244 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2245 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2249     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2250     code_post       replaces    code post
  2251     etc.
  2252   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * Renamed methods:
  2255     sizechange -> size_change
  2256     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2257   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2260 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2261 
  2262 * Renamed theorems:
  2263     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2264     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2265     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2266     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2267     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2268   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2269 
  2270 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 
  2277 *** HOLCF ***
  2278 
  2279 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2280 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2281 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2282 
  2283 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2284 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2285 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2286 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2287 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2288 
  2289 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2290 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2291 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2292 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2293 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2294 
  2295 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2296 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2297 constructor are pre-configured.
  2298 
  2299 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2300 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2301 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2302 
  2303 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2304 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2305 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2306 as well.)
  2307 
  2308 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2309 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2310 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2311 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2312 examples.
  2313 
  2314 
  2315 *** ML ***
  2316 
  2317 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2318 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2319 
  2320 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2321 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2322 position, logical grouping etc.
  2323 
  2324 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2325 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2326 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2327 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2328 
  2329 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2330 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2331 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2332 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2333 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2334 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2335 
  2336 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2337 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2338 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2339 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2340 experiments with references.
  2341 
  2342 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2343 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2344 
  2345 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2346 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2347 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2348 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2349 
  2350 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2351 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2352 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2353 
  2354 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2355 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2356 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2357 
  2358 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2364 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2365 
  2366 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2367 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2368 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2369 
  2370 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2371 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2372 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2375 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2376 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2380 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2381 instead of global theory.
  2382 
  2383 
  2384 *** System ***
  2385 
  2386 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2387 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2388 usedir option -q.
  2389 
  2390 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2391 also the system manual.
  2392 
  2393 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2394 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2395 
  2396 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2397 this is always enabled.
  2398 
  2399 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2400 
  2401 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2402 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2403 currently supported on Linux only.
  2404 
  2405 
  2406 
  2407 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2408 --------------------------------
  2409 
  2410 *** General ***
  2411 
  2412 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2413 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2414 
  2415   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2416     "isatool."
  2417 
  2418   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2419     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2420 
  2421   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2422     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2423 
  2424 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2425 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2426 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2427 
  2428 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2429 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2430 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2431 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2432 via "isabelle emacs".
  2433 
  2434 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2435 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2436 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2437 
  2438 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2439 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2440 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2441 
  2442 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2443 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2444 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2445 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2446 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2447 
  2448 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2449 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2450 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2451 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2452 
  2453 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2454 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2455 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2456 
  2457 
  2458 *** Pure ***
  2459 
  2460 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2461 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2462 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2463 
  2464 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2465 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2466 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2467 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2468 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2469 
  2470 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2471 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2472 useful in locale declarations.
  2473 
  2474 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2475 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2476 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2477 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2478 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2479 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2480 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2481 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2482 no longer generated.
  2483 
  2484 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2485 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2486 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2487 
  2488 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2489 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2490 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2491 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2492 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2493 
  2494 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2495 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2496 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2497 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2498 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2499 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2500 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2501 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2502 
  2503 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2504 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2505 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2506 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2507 
  2508 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2511 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2512 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2513 
  2514 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2515 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2518 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2519 in HOL, write
  2520 
  2521     class foo = ...
  2522 
  2523 instead of
  2524 
  2525     class foo = type + ...
  2526 
  2527 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2528 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2531 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2532 
  2533 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2534 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2535 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2536 
  2537 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2538 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2539 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2540 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2541 directly in regular applications.
  2542 
  2543 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2544 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2545 
  2546 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2547 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2548 
  2549 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2550 theory context.
  2551 
  2552 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2553 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2554 
  2555 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2556 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2557 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2558 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2559 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2560 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2561 
  2562   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2563 
  2564 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2565 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2566 normalization.
  2567 
  2568 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2569 addressing etc.
  2570 
  2571 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2572 
  2573   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2574   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2575 
  2576 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2577 
  2578   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2579      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2580      parts of the code generator framework).
  2581 
  2582   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2583      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2584      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2585 
  2586 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2587 
  2588 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2589 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2590 
  2591 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2592 patterns, e.g.
  2593 
  2594     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2595 
  2596 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2597 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2598 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2599 hyphen:
  2600 
  2601     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2602 
  2603 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2604 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2605 
  2606 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2607 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2608 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2609 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2610 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2611 higher-order unification.
  2612 
  2613 
  2614 *** Document preparation ***
  2615 
  2616 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2617 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2618 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2619 
  2620 
  2621 *** HOL ***
  2622 
  2623 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2624 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2625 
  2626 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2627 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2628 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2629 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2630 Main, as before.
  2631 
  2632 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2633 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2634 
  2635 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2636 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2637 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2638 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2639 
  2640 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2641 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2642 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2643 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2644 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2645 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2646 
  2647 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2648 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2649 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2650 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2651 
  2652 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2653 menu.
  2654 
  2655 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2656 (contains the empty clause).
  2657 
  2658 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2659 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2660 
  2661 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2662 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2663 
  2664 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2665 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2666 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2667 
  2668 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2669 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2670 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2671 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2672 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2673 
  2674 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2675 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2676 
  2677 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2678 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2679 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2680 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2681 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2682 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2683 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2684 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2685 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2686 
  2687 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2688 
  2689 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2690 
  2691 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2692 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2695 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2696 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2697 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2698 
  2699 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2700 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2701 
  2702     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2703     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2704     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2705     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2706     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2707     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2708     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2709     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2710 
  2711 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2712 theory Set.
  2713 
  2714 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2715 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2716 
  2717 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2718 
  2719 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2720 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2721 
  2722 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2723 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2724 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2725 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2726 allowed. For examples see
  2727 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2728 
  2729 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2730 
  2731 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2735 structure:
  2736 
  2737     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2738     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2739     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2740     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2741     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2742     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2743     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2744     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2745     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2746     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2747     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2748     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2749     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2750     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2751     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2752     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2753     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2754     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2755     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2756     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2757     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2758     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2759     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2760     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2761     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2762     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2763     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2764     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2765     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2766     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2767     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2768     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2769     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2770 
  2771     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2772     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2773     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2774     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2775     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2776     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2777     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2778     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2779     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2780     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2781 
  2782     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2783     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2784     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2785     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2786     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2787     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2788 
  2789 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2790 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2791 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2792 
  2793 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2794 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2795 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2796 
  2797 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2798 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2801 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2802 
  2803 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2804 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2805 proofs, e.g.
  2806 
  2807   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2808 
  2809 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2810 
  2811 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2812 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2813 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2814 
  2815 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2816 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2820 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2821 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2825 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2826 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2827 preorder_class.*.
  2828 
  2829 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2830 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2831 
  2832 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2833 
  2834   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2835 
  2836 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2837 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2838 fold_image.
  2839 
  2840 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2841 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2842 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2843 the former will disappear at some point.
  2844 
  2845 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2846 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2847 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2848 
  2849 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2850 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2851 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2852 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2853 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2854 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2855 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2856 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2857 
  2858 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2859 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2860 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2861 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2862 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2863 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2864 
  2865     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2866     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2867     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2868     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2869     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2870     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2871     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2872 
  2873 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2874 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2875 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2876 
  2877 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2878 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2879 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2880 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2881 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2882 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2883 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2884 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2885 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2886 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2887 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2888 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2889 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2890 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2891 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2892 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2893 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2894 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2895 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2896 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2897 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2898 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2899 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2900 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2901 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2902 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2903 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2904 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2905 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2906 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2907 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2908 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2909 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2910 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2911 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2912 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2913 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2914 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2915 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2916 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2917 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2918 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2919 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2920 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2921 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2922 
  2923 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2926 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2927 
  2928 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2929 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2930 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2931 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2932 
  2933 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2934 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2935 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2936 theory RealVector.
  2937 
  2938 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2939 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2940 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2941 and inner products are included.
  2942 
  2943 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2944 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2945 supported.
  2946 
  2947 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2948 first diagonalization argument.
  2949 
  2950 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2951 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2952 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2953 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2954 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2955 
  2956     hide (open) const gcd
  2957     abbreviation gcd where
  2958       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2959     notation (output)
  2960       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2961 
  2962 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2963 
  2964 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2965 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2966 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2967 
  2968 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2969 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2970 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2971 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2972 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2973 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2974 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2975 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2976 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2977 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2978 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2979 cases.
  2980 
  2981 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2982 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2983 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2984 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2985 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2986 
  2987     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2988     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2989     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2990     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2991     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2992 
  2993 
  2994 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2995 
  2996 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2997 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2998 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2999 
  3000 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3001 
  3002 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3003 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3004 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3005 
  3006 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3007 
  3008 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3009 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3010 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3011 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3012 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3013 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3014 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3015 
  3016 
  3017 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3018 
  3019 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3020 
  3021 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3022 theory targets.
  3023 
  3024 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3025 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3026 'inductive' etc.
  3027 
  3028 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3029 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3030 
  3031 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3032 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3033 
  3034 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3035 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3036 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3037 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3038 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3039 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3040 the algorithm W:
  3041 
  3042  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3043  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3044          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3045 
  3046 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3047 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3048 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3049 
  3050 
  3051 *** HOLCF ***
  3052 
  3053 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3054 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3055 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3056 
  3057 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3058 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3059 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3060 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3061 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3064 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3065 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 
  3068 *** ZF ***
  3069 
  3070 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3071 
  3072 
  3073 *** ML ***
  3074 
  3075 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3076 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3077 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3078 5.2.1!
  3079 
  3080 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3081 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3082 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3083 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3084 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3085 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3086 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3087 
  3088 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3089 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3090 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3091 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3092 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3093 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3094 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3095 
  3096 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3097 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3098 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3099 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3100 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3101 
  3102 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3103 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3104 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3105 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3106 Method.add_method.
  3107 
  3108 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3109 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3110 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3111 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3112 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3113 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3114 
  3115 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3116 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3117 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3118 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3119 examples.
  3120 
  3121 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3122 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3123 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3124 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3125 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3126 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3127 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3128 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3129 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3130 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3131 
  3132 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3133 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3134 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3135 
  3136 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3137 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3138 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3139 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3140 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3141 resort for legacy applications.
  3142 
  3143 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3144 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3145 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3146 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3147 explicit runtime argument.
  3148 
  3149 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3150 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3151 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3152 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3153 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3156 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3157 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3158 theory state.
  3159 
  3160 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3161 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3162 
  3163   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3164   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3165   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3166   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3167   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3168   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3169   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3170   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3171   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3172   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3173 
  3174 
  3175 *** System ***
  3176 
  3177 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3178 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3179 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3180 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3181 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3182 
  3183 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3184 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3185 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3186 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3187 
  3188 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3189 
  3190 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3191 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3192 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3193 prover operations.
  3194 
  3195 
  3196 
  3197 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3198 -------------------------------
  3199 
  3200 *** General ***
  3201 
  3202 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3203 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3204 
  3205 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3206 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3207 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3208 provides a proper context already.
  3209 
  3210 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3211 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3212 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3213 
  3214 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3215 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3216 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3217 swap theory imports.
  3218 
  3219 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3220 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3221 
  3222 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3223 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3224 white space without escapes.
  3225 
  3226 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3227 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3228 "foo_bar".
  3229 
  3230 
  3231 *** Pure ***
  3232 
  3233 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3234 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3235 
  3236 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3237 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3238 
  3239 (1) unused_thms
  3240      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3241 
  3242 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3243      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3244      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3245 
  3246 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3247      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3248      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3249      their ancestors.
  3250 
  3251 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3252 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3253 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3254 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3255 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3256 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3257 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3258 
  3259 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3260 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3261 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3262 
  3263 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3264 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3265 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3266 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3267 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3268 
  3269 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3270 
  3271 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3272 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3273 update of theories within ML code.
  3274 
  3275 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3276 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3277 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3278 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3279 
  3280 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3281 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3282 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3286 
  3287 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3288 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3289 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3290 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3291 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3292 
  3293 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3294 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3295 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3296 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3297 situations.
  3298 
  3299 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3300 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3301 proof text.
  3302 
  3303 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3304 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3305 
  3306 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3307 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3308 predicates.
  3309 
  3310 
  3311 *** Document preparation ***
  3312 
  3313 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3314 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3315 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3316 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3317 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3318 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3319 
  3320 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3321 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3322 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3323 
  3324 
  3325 *** HOL ***
  3326 
  3327 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3328 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3329 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3330 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3331 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3332 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3333 
  3334 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3335 with multithreading.
  3336 
  3337 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3338 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3339 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3340 
  3341 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3342 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3343 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3344 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3347 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3348 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3349 and makes them available separately.  See
  3350 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3351 
  3352 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3353 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3354 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3355 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3356 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3357 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3358 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3359 the declared rules.
  3360 
  3361 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3362 
  3363   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3364 
  3365 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3366 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3367 
  3368 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3369 
  3370   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3371 
  3372   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3373     definitions on => and bool.
  3374 
  3375   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3376     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3377     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3378 
  3379       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3380       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3381       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3382       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3383       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3384       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3385       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3386       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3387 
  3388   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3389     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3390     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3391 
  3392   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3393     The proof pattern
  3394 
  3395       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3396       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3397 
  3398     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3399     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3400 
  3401       have "EX S. P S"
  3402       proof
  3403         show "P S" <...>
  3404       qed
  3405 
  3406   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3407     The proof pattern
  3408 
  3409       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3410       also have "S = T" <...>
  3411       finally have "P T" .
  3412 
  3413     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3414     must be replaced by something like
  3415 
  3416       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3417       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3418       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3419 
  3420   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3421     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3422 
  3423       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3424 
  3425     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3426     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3427     type of the form
  3428 
  3429       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3430 
  3431     rather than
  3432 
  3433       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3434 
  3435 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3436 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3437 
  3438 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3441 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3445 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3448 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3451 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3452 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3455 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3456 
  3457   less_trans
  3458   less_linear
  3459   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3460   le_less_trans
  3461   less_le_trans
  3462   less_not_sym
  3463   less_asym
  3464 
  3465 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3466 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3467 and different variable names.
  3468 
  3469 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3470 
  3471 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3472 finite maps.
  3473 
  3474 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3475 
  3476 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3477 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3478 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3479 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3480 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3481 accordingly.
  3482 
  3483 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3484 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3485 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3486 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3487 
  3488 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3489 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3490 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3491 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3492 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3496 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3499 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3500 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3501 
  3502 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3506 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3507 
  3508 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3509 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3512 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3515 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3519 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3522 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3523 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3524 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3525 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3526 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3529 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3530 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3531 
  3532 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3533 
  3534 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3535 
  3536 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3537 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3538 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3539 
  3540 
  3541 *** ZF ***
  3542 
  3543 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3544 same session:
  3545 
  3546   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3547   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3548   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3549   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3550   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3551   List      -> List_ZF
  3552   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3553 
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3555 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3556 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3557 
  3558 
  3559 *** ML ***
  3560 
  3561 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3562 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3563 
  3564 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3565 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3566 
  3567 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3568 
  3569 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3570 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3571 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3572 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3573 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3576 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3577 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3578 
  3579 
  3580 *** System ***
  3581 
  3582 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3583 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3584 
  3585 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3586 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3587 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3588 
  3589 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3590 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3591 
  3592 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3593 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3594 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3595 
  3596 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3597 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3598 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3599 
  3600 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3601 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3602 
  3603 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3604 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3605 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3606 script.
  3607 
  3608 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3609 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3610 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3611 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3612 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3613 
  3614 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3615 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3616 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3617 
  3618 
  3619 
  3620 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3621 -----------------------------------
  3622 
  3623 *** General ***
  3624 
  3625 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3626 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3627 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3628 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3629 
  3630 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3631 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3632 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3635 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3636 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3637 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3640 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3641 quotes.
  3642 
  3643 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3644 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3645 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3646 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3647 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3648 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3649 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3650 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3651 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3652 
  3653 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3654 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3655 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3656 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3657 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3658 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3659 
  3660 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3661 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3662 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3663 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3664 
  3665 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3666 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3667 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3668 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3669 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3670 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3671 
  3672 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3673 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3674 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3675 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3676 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3677 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3678 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3679 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3680 
  3681 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3682 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3683 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3684 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3685 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3686 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3687 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3688 
  3689 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3690 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3691 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3692 
  3693 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3694 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3695 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3696 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3697 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3698 limit is imposed.
  3699 
  3700 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3701 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3702 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3703 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3704 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3705 and scalability.
  3706 
  3707 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3708 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3709 
  3710 
  3711 *** Document preparation ***
  3712 
  3713 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3714 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3715 current context.
  3716 
  3717 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3718 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3719 
  3720 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3721 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3722 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3723 
  3724 
  3725 *** Pure ***
  3726 
  3727 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3728 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3729 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3730 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3731 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3732 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3733 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3734 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3735 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3736 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3737 
  3738 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3739 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3740 sketch:
  3741 
  3742     internal compilation:
  3743         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3744     writing SML code to a file:
  3745         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3746     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3747         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3748     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3749         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3750 
  3751     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3752         method ``eval''
  3753 
  3754 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3755 
  3756 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3757 
  3758     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3759     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3760     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3761     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3762 
  3763 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3764 
  3765     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3766       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3767 
  3768     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3769       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3770 
  3771     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3772       {(target)}+
  3773         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3774 
  3775     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3776       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3777         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3778 
  3779 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3780 
  3781 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3782 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3783 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3784 codegen".
  3785 
  3786 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3787 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3788 annotations).
  3789 
  3790 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3791 syntax.
  3792 
  3793 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3794 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3795 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3796 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3797 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3798 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3799 
  3800 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3801 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3802 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3803 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3804 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3805 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3806 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3807 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3808 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3809 equations, see section "definitions".
  3810 
  3811 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3812 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3813 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3814 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3815 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3816 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3817 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3818 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3819 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3820 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3821 
  3822 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3823 configuration options:
  3824 
  3825   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3826   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3827   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3828   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3829   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3830   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3831   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3832   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3833   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3834 
  3835 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3836 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3837 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3838 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3839 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3840 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3841 order.
  3842 
  3843 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3844 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3845 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3846 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3847 context encountered later on.
  3848 
  3849 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3850 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3851 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3852 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3853 
  3854 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3855 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3856 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3857 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3858 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3859 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3860 
  3861 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3862 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3863 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3864 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3865 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3866 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3867 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3868 more permissive.
  3869 
  3870 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3871 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3872 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3873 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3874 maintainability of proof texts.
  3875 
  3876 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3877 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3878 
  3879   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3880   then guess x and y by clarify
  3881 
  3882 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3883 proof tools being involved here.
  3884 
  3885 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3886 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3887 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3888 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3889 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3890 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3891 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3892 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3893 
  3894 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3895 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3896 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3897 
  3898   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3899   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3900   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3901   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3902 
  3903 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3904 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3905 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3906 
  3907 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3908 both named and unnamed ones.
  3909 
  3910 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3911 
  3912   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3913 
  3914 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3915 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3916 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3917 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3918 
  3919 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3920 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3921 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3922 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3923 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3924 
  3925 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3926 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3927 
  3928 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3929 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3930 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3931 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3932 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3933 originally first one.
  3934 
  3935 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3936 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3937 expected.
  3938 
  3939 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3940 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3941 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3942 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3943 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3944 
  3945   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3946     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3947     obtains x where "P x"
  3948 
  3949   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3950     assumes "A & B"
  3951     obtains A and B
  3952 
  3953   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3954     assumes "A | B"
  3955     obtains
  3956       A
  3957     | B
  3958 
  3959 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3960 explicitly:
  3961 
  3962   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3963     obtains "~ thesis"
  3964 
  3965   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3966     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3967 
  3968 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3969 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3970 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3971 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3972 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3973 case_names).
  3974 
  3975 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3976 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3977 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3978 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3979 
  3980 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3981 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3982 top-level lemma.
  3983 
  3984 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3985 introduction rule (default "that").
  3986 
  3987 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3988 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3989 to occur.
  3990 
  3991 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3992 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3993 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3994 representations independently of name spaces.
  3995 
  3996 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3997 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3998 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4001 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4002 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4003 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4004 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4005 current context.
  4006 
  4007 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4008 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4009 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4010 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4011 
  4012   axiomatization
  4013     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4014     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4015 
  4016   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4017   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4018 
  4019   abbreviation
  4020     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4021     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4022 
  4023 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4024 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4025 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4026 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4027 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4028 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4029 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4030 
  4031 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4032 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4033 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4034 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4035 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4036 
  4037 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4038 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4039 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4040 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4041 
  4042 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4043 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4044 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4045 
  4046   definition "K x _ = x"
  4047 
  4048   inductive conj for A B
  4049   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4050 
  4051 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4052 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4053 abbreviations on output.
  4054 
  4055 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4056 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4057 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4058 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4059 
  4060 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4061 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4062 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4063 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4064 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4065 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4066 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4067 
  4068 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4069 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4070 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4071 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4072 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4073 
  4074 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4075 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4076 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4077 
  4078 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4079 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4080 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4081 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4082 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4083 
  4084   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4085     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4086 
  4087 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4088 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4089 partial_order.
  4090 
  4091 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4092 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4093 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4094 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4095 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4096 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4097 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4098 examples.
  4099 
  4100 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4101 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4102 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4103 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4104 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4105 
  4106 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4107 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4108 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4109 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4110 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4111 
  4112   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4113   (induct set: foo bar)
  4114   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4115   (induct type: foo bar)
  4116 
  4117 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4118 new format.
  4119 
  4120 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4121 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4122 
  4123 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4124 considered a legacy feature.
  4125 
  4126 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4127 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4130 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4131 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4132 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4133   
  4134 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4135 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4136 manipulating the claset.
  4137 
  4138 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4139 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4140 least one premise.
  4141 
  4142 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4143 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4144 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4145 rule steps.
  4146 
  4147 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4148 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4149 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4150 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4151 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4152 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4153 
  4154 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4155 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4156 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4157 
  4158 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4159 the graph browser tool.
  4160 
  4161 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4162 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4163 
  4164 
  4165 *** HOL ***
  4166 
  4167 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4168 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4169 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4170 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4171 multi-threading.
  4172   
  4173 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4174 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4175 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4176 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4177 work with multi-threading.
  4178 
  4179 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4180 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4181 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4182 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4183 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4184 
  4185 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4186 
  4187 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4188 equality.
  4189 
  4190 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4191 the new 'class' package:
  4192 
  4193     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4194     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4195     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4196     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4197     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4198     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4199     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4200     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4201     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4202     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4203     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4204     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4205     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4206     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4207     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4208     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4209     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4210     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4211     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4212     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4213 
  4214 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4215 
  4216 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4217 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4218 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4219 names.
  4220 
  4221 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4222 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4223 
  4224 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4225 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4226 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4227 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4228 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4229 
  4230 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4231 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4232 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4233 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4234 
  4235 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4236 
  4237 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4238 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4239 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4240 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4244 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4247 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4248 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4251 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4252 
  4253 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4254 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4255 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4256 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4257 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4258 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4259 in the current context.
  4260 
  4261 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4262 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4266 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4267 
  4268 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4269 
  4270     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4271     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4272 
  4273     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4274       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4275     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4276     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4277 
  4278     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4279     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4280 
  4281   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4282 
  4283     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4284     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4285     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4286     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4287     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4288     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4289     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4290     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4291     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4292     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4293     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4294     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4295     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4296     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4297     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4298     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4299     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4300     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4301     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4302     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4303     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4304     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4305     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4306     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4307     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4308     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4309     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4310     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4311     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4312     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4313     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4314     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4315     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4316     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4317     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4318 
  4319     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4320     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4321     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4322     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4323     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4324     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4325     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4326     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4327     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4328     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4329     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4330     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4331     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4332     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4333     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4334     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4335     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4336 
  4337     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4338     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4339     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4340     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4341     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4342     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4343     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4344     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4345     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4346     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4347     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4348     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4349     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4350     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4351     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4352     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4353     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4354     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4355     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4356     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4357     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4358     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4359     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4360     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4361     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4362     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4363     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4364     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4365 
  4366     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4367     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4368     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4369     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4370     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4371     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4372 
  4373     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4374     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4375     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4376     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4377 
  4378     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4379     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4380 
  4381     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4382     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4383 
  4384 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4385 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4386 
  4387 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4388 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4389 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4390 "*.size".
  4391 
  4392 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4396 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4397 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4398 
  4399 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4402 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4403 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4404 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4405 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4406 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4407 numerals on all operations.
  4408 
  4409 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4410 
  4411 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4412 
  4413 * Code generator library theories:
  4414   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4415     languages.
  4416   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4417     languages.
  4418   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4419     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4420   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4421   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4422     denominator).
  4423   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4424     representable by rational numbers.
  4425   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4426     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4427     includes Code_Integer.
  4428   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4429     target-language built-in integers.
  4430   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4431     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4432 
  4433 * New package for inductive predicates
  4434 
  4435   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4436 
  4437     inductive
  4438       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4439       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4440     where
  4441       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4442     | ...
  4443 
  4444   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4445 
  4446     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4447 
  4448     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4449     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4450 
  4451     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4452     intros
  4453       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4454       ...
  4455 
  4456   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4457   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4458 
  4459     inductive_set
  4460       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4461       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4462     where
  4463       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4464     | ...
  4465 
  4466   or
  4467 
  4468     inductive_set
  4469       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4470       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4471       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4472     where
  4473       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4474     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4475     | ...
  4476 
  4477   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4478 
  4479   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4480   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4481 
  4482   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4483 
  4484   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4485     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4486     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4487     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4488     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4489 
  4490   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4491     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4492     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4493     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4494     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4495     statements of the form
  4496 
  4497       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4498 
  4499     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4500     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4501 
  4502       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4503 
  4504   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4505 
  4506       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4507         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4508         ==> ... ==> P
  4509 
  4510     for predicates and
  4511 
  4512       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4513         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4514         ==> ... ==> P
  4515 
  4516     for sets rather than
  4517 
  4518       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4519         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4520         ==> ... ==> P
  4521 
  4522     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4523     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4524     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4525 
  4526   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4527     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4528     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4529 
  4530 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4531 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4532 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4533 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4534 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4535 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4536 
  4537 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4538 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4539 
  4540 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4541 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4542 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4543 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4544 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4545 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4546 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4547 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4548 variable.
  4549 
  4550 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4551 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4552 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4553 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4554   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4555   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4556 
  4557 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4558 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4559 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4560 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4561 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4562 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4563 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4564 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4565 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4566 
  4567 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4568 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4569 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4570 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4571 rat, etc.
  4572 
  4573 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4574 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4575 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4576 
  4577 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4578 
  4579 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4580 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4581 
  4582 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4583 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4584 
  4585 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4586 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4587 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4590 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4594 
  4595 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4596 
  4597 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4598 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4599 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4600 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4601 
  4602 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4603 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4604 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4605 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4608 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4609 algebraic operations.
  4610 
  4611 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4618 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4619 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4620 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4621 adapted.
  4622  
  4623 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4624 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4625 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4626 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4627 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4628 
  4629 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4630 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4631 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4632 
  4633 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4634 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4635 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4636 
  4637 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4640 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4641 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4642   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4643       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4644   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4645   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4646   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4647 
  4648 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4649 
  4650 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4651 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4652 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4653 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4654 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4655 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4656 
  4657 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4658 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4659 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4660 
  4661 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4662 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4663 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4667 
  4668 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4669 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4672 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4673 
  4674 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4675 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4676 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4677 
  4678 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4679 True/False.
  4680 
  4681 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4682 
  4683 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4684 
  4685 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4686 ``rule'' method.
  4687 
  4688 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4689 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4690 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4691 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4692 
  4693 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4694 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4695 
  4696 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4697 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4698 
  4699 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4700 Library.
  4701 
  4702 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4703 
  4704 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4705 as greatest fixed-point.
  4706 
  4707 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4708 association lists.
  4709 
  4710 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4711 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4712 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4713 
  4714 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4715 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4716 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4717 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4718 behavior.
  4719 
  4720 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4721 
  4722 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4723 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4724 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4725 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4726 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4727 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4728 
  4729 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4730 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4731 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4732 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4733 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4734 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4735 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4736 
  4737 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4738 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4739 
  4740 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4741 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4742 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4743 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4744 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4745 
  4746 
  4747 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4748 
  4749 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4750 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4751 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4752 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4756 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4757 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4758 
  4759 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4760 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4761 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4762 
  4763 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4764 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4765 
  4766 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4767 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4768 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4772   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4773   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4774   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4775   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4776   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4777   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4778   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4779   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4780   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4781   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4782   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4783   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4784   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4785   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4786 
  4787 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4788 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4789 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4790 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4791 
  4792   approx        <-- capprox
  4793   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4794   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4795   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4796   monad         <-- cmonad
  4797   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4798   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4799   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4800   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4801 
  4802 
  4803 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4804 
  4805 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4806 
  4807 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4809 
  4810 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4811 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4812 
  4813 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4814 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4815 of algebraic structures.
  4816 
  4817 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4818 
  4819 
  4820 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4821 
  4822 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4823 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4824 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4825 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4826 
  4827 
  4828 *** ML ***
  4829 
  4830 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4831 (even on SML/NJ).
  4832 
  4833 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4834 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4835 compile-time.  For example:
  4836 
  4837 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4838 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4839 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4840 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4841 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4842 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4843 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4844 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4845 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4846 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4847 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4848 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4849 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4850 ML {* @{context} *}
  4851 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4852 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4853 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4854 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4855 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4856 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4857 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4858 
  4859 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4860 
  4861 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4862 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4863 
  4864 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4865 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4866 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4867 
  4868 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4869 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4870 
  4871 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4872 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4873 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4874 
  4875 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4876 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4877 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4878 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4879 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4880 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4881 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4882 declarations and definitions.
  4883 
  4884 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4885 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4886 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4887 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4888 
  4889 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4890 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4891 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4892 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4895 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4896 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4897 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4898 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4899 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4900 
  4901 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4902 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4903 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4904 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4905 attributes, methods, etc.
  4906 
  4907 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4908 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4909 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4910 fold_map combinators.
  4911 
  4912 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4913 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4914 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4915 derivation.
  4916 
  4917 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4918 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4919 achieve the old behaviour.
  4920 
  4921 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4922 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4923 statements.
  4924 
  4925 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4926 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4927 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4928 
  4929 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4930 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4931 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4932 
  4933   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4934   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4935   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4936 
  4937 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4938 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4939 
  4940 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4941 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4942 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4943 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4944 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4945 
  4946 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4947 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4948 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4949 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4950 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4951 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4952 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4953 in a locale context).
  4954 
  4955 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4956 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4957 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4958 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4959 
  4960 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4961 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4962 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4963 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4964 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4965 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4966 
  4967 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4968 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4969 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4970 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4971 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4972 
  4973   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4974 
  4975 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4976 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4977 this:
  4978 
  4979   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4980 
  4981 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4982 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4983 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4984 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4985 
  4986 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4987 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4988 
  4989 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4990 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4991 
  4992 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4993 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4994 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4995 batch mode.
  4996 
  4997 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4998 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4999 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5000 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5001 
  5002 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5003 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5004 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5005 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5006 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5007 
  5008 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5009 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5010 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5011 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5012 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5013 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5014 
  5015 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5016 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5017 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5021 "Trueprop" etc.
  5022 
  5023 
  5024 *** System ***
  5025 
  5026 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5027 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5028 Isabelle installations.
  5029 
  5030 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5031 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5032 code.
  5033 
  5034 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5035 
  5036 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5037 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5038 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5039 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5040 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5041 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5042 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5043 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5044 Implementation manual.
  5045 
  5046 
  5047 
  5048 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5049 ----------------------------------
  5050 
  5051 *** General ***
  5052 
  5053 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5054 
  5055   theory <name>
  5056   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5057   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5058   begin
  5059 
  5060 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5061 
  5062   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5063 
  5064 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5065 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5066 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5067 
  5068 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5069 relative and absolute paths.
  5070 
  5071 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5072 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5073 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5074 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5075 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5076 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5077 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5078 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5079 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5080 
  5081   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5082 
  5083 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5084 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5085 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5086 
  5087 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5088 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5089 
  5090 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5091 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5092 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5093 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5094 
  5095   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5096   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5097 
  5098 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5099 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5100 faster.
  5101 
  5102 
  5103 *** Document preparation ***
  5104 
  5105 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5106 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5107 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5108 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5109 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5110 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5111 
  5112 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5113 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5114 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5115 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5116 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5117 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5118 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5119 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5120 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5121 \isadroptag.
  5122 
  5123 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5124 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5125 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5126 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5127 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5128 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5129 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5130 specified above.
  5131 
  5132 * Several new antiquotations:
  5133 
  5134   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5135 
  5136   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5137 
  5138   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5139   argument is a known logical constant;
  5140 
  5141   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5142   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5143 
  5144   @{ML text}
  5145 
  5146 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5147 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5148 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5149 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5150 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5151 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5152 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5153 
  5154 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5155 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5156 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5157 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5158 
  5159 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5160 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5161 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5162 
  5163 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5164 a proof context.
  5165 
  5166 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5167 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5168 
  5169 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5170 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5171 
  5172 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5173 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5174 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5175 
  5176 
  5177 *** Pure ***
  5178 
  5179 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5180 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5181 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5182 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5183 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5184 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5185 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5186 
  5187 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5188 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5189 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5190 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5191 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5192 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5193 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5194 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5195 
  5196 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5197 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5198 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5199 
  5200 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5201 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5202 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5203 
  5204 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5205 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5206 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5207 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5209 
  5210 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5211 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5212 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5213 axclasses vs. locales.
  5214 
  5215 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5216 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5217 
  5218 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5219 marks in schematic variable names.
  5220 
  5221 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5222 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5223 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5224 
  5225   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5226     by simp
  5227 
  5228 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5229 
  5230 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5231 annotations as "(00...)".
  5232 
  5233 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5234 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5235 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5236 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5237 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5238 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5239 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5240 
  5241 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5242 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5243 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5244 specifications.
  5245 
  5246 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5247 locally fixed variables as well.
  5248 
  5249 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5250 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5251 Limit.
  5252 
  5253 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5254 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5255 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5256 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5257 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5258 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5259 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5260 
  5261 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5262 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5263 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5264 
  5265 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5266 
  5267 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5268 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5269 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5270 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5271 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5272 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5273 
  5274 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5275 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5276 
  5277 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5278 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5279 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5280 
  5281 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5282 
  5283 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5284 theory development.
  5285 
  5286 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5287 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5288 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5289 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5290 
  5291 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5292 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5293 quoted when used as identifier.
  5294 
  5295 
  5296 *** Locales ***
  5297 
  5298 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5299 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5300 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5301 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5302 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5303 commands is a follows:
  5304 
  5305   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5306   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5307   (3) interpret expr inst
  5308 
  5309 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5310 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5311 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5312 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5313 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5314 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5315 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5316 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5317 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5318 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5319 
  5320 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5321 'interpret' instead.
  5322 
  5323 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5324 parameters.
  5325 
  5326 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5327 redeclaration.
  5328 
  5329 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5330 
  5331 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5332 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5333 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5334 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5335 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5336 
  5337 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5338 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5339 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5340 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5341 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5342 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5343 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5344 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5345 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5346 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5347 
  5348 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5349 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5350 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5351 
  5352 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5353 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5354 
  5355 
  5356 *** Provers ***
  5357 
  5358 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5359 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5360 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5361 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5362 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5363 
  5364 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5365 and quasi orders.
  5366 
  5367 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5368 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5369 
  5370 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5371 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5372 
  5373 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5374 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5375 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 
  5378 *** HOL ***
  5379 
  5380 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5381 
  5382   syntax (epsilon)
  5383     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5384 
  5385 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5386 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5387 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5388 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5389 
  5390 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5391 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5392 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5393 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5394 
  5395 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5396 instead of ":".
  5397 
  5398 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5399 
  5400   Old       New
  5401   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5402   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5403   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5404   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5405   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5406 
  5407 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5408 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5409 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5410 
  5411   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5412   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5413 
  5414 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5415 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5416 interface.
  5417 
  5418 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5419 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5420 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5421 be a tuple pattern.
  5422 
  5423 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5424 
  5425   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5426   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5427   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5428   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5429 
  5430 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5431 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5432 
  5433 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5434 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5435 (insert F x)'.
  5436 
  5437 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5438 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5439 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5440 
  5441 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5442 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5443 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5444 
  5445 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5446 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5447 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5448 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5449 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5450 
  5451 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5452 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5453 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5454 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5455 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5456 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5457 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5458 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5459 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5460 
  5461 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5462 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5463 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5464 quite long.
  5465 
  5466 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5467 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5468 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5469 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5470 
  5471 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5472 type-variables in the term.
  5473 
  5474 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5475 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5476 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5477 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5478 goals than previously.
  5479 
  5480 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5481 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5482 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5483 just like y <= x.
  5484 
  5485 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5486 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5487 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5488 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5489 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5490 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5491 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5492 
  5493 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5494 
  5495 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5496 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5497 
  5498 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5499 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5500 inequalities.
  5501 
  5502 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5503 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5504 
  5505   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5506   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5507   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5508   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5509   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5510   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5511   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5512   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5513   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5514   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5515   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5516 
  5517 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5518      
  5519      zero_le_square
  5520      not_square_less_zero 
  5521 
  5522   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5523   
  5524      realpow_zero_zero
  5525      realpow_two
  5526      realpow_less
  5527      zero_le_power
  5528      realpow_two_le
  5529      abs_realpow_two
  5530      realpow_two_abs     
  5531 
  5532 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5533 
  5534 * Theory List:
  5535 
  5536 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5537 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5538 
  5539   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5540   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5541   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5542   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5543 
  5544 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5545 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5546 
  5547 
  5548 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5549 
  5550 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5551 integers in the reals.
  5552 
  5553 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5554 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5555 
  5556   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5557   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5558   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5559   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5560   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5561 
  5562 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5563 
  5564 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5565 
  5566 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5567 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5568 
  5569   hypreal = real star
  5570   hypnat = nat star
  5571   hcomplex = complex star
  5572 
  5573 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5574 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5575 
  5576   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5577 
  5578   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5579   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5580   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5581   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5582   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5583 
  5584   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5585   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5586   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5587   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5588   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5589 
  5590 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5591 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5592 
  5593   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5594   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5595   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5596   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5597   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5598   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5599   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5600   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5601   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5602   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5603   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5604   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5605   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5606   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5607   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5608   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5609   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5610   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5611   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5612   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5613   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5614   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5615   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5616   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5617 
  5618 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5619 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5620 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5621 
  5622   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5623   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5624   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5625   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5626   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5627   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5628   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5629   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5630   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5631   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5632     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5633   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5634   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5635   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5636   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5637   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5638   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5639   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5640   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5641   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5642   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5643   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5644   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5645   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5646   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5647   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5648   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5649   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5650   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5651   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5652   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5653   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5654   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5655   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5656   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5657   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5658   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5659   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5660   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5661   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5662   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5663   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5664   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5665   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5666   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5667   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5668   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5669   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5670   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5671   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5672   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5673   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5674   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5675   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5676 
  5677   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5678   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5679   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5680   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5681   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5682   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5683   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5684   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5685   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5686   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5687   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5688 
  5689   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5690   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5691   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5692   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5693   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5694   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5695   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5696   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5697   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5698   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5699   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5700   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5701   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5702   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5703   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5704   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5705   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5706   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5707   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5708   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5709   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5710 
  5711 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5712 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5713 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5714 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5715 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5716 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5717 
  5718 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5719 
  5720 
  5721 *** HOLCF ***
  5722 
  5723 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5724 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5725 type-inference.
  5726 
  5727 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5728 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5729 instead of exponential time).
  5730 
  5731 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5732 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5733 
  5734   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5735 
  5736 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5737 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5738 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5739 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5740 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5741 syntax and examples.
  5742 
  5743 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5744 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5745 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5746 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5747 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5748 
  5749 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5750 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5751 
  5752   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5753   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5754   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5755   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5756   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5757   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5758 
  5759 
  5760 *** ZF ***
  5761 
  5762 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5763 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5764 of a homomorphism).
  5765 
  5766 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5767 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5768 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5769 
  5770 
  5771 *** Cube ***
  5772 
  5773 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5774 theories.
  5775 
  5776 
  5777 *** ML ***
  5778 
  5779 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5780 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5781 
  5782 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5783 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5784 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5785 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5786 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5787 
  5788 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5789 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5790 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5791 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5792 
  5793 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5794 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5795 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5796 
  5797     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5798     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5799     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5800     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5801     seq fs = List.app fs
  5802     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5803     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5804 
  5805 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5806 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5807 
  5808   x |> f                f #> g
  5809   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5810 
  5811 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5812 
  5813   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5814   infix 2 ?;
  5815   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5816   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5817 
  5818 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5819 infix operators.
  5820 
  5821 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5822 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5823 example:
  5824 
  5825   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5826     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5827 
  5828   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5829     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5830 
  5831   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5832     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5833 
  5834   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5835     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5836 
  5837 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5838 available:
  5839 
  5840   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5841   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5842   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5843   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5844 
  5845 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5846 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5847 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5848 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5849 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5850 
  5851   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5852   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5853   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5854 
  5855 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5856 
  5857   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5858   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5859 
  5860 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5861 Naive rewrites:
  5862 
  5863   make_keylist = AList.make
  5864   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5865 
  5866 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5867   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5868 
  5869     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5870     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5871 
  5872 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5873   Naive rewrites:
  5874 
  5875     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5876     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5877 
  5878 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5879 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5880 lists.
  5881 
  5882 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5883 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5884 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5885 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5886 
  5887 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5888 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5889 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5890 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5891 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5892 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5893 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5894 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5895 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5896 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5897 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5898 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5899 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5900 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5901 Output.raw have no effect.
  5902 
  5903 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5904 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5905 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5906 
  5907 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5908 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5909 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5910 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5911 
  5912 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5913 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5914 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5915 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5916 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5917 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5918 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5919 
  5920 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5921 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5922 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5923 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5924 
  5925 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5926 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5927 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5928 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5929 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5930 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5931 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5932 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5933 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5934 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5935 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5936 
  5937 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5938 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5939 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5940 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5941 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5942 with earlier declarations.
  5943 
  5944 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5945 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5946 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5949 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5950 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5951 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5952 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5953 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5954 
  5955   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5956     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5957 
  5958   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5959     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5960 
  5961   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5962     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5963     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5964     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5965 
  5966 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5967 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5968 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5969 
  5970 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5971 
  5972 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5973 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5974 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5975 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5976 
  5977 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5978 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5979 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5980 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5981 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5982 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5983 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5984 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5985 
  5986 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5987 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5988 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5989 
  5990 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5991 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5992 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5993 
  5994 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5995 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5996 
  5997   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5998   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5999   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6000   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6001 
  6002 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  6003 
  6004 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  6005 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  6006 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  6007 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  6008 (both increase the runtime).
  6009 
  6010 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  6011 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  6012 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  6013 
  6014 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  6015 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  6016 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  6017 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  6018 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  6019 for further details.
  6020 
  6021 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  6022 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  6023 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  6024 scripts for the time being.
  6025 
  6026 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  6027 generated HTML files.  For example:
  6028 
  6029   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  6030   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  6031 
  6032 
  6033 *** System ***
  6034 
  6035 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  6036 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  6037 
  6038 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  6039 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  6040 
  6041 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  6042 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  6043 
  6044 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  6045 distribution being used.
  6046 
  6047 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  6048 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  6049 theories.
  6050 
  6051 
  6052 
  6053 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  6054 --------------------------------
  6055 
  6056 *** General ***
  6057 
  6058 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  6059   Replaces linorder.ML.
  6060 
  6061 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  6062   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  6063   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  6064   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  6065   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  6066   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  6067   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  6068   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  6069   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  6070   existing theory and ML files.
  6071 
  6072 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  6073 
  6074 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  6075   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  6076   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  6077   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  6078 
  6079 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  6080   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  6081   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  6082   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  6083 
  6084 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  6085   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  6086   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  6087 
  6088 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  6089   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  6090   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  6091   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  6092   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  6093 
  6094 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  6095   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  6096 
  6097 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  6098   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  6099   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  6100 
  6101 
  6102 *** Isar ***
  6103 
  6104 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  6105   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  6106   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  6107     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  6108     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  6109     emulations.
  6110   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  6111     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  6112     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  6113 
  6114 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  6115   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  6116     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  6117     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  6118   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  6119 
  6120 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  6121   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  6122   and derived forms.
  6123 
  6124 * Locales:
  6125   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  6126     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  6127     "_axioms") in the premise.
  6128     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  6129   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  6130     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  6131   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  6132     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  6133   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  6134         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  6135     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  6136     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  6137     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  6138     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  6139     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  6140       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  6141     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  6142     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  6143     with "locale (open)".
  6144       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  6145 
  6146 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  6147   (Isar) contexts.
  6148 
  6149 
  6150 *** HOL ***
  6151 
  6152 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  6153   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  6154   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  6155   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  6156   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  6157 
  6158 * Simplifier:
  6159   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  6160     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  6161     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  6162     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  6163     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  6164   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  6165     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  6166     is solved by simplification already.
  6167 
  6168 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  6169     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  6170 
  6171 * Numerics:
  6172   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  6173     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  6174   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  6175     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  6176   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  6177     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  6178     exponentiation).
  6179 
  6180 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  6181 
  6182 * Records:
  6183   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  6184     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  6185     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  6186   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  6187     (not enabled by default).
  6188   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  6189     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  6190   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  6191 
  6192 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  6193   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  6194   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  6195 
  6196 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  6197 
  6198 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  6199 
  6200 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  6201   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  6202 
  6203 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  6204   matrix theory to linear programming.
  6205 
  6206 * Unions and Intersections:
  6207   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  6208   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  6209   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  6210   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  6211 
  6212 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  6213   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  6214   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  6215   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  6216 
  6217 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  6218   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  6219 
  6220 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  6221   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  6222 
  6223 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  6224   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  6225   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  6226 
  6227 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  6228   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  6229   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  6230   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"