NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Oct 10 11:12:09 2011 +0200 (2011-10-10 ago)
changeset 45124 d78ec6c10fa1
parent 45122 49e305100097
child 45128 5af3a3203a76
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
    10   INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
    11 
    12   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
    13   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
    14   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
    15   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
    16   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
    17   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
    18   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
    19   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
    20   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
    21   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
    22   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
    23   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
    24   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
    25   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
    26   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
    27   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
    28   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
    29   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
    30   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
    31   zle_refl ~> order_refl
    32   zle_trans ~> order_trans
    33   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
    34   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
    35   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
    36   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
    37   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
    38   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
    39   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
    40   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
    41   zless_le ~> less_le
    42   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
    43   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
    44   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
    45 
    46 
    47 
    48 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
    49 ------------------------------------
    50 
    51 *** General ***
    52 
    53 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
    54 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
    55 
    56   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
    57     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
    58     files for checking).
    59 
    60   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
    61     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
    62     positions.
    63 
    64   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
    65     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
    66     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
    67 
    68   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
    69     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
    70     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
    71 
    72   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
    73     cores.
    74 
    75   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
    76     versions (garbage collection).
    77 
    78 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
    79 including some remaining limitations.
    80 
    81 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    82 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    83 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    84 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    85 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    86 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    87 
    88 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    89 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    90 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    91 
    92 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    93 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    94 usedir option -Q.
    95 
    96 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    97 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    98 
    99   long_names   ~> names_long
   100   short_names  ~> names_short
   101   unique_names ~> names_unique
   102 
   103 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   104 
   105   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   106 
   107 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   108 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   109 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   110 
   111 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   112 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   113 
   114 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   115   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   116   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   117   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   118     "Classical Reasoner".
   119 
   120 
   121 *** HOL ***
   122 
   123 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   124 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   127 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   128 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   129 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   130 class complete_linorder.
   131 
   132 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   133 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   134 
   135 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   136 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   137 
   138   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   139   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   140   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   141   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   142   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   143   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   144   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   145   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   146   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   147   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   148   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   149 
   150 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   151 
   152   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   153   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   154   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   155   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   156   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   157   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   158   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   159   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   160   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   161   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   162   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   163   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   164   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   165   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   166   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   167   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   168 
   169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   173 
   174 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   175 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   176 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   177 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   180 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   181 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   185 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   186 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   187 
   188 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   189 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   190 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   193 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   194 
   195 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   196 
   197     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   198     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   199 
   200 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   201 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   204 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   207 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   208 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   209 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   212   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   213   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   214   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   215   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   216   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   217   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   218 
   219 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   220 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   223   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   224   real_less_def ~> less_le
   225   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   226   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   227   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   228   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   229   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   230   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   231   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   232   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   233   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   234   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   235   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   236   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   237   real_le_linear ~> linear
   238   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   239   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   240   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   241   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   242   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   243   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   244   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   245   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   246   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   247   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   248   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   249   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   250   expi_add ~> exp_add
   251   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   252   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   253   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   254   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   255   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   256   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   257   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   258   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   259   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   260   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   261   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   262   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   263   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   264   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   265   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   266   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   267   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   268   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   269   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   270   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   271   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   272   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   273   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   274   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   275   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   276   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   277   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   278   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   279   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   280   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   281   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   282   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   283   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   284   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   285   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   286   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   287   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   288   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   289   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   290   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   291   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   292   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   293   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   294   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   295   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   296   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   297   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   298   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   299   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   300   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   301   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   302   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   303   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   304 
   305 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   306 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   307 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   308 
   309 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   310 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   311 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   312 
   313 * Code generation:
   314 
   315   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   316     characters in the target language.
   317 
   318   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   319     instead.
   320 
   321   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   322 
   323   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   324     reactivated by the following theory command:
   325 
   326       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   327 
   328 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   331 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   332 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   333 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   334 syntax.
   335 
   336 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   337 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   338 
   339 * Nitpick:
   340   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   341   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   342   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   343     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   344 
   345 * Sledgehammer:
   346   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   347   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   348     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   349   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   350     this can be done within reasonable time.
   351   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   352     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   354     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   355   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   356     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   357 
   358 * Metis:
   359   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   361     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * Command 'try':
   364   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   365     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   367     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   368 
   369 * Quickcheck:
   370   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   371     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   372   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   373     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   374   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   375     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   376     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   377     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   378   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   379     (formly in HOL/Library).
   380 
   381 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   382 use 'partial_function' instead.
   383 
   384 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   385 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   386 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   387 
   388 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   389 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   391 
   392 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   393 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   394 
   395 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   396 arithmetic.
   397 
   398 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   399 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   400 and lattice type classes.
   401 
   402 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   403 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   404 
   405 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   406 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   407 
   408 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   409 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   410 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   411 
   412   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   413   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   414   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   415   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   416 
   417 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   418 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   419 constants:
   420 
   421   type inat   ~> type enat
   422   Fin         ~> enat
   423   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   424   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   425   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   426 
   427 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   428 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   431 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   432 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   433 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   434 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   435 
   436 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   437 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   438 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   439 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   440 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   441 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   442 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   443 
   444   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   445   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   446   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   447   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   448 
   449 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   450 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   451 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   454   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   455   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   456   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   457   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   458   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   459   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   460   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   461   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   462   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   463   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   464   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   465   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   466   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   467   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   468   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   469   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   470   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   471   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   472   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   473   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   474   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   475   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   476   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   477   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   478   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   479   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   480   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   481   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   482   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   483   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   484   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   485   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   486   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   487   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   488   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   489   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   490   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   491   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   492   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   493   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   494   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   495   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   496   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   497   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   498   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   499   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   500   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   501   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   502   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   503   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   504 
   505 * Session HOL-Probability:
   506   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   507   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   508   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   509   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   510     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   515   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   516   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   517   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   518   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   519   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   520   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   521   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   522   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   523   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   524   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   525   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   526   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   527   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   528   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   529   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   530   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   531   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   532   UU_I ~> bottomI
   533   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   534   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   535   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   536   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   537   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   538   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   539 
   540 
   541 *** Document preparation ***
   542 
   543 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   544 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   545 same.
   546 
   547 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   548 result.
   549 
   550 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   551 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   552 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   553 
   554 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   555 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   556 
   557 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   558 like this:
   559 
   560   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   561   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   562 
   563 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   564 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   565 layouts.
   566 
   567 
   568 *** ML ***
   569 
   570 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   571 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   572 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   573 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   574 under external program control.
   575 
   576 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   577 data, which requires explicit setup.
   578 
   579 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   580 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   581 (better known as Proof General).
   582 
   583 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   584 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   585 
   586 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   587 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   588 
   589 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   590 (including quotes etc.).
   591 
   592 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   593 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   594 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   595 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   596 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   597 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   598 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   599 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   600 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   601 
   602 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   603 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   604 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   605 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   606 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   607 
   608 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   609 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   610 
   611 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   612 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   613 
   614 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   615 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   616 
   617 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   618 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   619 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   620 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   621 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   623 proper Proof.context.
   624 
   625 
   626 *** System ***
   627 
   628 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
   629 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
   630 
   631 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
   632 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
   633 
   634 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
   635 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
   636 
   637   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
   638   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
   639   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
   640   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
   641   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
   642 
   643 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
   644 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   647 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   648 example:
   649 
   650   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   651 
   652 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
   653 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   654 
   655 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   656 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   657 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   658 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   659 
   660 
   661 
   662 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   663 ----------------------------------
   664 
   665 *** General ***
   666 
   667 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   668 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   669 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   670 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   671 like this:
   672 
   673   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   674 
   675 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   676 
   677 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   678 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   679 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   680 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   681 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   682 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   683 
   684 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   685 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   686 the following package declarations:
   687 
   688   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   689   \usepackage{textcomp}
   690 
   691 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   692 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   693 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   694 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   695 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   696 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   697 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   698 
   699 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   700 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   701 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   702 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   703 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   704 
   705 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   706 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   707 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   708 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   709 
   710 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   711 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   712 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   713 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   714 
   715   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   716 
   717   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   718   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   719   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   720   show_types                    show_types
   721   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   722   show_consts                   show_consts
   723   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   724 
   725   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   726   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   727   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   728 
   729   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   730   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   731 
   732   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   733 
   734   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   735   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   736   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   737   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   738   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   739 
   740 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   741 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   742 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   743 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   744 
   745 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   749   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   750 
   751 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   752 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   753 float_token.
   754 
   755 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   756 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   760 DejaVu Sans.
   761 
   762 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   763 
   764 
   765 *** Pure ***
   766 
   767 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   768 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   769 time.
   770 
   771 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   772 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   773 
   774 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   775 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   778 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   779 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   780 command already provided this functionality.
   781 
   782 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   783 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   784 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   785 without interpretations.
   786 
   787 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   788 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   789 
   790 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   791 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   792 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   793 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   794 
   795 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   796 'definition' instead.
   797 
   798 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   799 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   800 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   801 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   802 
   803 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   804 constructors.
   805 
   806 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   807 the local file system.
   808 
   809 
   810 *** HOL ***
   811 
   812 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   813 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   814 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   815 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   816 
   817   declare [[coercion f]]
   818 
   819 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   820 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   821 
   822   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   823 
   824 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   825 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   826 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   827 other theories like this:
   828 
   829   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   830 
   831 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   832 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   833 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   834 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   835 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   836 for examples.
   837 
   838 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   839 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   842 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   843 
   844 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   845 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   846 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   847 
   848 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   849 functorial structure of types.
   850 
   851 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   852 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   853 
   854 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   855 languages.
   856 
   857 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   858 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   862 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   863 
   864 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   865 combinators any longer.
   866 
   867 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   868 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   869 
   870 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   871 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   872 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   873 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   874 
   875   record 'a foo = ...
   876   ...
   877   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   878 
   879 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   880 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   882 
   883 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   884 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   885 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   886 
   887 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   888 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   889 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   890 
   891 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   892 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   895 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   896 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   897 independently.
   898 
   899 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   900 counter example search.
   901 
   902 * Sledgehammer:
   903   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   904     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   905     sledgehammer").
   906   - Renamed commands:
   907     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   908     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   909     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   910     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911   - Renamed options:
   912     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   913     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   914     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   915     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   916     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Nitpick:
   919   - Renamed options:
   920     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   921     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   922     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   924   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   925   - Added "whack" option.
   926   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   927   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   928   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   929   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   930     higher cardinalities.
   931   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   932 
   933 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   934 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   935 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   936 
   937     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   938 
   939 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   940 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   941 
   942 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   943 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   944 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   945 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   946 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   947 "smt_solver".
   948 
   949 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   950 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   951 
   952 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   953 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   954 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   955 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   958   - Renamed:
   959     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   960     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   961     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962   - Added:
   963     smt_verbose
   964     smt_random_seed
   965     smt_datatypes
   966     smt_infer_triggers
   967     smt_monomorph_limit
   968     cvc3_options
   969     remote_cvc3_options
   970     remote_z3_options
   971     yices_options
   972 
   973 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   974 header.
   975 
   976 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   977 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   978 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   979 
   980   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   981 
   982 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   985 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   990 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   991 
   992 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   993 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   994 
   995 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   996 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   997 
   998 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   999 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1000 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1001 
  1002 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1006 
  1007 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1008 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1011 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1012 for congruent(2)).
  1013 
  1014 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1015 
  1016   types
  1017     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1018     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1019 
  1020   constants
  1021     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1022     True ~> HOL.True
  1023     False ~> HOL.False
  1024     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1025     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1026     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1027     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1028     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1029     The ~> HOL.The
  1030     All ~> HOL.All
  1031     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1032     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1033     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1034     If ~> HOL.If
  1035     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1036     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1037     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1038     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1039     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1040     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1041     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1042     op : ~> Set.member
  1043     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1044 
  1045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1048 
  1049     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1050     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1051     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1052     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1053     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1054     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1055     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1056     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1057 
  1058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1059 
  1060 * More stylized fact names:
  1061 
  1062   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1063   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1064   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1065   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1066 
  1067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1068 
  1069 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1070 
  1071   constants
  1072     null ~> List.null
  1073 
  1074   facts
  1075     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1076     null_empty ~> null_def
  1077 
  1078 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1079 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1080 generation.
  1081 
  1082 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1083 Haskell code.
  1084 
  1085 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1086 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1087 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1090 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091 
  1092 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1093 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1094 
  1095 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1096 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1097 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1100 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101 
  1102 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1104 
  1105 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1106 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1107 referred to by its qualified name.
  1108 
  1109   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1110   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1111   product ~>  Enum.product
  1112 
  1113 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1114 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1118 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1119 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1121 
  1122 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1123 sort_key.
  1124 
  1125 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1129 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1130 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1131 
  1132   types
  1133     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1134               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1135               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1136         (depends on your needs)
  1137 
  1138   constants
  1139      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1140      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1141      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1142 
  1143 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1144 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1145 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1146 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1147 
  1148 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1149 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1150 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1151 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1152 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1158 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1159 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1160 
  1161 
  1162 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1163 
  1164 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1165 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1166 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1167 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1168 compatibility.
  1169 
  1170 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1171 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1172 
  1173 
  1174 *** HOLCF ***
  1175 
  1176 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1177 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1178 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1180 
  1181 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1182 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1183 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1186   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1187   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1188 
  1189 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1190 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1191 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192 
  1193 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1194 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1195 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1196 domain definition now works:
  1197 
  1198   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1199 
  1200 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1201 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1202 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1203 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1204 
  1205   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1206     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1207 
  1208   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1209 
  1210 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1211 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1212 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1213 
  1214 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1215 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1218 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1219 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1220 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1221 
  1222 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1223 
  1224 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1225 
  1226 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227 
  1228 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1230 
  1231 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1232 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1233 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1234 
  1235 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1236 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1237 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1238 
  1239 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1240 still supported as an input translation.
  1241 
  1242 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1243 
  1244   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1245   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1246   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1247   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1248   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1249   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1250   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1251 
  1252 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1253 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1256   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1257   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1258   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1259   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1260   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1261 
  1262 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1263 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1266 
  1267   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1268   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1269   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1270   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1271 
  1272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1273 
  1274 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1275 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1278 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1279 
  1280   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1281   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1282   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1283   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1284   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1285   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1286   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1287   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1288   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1289   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1290   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1291   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1292   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1293   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1294   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1295   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1296   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1297   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1298   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1299   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1300 
  1301 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1302 
  1303   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1304   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1305   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1306   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1307   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1308   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1309   box_less             ~> box_below
  1310   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1311   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1312   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1313   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1314   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1315   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1316   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1317   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1318   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1319   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1320   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1321   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1322   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1323   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1324   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1325   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1326   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1327   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1328   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1329   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1330   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1331   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1332   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1333   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1334   up_less              ~> up_below
  1335   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1336   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1337   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1338   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1339   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1340   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1341   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1342   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1343   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1344   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1345   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1346   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1347   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1348 
  1349 
  1350 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1351 
  1352 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1353 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1354 
  1355 
  1356 *** ML ***
  1357 
  1358 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1359 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1360 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1361 
  1362 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1363 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1364 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1365 
  1366 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1367 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1368 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1369 
  1370 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1371 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1372 
  1373 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1374 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1375 
  1376 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1377 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1378 
  1379 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1380 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1381 
  1382 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1383 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1384 almost all situations.
  1385 
  1386 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1387 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1388 Isabelle/ML.
  1389 
  1390 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1391 meaning.
  1392 
  1393 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1394 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1395 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1396 
  1397 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1398 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1399 
  1400 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1401 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1402 
  1403 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1404 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1405 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1406 
  1407 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1408 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1409 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1410 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1411 configuration options.
  1412 
  1413 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1414 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1415 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1416 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1417 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1418 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1419 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1420 
  1421 
  1422 
  1423 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1424 ---------------------------------
  1425 
  1426 *** General ***
  1427 
  1428 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1429 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1430 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1431 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1432 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1433 their full internal name.
  1434 
  1435 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1436 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1437 Some hints on upgrading:
  1438 
  1439   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1440     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1441     which are independent of this issue.
  1442 
  1443   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1444     provides the following special forms:
  1445 
  1446       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1447       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1448       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1449 
  1450     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1451     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1452     extra variables".
  1453 
  1454     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1455     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1456     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1457     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1458     "logic".
  1459 
  1460   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1461     antiquotations:
  1462 
  1463       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1464       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1465       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1466       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1467 
  1468   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1469     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1470     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1471     antiquotations.
  1472 
  1473 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1474 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1475 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1476 diagnose syntax problems.
  1477 
  1478 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1479 
  1480 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1481 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1482 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1483 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1484 
  1485 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1486 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1487 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1488 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1491 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1492 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1493 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1494 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1497 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1498 
  1499 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1500 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1501 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1502 
  1503   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1504 
  1505 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1506 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1507 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1508 
  1509 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1510 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1514 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1515 
  1516 
  1517 *** Pure ***
  1518 
  1519 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1520 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1521 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1522 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1523 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1524 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1525 inspect proof terms.
  1526 
  1527 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1528 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1529 are added internally.  For example:
  1530 
  1531   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1532 
  1533 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1534 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1539 'class' instead.
  1540 
  1541 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1542 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1546 invariants.
  1547 
  1548 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1549 user space functionality any longer.
  1550 
  1551 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1552 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1556 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1557 
  1558 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1559 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1560 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1561 
  1562 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1563 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1564 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1565 
  1566 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1567 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 
  1570 *** HOL ***
  1571 
  1572 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1573 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1574 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1575 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1576 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1577 
  1578 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1579 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1580 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1581 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1582 
  1583   fun
  1584     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1585   where
  1586     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1587 
  1588   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1589     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1590 
  1591   quotient_definition
  1592     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1593 
  1594 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1595 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1596 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1597 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1598 
  1599 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1600 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1601 
  1602 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1603 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1604 
  1605 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1609 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1610 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1611 
  1612 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1613 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1622 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1625 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1626 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1627 
  1628   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1629   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1630   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1631   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1632   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1633   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1634   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1635   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1636   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1637   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1638   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1639   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1640   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1641   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1642   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1643   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1644   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1645   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1646   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1647   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1648   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1649   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1650   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1651   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1652   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1653   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1654   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1655   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1656   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1657   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1658 
  1659 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1660 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1661 
  1662 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1663 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1664 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1665 
  1666 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1667 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1668 
  1669 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1670 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1673 
  1674 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1675 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1678 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1683 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1684 
  1685 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1686 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1687 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1688 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1691   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1692   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1693   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1697 lattices):
  1698 
  1699     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1700     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1701 
  1702     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1703 
  1704     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1705     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1706     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1707     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1708     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1709     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1710     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1711     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1712     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1713     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1714     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1715     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1716     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1717 
  1718     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1719     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1720     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1721     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1722     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1723     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1724     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1725     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1726     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1727     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1728     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1729     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1730     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1731     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1732     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1733     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1734     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1735     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1736 
  1737   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1738   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1739 
  1740     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1741     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1742     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1743     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1744     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1745 
  1746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Refined field classes:
  1749   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1750     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1751     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1752   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1754 
  1755 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1756   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1757   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1758   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1759     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1760   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1761     equal_neg_zero.
  1762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1765 sets to lattices:
  1766 
  1767   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1768   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1769   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1770   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1771   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1772   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1773   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1774   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1775   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1776   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1777 
  1778 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1779 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1780 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1781 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1782 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1783 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1786 multiset order:
  1787 
  1788   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1789     <= and <;
  1790   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1791     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1792     multiset_order;
  1793   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1794     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1795     generation;
  1796   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1797     if needed.
  1798 
  1799 Renamed:
  1800 
  1801   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1802   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1803   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1804 
  1805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1806 
  1807 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1808 
  1809 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1810 
  1811 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1812 
  1813 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1814 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1815 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1816 
  1817   Constants:
  1818   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1819   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1820   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1821   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1822   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1823   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1824   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1825   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1826   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1827   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1828   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1829   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1830   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1831 
  1832   Lemmas:
  1833   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1834   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1835   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1836   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1837   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1838   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1839   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1840   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1841   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1842   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1843   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1844   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1845   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1846 
  1847 * Sledgehammer:
  1848   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1849     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1850     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1851     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1852     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1853     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1854     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1856   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1857     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1858   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1859     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1860     is still experimental.)
  1861   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1862     full-typed mode.
  1863   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1864 
  1865 * Nitpick:
  1866   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1867   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1868   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1869     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1870   - Added support for quotient types.
  1871   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1872     constructs.
  1873   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1874     "termination" proofs).
  1875   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1876   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1877   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1878   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1879     record getters.
  1880   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1881   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1882   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1883   - Added "atoms" option.
  1884   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1885     problems.
  1886   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1887     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1888     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1890     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1892 
  1893 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1894   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1895   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1896   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1897   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1898   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1899   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1900   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1901   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1902   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 
  1905 *** HOLCF ***
  1906 
  1907 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1908 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1909 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910 
  1911 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1912 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1913 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1914 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1917 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1918 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1919 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1920 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1921 
  1922 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1923 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1924 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1927 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1928 
  1929   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1930   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1931 
  1932 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1933 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1936   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1937   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1938   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1939   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1940 
  1941 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1942 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1943 
  1944   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1945   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1946   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1947 
  1948 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1949 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1951 
  1952 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1953 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1954 
  1955 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1956 
  1957 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1958 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959 
  1960 
  1961 *** ML ***
  1962 
  1963 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1964 
  1965     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1966     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1967 
  1968     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1969     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1970     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1971     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1972 
  1973     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1974     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1975     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1976 
  1977 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1978 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1979 
  1980 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1981 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1982 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1983 
  1984 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1985 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1986 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1987 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1988 
  1989 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1990 the context or even global references.
  1991 
  1992 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1993 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1994 
  1995 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1996 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1997 
  1998   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1999   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2000   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2001   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2002   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2003   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2004   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2005   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2006   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2007   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2008 
  2009 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2010 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2011 
  2012 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2013 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2014 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2015 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2016 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2017 
  2018 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2019 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2020 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2021 Theory_Data version.
  2022 
  2023 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2024 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2025 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2026 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2027 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2028 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2029 explicitly in rare situations.
  2030 
  2031 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2032 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2034 
  2035 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2036 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2039 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2040 quite rare).
  2041 
  2042 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2043 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2044 
  2045 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2046 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2047 terms.
  2048 
  2049 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2050 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2051 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2052 
  2053 
  2054 *** System ***
  2055 
  2056 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2057 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2058 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2059 
  2060 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2061 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2062 respectively.
  2063 
  2064 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2065 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2066 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2067 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2068 
  2069   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2070 
  2071 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2072 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2073 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2074 component.
  2075 
  2076 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2077 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2078 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2079 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2080 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2081 the user for manual installation.
  2082 
  2083 
  2084 
  2085 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2086 -------------------------------------
  2087 
  2088 *** General ***
  2089 
  2090 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2091 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2092 
  2093 
  2094 *** Pure ***
  2095 
  2096 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2097 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2098 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2099 
  2100 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2101 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2102 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2103 
  2104 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2105 interpretation.
  2106 
  2107 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2108 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110 
  2111 *** Document preparation ***
  2112 
  2113 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2114 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2115 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2116 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2117 
  2118 
  2119 *** HOL ***
  2120 
  2121 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2122 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2123 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2124 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2125 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2126 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2127 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2128 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2129 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2130 
  2131 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2132 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2133 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2134 
  2135 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2136 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2137 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2138 
  2139 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2140 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2141 
  2142 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2143 
  2144 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2145 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2146 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2147 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2148 
  2149 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2150 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2151 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2152 "mirabelle" utility.
  2153 
  2154 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2155 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2156 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2157 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2158 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2159 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2160 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2161 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2162 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2163 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2164 
  2165 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2166 procedure only.
  2167 
  2168 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2169 
  2170 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2171 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2172 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2173 that fail later.
  2174 
  2175 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2176 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2177 
  2178 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2179 the same method as the approximation method.
  2180 
  2181 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2182 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2183 series expansion.
  2184 
  2185 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2186 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2187 
  2188 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2189 reals.
  2190 
  2191 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2192 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2193 
  2194 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2195 fixpoint theorem.
  2196 
  2197 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2198   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2199     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2200   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2201     accordingly
  2202   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2203     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2204   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2205     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2206 
  2207 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2208 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2209 lattice.
  2210 
  2211 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2212 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2213 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2214 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2215 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2216 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2220   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2221     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2222   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2223     le_inf_iff
  2224   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2225     sup_aci)
  2226   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2227   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2228   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2229     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2230     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2231     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2232     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2233     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2234     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2235     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2236     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2237     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2238     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2239   - authentic syntax for
  2240     Set.Pow
  2241     Set.image
  2242   - mere abbreviations:
  2243     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2244     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2245     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2246     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2247     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2248     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2249     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2250     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2251   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2252 
  2253 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2254 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2255 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2256 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2257 
  2258 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2259 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2260 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2261 
  2262 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2263 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2266 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2267 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2268 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2269 
  2270 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2271 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2272 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2273 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2274 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2275 
  2276 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2277 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2279 
  2280 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2281 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2282 
  2283 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2284 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2285 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2286 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2287 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2288 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2289 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2293     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2294     code_post       replaces    code post
  2295     etc.
  2296   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Renamed methods:
  2299     sizechange -> size_change
  2300     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2301   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2304 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2305 
  2306 * Renamed theorems:
  2307     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2308     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2309     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2310     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2311     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2312   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319 
  2320 
  2321 *** HOLCF ***
  2322 
  2323 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2324 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2325 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2326 
  2327 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2328 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2329 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2330 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2331 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2332 
  2333 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2334 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2335 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2336 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2337 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2338 
  2339 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2340 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2341 constructor are pre-configured.
  2342 
  2343 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2344 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2345 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2346 
  2347 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2348 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2349 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2350 as well.)
  2351 
  2352 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2353 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2354 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2355 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2356 examples.
  2357 
  2358 
  2359 *** ML ***
  2360 
  2361 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2362 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2363 
  2364 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2365 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2366 position, logical grouping etc.
  2367 
  2368 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2369 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2370 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2371 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2372 
  2373 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2374 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2375 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2376 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2377 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2378 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2379 
  2380 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2381 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2382 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2383 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2384 experiments with references.
  2385 
  2386 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2387 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2388 
  2389 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2390 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2391 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2392 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2393 
  2394 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2395 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2396 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2397 
  2398 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2399 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2400 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2408 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2409 
  2410 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2411 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2412 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2413 
  2414 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2415 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2416 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2417 
  2418 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2419 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2420 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2422 
  2423 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2424 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2425 instead of global theory.
  2426 
  2427 
  2428 *** System ***
  2429 
  2430 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2431 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2432 usedir option -q.
  2433 
  2434 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2435 also the system manual.
  2436 
  2437 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2438 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2439 
  2440 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2441 this is always enabled.
  2442 
  2443 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2444 
  2445 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2446 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2447 currently supported on Linux only.
  2448 
  2449 
  2450 
  2451 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2452 --------------------------------
  2453 
  2454 *** General ***
  2455 
  2456 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2457 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2458 
  2459   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2460     "isatool."
  2461 
  2462   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2463     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2464 
  2465   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2466     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2467 
  2468 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2469 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2470 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2471 
  2472 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2473 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2474 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2475 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2476 via "isabelle emacs".
  2477 
  2478 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2479 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2480 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2481 
  2482 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2483 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2484 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2485 
  2486 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2487 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2488 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2489 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2490 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2491 
  2492 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2493 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2494 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2495 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2496 
  2497 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2498 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2499 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2500 
  2501 
  2502 *** Pure ***
  2503 
  2504 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2505 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2506 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2507 
  2508 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2509 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2510 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2511 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2512 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2513 
  2514 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2515 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2516 useful in locale declarations.
  2517 
  2518 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2519 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2520 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2521 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2522 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2523 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2524 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2525 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2526 no longer generated.
  2527 
  2528 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2529 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2530 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2531 
  2532 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2533 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2534 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2535 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2536 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2537 
  2538 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2540 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2541 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2542 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2543 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2544 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2545 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2546 
  2547 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2548 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2549 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2550 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2551 
  2552 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2555 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2556 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2557 
  2558 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2559 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2562 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2563 in HOL, write
  2564 
  2565     class foo = ...
  2566 
  2567 instead of
  2568 
  2569     class foo = type + ...
  2570 
  2571 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2572 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2575 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2576 
  2577 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2578 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2579 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2580 
  2581 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2582 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2583 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2584 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2585 directly in regular applications.
  2586 
  2587 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2588 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2589 
  2590 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2591 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2592 
  2593 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2594 theory context.
  2595 
  2596 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2597 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2600 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2601 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2602 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2603 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2604 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2605 
  2606   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2607 
  2608 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2609 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2610 normalization.
  2611 
  2612 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2613 addressing etc.
  2614 
  2615 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2616 
  2617   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2618   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2619 
  2620 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2621 
  2622   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2623      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2624      parts of the code generator framework).
  2625 
  2626   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2627      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2628      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2629 
  2630 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2633 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2636 patterns, e.g.
  2637 
  2638     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2639 
  2640 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2641 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2642 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2643 hyphen:
  2644 
  2645     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2646 
  2647 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2648 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2649 
  2650 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2651 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2652 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2653 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2654 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2655 higher-order unification.
  2656 
  2657 
  2658 *** Document preparation ***
  2659 
  2660 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2661 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2662 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2663 
  2664 
  2665 *** HOL ***
  2666 
  2667 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2668 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2669 
  2670 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2671 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2672 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2673 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2674 Main, as before.
  2675 
  2676 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2677 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2678 
  2679 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2680 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2681 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2682 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2683 
  2684 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2685 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2686 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2687 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2688 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2689 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2690 
  2691 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2692 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2693 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2694 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2695 
  2696 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2697 menu.
  2698 
  2699 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2700 (contains the empty clause).
  2701 
  2702 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2703 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2704 
  2705 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2706 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2707 
  2708 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2709 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2710 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2713 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2714 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2715 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2716 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2717 
  2718 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2719 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2720 
  2721 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2722 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2723 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2724 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2725 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2726 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2727 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2728 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2729 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2730 
  2731 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2732 
  2733 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2734 
  2735 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2736 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2737 
  2738 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2739 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2740 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2741 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2742 
  2743 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2744 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2745 
  2746     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2747     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2748     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2749     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2750     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2751     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2752     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2753     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2754 
  2755 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2756 theory Set.
  2757 
  2758 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2759 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2760 
  2761 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2762 
  2763 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2764 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2765 
  2766 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2767 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2768 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2769 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2770 allowed. For examples see
  2771 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2772 
  2773 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2774 
  2775 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2779 structure:
  2780 
  2781     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2782     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2783     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2784     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2785     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2786     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2787     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2788     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2789     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2790     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2791     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2792     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2793     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2794     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2795     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2796     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2797     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2798     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2799     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2800     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2801     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2802     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2803     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2804     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2805     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2806     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2807     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2808     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2809     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2810     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2811     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2812     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2813     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2814 
  2815     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2816     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2817     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2818     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2819     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2820     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2821     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2822     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2823     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2824     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2825 
  2826     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2827     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2828     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2829     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2830     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2831     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2832 
  2833 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2834 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2835 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2836 
  2837 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2838 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2839 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2840 
  2841 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2842 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2845 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2846 
  2847 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2848 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2849 proofs, e.g.
  2850 
  2851   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2852 
  2853 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2854 
  2855 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2856 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2857 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858 
  2859 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2860 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862 
  2863 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2864 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2865 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2869 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2870 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2871 preorder_class.*.
  2872 
  2873 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2874 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2875 
  2876 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2877 
  2878   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2879 
  2880 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2881 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2882 fold_image.
  2883 
  2884 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2885 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2886 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2887 the former will disappear at some point.
  2888 
  2889 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2890 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2891 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2892 
  2893 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2894 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2895 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2896 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2897 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2898 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2899 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2900 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2901 
  2902 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2903 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2904 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2905 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2906 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2907 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2908 
  2909     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2910     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2911     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2912     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2913     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2914     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2915     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2916 
  2917 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2918 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2919 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2920 
  2921 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2922 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2923 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2924 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2925 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2926 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2927 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2928 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2929 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2930 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2931 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2932 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2933 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2934 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2935 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2936 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2937 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2938 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2939 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2940 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2941 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2942 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2943 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2944 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2945 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2946 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2947 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2948 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2949 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2950 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2951 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2952 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2953 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2954 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2955 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2956 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2957 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2958 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2959 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2960 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2961 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2962 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2963 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2964 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2965 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2966 
  2967 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2968 
  2969 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2970 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2971 
  2972 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2973 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2974 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2975 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2976 
  2977 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2978 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2979 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2980 theory RealVector.
  2981 
  2982 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2983 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2984 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2985 and inner products are included.
  2986 
  2987 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2988 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2989 supported.
  2990 
  2991 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2992 first diagonalization argument.
  2993 
  2994 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2995 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2996 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2997 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2998 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2999 
  3000     hide (open) const gcd
  3001     abbreviation gcd where
  3002       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3003     notation (output)
  3004       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3005 
  3006 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3007 
  3008 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3009 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3010 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3013 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3014 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3015 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3016 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3017 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3018 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3019 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3020 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3021 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3022 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3023 cases.
  3024 
  3025 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3026 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3027 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3028 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3029 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3030 
  3031     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3032     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3033     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3034     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3035     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3036 
  3037 
  3038 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3039 
  3040 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3041 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3042 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3043 
  3044 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3045 
  3046 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3047 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3048 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3049 
  3050 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3051 
  3052 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3053 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3054 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3055 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3056 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3057 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3058 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3059 
  3060 
  3061 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3062 
  3063 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3064 
  3065 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3066 theory targets.
  3067 
  3068 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3069 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3070 'inductive' etc.
  3071 
  3072 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3073 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3074 
  3075 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3076 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3077 
  3078 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3079 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3080 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3081 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3082 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3083 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3084 the algorithm W:
  3085 
  3086  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3087  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3088          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3089 
  3090 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3091 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3092 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3093 
  3094 
  3095 *** HOLCF ***
  3096 
  3097 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3098 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3099 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3100 
  3101 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3102 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3103 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3104 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3105 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3108 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3109 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110 
  3111 
  3112 *** ZF ***
  3113 
  3114 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3115 
  3116 
  3117 *** ML ***
  3118 
  3119 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3120 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3121 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3122 5.2.1!
  3123 
  3124 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3125 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3126 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3127 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3128 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3129 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3130 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3131 
  3132 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3133 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3134 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3135 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3137 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3138 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3139 
  3140 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3141 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3142 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3143 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3144 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3145 
  3146 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3147 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3148 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3149 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3150 Method.add_method.
  3151 
  3152 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3153 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3154 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3155 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3156 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3157 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3158 
  3159 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3160 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3161 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3162 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3163 examples.
  3164 
  3165 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3166 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3167 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3168 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3169 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3170 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3171 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3172 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3173 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3174 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3175 
  3176 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3177 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3178 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3179 
  3180 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3181 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3182 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3183 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3184 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3185 resort for legacy applications.
  3186 
  3187 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3188 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3189 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3190 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3191 explicit runtime argument.
  3192 
  3193 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3194 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3195 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3196 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3197 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3200 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3201 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3202 theory state.
  3203 
  3204 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3205 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3206 
  3207   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3208   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3209   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3210   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3211   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3212   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3213   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3214   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3215   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3216   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3217 
  3218 
  3219 *** System ***
  3220 
  3221 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3222 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3223 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3224 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3225 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3226 
  3227 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3228 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3229 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3230 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3231 
  3232 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3233 
  3234 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3235 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3236 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3237 prover operations.
  3238 
  3239 
  3240 
  3241 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3242 -------------------------------
  3243 
  3244 *** General ***
  3245 
  3246 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3247 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3248 
  3249 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3250 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3251 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3252 provides a proper context already.
  3253 
  3254 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3255 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3256 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3257 
  3258 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3259 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3260 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3261 swap theory imports.
  3262 
  3263 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3264 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3265 
  3266 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3267 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3268 white space without escapes.
  3269 
  3270 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3271 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3272 "foo_bar".
  3273 
  3274 
  3275 *** Pure ***
  3276 
  3277 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3278 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3279 
  3280 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3281 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3282 
  3283 (1) unused_thms
  3284      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3285 
  3286 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3287      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3288      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3289 
  3290 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3291      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3292      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3293      their ancestors.
  3294 
  3295 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3296 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3297 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3298 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3299 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3300 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3301 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3302 
  3303 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3304 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3305 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3306 
  3307 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3308 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3309 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3310 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3311 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3312 
  3313 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3314 
  3315 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3316 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3317 update of theories within ML code.
  3318 
  3319 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3320 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3321 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3322 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3323 
  3324 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3325 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3326 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3330 
  3331 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3332 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3333 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3334 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3335 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3336 
  3337 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3338 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3339 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3340 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3341 situations.
  3342 
  3343 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3344 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3345 proof text.
  3346 
  3347 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3348 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3349 
  3350 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3351 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3352 predicates.
  3353 
  3354 
  3355 *** Document preparation ***
  3356 
  3357 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3358 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3359 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3360 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3361 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3362 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3363 
  3364 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3365 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3366 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3367 
  3368 
  3369 *** HOL ***
  3370 
  3371 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3372 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3373 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3374 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3375 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3376 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3377 
  3378 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3379 with multithreading.
  3380 
  3381 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3382 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3383 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3384 
  3385 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3386 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3387 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3388 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3391 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3392 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3393 and makes them available separately.  See
  3394 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3395 
  3396 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3397 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3398 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3399 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3400 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3401 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3402 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3403 the declared rules.
  3404 
  3405 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3406 
  3407   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3408 
  3409 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3410 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3411 
  3412 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3413 
  3414   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3415 
  3416   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3417     definitions on => and bool.
  3418 
  3419   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3420     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3421     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3422 
  3423       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3424       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3425       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3426       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3427       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3428       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3429       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3430       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3431 
  3432   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3433     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3434     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3435 
  3436   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3437     The proof pattern
  3438 
  3439       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3440       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3441 
  3442     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3443     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3444 
  3445       have "EX S. P S"
  3446       proof
  3447         show "P S" <...>
  3448       qed
  3449 
  3450   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3451     The proof pattern
  3452 
  3453       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3454       also have "S = T" <...>
  3455       finally have "P T" .
  3456 
  3457     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3458     must be replaced by something like
  3459 
  3460       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3461       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3462       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3463 
  3464   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3465     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3466 
  3467       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3468 
  3469     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3470     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3471     type of the form
  3472 
  3473       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3474 
  3475     rather than
  3476 
  3477       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3478 
  3479 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3480 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3481 
  3482 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3485 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3489 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3492 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3495 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3496 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3499 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3500 
  3501   less_trans
  3502   less_linear
  3503   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3504   le_less_trans
  3505   less_le_trans
  3506   less_not_sym
  3507   less_asym
  3508 
  3509 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3510 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3511 and different variable names.
  3512 
  3513 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3514 
  3515 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3516 finite maps.
  3517 
  3518 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3519 
  3520 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3521 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3522 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3523 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3524 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3525 accordingly.
  3526 
  3527 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3528 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3529 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3530 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3531 
  3532 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3533 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3534 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3535 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3536 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3540 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3543 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3544 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3545 
  3546 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3550 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3551 
  3552 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3553 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3556 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3559 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3563 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3566 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3567 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3568 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3569 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3570 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3573 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3574 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3575 
  3576 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3577 
  3578 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3579 
  3580 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3581 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3582 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3583 
  3584 
  3585 *** ZF ***
  3586 
  3587 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3588 same session:
  3589 
  3590   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3591   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3592   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3593   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3594   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3595   List      -> List_ZF
  3596   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3597 
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3599 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3600 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3601 
  3602 
  3603 *** ML ***
  3604 
  3605 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3606 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3607 
  3608 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3609 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3610 
  3611 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3612 
  3613 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3614 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3615 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3616 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3617 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3620 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3621 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3622 
  3623 
  3624 *** System ***
  3625 
  3626 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3627 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3628 
  3629 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3630 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3631 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3632 
  3633 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3634 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3635 
  3636 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3637 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3638 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3639 
  3640 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3641 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3642 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3643 
  3644 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3645 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3646 
  3647 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3648 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3649 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3650 script.
  3651 
  3652 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3653 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3654 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3655 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3656 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3657 
  3658 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3659 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3660 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3661 
  3662 
  3663 
  3664 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3665 -----------------------------------
  3666 
  3667 *** General ***
  3668 
  3669 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3670 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3671 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3672 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3673 
  3674 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3675 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3676 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3679 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3680 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3681 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3684 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3685 quotes.
  3686 
  3687 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3688 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3689 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3690 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3691 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3692 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3693 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3694 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3695 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3696 
  3697 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3698 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3699 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3700 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3701 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3702 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3703 
  3704 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3705 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3706 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3707 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3708 
  3709 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3710 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3711 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3712 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3713 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3714 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3715 
  3716 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3717 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3718 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3719 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3720 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3721 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3722 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3723 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3724 
  3725 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3726 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3727 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3728 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3729 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3730 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3731 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3732 
  3733 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3734 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3735 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3736 
  3737 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3738 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3739 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3740 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3741 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3742 limit is imposed.
  3743 
  3744 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3745 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3746 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3747 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3748 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3749 and scalability.
  3750 
  3751 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3752 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3753 
  3754 
  3755 *** Document preparation ***
  3756 
  3757 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3758 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3759 current context.
  3760 
  3761 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3762 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3763 
  3764 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3765 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3766 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3767 
  3768 
  3769 *** Pure ***
  3770 
  3771 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3772 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3773 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3774 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3775 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3776 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3777 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3778 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3779 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3780 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3781 
  3782 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3783 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3784 sketch:
  3785 
  3786     internal compilation:
  3787         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3788     writing SML code to a file:
  3789         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3790     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3791         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3792     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3793         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3794 
  3795     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3796         method ``eval''
  3797 
  3798 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3799 
  3800 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3801 
  3802     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3803     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3804     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3805     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3806 
  3807 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3808 
  3809     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3810       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3811 
  3812     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3813       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3814 
  3815     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3816       {(target)}+
  3817         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3818 
  3819     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3820       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3821         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3822 
  3823 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3824 
  3825 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3826 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3827 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3828 codegen".
  3829 
  3830 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3831 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3832 annotations).
  3833 
  3834 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3835 syntax.
  3836 
  3837 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3838 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3839 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3840 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3841 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3842 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3843 
  3844 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3845 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3846 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3847 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3848 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3849 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3850 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3851 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3852 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3853 equations, see section "definitions".
  3854 
  3855 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3856 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3857 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3858 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3859 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3860 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3861 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3862 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3863 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3864 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3865 
  3866 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3867 configuration options:
  3868 
  3869   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3870   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3871   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3872   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3873   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3874   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3875   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3876   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3877   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3878 
  3879 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3880 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3881 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3882 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3883 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3884 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3885 order.
  3886 
  3887 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3888 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3889 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3890 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3891 context encountered later on.
  3892 
  3893 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3894 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3895 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3896 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3897 
  3898 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3899 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3900 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3901 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3902 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3903 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3904 
  3905 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3906 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3907 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3908 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3909 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3910 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3911 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3912 more permissive.
  3913 
  3914 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3915 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3916 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3917 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3918 maintainability of proof texts.
  3919 
  3920 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3921 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3922 
  3923   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3924   then guess x and y by clarify
  3925 
  3926 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3927 proof tools being involved here.
  3928 
  3929 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3930 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3931 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3932 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3933 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3934 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3935 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3936 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3937 
  3938 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3939 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3940 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3941 
  3942   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3943   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3944   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3945   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3946 
  3947 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3948 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3949 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3950 
  3951 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3952 both named and unnamed ones.
  3953 
  3954 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3955 
  3956   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3957 
  3958 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3959 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3960 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3961 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3962 
  3963 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3964 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3965 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3966 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3967 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3968 
  3969 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3970 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3971 
  3972 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3973 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3974 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3975 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3976 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3977 originally first one.
  3978 
  3979 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3980 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3981 expected.
  3982 
  3983 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3984 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3985 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3986 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3987 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3988 
  3989   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3990     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3991     obtains x where "P x"
  3992 
  3993   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3994     assumes "A & B"
  3995     obtains A and B
  3996 
  3997   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3998     assumes "A | B"
  3999     obtains
  4000       A
  4001     | B
  4002 
  4003 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4004 explicitly:
  4005 
  4006   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4007     obtains "~ thesis"
  4008 
  4009   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4010     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4011 
  4012 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4013 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4014 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4015 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4016 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4017 case_names).
  4018 
  4019 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4020 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4021 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4022 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4023 
  4024 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4025 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4026 top-level lemma.
  4027 
  4028 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4029 introduction rule (default "that").
  4030 
  4031 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4032 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4033 to occur.
  4034 
  4035 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4036 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4037 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4038 representations independently of name spaces.
  4039 
  4040 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4041 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4042 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4043 
  4044 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4045 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4046 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4047 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4048 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4049 current context.
  4050 
  4051 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4052 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4053 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4054 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4055 
  4056   axiomatization
  4057     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4058     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4059 
  4060   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4061   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4062 
  4063   abbreviation
  4064     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4065     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4066 
  4067 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4068 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4069 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4070 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4071 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4072 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4073 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4074 
  4075 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4076 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4077 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4078 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4079 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4080 
  4081 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4082 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4083 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4084 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4085 
  4086 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4087 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4088 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4089 
  4090   definition "K x _ = x"
  4091 
  4092   inductive conj for A B
  4093   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4094 
  4095 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4096 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4097 abbreviations on output.
  4098 
  4099 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4100 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4101 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4102 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4103 
  4104 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4105 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4106 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4107 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4108 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4109 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4110 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4111 
  4112 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4113 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4114 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4115 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4116 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4117 
  4118 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4119 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4120 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4121 
  4122 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4123 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4124 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4125 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4126 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4127 
  4128   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4129     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4130 
  4131 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4132 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4133 partial_order.
  4134 
  4135 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4136 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4137 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4138 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4139 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4140 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4141 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4142 examples.
  4143 
  4144 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4145 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4146 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4147 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4148 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4149 
  4150 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4151 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4152 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4153 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4154 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4155 
  4156   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4157   (induct set: foo bar)
  4158   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4159   (induct type: foo bar)
  4160 
  4161 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4162 new format.
  4163 
  4164 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4165 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4166 
  4167 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4168 considered a legacy feature.
  4169 
  4170 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4171 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4174 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4175 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4176 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4177   
  4178 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4179 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4180 manipulating the claset.
  4181 
  4182 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4183 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4184 least one premise.
  4185 
  4186 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4187 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4188 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4189 rule steps.
  4190 
  4191 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4192 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4193 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4194 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4195 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4196 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4197 
  4198 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4199 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4200 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4201 
  4202 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4203 the graph browser tool.
  4204 
  4205 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4206 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4207 
  4208 
  4209 *** HOL ***
  4210 
  4211 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4212 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4213 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4214 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4215 multi-threading.
  4216   
  4217 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4218 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4219 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4220 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4221 work with multi-threading.
  4222 
  4223 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4224 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4225 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4226 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4227 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4228 
  4229 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4230 
  4231 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4232 equality.
  4233 
  4234 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4235 the new 'class' package:
  4236 
  4237     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4238     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4239     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4240     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4241     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4242     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4243     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4244     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4245     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4246     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4247     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4248     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4249     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4250     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4251     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4252     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4253     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4254     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4255     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4256     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4257 
  4258 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4259 
  4260 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4261 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4262 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4263 names.
  4264 
  4265 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4266 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4267 
  4268 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4269 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4270 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4271 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4272 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4273 
  4274 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4275 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4276 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4277 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4278 
  4279 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4280 
  4281 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4282 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4283 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4284 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4288 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4291 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4292 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4293 
  4294 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4295 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4296 
  4297 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4298 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4299 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4300 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4301 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4302 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4303 in the current context.
  4304 
  4305 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4306 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4308 
  4309 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4310 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4311 
  4312 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4313 
  4314     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4315     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4316 
  4317     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4318       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4319     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4320     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4321 
  4322     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4323     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4324 
  4325   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4326 
  4327     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4328     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4329     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4330     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4331     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4332     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4333     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4334     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4335     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4336     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4337     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4338     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4339     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4340     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4341     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4342     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4343     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4344     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4345     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4346     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4347     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4348     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4349     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4350     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4351     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4352     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4353     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4354     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4355     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4356     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4357     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4358     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4359     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4360     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4361     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4362 
  4363     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4364     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4365     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4366     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4367     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4368     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4369     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4370     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4371     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4372     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4373     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4374     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4375     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4376     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4377     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4378     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4379     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4380 
  4381     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4382     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4383     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4384     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4385     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4386     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4387     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4388     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4389     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4390     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4391     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4392     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4393     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4394     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4395     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4396     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4397     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4398     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4399     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4400     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4401     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4402     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4403     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4404     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4405     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4406     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4407     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4408     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4409 
  4410     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4411     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4412     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4413     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4414     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4415     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4416 
  4417     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4418     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4419     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4420     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4421 
  4422     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4423     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4424 
  4425     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4426     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4427 
  4428 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4429 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4430 
  4431 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4432 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4433 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4434 "*.size".
  4435 
  4436 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4440 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4441 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4442 
  4443 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4444 
  4445 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4446 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4447 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4448 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4449 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4450 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4451 numerals on all operations.
  4452 
  4453 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4454 
  4455 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4456 
  4457 * Code generator library theories:
  4458   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4459     languages.
  4460   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4461     languages.
  4462   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4463     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4464   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4465   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4466     denominator).
  4467   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4468     representable by rational numbers.
  4469   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4470     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4471     includes Code_Integer.
  4472   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4473     target-language built-in integers.
  4474   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4475     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4476 
  4477 * New package for inductive predicates
  4478 
  4479   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4480 
  4481     inductive
  4482       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4483       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4484     where
  4485       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4486     | ...
  4487 
  4488   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4489 
  4490     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4491 
  4492     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4493     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4494 
  4495     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4496     intros
  4497       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4498       ...
  4499 
  4500   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4501   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4502 
  4503     inductive_set
  4504       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4505       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4506     where
  4507       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4508     | ...
  4509 
  4510   or
  4511 
  4512     inductive_set
  4513       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4514       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4515       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4516     where
  4517       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4518     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4519     | ...
  4520 
  4521   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4522 
  4523   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4524   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4525 
  4526   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4527 
  4528   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4529     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4530     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4531     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4532     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4533 
  4534   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4535     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4536     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4537     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4538     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4539     statements of the form
  4540 
  4541       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4542 
  4543     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4544     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4545 
  4546       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4547 
  4548   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4549 
  4550       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4551         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4552         ==> ... ==> P
  4553 
  4554     for predicates and
  4555 
  4556       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4557         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4558         ==> ... ==> P
  4559 
  4560     for sets rather than
  4561 
  4562       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4563         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4564         ==> ... ==> P
  4565 
  4566     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4567     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4568     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4569 
  4570   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4571     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4572     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4573 
  4574 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4575 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4576 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4577 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4578 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4579 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4580 
  4581 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4582 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4583 
  4584 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4585 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4586 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4587 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4588 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4589 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4590 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4591 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4592 variable.
  4593 
  4594 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4595 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4596 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4597 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4598   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4599   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4600 
  4601 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4602 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4603 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4604 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4605 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4606 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4607 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4608 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4609 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4610 
  4611 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4612 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4613 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4614 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4615 rat, etc.
  4616 
  4617 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4618 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4619 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4620 
  4621 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4622 
  4623 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4624 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4625 
  4626 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4627 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4628 
  4629 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4630 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4631 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4634 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4638 
  4639 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4640 
  4641 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4642 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4643 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4644 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4645 
  4646 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4647 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4648 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4649 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4652 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4653 algebraic operations.
  4654 
  4655 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4657 
  4658 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4662 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4663 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4664 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4665 adapted.
  4666  
  4667 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4668 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4669 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4670 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4671 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4672 
  4673 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4674 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4675 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4676 
  4677 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4678 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4679 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4680 
  4681 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 
  4683 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4684 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4685 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4686   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4687       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4688   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4689   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4690   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4691 
  4692 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4693 
  4694 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4695 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4696 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4697 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4698 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4699 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4700 
  4701 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4702 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4703 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4704 
  4705 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4706 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4707 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4711 
  4712 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4713 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4716 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4717 
  4718 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4719 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4720 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4721 
  4722 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4723 True/False.
  4724 
  4725 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4726 
  4727 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4728 
  4729 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4730 ``rule'' method.
  4731 
  4732 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4733 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4734 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4735 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4736 
  4737 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4738 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4739 
  4740 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4741 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4742 
  4743 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4744 Library.
  4745 
  4746 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4747 
  4748 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4749 as greatest fixed-point.
  4750 
  4751 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4752 association lists.
  4753 
  4754 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4755 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4756 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4757 
  4758 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4759 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4760 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4762 behavior.
  4763 
  4764 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4765 
  4766 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4767 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4768 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4769 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4770 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4771 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4772 
  4773 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4774 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4775 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4776 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4777 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4778 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4779 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4780 
  4781 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4782 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4783 
  4784 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4785 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4786 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4787 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4788 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4789 
  4790 
  4791 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4792 
  4793 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4794 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4795 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4796 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4800 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4801 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4802 
  4803 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4804 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4805 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4806 
  4807 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4808 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4809 
  4810 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4811 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4812 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4816   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4817   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4818   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4819   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4820   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4821   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4822   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4823   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4824   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4825   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4826   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4827   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4828   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4829   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4830 
  4831 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4832 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4833 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4834 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4835 
  4836   approx        <-- capprox
  4837   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4838   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4839   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4840   monad         <-- cmonad
  4841   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4842   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4843   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4844   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4845 
  4846 
  4847 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4848 
  4849 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4850 
  4851 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4855 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4858 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4859 of algebraic structures.
  4860 
  4861 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4865 
  4866 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4867 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4868 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4869 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4870 
  4871 
  4872 *** ML ***
  4873 
  4874 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4875 (even on SML/NJ).
  4876 
  4877 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4878 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4879 compile-time.  For example:
  4880 
  4881 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4882 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4883 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4884 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4885 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4886 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4887 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4888 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4889 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4890 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4891 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4892 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4893 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4894 ML {* @{context} *}
  4895 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4896 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4897 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4898 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4899 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4900 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4901 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4902 
  4903 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4904 
  4905 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4906 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4907 
  4908 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4909 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4910 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4911 
  4912 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4913 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4914 
  4915 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4916 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4917 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4918 
  4919 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4920 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4921 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4922 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4923 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4924 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4925 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4926 declarations and definitions.
  4927 
  4928 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4929 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4930 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4931 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4932 
  4933 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4934 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4935 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4936 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4939 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4940 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4941 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4942 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4943 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4944 
  4945 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4946 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4947 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4948 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4949 attributes, methods, etc.
  4950 
  4951 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4952 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4953 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4954 fold_map combinators.
  4955 
  4956 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4957 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4958 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4959 derivation.
  4960 
  4961 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4962 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4963 achieve the old behaviour.
  4964 
  4965 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4966 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4967 statements.
  4968 
  4969 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4970 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4971 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4972 
  4973 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4974 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4975 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4976 
  4977   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4978   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4979   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4980 
  4981 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4982 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4983 
  4984 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4985 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4986 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4987 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4988 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4989 
  4990 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4991 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4992 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4993 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4994 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4995 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4996 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4997 in a locale context).
  4998 
  4999 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5000 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5001 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5002 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5003 
  5004 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5005 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5006 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5007 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5008 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5009 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5010 
  5011 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5012 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5013 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5014 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5015 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5016 
  5017   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5018 
  5019 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5020 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5021 this:
  5022 
  5023   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5024 
  5025 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5026 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5027 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5028 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5029 
  5030 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5031 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5032 
  5033 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5034 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5035 
  5036 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5037 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5038 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5039 batch mode.
  5040 
  5041 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5042 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5043 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5044 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5045 
  5046 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5047 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5048 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5049 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5050 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5051 
  5052 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5053 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5054 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5055 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5057 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5058 
  5059 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5060 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5061 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5063 
  5064 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5065 "Trueprop" etc.
  5066 
  5067 
  5068 *** System ***
  5069 
  5070 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5071 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5072 Isabelle installations.
  5073 
  5074 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5075 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5076 code.
  5077 
  5078 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5079 
  5080 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5081 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5082 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5083 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5084 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5085 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5086 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5087 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5088 Implementation manual.
  5089 
  5090 
  5091 
  5092 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5093 ----------------------------------
  5094 
  5095 *** General ***
  5096 
  5097 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5098 
  5099   theory <name>
  5100   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5101   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5102   begin
  5103 
  5104 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5105 
  5106   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5107 
  5108 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5109 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5110 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5111 
  5112 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5113 relative and absolute paths.
  5114 
  5115 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5116 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5117 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5118 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5119 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5120 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5121 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5122 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5123 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5124 
  5125   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5126 
  5127 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5128 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5129 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5130 
  5131 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5132 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5135 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5136 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5137 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5138 
  5139   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5140   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5141 
  5142 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5143 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5144 faster.
  5145 
  5146 
  5147 *** Document preparation ***
  5148 
  5149 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5150 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5151 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5152 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5153 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5154 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5155 
  5156 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5157 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5158 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5159 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5160 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5161 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5162 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5163 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5164 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5165 \isadroptag.
  5166 
  5167 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5168 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5169 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5170 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5171 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5172 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5173 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5174 specified above.
  5175 
  5176 * Several new antiquotations:
  5177 
  5178   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5179 
  5180   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5181 
  5182   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5183   argument is a known logical constant;
  5184 
  5185   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5186   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5187 
  5188   @{ML text}
  5189 
  5190 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5191 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5192 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5193 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5194 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5195 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5196 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5197 
  5198 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5199 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5200 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5201 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5202 
  5203 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5204 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5205 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5206 
  5207 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5208 a proof context.
  5209 
  5210 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5211 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5212 
  5213 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5214 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5215 
  5216 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5217 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5218 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5219 
  5220 
  5221 *** Pure ***
  5222 
  5223 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5224 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5225 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5226 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5227 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5228 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5229 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5230 
  5231 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5232 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5233 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5234 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5235 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5236 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5237 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5238 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5239 
  5240 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5241 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5242 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5243 
  5244 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5245 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5246 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5247 
  5248 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5249 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5250 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5251 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5253 
  5254 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5255 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5256 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5257 axclasses vs. locales.
  5258 
  5259 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5260 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5261 
  5262 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5263 marks in schematic variable names.
  5264 
  5265 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5266 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5267 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5268 
  5269   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5270     by simp
  5271 
  5272 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5273 
  5274 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5275 annotations as "(00...)".
  5276 
  5277 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5278 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5279 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5280 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5281 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5282 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5283 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5284 
  5285 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5286 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5287 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5288 specifications.
  5289 
  5290 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5291 locally fixed variables as well.
  5292 
  5293 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5294 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5295 Limit.
  5296 
  5297 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5298 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5299 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5300 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5301 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5302 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5303 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5304 
  5305 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5306 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5307 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5308 
  5309 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5312 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5313 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5314 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5315 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5316 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5317 
  5318 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5319 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5320 
  5321 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5322 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5323 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5324 
  5325 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5326 
  5327 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5328 theory development.
  5329 
  5330 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5331 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5332 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5333 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5334 
  5335 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5336 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5337 quoted when used as identifier.
  5338 
  5339 
  5340 *** Locales ***
  5341 
  5342 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5343 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5344 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5345 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5346 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5347 commands is a follows:
  5348 
  5349   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5350   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5351   (3) interpret expr inst
  5352 
  5353 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5354 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5355 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5356 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5357 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5358 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5359 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5360 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5361 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5362 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5363 
  5364 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5365 'interpret' instead.
  5366 
  5367 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5368 parameters.
  5369 
  5370 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5371 redeclaration.
  5372 
  5373 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5374 
  5375 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5376 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5377 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5378 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5379 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5380 
  5381 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5382 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5383 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5384 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5385 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5386 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5387 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5388 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5389 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5390 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5391 
  5392 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5393 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5394 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5395 
  5396 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5397 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5398 
  5399 
  5400 *** Provers ***
  5401 
  5402 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5403 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5404 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5405 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5406 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5407 
  5408 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5409 and quasi orders.
  5410 
  5411 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5412 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5413 
  5414 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5415 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5416 
  5417 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5418 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5419 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5420 
  5421 
  5422 *** HOL ***
  5423 
  5424 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5425 
  5426   syntax (epsilon)
  5427     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5428 
  5429 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5430 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5431 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5432 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5433 
  5434 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5435 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5436 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5437 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5438 
  5439 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5440 instead of ":".
  5441 
  5442 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5443 
  5444   Old       New
  5445   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5446   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5447   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5448   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5449   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5450 
  5451 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5452 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5453 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5454 
  5455   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5456   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5457 
  5458 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5459 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5460 interface.
  5461 
  5462 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5463 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5464 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5465 be a tuple pattern.
  5466 
  5467 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5468 
  5469   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5470   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5471   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5472   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5473 
  5474 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5475 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5476 
  5477 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5478 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5479 (insert F x)'.
  5480 
  5481 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5482 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5483 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5484 
  5485 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5486 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5487 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5488 
  5489 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5490 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5491 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5492 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5493 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5494 
  5495 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5496 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5497 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5498 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5499 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5500 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5501 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5502 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5503 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5504 
  5505 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5506 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5507 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5508 quite long.
  5509 
  5510 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5511 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5512 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5513 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5514 
  5515 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5516 type-variables in the term.
  5517 
  5518 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5519 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5520 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5521 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5522 goals than previously.
  5523 
  5524 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5525 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5526 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5527 just like y <= x.
  5528 
  5529 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5530 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5531 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5532 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5533 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5534 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5535 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5536 
  5537 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5538 
  5539 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5540 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5541 
  5542 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5543 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5544 inequalities.
  5545 
  5546 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5547 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5548 
  5549   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5550   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5551   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5552   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5553   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5554   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5555   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5556   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5557   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5558   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5559   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5560 
  5561 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5562      
  5563      zero_le_square
  5564      not_square_less_zero 
  5565 
  5566   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5567   
  5568      realpow_zero_zero
  5569      realpow_two
  5570      realpow_less
  5571      zero_le_power
  5572      realpow_two_le
  5573      abs_realpow_two
  5574      realpow_two_abs     
  5575 
  5576 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5577 
  5578 * Theory List:
  5579 
  5580 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5581 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5582 
  5583   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5584   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5585   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5586   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5587 
  5588 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5589 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5590 
  5591 
  5592 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5593 
  5594 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5595 integers in the reals.
  5596 
  5597 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5598 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5599 
  5600   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5601   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5602   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5603   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5604   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5605 
  5606 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5607 
  5608 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5609 
  5610 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5611 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5612 
  5613   hypreal = real star
  5614   hypnat = nat star
  5615   hcomplex = complex star
  5616 
  5617 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5618 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5619 
  5620   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5621 
  5622   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5623   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5624   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5625   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5626   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5627 
  5628   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5629   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5630   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5631   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5632   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5633 
  5634 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5635 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5636 
  5637   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5638   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5639   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5640   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5641   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5642   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5643   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5644   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5645   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5646   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5647   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5648   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5649   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5650   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5651   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5652   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5653   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5654   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5655   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5656   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5657   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5658   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5659   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5660   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5661 
  5662 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5663 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5664 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5665 
  5666   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5667   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5668   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5669   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5670   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5671   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5672   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5673   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5674   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5675   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5676     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5677   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5678   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5679   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5680   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5681   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5682   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5683   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5684   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5685   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5686   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5687   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5688   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5689   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5690   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5691   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5692   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5693   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5694   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5695   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5696   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5697   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5698   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5699   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5700   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5701   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5702   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5703   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5704   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5705   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5706   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5707   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5708   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5709   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5710   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5711   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5712   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5713   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5714   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5715   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5716   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5717   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5718   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5719   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5720 
  5721   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5722   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5723   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5724   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5725   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5726   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5727   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5728   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5729   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5730   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5731   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5732 
  5733   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5734   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5735   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5736   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5737   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5738   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5739   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5740   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5741   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5742   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5743   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5744   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5745   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5746   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5747   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5748   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5749   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5750   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5751   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5752   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5753   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5754 
  5755 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5756 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5757 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5758 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5759 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5760 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5761 
  5762 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5763 
  5764 
  5765 *** HOLCF ***
  5766 
  5767 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5768 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5769 type-inference.
  5770 
  5771 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5772 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5773 instead of exponential time).
  5774 
  5775 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5776 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5777 
  5778   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5779 
  5780 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5781 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5782 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5783 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5784 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5785 syntax and examples.
  5786 
  5787 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5788 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5789 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5790 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5791 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5792 
  5793 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5794 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5795 
  5796   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5797   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5798   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5799   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5800   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5801   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5802 
  5803 
  5804 *** ZF ***
  5805 
  5806 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5807 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5808 of a homomorphism).
  5809 
  5810 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5811 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5812 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5813 
  5814 
  5815 *** Cube ***
  5816 
  5817 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5818 theories.
  5819 
  5820 
  5821 *** ML ***
  5822 
  5823 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5824 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5825 
  5826 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5827 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5828 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5829 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5830 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5831 
  5832 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5833 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5834 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5835 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5836 
  5837 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5838 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5839 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5840 
  5841     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5842     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5843     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5844     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5845     seq fs = List.app fs
  5846     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5847     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5848 
  5849 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5850 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5851 
  5852   x |> f                f #> g
  5853   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5854 
  5855 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5856 
  5857   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5858   infix 2 ?;
  5859   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5860   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5861 
  5862 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5863 infix operators.
  5864 
  5865 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5866 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5867 example:
  5868 
  5869   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5870     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5871 
  5872   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5873     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5874 
  5875   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5876     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5877 
  5878   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5879     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5880 
  5881 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5882 available:
  5883 
  5884   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5885   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5886   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5887   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5888 
  5889 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5890 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5891 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5892 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5893 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5894 
  5895   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5896   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5897   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5898 
  5899 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5900 
  5901   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5902   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5903 
  5904 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5905 Naive rewrites:
  5906 
  5907   make_keylist = AList.make
  5908   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5909 
  5910 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5911   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5912 
  5913     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5914     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5915 
  5916 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5917   Naive rewrites:
  5918 
  5919     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5920     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5921 
  5922 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5923 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5924 lists.
  5925 
  5926 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5927 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5928 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5929 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5930 
  5931 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5932 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5933 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5934 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5935 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5936 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5937 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5938 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5939 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5940 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5941 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5942 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5943 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5944 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5945 Output.raw have no effect.
  5946 
  5947 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5948 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5949 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5950 
  5951 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5952 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5953 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5954 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5955 
  5956 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5957 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5958 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5959 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5960 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5961 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5962 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5963 
  5964 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5965 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5966 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5967 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5970 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5971 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5972 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5973 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5974 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5975 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5976 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5977 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5978 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5979 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5980 
  5981 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5982 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5983 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5984 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5985 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5986 with earlier declarations.
  5987 
  5988 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5989 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5990 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5991 
  5992 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5993 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5994 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5995 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5996 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5997 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5998 
  5999   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  6000     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  6001 
  6002   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  6003     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  6004 
  6005   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  6006     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  6007     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  6008     Theory.merge, etc.)
  6009 
  6010 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  6011 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  6012 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  6013 
  6014 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  6015 
  6016 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  6017 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  6018 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  6019 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  6020 
  6021 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  6022 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  6023 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  6024 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  6025 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  6026 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  6027 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  6028 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  6031 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  6032 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6033 
  6034 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  6035 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  6036 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  6037 
  6038 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  6039 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  6040 
  6041   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  6042   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  6043   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6044   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6045 
  6046 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  6047 
  6048 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  6049 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  6050 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  6051 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  6052 (both increase the runtime).
  6053 
  6054 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  6055 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  6056 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  6057 
  6058 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  6059 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  6060 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  6061 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  6062 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  6063 for further details.
  6064 
  6065 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  6066 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  6067 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  6068 scripts for the time being.
  6069 
  6070 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  6071 generated HTML files.  For example:
  6072 
  6073   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  6074   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  6075 
  6076 
  6077 *** System ***
  6078 
  6079 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  6080 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  6081 
  6082 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  6083 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  6084 
  6085 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  6086 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  6087 
  6088 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  6089 distribution being used.
  6090 
  6091 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  6092 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  6093 theories.
  6094 
  6095 
  6096 
  6097 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  6098 --------------------------------
  6099 
  6100 *** General ***
  6101 
  6102 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  6103   Replaces linorder.ML.
  6104 
  6105 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  6106   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  6107   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  6108   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  6109   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  6110   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  6111   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  6112   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  6113   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  6114   existing theory and ML files.
  6115 
  6116 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  6117 
  6118 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  6119   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  6120   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  6121   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  6122 
  6123 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  6124   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  6125   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  6126   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  6127 
  6128 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  6129   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  6130   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  6131 
  6132 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  6133   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  6134   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  6135   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  6136   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  6137 
  6138 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  6139   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  6140 
  6141 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  6142   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  6143   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  6144 
  6145 
  6146 *** Isar ***
  6147 
  6148 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  6149   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  6150   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  6151     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  6152     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  6153     emulations.
  6154   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  6155     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  6156     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  6157 
  6158 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  6159   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  6160     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  6161     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  6162   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  6163 
  6164 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  6165   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  6166   and derived forms.
  6167 
  6168 * Locales:
  6169   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  6170     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  6171     "_axioms") in the premise.
  6172     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  6173   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  6174     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  6175   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  6176     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  6177   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  6178         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  6179     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  6180     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  6181     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  6182     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  6183     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  6184       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  6185     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  6186     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  6187     with "locale (open)".
  6188       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  6189 
  6190 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  6191   (Isar) contexts.
  6192 
  6193 
  6194 *** HOL ***
  6195 
  6196 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  6197   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  6198   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  6199   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  6200   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  6201 
  6202 * Simplifier:
  6203   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  6204     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  6205     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  6206     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  6207     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  6208   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  6209     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  6210     is solved by simplification already.
  6211 
  6212 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  6213     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  6214 
  6215 * Numerics:
  6216   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  6217     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  6218   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  6219     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  6220   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  6221     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  6222     exponentiation).
  6223 
  6224 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  6225 
  6226 * Records:
  6227   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  6228     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  6229     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  6230   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  6231     (not enabled by default).
  6232   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  6233     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  6234   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.