NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Jan 05 15:53:17 2016 +0100 (2016-01-05 ago)
changeset 62065 d9874039786e
parent 62060 b75764fc4c35
child 62075 ea3360245939
permissions -rw-r--r--
misc tuning for release;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
     8 -----------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
    13 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
    14 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
    15 has been removed (see below).
    16 
    17 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and
    18 Isabelle fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>
    19 
    20 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
    21 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
    22 to update old sources.
    23 
    24 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
    25 
    26   theorems             ~>  lemmas
    27   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
    28   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
    29   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
    30 
    31 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
    32 accordingly.
    33 
    34 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
    35 'theorem'.
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    39 
    40 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
    41 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Configuration option "ML_debugger"
    42 and commands 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
    43 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with debugging
    44 information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via context
    45 menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML expressions etc.
    46 At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have any effect on the
    47 running ML program.
    48 
    49 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
    50 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
    51 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
    52 update.
    53 
    54 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
    55 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
    56 enable option "editor_output_state".
    57 
    58 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
    59 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
    60 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
    61 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
    62 visibility.
    63 
    64 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
    65 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
    66 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
    67 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
    68 panel.
    69 
    70 * Improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command state output,
    71 interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
    72 
    73 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
    74 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
    75 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
    76 
    77 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
    78 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
    79 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
    80 
    81 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
    82 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
    83 the editor.
    84 
    85 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
    86 instead of former C+e LEFT.
    87 
    88 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
    89 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
    90 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
    91 instead.
    92 
    93 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
    94 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
    95 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
    96 
    97 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
    98 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
    99 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
   100 
   101 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
   102 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
   103 
   104 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
   105 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
   106 
   107 
   108 *** Document preparation ***
   109 
   110 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
   111 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
   112 
   113 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
   114 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
   115 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
   116 
   117 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
   118 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
   119 follows:
   120 
   121   \<^item>  itemize
   122   \<^enum>  enumerate
   123   \<^descr>  description
   124 
   125 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
   126 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
   127 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
   128 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
   129 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
   130 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
   131 
   132 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
   133 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
   134 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
   135 
   136 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
   137 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
   138 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
   139 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
   140 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
   141 
   142 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
   143 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
   144 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
   145 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
   146 or terminal spaces are ignored.
   147 
   148 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
   149 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
   150 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
   151 
   152 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
   153 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
   154 
   155 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
   156 
   157 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
   158 (outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the short
   159 form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
   160 
   161 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
   162 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   163 
   164 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
   165 entities of the Isar language.
   166 
   167 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
   168 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
   169 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
   170 
   171 
   172 *** Isar ***
   173 
   174 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured
   175 rule statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but
   176 the notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
   177 example:
   178 
   179   have result: "C x y"
   180     if "A x" and "B y"
   181     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   182     <proof>
   183 
   184 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
   185 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
   186 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
   187 
   188   {
   189     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   190     assume that: "A x" "B y"
   191     have "C x y" <proof>
   192   }
   193   note result = this
   194 
   195 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
   196 instead of 'assume' above.
   197 
   198 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
   199 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
   200 
   201   assume result: "C x y"
   202     if "A x" and "B y"
   203     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   204 
   205 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
   206 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
   207 
   208 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
   209 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
   210 example:
   211 
   212   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
   213 
   214 is equivalent to:
   215 
   216   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
   217 
   218 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
   219 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
   220 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as follows:
   221 
   222   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   223 
   224 or:
   225 
   226   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
   227 
   228 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
   229 
   230   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
   231 
   232 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
   233 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
   234 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
   235 of the local context elements yet.
   236 
   237 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
   238 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
   239 
   240   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
   241   then have something
   242   proof cases
   243     case a
   244     then show ?thesis <proof>
   245   next
   246     case b
   247     then show ?thesis <proof>
   248   next
   249     case c
   250     then show ?thesis <proof>
   251   qed
   252 
   253 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
   254 
   255   case a: (c xs)
   256   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
   257 
   258 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
   259 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
   260 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
   261 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
   262 and always put attributes in front.
   263 
   264 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
   265 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
   266 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
   267 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
   268 
   269 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
   270 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
   271 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
   272 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
   273 
   274   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
   275     supply [simp] = a
   276   proof
   277     show A by simp
   278   next
   279     show A by simp
   280   qed
   281 
   282 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
   283 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
   284 
   285 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
   286 parameter scope for of each clause.
   287 
   288 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
   289 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
   290 
   291 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
   292 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
   293 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
   294 manual.
   295 
   296 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
   297 ('apply' scripts).
   298 
   299 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
   300 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
   301 example:
   302 
   303 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   304   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   305 proof goal_cases
   306   case (1 x)
   307   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
   308 next
   309   case (2 y z)
   310   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
   311 qed
   312 
   313 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   314   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   315 proof goal_cases
   316   case prems: 1
   317   then show ?case using prems sorry
   318 next
   319   case prems: 2
   320   then show ?case using prems sorry
   321 qed
   322 
   323 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
   324 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
   325 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
   326 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
   327 
   328 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
   329 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
   330 
   331 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
   332 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
   333 
   334 
   335 *** Pure ***
   336 
   337 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
   338 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
   339 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
   340 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   341 
   342 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
   343 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   344 
   345 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
   346 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
   347 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
   348 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
   349 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
   350 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
   351 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
   352 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
   353 
   354   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
   355   begin
   356     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
   357   end
   358 
   359   locale morphism =
   360     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
   361     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
   362   begin
   363     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
   364   end
   365 
   366 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
   367 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
   368 
   369 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
   370 'defines'.
   371 
   372 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
   373 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
   376 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
   377 
   378 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
   379 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint.
   382 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour
   383 has been exploited.
   384 
   385 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
   386 operations behave more similar to abbreviations.  Potential
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   388 
   389 
   390 *** HOL ***
   391 
   392 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
   393 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
   394 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
   395 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
   396 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
   397 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
   400 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
   401 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
   402 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
   403 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
   404 
   405 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
   406 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
   407 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
   408 simplify porting old theories:
   409 
   410   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
   411 
   412   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
   413 
   414   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
   415   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
   416 
   417   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
   418 
   419   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
   420   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
   421 
   422   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
   423 
   424   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
   425     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
   426 
   427   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
   428   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
   429   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
   430 
   431   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
   432   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
   433   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
   434 
   435 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
   436 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
   437 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
   438 
   439 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
   440 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
   441 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
   442 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
   443 
   444 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
   445 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   446 "inductive_defs" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
   447 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
   450 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   451 "function_defs" is enabled. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
   454 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
   455 theorem aliasses have been retained.
   456 
   457 Consolidated facts:
   458   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
   459   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
   460   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
   461   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
   462   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
   463   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
   464   split_split ~> prod.split
   465   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
   466   splitI ~> case_prodI
   467   splitD ~> case_prodD
   468   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
   469   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
   470   splitE ~> case_prodE
   471   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
   472   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
   473   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
   474   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
   475   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
   476   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
   477   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
   478   The_split ~> The_case_prod
   479   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
   480   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
   481   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
   482   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
   483   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
   484   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
   485   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
   486   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
   487   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
   488   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
   489   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
   490   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
   491   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
   492   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
   493 
   494 Changes in structure HOLogic:
   495   split_const ~> case_prod_const
   496   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
   497   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
   498   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
   499 
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
   503 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
   504 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
   505 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
   506 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
   507 
   508 Consolidated facts (among others):
   509   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
   510   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
   511   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
   512   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
   513   real_of_one of_int_1
   514   real_of_int_add of_int_add
   515   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
   516   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
   517   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
   518   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
   519   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
   520   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
   521   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
   522   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
   523   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
   524   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
   525   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
   526   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
   527   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
   528   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
   529   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
   530   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
   531 
   532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
   535 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
   538 
   539 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * Sledgehammer:
   542   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
   543   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
   544     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
   545   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
   546   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
   547   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
   548     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   549   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
   550 
   551 * Nitpick:
   552   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
   553   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
   554   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
   555   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
   556 
   557 * (Co)datatype package:
   558   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
   559     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
   560   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
   561   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
   562     being defined.
   563   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
   564 
   565 * Transfer:
   566   - new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
   567     'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
   568     'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
   569 
   570 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
   571 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
   573 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
   574 
   575 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
   576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
   579 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
   580 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
   581 fields with notions that are trivial there.
   582 
   583 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
   584 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
   585 This formalizes associated elements as well.
   586 
   587 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
   588 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
   589 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
   590 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
   591 
   592 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
   593 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
   594 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
   595 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   596 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
   597 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
   598 during instantiation.
   599 
   600 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
   601 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
   602 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   603 
   604 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 * Library/Multiset:
   607   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
   608       < ~> <#
   609       \<subset> ~> \<subset>#
   610       <= ~> <=#
   611       \<le> ~> \<le>#
   612       \<subseteq> ~> \<subseteq>#
   613     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
   615     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
   616     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
   617     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
   618     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
   619     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
   620     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   621   - Renamed conversions:
   622       multiset_of ~> mset
   623       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
   624       set_of ~> set_mset
   625     INCOMPATIBILITY
   626   - Renamed lemmas:
   627       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
   628       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
   629       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
   630     INCOMPATIBILITY
   631   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
   632     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp less_eq_multiset.transfer
   633     less_eq_multiset_def
   634     INCOMPATIBILITY
   635 
   636 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
   637 
   638 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
   639 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
   640 chain-complete partial orders.
   641 
   642 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
   643 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
   644 
   645 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
   646 periodic functions.
   647 
   648 * Multivariate_Analysis/Cauchy_Integral_Thm: Contour integrals (=
   649 complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding numbers and
   650 Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental Theorem of
   651 Algebra. Ported from HOL Light
   652 
   653 * Multivariate_Analysis: Added topological concepts such as connected
   654 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
   655 
   656 * Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and 
   657 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
   658 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
   659 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
   660 properties.
   661 
   662 * Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data structures.
   663 
   664 * Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
   665 
   666 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
   667 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   668 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   669 
   670 
   671 *** ML ***
   672 
   673 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
   674 system are available:
   675 
   676   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
   677   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
   678   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
   679 
   680 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
   681 
   682 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
   683 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
   684 breaks.
   685 
   686 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
   687 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
   688 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
   691 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
   692 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
   693 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
   694 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   695 
   696 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
   697 
   698   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
   699   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
   700 
   701   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
   702   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
   703 
   704 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
   705 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
   707 
   708 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
   709 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
   710 instead (with proper context).
   711 
   712 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
   713 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
   714 
   715 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
   716 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
   717 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
   718 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
   719 the proof context discipline.
   720 
   721 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
   722 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
   723 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
   724 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
   725 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   726 
   727 
   728 *** System ***
   729 
   730 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
   731 
   732 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
   733 conflations:
   734 
   735     hence  ~>  then have
   736     thus   ~>  then show
   737 
   738 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
   739 maintainability of proofs.
   740 
   741 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
   742 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
   743 performance.
   744 
   745 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
   746 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324).  For example:
   747 
   748     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
   749 
   750 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
   751 space.
   752 
   753 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
   754 platforms as follows.
   755 
   756   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
   757     associated with the main app bundle
   758 
   759   - isabelle jedit: settings
   760     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
   761     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   762 
   763   - isabelle build: settings
   764     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   765 
   766 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
   767 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
   768 
   769 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
   770 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
   771 
   772 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
   773 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild)
   774 is required after change.
   775 
   776 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
   777 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
   778 
   779 
   780 
   781 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
   782 ------------------------------
   783 
   784 *** General ***
   785 
   786 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
   787 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
   788 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
   789 
   790   context
   791   begin
   792 
   793   private definition ...
   794   private lemma ...
   795 
   796   qualified definition ...
   797   qualified lemma ...
   798 
   799   lemma ...
   800   theorem ...
   801 
   802   end
   803 
   804 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
   805 naming policy.
   806 
   807 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
   808 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
   809 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
   810 
   811 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
   812 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
   813 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
   814 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
   815 
   816 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
   817 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
   818 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
   819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   820 
   821 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
   822 theory context.
   823 
   824 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
   825 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
   826 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
   827 
   828 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
   829 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
   830 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
   831 sources.
   832 
   833 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
   834 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
   835 
   836 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
   837 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
   838 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
   839 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
   840 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
   841 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
   842 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
   843 
   844 
   845 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   846 
   847 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
   848 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
   849 
   850 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
   851 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
   852 in the buffer.
   853 
   854 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
   855 marker, SideKick parser.
   856 
   857 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
   858 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
   859 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
   860 
   861 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
   862 Options / Text Area).
   863 
   864 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
   865 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
   866 
   867 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   868 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   869 
   870 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   871 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   872 
   873 
   874 *** Document preparation ***
   875 
   876 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   877 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   878 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   879 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   880 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   881 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   882 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   883 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   886 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   887 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   888 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   889 
   890 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   891 style.
   892 
   893 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   894 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   895 
   896 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   897 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   898 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   899 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   900 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   901 
   902 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   903 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   904 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   905 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   906 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   907 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   908 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
   911 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
   912 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
   913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   914 
   915 
   916 *** Pure ***
   917 
   918 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   919 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   920 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   921 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   922 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   923 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   924 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   925 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   926 
   927 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   928 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   929 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   930 
   931 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   932 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   933 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   934 different index.
   935 
   936 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   937 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   938 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   939 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   940 
   941 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   942 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   943 token category instead.
   944 
   945 
   946 *** HOL ***
   947 
   948 * New (co)datatype package:
   949   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   950     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   951     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   952     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   953     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954   - Renamed theorems:
   955       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   956       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   957       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   958       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   959       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   960       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   961       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   962       sel_map ~> map_sel
   963       sel_set ~> set_sel
   964       sel_split ~> split_sel
   965       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   966       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   967       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   968     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   969   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   970     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   971     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   973     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   974     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   976     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   977     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   978     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   979     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   980     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   981     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   982   - Renamed theories:
   983       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   984       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   985       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   986       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   987       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   988       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   989     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   990   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   991     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   992     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   993     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   994     rel_sum (using inductive).
   995     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   996     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   997     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   998     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   999   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  1000     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  1001     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  1002     rules.
  1003 
  1004 * Old datatype package:
  1005   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  1006     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  1007     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  1008     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  1009     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010   - Renamed theorems:
  1011       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  1012     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013   - Renamed theory:
  1014       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  1015     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * Nitpick:
  1018   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  1019     operations.
  1020 
  1021 * Sledgehammer:
  1022   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  1023     default.
  1024   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  1025     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  1026   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  1027     Removed sub-command:
  1028       min
  1029   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  1030     dramatically improved.
  1031   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  1032 
  1033 * Old and new SMT modules:
  1034   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  1035     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  1036     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  1037     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  1038     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  1039     point to it.
  1040     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1041   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  1042     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  1044     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  1045   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  1046     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  1047 
  1048 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  1049 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  1050 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  1051 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  1052 
  1053 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  1054 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  1055 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1056 
  1057 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  1058 
  1059 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  1060 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  1061 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  1062 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  1065 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  1068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  1071 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  1072 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  1075 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1076 
  1077 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  1078 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  1080 
  1081 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  1082 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  1083 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  1084 needed.
  1085 
  1086 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  1087 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  1088 
  1089 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  1090 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  1091 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  1092 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  1093 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  1094 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  1095 
  1096 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  1097 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  1098 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  1099 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  1100 
  1101 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  1102 type class hierarchy:
  1103   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1104   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  1105   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  1106   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  1107 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  1110   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  1111   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  1112 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  1115 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  1116 
  1117 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  1118   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  1119   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  1120   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  1121 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  1124 and part of theory Main.
  1125   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  1126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  1129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  1132 Fact rename:
  1133     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  1134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  1137 
  1138 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  1139 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  1140 
  1141 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  1142 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  1143 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  1144 
  1145 * Library/Multiset:
  1146   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  1147   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  1148     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  1149   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  1150       <# ~> #<#
  1151       <=# ~> #<=#
  1152       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  1153       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  1154     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  1156       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  1157       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  1158     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1159   - Renamed
  1160       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  1161       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  1162       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  1163     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1164   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  1165   - Added attributes:
  1166       image_mset.id [simp]
  1167       image_mset_id [simp]
  1168       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  1169       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  1170       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  1171       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  1172       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  1173       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  1174     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1175 
  1176 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  1177 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  1178 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  1179 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1180 
  1181 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  1182 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  1183 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  1184 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  1185 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  1186 examples.
  1187 
  1188 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  1189   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  1190   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  1191   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  1192     projection
  1193 
  1194 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  1195 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  1196 
  1197 
  1198 *** ML ***
  1199 
  1200 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  1201 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  1202 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  1203 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  1204 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  1205 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  1206 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  1207 
  1208 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  1209 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  1210 
  1211 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  1212 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  1213 
  1214 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  1215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  1218 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  1219 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  1220 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  1221 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  1222 nested.
  1223 
  1224 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  1225 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  1228 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  1229 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  1230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  1234 Thm.term_of etc.
  1235 
  1236 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  1237 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  1238 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  1241 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  1242 
  1243 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  1244 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  1245 
  1246 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  1247 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  1248 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1249 
  1250 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  1251 Input.source (with formal position information).
  1252 
  1253 
  1254 *** System ***
  1255 
  1256 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  1257 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  1258 
  1259 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  1260 
  1261 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  1262 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  1263 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  1264 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  1265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  1268 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  1269 
  1270 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  1271 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  1272 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  1273 
  1274 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  1275 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  1276 
  1277 
  1278 
  1279 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  1280 ---------------------------------
  1281 
  1282 *** General ***
  1283 
  1284 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  1285 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  1286 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  1287 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  1288 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  1289 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  1290 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  1291 some examples.
  1292 
  1293 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  1294 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  1295 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  1296 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  1297 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  1298 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  1299 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  1300 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  1301 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  1302 
  1303 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  1304 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  1305 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  1306 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  1307 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  1308 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  1309 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  1310 proof tools.
  1311 
  1312 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  1313 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  1314 supports input via ` (backquote).
  1315 
  1316 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  1317 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  1318 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  1319 
  1320 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  1321 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  1322 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  1323 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  1326 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  1327 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  1328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1329 
  1330 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  1331 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  1332 
  1333 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  1334 not check existence within the file-system.
  1335 
  1336 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  1337 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  1338 
  1339 
  1340 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1341 
  1342 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  1343 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  1344 buffer.
  1345 
  1346 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  1347 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  1348 
  1349 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  1350 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  1351 
  1352 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  1353 auxiliary ML files.
  1354 
  1355 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  1356 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  1357 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  1358 
  1359 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  1360 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  1361 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  1362 
  1363 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  1364 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  1365 
  1366 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  1367 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  1368 caret".
  1369 
  1370 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  1371 completion popup and context-menu.
  1372 
  1373 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  1374 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  1375 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  1376 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  1377 
  1378 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  1379 to highlight text via regular expression.
  1380 
  1381 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  1382 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  1383 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  1384 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  1385 
  1386 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  1387 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  1388 
  1389 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  1390 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  1391 
  1392 * Improved monitor panel.
  1393 
  1394 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  1395 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  1396 
  1397 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  1398 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  1399 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  1400 
  1401 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  1402 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  1403 within the context.
  1404 
  1405 
  1406 *** Pure ***
  1407 
  1408 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  1409 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  1410 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  1411 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  1412 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  1413 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  1414 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  1415 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  1416 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  1417 
  1418 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  1419 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  1420 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  1421 renaming needs to be applied:
  1422 
  1423   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  1424   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  1425   all            ~>  Pure.all
  1426   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  1427   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  1428 
  1429 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  1430 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  1431 old constants:
  1432 
  1433 setup {*
  1434   fn thy => thy
  1435     |> Sign.root_path
  1436     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  1437     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  1438     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  1439     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  1440 *}
  1441 
  1442 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  1443 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  1444 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  1445 
  1446 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  1447 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  1448 instantiated theorem.
  1449 
  1450 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  1451 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  1452 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  1453 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  1454 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  1455 
  1456   attribute_setup standard =
  1457     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  1458 
  1459 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  1460 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  1461 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  1462 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  1463 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  1464 
  1465 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  1466 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  1467 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  1468 
  1469 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  1470 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  1471 
  1472 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  1473 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  1474 
  1475 
  1476 *** HOL ***
  1477 
  1478 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  1479 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  1485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  1488 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  1491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  1494 with the given constants.
  1495 
  1496 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  1497 operations on records.
  1498 
  1499 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  1500 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  1505 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  1506 
  1507 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1508 
  1509 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  1510 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  1511 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  1512 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  1513 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1514 
  1515 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  1516 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1517 
  1518 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  1519   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  1520   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  1521   part of theory "Main".
  1522 
  1523   Theory renamings:
  1524     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  1525     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  1526     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  1527     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  1528     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  1529     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  1530     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  1531     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  1532     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  1533     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  1534     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  1535     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  1536     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  1537     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  1538     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  1539     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  1540     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  1541     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  1542     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  1543     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  1544     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  1545     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  1546 
  1547   New theories:
  1548     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  1549     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  1550     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  1551     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  1552     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  1553 
  1554   Discontinued theories:
  1555     BNF/BNF.thy
  1556     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  1557 
  1558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1559 
  1560 * New (co)datatype package:
  1561   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  1562   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  1563     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  1564   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  1565     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  1566   - Renamed commands:
  1567       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  1568       primrec_new ~> primrec
  1569       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  1570     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  1572     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  1573     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  1575     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  1576     using "prim(co)rec".
  1577     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  1579     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  1580     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  1582     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  1583     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  1584     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585 
  1586 * Old datatype package:
  1587   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  1588     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  1589     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  1591     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  1592     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593 
  1594 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  1595   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  1596   BNF-based datatype package.
  1597 
  1598   Renamed constants:
  1599     Option.set ~> set_option
  1600     Option.map ~> map_option
  1601     option_rel ~> rel_option
  1602 
  1603   Renamed theorems:
  1604     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  1605     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  1606     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  1607     option.recs ~> option.rec
  1608     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  1609     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  1610     map.simps ~> list.map
  1611     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  1612     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  1613     the.simps ~> option.sel
  1614 
  1615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  1618     sum_map ~> map_sum
  1619     map_pair ~> map_prod
  1620     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  1621     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  1622     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  1623     set_rel ~> rel_set
  1624     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  1625     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  1626     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  1627     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  1628 
  1629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630 
  1631 * Lifting and Transfer:
  1632   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  1633   - stronger reflexivity prover
  1634   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  1635   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  1636     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  1637     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  1638       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  1639       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  1640       automatically
  1641     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  1642     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  1643       automatically for datatypes
  1644   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  1645     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  1646       more
  1647       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1648     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  1649       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  1650       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  1652       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  1653       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654   - registration of code equations is more robust
  1655     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  1657     form
  1658     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  1660     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  1662     Code_Numeral.natural
  1663     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1664   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  1665     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  1668 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  1669 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  1670 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  1671 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  1672 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  1673 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  1676 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  1677 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  1678 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  1679 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  1680 
  1681 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  1682 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  1683 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  1684 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  1685 
  1686 * Sledgehammer:
  1687   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  1688   - MaSh overhaul:
  1689     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  1690       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  1691     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  1692       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  1693       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  1694       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  1695   - New option:
  1696       smt_proofs
  1697   - Renamed options:
  1698       isar_compress ~> compress
  1699       isar_try0 ~> try0
  1700 
  1701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702 
  1703 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  1704 
  1705 * Nitpick:
  1706   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  1707     take infinite values.
  1708   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  1709     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  1710   - Removed "std" option.
  1711   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  1712     "hide_types".
  1713 
  1714 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  1715 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1716 
  1717 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  1718 
  1719 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  1720   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  1721   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  1722     SUP instead uniformly.
  1723   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  1724     or SUP and Sup.
  1725   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  1726   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  1727   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  1728     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  1729     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  1730 
  1731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  1734 
  1735 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  1736 
  1737   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1738   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1739   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1740   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1741 
  1742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743 
  1744 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  1745 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  1746 
  1747 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  1748 
  1749     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  1750     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  1751     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  1752     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  1753     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  1754     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  1755     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  1756     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  1757     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  1758     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  1759     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  1760     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  1761     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  1762     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  1763     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1764     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1765     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  1766     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  1767     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  1768     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  1769     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  1770     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  1771     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  1772     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  1773     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  1774     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  1775     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  1776     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  1777     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  1778     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  1779     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  1780     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  1781     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1782     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1783     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1784     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1785     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1786     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1787     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1788     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1789     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1790     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1791     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1792     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1793     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1794     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1795     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1796     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1797     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1798     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1799     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1800     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1801     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1802     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1803     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1804     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1805     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1806     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1807     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1808 
  1809   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1810   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1811   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1812     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1813 
  1814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1815 
  1816 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1817 
  1818   Fact consolidations:
  1819     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1820     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1821     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1822     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1823     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1824     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1825     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1826     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1827     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1828     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1829     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1830     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1831     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1832     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1833     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1834     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1835     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1836     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1837     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1838     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1839     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1840     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1841     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1842     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1843     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1844     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1845     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1846     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1847     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1848     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1849     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1850     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1851     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1852     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1853     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1854     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1855     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1856     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1857     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1858     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1859 
  1860 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1861 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1862 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1863 
  1864 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1865 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1866 
  1867 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1868 
  1869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1870 
  1871 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1872 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1878     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1879 
  1880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881 
  1882 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1883   consolidation:
  1884     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1885     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1886 
  1887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1888 
  1889 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1890   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1891   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1892   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1893     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1894   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1895     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1896   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1897 
  1898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1901 
  1902     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1903     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1904     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1905     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1906     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1907     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1908     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1909     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1910     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1911     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1912     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1913     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1914     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1915 
  1916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1919 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1920 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1921 
  1922 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1923     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1924     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1925     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1926     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1927 
  1928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Fact name consolidation:
  1931     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1932     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1933     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1934     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1935     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1936 
  1937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938 
  1939 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1940 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1941 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1942 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1943 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1944 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1945 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1949 
  1950 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1951 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1952 
  1953 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1954 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1955 
  1956 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1957 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1958 or the brute way with
  1959 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1960 
  1961 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1962 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1963 stating boundedness of sets.
  1964 
  1965 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1966 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1967 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1970   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1971   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1972   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1973   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1974   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1975   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1976   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1977   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1978   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1979   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1980   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1981 
  1982   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1983 
  1984   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1985 
  1986     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1987     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1988     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1989     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1990     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1991 
  1992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1995   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1996 
  1997   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1998 
  1999   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  2000 
  2001   - removed constant isDiff
  2002 
  2003   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  2004     input syntax.
  2005 
  2006   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  2007 
  2008   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  2009 
  2010   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  2011 
  2012   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  2013 
  2014   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  2015     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  2016     has_vector_derivative.
  2017 
  2018   - Other renamings:
  2019     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  2020     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  2021     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  2022     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  2023     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  2024     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  2025     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  2026 
  2027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  2030 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  2031 in continuous_intros.
  2032 
  2033 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  2034 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  2035 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  2036 
  2037 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  2038 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  2039 especially removes
  2040 
  2041     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  2042 
  2043 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  2044     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  2045 
  2046 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  2047 
  2048   Renamings:
  2049     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  2050     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  2051     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  2052     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  2053     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  2054     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  2055     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  2056     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  2057     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  2058     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  2059     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  2060     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  2061 
  2062     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  2063     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  2064     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  2065 
  2066   Removed theorems:
  2067     complex_zero_def
  2068     complex_add_def
  2069     complex_minus_def
  2070     complex_diff_def
  2071     complex_one_def
  2072     complex_mult_def
  2073     complex_inverse_def
  2074     complex_scaleR_def
  2075 
  2076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  2079 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  2082 
  2083 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  2084 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  2085 
  2086 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  2087 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2088 
  2089 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  2090 
  2091 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  2092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093 
  2094 * HOL-Word:
  2095   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  2096     of "word_arith_wis".
  2097   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  2098     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  2099     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  2100 
  2101 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  2102   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  2103   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  2104   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  2105     (except the AFP)
  2106 
  2107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  2110   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  2111   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  2112     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  2113   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  2114     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  2115     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  2116     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  2117     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  2118     intervals.
  2119   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  2120     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  2121     - renamed theorems:
  2122         interval ~> box
  2123         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  2124         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  2125         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  2126         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  2127         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  2128         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  2129         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  2130         open_interval ~> open_box
  2131         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  2132         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  2133         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  2134         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  2135         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  2136         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  2137         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  2138         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  2139         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  2140         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  2141         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  2142         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  2143         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  2144         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  2145         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  2146         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  2147         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  2148         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  2149         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  2150         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  2151         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  2152         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  2153         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  2154         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  2155 
  2156     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  2157         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  2158         has_integral + has_integral_real
  2159         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  2160         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  2161         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  2162         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  2163         integral_const + integral_const_real
  2164         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  2165         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  2166         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  2167         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  2168         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  2169         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  2170         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  2171         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  2172         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  2173         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  2174 
  2175   - renamed theorems:
  2176     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  2177     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  2178     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  2179 
  2180 * HOL-Probability:
  2181   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  2182 
  2183     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  2184       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  2185 
  2186     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  2187 
  2188   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  2189     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  2190 
  2191     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  2192     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  2193     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  2194     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  2195     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  2196     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  2197     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  2198     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  2199     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  2200     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  2201     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  2202     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  2203     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  2204     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  2205     integral_indicator          ~>
  2206          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  2207     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  2208     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  2209     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  2210 
  2211     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  2212          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  2213 
  2214     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  2215          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  2216 
  2217     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  2218          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  2219 
  2220     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  2221          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  2222          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  2223 
  2224     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  2225          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2226 
  2227     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  2228          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  2229 
  2230     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  2231          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  2232          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2233 
  2234     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  2235          nn_integral_real_affine
  2236 
  2237     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  2238          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  2239 
  2240     The following theorems where removed:
  2241 
  2242     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  2243     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  2244     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  2245     lebesgue_integral_multc
  2246     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  2247     integral_cmul_indicator
  2248     integral_real
  2249 
  2250   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  2251     distributed random variables.
  2252 
  2253 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  2254 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  2255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 
  2258 *** Scala ***
  2259 
  2260 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  2261 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  2262 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  2263 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  2264 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  2267 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 
  2270 *** ML ***
  2271 
  2272 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  2273 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  2274 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  2275 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  2276 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  2277 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  2278 
  2279 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  2280 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2281 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  2282 actually belongs to it).
  2283 
  2284 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  2285 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  2286 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  2287 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  2288 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  2289 of schematic variables.
  2290 
  2291 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  2292 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  2295 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  2296 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  2299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2300 
  2301 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  2302 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  2303 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  2304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  2307 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  2309 formal context.
  2310 
  2311 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  2312 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  2315 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  2316 
  2317 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  2318 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  2319 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  2320 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  2321 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  2322 
  2323 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  2324 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  2325 purposes.
  2326 
  2327 
  2328 *** System ***
  2329 
  2330 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  2331 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  2332 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  2333 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  2334 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  2335 
  2336 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  2337 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  2338 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  2339 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  2340 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  2341 settings variable.
  2342 
  2343 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  2344 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  2345 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  2346 
  2347 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  2348 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  2349 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  2350 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  2351 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  2352 
  2353 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  2354 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  2355 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  2356 
  2357 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  2358 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  2359 
  2360 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  2361 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  2362 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  2363 
  2364 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  2365 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  2366 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  2367 processing is started.
  2368 
  2369 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  2370 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  2371 
  2372 
  2373 
  2374 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  2375 -------------------------------------
  2376 
  2377 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2378 
  2379 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  2380 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  2381 
  2382 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  2383 after edits surrounding the command location.
  2384 
  2385 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  2386 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  2387 e.g. out-of-memory).
  2388 
  2389 
  2390 *** System ***
  2391 
  2392 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  2393 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  2394 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  2395 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  2396 
  2397 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  2398 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  2399 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  2400 
  2401 
  2402 
  2403 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  2404 -------------------------------------
  2405 
  2406 *** General ***
  2407 
  2408 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  2409 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  2410 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2411 
  2412 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  2413 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2414 
  2415 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  2416 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  2417 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  2418 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  2419 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  2420 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  2421 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  2422 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  2423 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  2424 syntax.
  2425 
  2426 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  2427 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  2430 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  2431 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  2432 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  2433 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  2434 
  2435 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  2436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  2439 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  2440 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  2441 
  2442 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  2443 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  2444 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  2445 
  2446 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  2447 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  2448 
  2449 
  2450 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2451 
  2452 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  2453 Documentation panel.
  2454 
  2455 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  2456 documentation.
  2457 
  2458 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  2459 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  2460 
  2461 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  2462 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  2463 normal editing and checking process.
  2464 
  2465 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  2466 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  2467 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  2468 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  2469 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  2470 
  2471 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  2472 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  2473 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  2474 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  2475 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  2476 
  2477 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  2478 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  2479 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  2480 
  2481 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  2482 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  2483 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  2484 to resolve conflict.
  2485 
  2486 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  2487 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  2488 
  2489 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  2490 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  2491 such command executions while editing.
  2492 
  2493 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  2494 document content.
  2495 
  2496 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  2497 toplevel theorem statements.
  2498 
  2499 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  2500 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  2501 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  2502 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  2503 
  2504 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  2505 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  2506 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  2507 
  2508 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  2509 / Global Options / Appearance".
  2510 
  2511 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  2512 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  2513 
  2514 
  2515 *** Pure ***
  2516 
  2517 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  2518 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  2519 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  2520 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  2521 details.
  2522 
  2523 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  2524 
  2525 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  2526 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  2527 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  2528 
  2529 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  2530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  2533 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  2534 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  2535 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2536 
  2537 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  2538 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  2539 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  2542 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  2543 
  2544 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  2545 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  2546 situations.
  2547 
  2548 
  2549 *** HOL ***
  2550 
  2551 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  2552 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  2553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2554 
  2555 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  2556 
  2557 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  2558 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  2559 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  2560 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  2561 
  2562   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  2563 
  2564 * Code generator:
  2565   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  2566     'code_instance'.
  2567   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  2568     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  2569 
  2570 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  2571 examples.
  2572 
  2573 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  2574 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  2575 to distinguish both when desired.
  2576 
  2577 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  2578 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  2579 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  2580 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2581 
  2582 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  2583 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  2584 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  2585 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  2586 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  2587 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  2590 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  2591 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2592 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  2593 
  2594 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  2595 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  2596 
  2597 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  2598 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  2599 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  2600 
  2601 * Lifting:
  2602   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  2603     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  2604       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  2605       transfer rules
  2606     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  2607       correspondence relation can be generated
  2608     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  2609       parametricity
  2610     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  2611   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  2612   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  2613     copies
  2614   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  2615     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  2616     anonymous context)
  2617   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  2618     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2619   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  2620     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  2621   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  2622     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2623 
  2624 * Transfer:
  2625   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  2626     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  2627   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  2628   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  2629     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  2630   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  2631 
  2632 * Reification and reflection:
  2633   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  2634     "Reification".
  2635   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  2636   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  2640   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  2641     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2642     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  2643   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  2644     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  2645   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  2646     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  2647     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  2648     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  2649     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  2650     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  2651     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  2652     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  2653   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  2654     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  2655   - Fact renames:
  2656       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  2657       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  2658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2659 
  2660 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  2661 
  2662 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  2663 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  2664 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  2665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  2668 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  2669 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  2670 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  2671 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  2672 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  2673 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  2674 lemmas.
  2675 
  2676 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  2677 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  2678 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2679 
  2680 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  2681 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2682 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  2683 
  2684 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  2685 top and bottom elements.
  2686 
  2687 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  2688 
  2689 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  2690 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  2691 
  2692  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  2693    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  2694    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  2695 
  2696  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  2697    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  2698    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  2699 
  2700    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  2701    arbitrary filter.
  2702 
  2703  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  2704    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  2705    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  2706    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  2707    on a compact set.
  2708 
  2709  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  2710    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  2711    linear_continuum_topology).
  2712 
  2713  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  2714    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  2715    on all sequences converging to x.
  2716 
  2717  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  2718    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  2719    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  2720    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  2721    left or right.
  2722 
  2723  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  2724 
  2725      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  2726 
  2727  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  2728    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  2729 
  2730  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  2731    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  2732    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  2733    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  2734    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  2735    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  2736 
  2737  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  2738 
  2739    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  2740 
  2741    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  2742      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  2743 
  2744    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  2745 
  2746    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  2747      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  2748 
  2749    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  2750 
  2751    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  2752 
  2753  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  2754 
  2755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 * Nitpick:
  2758   - Added option "spy".
  2759   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  2760 
  2761 * Sledgehammer:
  2762   - Renamed option:
  2763       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  2764     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  2766   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  2767   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  2768 
  2769 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  2770 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  2771 
  2772 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  2773   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  2774   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  2775     generated code.
  2776   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  2777   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  2778   - Fact renames:
  2779     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  2780     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  2781     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2782 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2785 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2786 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2787 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2788 
  2789 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2790 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2791 
  2792 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2795 
  2796     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2797     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2798 
  2799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2802 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2803 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2804 
  2805 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2806 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2807 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2808 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * HOL-BNF:
  2811   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2812     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2813     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2814     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2815   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2816     coinduct).
  2817   - Renamed keywords:
  2818     data ~> datatype_new
  2819     codata ~> codatatype
  2820     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2821   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2822     discs ~> disc
  2823     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2824     map_id' ~> map_id
  2825     sels ~> sel
  2826     set_map' ~> set_map
  2827     sets ~> set
  2828 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 
  2831 *** ML ***
  2832 
  2833 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2834 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2835 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2836 Examples.thy in particular.
  2837 
  2838 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2839 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2840 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2841 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2842 
  2843 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2844 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2845 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2846 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2850 
  2851     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2852     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2853 
  2854 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2857 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2858 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2859 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2860 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2861 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2862 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2863 
  2864 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2865 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2866 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2867 clasets separately from the context.
  2868 
  2869 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2870 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2871 
  2872 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2873 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2874 
  2875 
  2876 *** System ***
  2877 
  2878 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2879 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2882 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2883 
  2884 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2885 settings variable.
  2886 
  2887 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2888 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2889 always pdf.
  2890 
  2891 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2892 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2893 
  2894 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2895 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2896 
  2897 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2898 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2899 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2900 
  2901 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2902 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2903 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2904 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2905 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2906 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2907 
  2908 
  2909 
  2910 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2911 -----------------------------------
  2912 
  2913 *** General ***
  2914 
  2915 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2916 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2917 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2918 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2919 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2920 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2921 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2922 
  2923 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2924 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2925 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2926 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2927 
  2928 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2929 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2930 
  2931 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2932 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2933 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2934 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2935 dependencies properly.
  2936 
  2937 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2938 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2939 
  2940 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2941 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2942 
  2943 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2944 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2945 and "class ... context ...".
  2946 
  2947 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2948 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2949 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2950 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2951 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2952 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2953 
  2954 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2955 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2956 
  2957 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2958 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2959 
  2960 
  2961 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2962 
  2963 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2964 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2965 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2966 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2967 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2968 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2969 
  2970 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2971 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2972 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2973 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2974 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2975 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2976 
  2977 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2978 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2979 browser on demand.
  2980 
  2981 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2982 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2983 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2984 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2985 
  2986 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2987 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2988 
  2989 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2990 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2991 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2992 potentially infinite message streams.
  2993 
  2994 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2995 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2996 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2997 schemes.
  2998 
  2999 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  3000 symbols.
  3001 
  3002 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  3003 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  3004 
  3005 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  3006 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  3007 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  3008 
  3009 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  3010 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  3011 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  3012 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  3013 
  3014 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  3015 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  3016 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  3017 
  3018 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  3019 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  3020 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  3021 Isabelle distribution.
  3022 
  3023 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  3024 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  3025 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  3026 
  3027 
  3028 *** Pure ***
  3029 
  3030 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  3031 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  3032 
  3033 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  3034 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  3035 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3038 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  3039 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  3040 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  3041 with some care where this is really required.
  3042 
  3043 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  3044 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  3045 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  3046 
  3047   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  3048 
  3049 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  3050 a Hasse diagram.
  3051 
  3052 
  3053 *** HOL ***
  3054 
  3055 * Sledgehammer:
  3056 
  3057   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  3058     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  3059   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  3060   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  3061   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  3062   - Renamed options:
  3063       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  3064       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  3065       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  3066       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  3067 
  3068 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  3069 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  3070 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  3071 
  3072 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Lifting:
  3076   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  3077   - quot_del attribute
  3078   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  3079 
  3080 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  3081 expressions.
  3082 
  3083 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  3084 pointfree expressions.
  3085 
  3086 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  3087 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  3088 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  3089 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  3090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  3093 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  3094 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  3095 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  3096 accordingly.
  3097 
  3098 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  3099 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  3102 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103 
  3104 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  3107 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  3108 
  3109 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  3110 
  3111 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  3112 
  3113   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  3114   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  3115 
  3116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3117 
  3118 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  3119 
  3120   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  3121   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  3122 
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  3126 
  3127   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  3128     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  3129     output f x converges to G.
  3130 
  3131   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  3132     infinity (at_bot).
  3133 
  3134   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  3135     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  3136 
  3137   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  3138     at_top".
  3139 
  3140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  3143 lattice type classes.
  3144 
  3145 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  3146 
  3147     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  3148     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  3149 
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  3153 changes as follows.
  3154 
  3155   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  3156 
  3157       prefix ~> prefixeq
  3158       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  3159 
  3160   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  3161     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  3162     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  3163     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  3164 
  3165   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  3166     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  3167     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  3168 
  3169   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  3170     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  3171     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  3172     Library/Prefix_Order.
  3173 
  3174   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  3175     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  3176 
  3177       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  3178       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  3179       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  3180       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  3181       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  3182       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  3183       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  3184       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  3185       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  3186       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  3187       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  3188       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  3189       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  3190       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  3191       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  3192       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  3193 
  3194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  3197 
  3198 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  3199 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  3200 
  3201 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  3202 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  3203 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  3204 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  3205 
  3206   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  3207   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  3208   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  3209   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  3210   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  3211   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  3212   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  3213   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  3214   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  3215   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  3216 
  3217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  3220 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  3221 Data").
  3222 
  3223 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  3224 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  3225 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  3226 code.
  3227 
  3228 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  3229 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  3230 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  3231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  3234 
  3235 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  3236 
  3237 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  3238 
  3239   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  3240   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  3241 
  3242 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  3243 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  3244 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  3245 
  3246   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  3247 
  3248     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  3249     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  3250     cart_base i  removed
  3251     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  3252 
  3253   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  3254 
  3255   Renamed lemmas:
  3256 
  3257     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  3258     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  3259     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  3260     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  3261     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  3262     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  3263     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  3264     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  3265     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  3266     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  3267 
  3268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * HOL/Probability:
  3271 
  3272   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  3273 
  3274   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  3275     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  3276     (borel_measurable_induct).
  3277 
  3278   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  3279     projective family).
  3280 
  3281 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  3282 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  3283 
  3284 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  3285 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  3286 datatypes.
  3287 
  3288 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  3289 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  3290 
  3291 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  3292 trees for the code generator.
  3293 
  3294 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  3295 Lifting/Transfer.
  3296 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  3299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301 
  3302 *** Document preparation ***
  3303 
  3304 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  3305 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  3306 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  3307 
  3308 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  3309 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  3310 
  3311 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  3312 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  3313 document/root.tex.
  3314 
  3315 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  3316 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 
  3319 *** ML ***
  3320 
  3321 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  3322 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  3323 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  3324 
  3325 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  3326 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  3327 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  3328 
  3329 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  3330 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  3331 necessarily printing visible text.
  3332 
  3333 
  3334 *** System ***
  3335 
  3336 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  3337 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  3338 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  3339 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  3340 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  3341 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  3342 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  3343 
  3344 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  3345 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  3346 
  3347   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  3348 
  3349 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  3350 
  3351 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  3352 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  3353 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  3354 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  3355 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  3356 
  3357 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  3358 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  3359 
  3360 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  3361 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  3362 
  3363 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  3364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3365 
  3366 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  3367 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  3368 version of Isabelle.
  3369 
  3370 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  3371 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  3372 
  3373 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  3374 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3375 for home-made settings.
  3376 
  3377 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  3378 
  3379 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  3380 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  3381 configuration.
  3382 
  3383 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  3384 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  3385 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  3386 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  3387 bundled as Isabelle component.
  3388 
  3389 
  3390 
  3391 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  3392 ------------------------------
  3393 
  3394 *** General ***
  3395 
  3396 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  3397 
  3398   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  3399     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  3400   - markup for bound variables
  3401   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  3402   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  3403   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  3404     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  3405 
  3406 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  3407 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  3408 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  3409 
  3410 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  3411 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  3412 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  3413 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  3414 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  3415 
  3416   context
  3417     fixes x y z :: 'a
  3418     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  3419   begin
  3420 
  3421   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  3422 
  3423   end
  3424 
  3425   thm my_trans
  3426 
  3427 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  3428 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  3429 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  3430 
  3431 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  3432 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  3433 
  3434 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  3435 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  3436 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  3437 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  3438 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  3439 
  3440 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  3441 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  3442 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  3443 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  3444 indices of schematic variables.
  3445 
  3446 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  3447 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  3448 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3449 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  3450 etc. was exploited.
  3451 
  3452 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  3453 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  3454 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  3455 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  3456 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  3457 of the material of that old tutorial.
  3458 
  3459 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  3460 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  3461 manual.
  3462 
  3463 
  3464 *** Pure ***
  3465 
  3466 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  3467 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  3468 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  3469 
  3470 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  3471 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  3472 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  3473 undocumented feature.)
  3474 
  3475 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  3476 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3477 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  3478 
  3479   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  3480 
  3481   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  3482     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  3483 
  3484 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  3485 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  3486 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  3487 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  3488 
  3489 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  3490 
  3491     num ~> num_token
  3492     xnum ~> xnum_token
  3493     xstr ~> str_token
  3494 
  3495 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  3496 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  3497 position information via constraints).
  3498 
  3499 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  3500 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  3501 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  3504 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  3505 
  3506 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  3507 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  3508 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  3511 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  3514 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  3515 
  3516   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  3517 
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  3521 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  3524 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  3525 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  3526 
  3527 
  3528 *** HOL ***
  3529 
  3530 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  3531 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  3532 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  3533 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  3534 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  3535 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  3536 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  3537 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  3538 possible.
  3539 
  3540 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  3541 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  3542 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  3543 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  3544 
  3545 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  3546 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  3549 
  3550 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  3551 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  3552 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  3553 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  3554 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  3555 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  3556 
  3557   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  3558     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  3559 
  3560   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  3561     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  3562     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  3563 
  3564   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  3565     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  3566 
  3567   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  3568     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  3569     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  3570 
  3571   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  3572     Redefine using other integer operations.
  3573 
  3574 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  3575 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  3576 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  3577 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  3578 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  3579 
  3580   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  3581     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  3582     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  3583     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  3584     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  3585 
  3586     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  3587     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  3588 
  3589   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  3590     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  3591     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  3592     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  3593     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  3594     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  3595     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  3596     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  3597 
  3598   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  3599     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  3600     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  3601     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  3602 
  3603   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  3604     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  3605     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  3606     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  3607 
  3608   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  3609     from type nat to type int.
  3610 
  3611 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  3612 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  3613 
  3614   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  3615     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  3616     type.  Example syntax:
  3617 
  3618     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  3619       is List.insert
  3620 
  3621     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  3622     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  3623     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  3624     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  3625     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  3626     by the package.
  3627 
  3628   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  3629     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  3630     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  3631     code generation for each constant.
  3632 
  3633   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  3634     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  3635     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  3636     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  3637     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  3638 
  3639   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  3640     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  3641     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  3642 
  3643 * Quotient package:
  3644 
  3645   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  3646     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  3647 
  3648   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  3649     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  3650 
  3651   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  3652     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  3653     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  3656     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  3659 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  3660 
  3661 * Quickcheck:
  3662 
  3663   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  3664     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  3665     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  3666     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  3667     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  3668 
  3669     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  3670     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  3671     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  3672 
  3673     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  3674     continues searching for genuine ones.
  3675 
  3676     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  3677     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  3678     show genuine counterexamples.
  3679 
  3680   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  3681     value generators for a given type and operations.
  3682 
  3683     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  3684     constructors of that type.
  3685 
  3686   - Support for multisets.
  3687 
  3688   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  3689 
  3690   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  3691     conjectures in a locale context.
  3692 
  3693 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  3694 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  3695 
  3696 * Sledgehammer:
  3697   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  3698     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  3699   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  3700   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  3701     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  3702   - Sped up the minimizer.
  3703   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  3704   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  3705   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  3706 
  3707 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  3708 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  3709 
  3710 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  3711 
  3712 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3713 
  3714 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  3715 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  3716 
  3717   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  3718 
  3719 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  3720 a list and a nat.
  3721 
  3722 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  3723 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  3724 
  3725 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  3726 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  3727 default.
  3728 
  3729 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  3730 
  3731   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  3732 
  3733 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  3734 
  3735 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  3736 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  3737 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  3738 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  3739 one_case.
  3740 
  3741 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  3742 the result of the fact expression.
  3743 
  3744 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  3745 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  3746 of some relation theorems:
  3747 
  3748   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  3749   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3750   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  3751   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  3752   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  3753   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  3754 
  3755 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  3756 
  3757 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  3758 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  3759 
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  3763 to match the constant's name:
  3764 
  3765   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  3766   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  3767   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  3768   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  3769   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  3770   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  3771   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  3772   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  3773   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  3774   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  3775   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  3776   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  3777   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  3778   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  3779   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  3780   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  3781   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3782   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3783   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3784   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3785   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3786   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3787   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3788   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3789 
  3790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3793 and corresponding theorem names:
  3794 
  3795   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3796 
  3797   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3798 
  3799   - Renamed theorems:
  3800 
  3801     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3802     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3803     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3804     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3805     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3806     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3807     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3808     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3809     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3810     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3811     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3812     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3813     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3814     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3815     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3816     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3817     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3818     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3819     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3820     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3821     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3822     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3823     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3824 
  3825     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3826 
  3827     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3828 
  3829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3832 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3833 
  3834   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3835   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3836   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3837   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3838   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3839   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3840   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3841   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3842   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3843   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3844   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3845   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3846   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3847   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3848   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3849   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3850   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3851   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3852   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3853   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3854   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3855 
  3856 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3857 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3862 
  3863   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3864   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3865   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3866   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3867   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3868   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3869   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3870   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3871   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3872   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3873   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3874   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3875   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3876   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3877   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3878   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3879   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3880   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3881 
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3885 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3886 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3887 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3888 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3889 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3890 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3891 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3892 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3893 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3894 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3895 
  3896 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3897 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3898 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3899 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3900 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3901 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3902 
  3903 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3904 through option types.
  3905 
  3906 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3907 relations.
  3908 
  3909 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3912 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3913 
  3914   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3915   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3916   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3917   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3918   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3919   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3920   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3921   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3922   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3923   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3924   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3925   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3926   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3927   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3928   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3929   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3930   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3931   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3932   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3933   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3934   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3935   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3936   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3937   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3938   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3939   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3940   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3941   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3942   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3943   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3944   zless_le ~> less_le
  3945   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3946   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3947   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3948 
  3949 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3950 
  3951   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3952 
  3953 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3954 
  3955 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3956 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3957 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3958 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3962 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3963 
  3964 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3965 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3966 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3967 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3968 follows:
  3969 
  3970   Operations:
  3971   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3972   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3973   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3974   del -> rbt_del
  3975   delete -> rbt_delete
  3976   ins -> rbt_ins
  3977   insert -> rbt_insert
  3978   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3979   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3980   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3981   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3982   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3983   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3984   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3985   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3986   union -> rbt_union
  3987   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3988   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3989 
  3990   Lemmas:
  3991   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3992   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3993   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3994   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3995   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3996   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3997   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3998   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3999   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  4000   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  4001   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  4002   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  4003   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  4004   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  4005   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  4006   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  4007   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  4008   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  4009   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  4010   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  4011   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  4012   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  4013   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  4014   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  4015   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  4016   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  4017   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  4018   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  4019   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  4020   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  4021   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  4022   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  4023   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  4024   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  4025   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  4026   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  4027   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  4028   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  4029   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  4030   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  4031   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  4032   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  4033   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  4034   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  4035   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  4036   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  4037   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  4038   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  4039   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  4040   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  4041   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  4042   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  4043   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  4044   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  4045   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  4046   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  4047   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  4048   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  4049   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  4050   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  4051   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  4052   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  4053   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  4054   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  4055   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  4056   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  4057   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  4058   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  4059   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  4060   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  4061   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  4062   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  4063   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  4064   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  4065   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  4066   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  4067   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  4068   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  4069   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  4070   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  4071   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  4072   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  4073   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  4074 
  4075 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  4076 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  4077 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4078 
  4079   Changed Operations:
  4080   float_abs -> abs
  4081   float_nprt -> nprt
  4082   float_pprt -> pprt
  4083   pow2 -> use powr
  4084   round_down -> float_round_down
  4085   round_up -> float_round_up
  4086   scale -> exponent
  4087 
  4088   Removed Operations:
  4089   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  4090 
  4091   Renamed Lemmas:
  4092   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  4093   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  4094   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  4095   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  4096   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  4097   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  4098   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  4099   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  4100   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  4101   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  4102   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  4103   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  4104   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  4105   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  4106   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  4107   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  4108   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  4109   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  4110   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  4111   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  4112   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  4113   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  4114   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  4115   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  4116   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  4117   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  4118   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  4119   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  4120   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  4121   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  4122   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  4123   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  4124   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  4125   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  4126   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  4127   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  4128 
  4129   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  4130   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  4131   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  4132   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  4133   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  4134   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  4135   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  4136   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  4137   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  4138   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  4139 
  4140 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  4141 association lists with distinct keys.
  4142 
  4143 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  4144 annotated commands.
  4145 
  4146 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  4147 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  4148 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  4149 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150 
  4151 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  4152 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  4153 instead.
  4154 
  4155   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  4156   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  4157   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  4158   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  4159   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  4160   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  4161   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  4162   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  4163   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4164   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  4165   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  4166   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  4167   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  4168   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4169   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4170   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  4171   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4172   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  4173   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  4174   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  4175   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  4176   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  4177   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  4178   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  4179   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  4180   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  4181   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  4182   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  4183   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  4184   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4185   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  4186   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4187   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  4188   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  4189   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  4190   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  4191   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  4192   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  4193   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  4194   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  4195   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  4196 
  4197 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  4198 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  4199 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  4200 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  4201 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  4202 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  4203 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  4204 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  4205 
  4206 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  4207 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  4208 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  4209 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  4210 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  4211 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  4212 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  4213 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  4214 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  4215 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  4216 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  4217 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219   Renamed constants:
  4220   measure -> emeasure
  4221   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  4222   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  4223   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  4224   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  4225 
  4226   Removed locales:
  4227   completeable_measure_space
  4228   finite_measure_space
  4229   finite_prob_space
  4230   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  4231   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  4232   finite_sigma_algebra
  4233   measure_space
  4234   pair_finite_prob_space
  4235   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  4236   pair_finite_space
  4237   pair_sigma_algebra
  4238   product_sigma_algebra
  4239 
  4240   Removed constants:
  4241   conditional_space
  4242   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4243   image_space
  4244   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4245   pair_measure_generator
  4246   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  4247   subvimage
  4248 
  4249   Replacement theorems:
  4250   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  4251   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  4252   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  4253   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  4254   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  4255   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  4256   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  4257   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4258   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  4259   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  4260   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  4261   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4262   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  4263   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  4264   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  4265   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  4266   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4267   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4268   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  4269   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4270   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4271   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  4272   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  4273   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  4274   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  4275   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  4276   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  4277   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4278   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  4279   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  4280   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  4281   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  4282   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  4283   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  4284   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  4285   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  4286   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  4287   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  4288   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  4289   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  4290   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  4291   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  4292   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  4293   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  4294   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  4295   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  4296   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  4297   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  4298   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  4299   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  4300   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  4301   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  4302   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4303   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4304   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  4305   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  4306   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  4307   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  4308   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4309   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  4310   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  4311   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  4312   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4313   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  4314   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  4315   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  4316   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  4317   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  4318   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  4319   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  4320   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  4321   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  4322   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  4323   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  4324   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4325   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  4326   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  4327   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  4328   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  4329   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4330   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4331   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4332   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4333   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  4334   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  4335   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  4336   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  4337   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  4338   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  4339   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  4340   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  4341   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  4342   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  4343   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  4344   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  4345   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  4346   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  4347   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  4348   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  4349   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  4350   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  4351   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  4352   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  4353   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  4354   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  4355   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  4356   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4357   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  4358   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  4359   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  4360   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  4361   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  4362   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  4363   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  4364   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  4365   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  4366   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  4367   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  4368   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4369   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  4370   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4371   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  4372   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  4373   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  4374   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  4375   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  4376   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  4377   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  4378 
  4379 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  4380 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  4381 
  4382 
  4383 *** FOL ***
  4384 
  4385 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  4386 
  4387 
  4388 *** ZF ***
  4389 
  4390 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  4391 analysis.
  4392 
  4393 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  4394 
  4395 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 
  4398 *** ML ***
  4399 
  4400 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  4401 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  4402 
  4403 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  4404 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  4405 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  4406 
  4407 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  4408 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  4409 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  4410 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  4411 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  4412 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  4413 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  4414 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  4415 
  4416 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  4417 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  4418 
  4419 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  4420 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  4421 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  4422 
  4423 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4424 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  4427 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  4428 context as well.
  4429 
  4430 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  4431 
  4432   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  4433   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  4434   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  4435   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  4436   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  4437   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  4438   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  4439   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  4440   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  4441   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  4442   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  4443   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  4444 
  4445 
  4446 *** System ***
  4447 
  4448 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  4449 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  4450 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  4451 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  4452 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  4453 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  4454 the generic user home was intended.
  4455 
  4456 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  4457 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  4458 
  4459 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  4460 (not just JRE).
  4461 
  4462 
  4463 
  4464 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  4465 ------------------------------------
  4466 
  4467 *** General ***
  4468 
  4469 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  4470 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  4471 
  4472   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  4473     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  4474     files for checking).
  4475 
  4476   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  4477     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  4478     positions.
  4479 
  4480   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  4481     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  4482     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  4483 
  4484   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  4485     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  4486     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  4487 
  4488   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  4489     cores.
  4490 
  4491   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  4492     versions (garbage collection).
  4493 
  4494 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  4495 including some remaining limitations.
  4496 
  4497 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  4498 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4499 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  4500 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  4501 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  4502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4503 
  4504 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  4505 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  4506 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  4507 
  4508 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  4509 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  4510 usedir option -Q.
  4511 
  4512 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  4513 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  4514 
  4515   long_names   ~> names_long
  4516   short_names  ~> names_short
  4517   unique_names ~> names_unique
  4518 
  4519 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  4520 
  4521   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  4522 
  4523 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  4524 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  4525 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  4526 
  4527 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  4528 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  4529 
  4530 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  4531   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  4532   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  4533   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  4534     "Classical Reasoner".
  4535 
  4536 
  4537 *** HOL ***
  4538 
  4539 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  4540 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4541 
  4542 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  4543 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  4544 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  4545 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  4546 class complete_linorder.
  4547 
  4548 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  4549 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  4550 
  4551 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  4552 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  4553 
  4554   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  4555   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  4556   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4557   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4558   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4559   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4560   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  4561   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  4562   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  4563   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  4564   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  4565 
  4566 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  4567 
  4568   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  4569   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  4570   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  4571   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  4572   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  4573   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  4574   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  4575   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  4576   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  4577   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  4578   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  4579   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  4580   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  4581   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  4582   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  4583   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  4584 
  4585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  4591 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  4592 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  4593 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  4596 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  4597 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  4598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  4601 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  4602 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  4603 
  4604 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  4605 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  4606 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4607 
  4608 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  4609 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  4610 
  4611 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  4612 
  4613     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  4614     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  4615 
  4616 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  4617 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  4620 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  4623 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  4624 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  4625 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  4628   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  4629   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  4630   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  4631   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  4632   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  4633   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  4634 
  4635 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  4636 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  4639   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  4640   real_less_def ~> less_le
  4641   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  4642   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  4643   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4644   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4645   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4646   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4647   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4648   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  4649   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  4650   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  4651   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4652   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  4653   real_le_linear ~> linear
  4654   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  4655   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  4656   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  4657   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  4658   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  4659   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  4660   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  4661   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  4662   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  4663   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  4664   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  4665   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  4666   expi_add ~> exp_add
  4667   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  4668   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  4669   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  4670   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  4671   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4672   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  4673   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4674   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  4675   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4676   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4677   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4678   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4679   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4680   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  4681   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  4682   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  4683   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  4684   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4685   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4686   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4687   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  4688   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4689   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4690   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  4691   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  4692   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  4693   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  4694   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  4695   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4696   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4697   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4698   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  4699   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  4700   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4701   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4702   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  4703   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  4704   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4705   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  4706   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4707   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4708   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  4709   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  4710   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4711   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  4712   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  4713   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4714   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  4715   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4716   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  4717   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  4718   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  4719   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  4720 
  4721 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  4722 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  4723 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  4724 
  4725 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  4726 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  4727 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  4728 
  4729 * Code generation:
  4730 
  4731   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  4732     characters in the target language.
  4733 
  4734   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  4735     instead.
  4736 
  4737   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  4738 
  4739   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  4740     reactivated by the following theory command:
  4741 
  4742       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  4743 
  4744 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  4747 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  4748 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  4749 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  4750 syntax.
  4751 
  4752 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  4753 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  4754 
  4755 * Nitpick:
  4756   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  4757   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  4758   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  4759     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4760 
  4761 * Sledgehammer:
  4762   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  4763   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  4764     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  4765   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  4766     this can be done within reasonable time.
  4767   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  4768     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4769   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  4770     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  4771   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  4772     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4773 
  4774 * Metis:
  4775   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  4777     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Command 'try':
  4780   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  4781     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4783     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4784 
  4785 * Quickcheck:
  4786   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4787     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4788   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4789     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4790   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4791     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4792     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4793     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4794   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4795     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4796 
  4797 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4798 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4799 
  4800 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4801 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4802 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4803 
  4804 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4805 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4807 
  4808 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4809 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4812 arithmetic.
  4813 
  4814 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4815 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4816 and lattice type classes.
  4817 
  4818 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4819 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4820 
  4821 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4822 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4823 
  4824 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4825 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4826 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4829   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4830   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4831   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4832 
  4833 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4834 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4835 constants:
  4836 
  4837   type inat   ~> type enat
  4838   Fin         ~> enat
  4839   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4840   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4841   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4842 
  4843 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4844 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4845 
  4846 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4847 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4848 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4849 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4850 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4851 
  4852 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4853 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4854 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4855 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4856 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4857 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4858 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4859 
  4860   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4861   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4862   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4863   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4864 
  4865 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4866 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4867 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4870   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4871   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4872   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4873   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4874   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4875   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4876   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4877   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4878   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4879   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4880   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4881   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4882   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4883   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4884   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4885   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4886   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4887   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4888   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4889   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4890   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4891   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4892   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4893   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4894   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4895   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4896   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4897   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4898   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4899   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4900   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4901   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4902   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4903   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4904   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4905   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4906   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4907   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4908   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4909   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4910   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4911   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4912   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4913   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4914   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4915   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4916   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4917   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4918   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4919   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4920 
  4921 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4922   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4923   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4924   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4925   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4926     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4931   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4932   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4933   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4934   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4935   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4936   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4937   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4938   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4939   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4940   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4941   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4942   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4943   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4944   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4945   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4946   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4947   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4948   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4949   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4950   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4951   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4952   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4953   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4954   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4955 
  4956 
  4957 *** Document preparation ***
  4958 
  4959 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4960 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4961 same.
  4962 
  4963 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4964 result.
  4965 
  4966 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4967 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4968 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4969 
  4970 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4971 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4972 
  4973 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4974 like this:
  4975 
  4976   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4977   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4978 
  4979 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4980 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4981 layouts.
  4982 
  4983 
  4984 *** ML ***
  4985 
  4986 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4987 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4988 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4989 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4990 under external program control.
  4991 
  4992 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4993 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4994 
  4995 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4996 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4997 (better known as Proof General).
  4998 
  4999 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  5000 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  5001 
  5002 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  5003 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  5004 
  5005 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  5006 (including quotes etc.).
  5007 
  5008 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  5009 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  5010 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  5011 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  5012 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  5013 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  5014 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  5015 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  5016 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  5017 
  5018 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  5019 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  5020 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5021 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  5022 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  5023 
  5024 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  5025 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  5026 
  5027 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  5028 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  5029 
  5030 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  5031 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  5032 
  5033 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  5034 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  5035 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  5036 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  5037 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  5038 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  5039 proper Proof.context.
  5040 
  5041 
  5042 *** System ***
  5043 
  5044 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  5045 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  5046 
  5047 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  5048 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  5049 
  5050 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  5051 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  5052 
  5053   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  5054   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  5055   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  5056   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  5057   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  5058 
  5059 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  5060 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  5063 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  5064 example:
  5065 
  5066   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  5067 
  5068 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  5069 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  5070 
  5071 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  5072 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  5073 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  5074 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  5075 
  5076 
  5077 
  5078 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  5079 ----------------------------------
  5080 
  5081 *** General ***
  5082 
  5083 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  5084 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  5085 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  5086 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  5087 like this:
  5088 
  5089   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  5090 
  5091 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  5092 
  5093 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  5094 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  5095 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  5096 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  5097 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  5098 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  5099 
  5100 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  5101 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  5102 the following package declarations:
  5103 
  5104   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  5105   \usepackage{textcomp}
  5106 
  5107 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  5108 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  5109 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  5110 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  5111 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  5112 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  5113 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  5114 
  5115 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  5116 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5117 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  5118 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  5119 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  5120 
  5121 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  5122 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  5123 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  5124 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  5127 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  5128 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  5129 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  5130 
  5131   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  5132 
  5133   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  5134   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  5135   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  5136   show_types                    show_types
  5137   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  5138   show_consts                   show_consts
  5139   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  5140 
  5141   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  5142   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  5143   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  5144 
  5145   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  5146   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  5147 
  5148   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  5149 
  5150   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  5151   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  5152   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  5153   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  5154   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  5155 
  5156 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  5157 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  5158 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  5159 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  5160 
  5161 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  5162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5163 
  5164   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  5165   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  5166 
  5167 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  5168 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  5169 float_token.
  5170 
  5171 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  5172 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  5173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  5176 DejaVu Sans.
  5177 
  5178 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  5179 
  5180 
  5181 *** Pure ***
  5182 
  5183 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  5184 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  5185 time.
  5186 
  5187 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  5188 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5189 
  5190 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  5191 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  5194 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  5195 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  5196 command already provided this functionality.
  5197 
  5198 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  5199 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  5200 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  5201 without interpretations.
  5202 
  5203 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  5204 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  5205 
  5206 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  5207 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  5208 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  5209 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  5210 
  5211 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5212 'definition' instead.
  5213 
  5214 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  5215 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  5216 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  5217 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  5218 
  5219 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  5220 constructors.
  5221 
  5222 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  5223 the local file system.
  5224 
  5225 
  5226 *** HOL ***
  5227 
  5228 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  5229 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  5230 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  5231 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  5232 
  5233   declare [[coercion f]]
  5234 
  5235 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  5236 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  5237 
  5238   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  5239 
  5240 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  5241 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  5242 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  5243 other theories like this:
  5244 
  5245   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  5246 
  5247 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  5248 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  5249 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  5250 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  5251 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  5252 for examples.
  5253 
  5254 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  5255 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5256 
  5257 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  5258 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  5259 
  5260 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  5261 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  5262 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  5263 
  5264 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  5265 functorial structure of types.
  5266 
  5267 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  5268 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  5269 
  5270 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  5271 languages.
  5272 
  5273 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  5274 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  5275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5276 
  5277 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  5278 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5279 
  5280 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  5281 combinators any longer.
  5282 
  5283 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  5284 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  5285 
  5286 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  5287 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  5288 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  5289 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  5290 
  5291   record 'a foo = ...
  5292   ...
  5293   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  5294 
  5295 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  5296 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  5297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  5300 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  5301 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  5302 
  5303 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  5304 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  5305 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  5306 
  5307 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  5308 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  5311 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  5312 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  5313 independently.
  5314 
  5315 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  5316 counter example search.
  5317 
  5318 * Sledgehammer:
  5319   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  5320     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  5321     sledgehammer").
  5322   - Renamed commands:
  5323     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  5324     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  5325     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  5326     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5327   - Renamed options:
  5328     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  5329     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  5330     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  5331     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  5332     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Nitpick:
  5335   - Renamed options:
  5336     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  5337     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  5338     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5339   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  5340   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  5341   - Added "whack" option.
  5342   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  5343   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  5344   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  5345   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  5346     higher cardinalities.
  5347   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  5348 
  5349 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  5350 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  5351 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  5352 
  5353     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  5354 
  5355 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  5356 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  5357 
  5358 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  5359 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  5360 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  5361 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  5362 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  5363 "smt_solver".
  5364 
  5365 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  5366 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  5367 
  5368 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  5369 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  5370 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  5371 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5372 
  5373 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  5374   - Renamed:
  5375     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  5376     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  5377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378   - Added:
  5379     smt_verbose
  5380     smt_random_seed
  5381     smt_datatypes
  5382     smt_infer_triggers
  5383     smt_monomorph_limit
  5384     cvc3_options
  5385     remote_cvc3_options
  5386     remote_z3_options
  5387     yices_options
  5388 
  5389 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  5390 header.
  5391 
  5392 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  5393 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  5394 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  5395 
  5396   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  5397 
  5398 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5399 
  5400 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  5401 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5402 
  5403 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  5406 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5407 
  5408 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  5409 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  5410 
  5411 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  5412 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5413 
  5414 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  5415 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  5416 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5417 
  5418 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5419 
  5420 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  5421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5422 
  5423 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  5424 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5425 
  5426 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  5427 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  5428 for congruent(2)).
  5429 
  5430 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  5431 
  5432   types
  5433     bool ~> HOL.bool
  5434     nat ~> Nat.nat
  5435 
  5436   constants
  5437     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  5438     True ~> HOL.True
  5439     False ~> HOL.False
  5440     op & ~> HOL.conj
  5441     op | ~> HOL.disj
  5442     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  5443     op = ~> HOL.eq
  5444     Not ~> HOL.Not
  5445     The ~> HOL.The
  5446     All ~> HOL.All
  5447     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  5448     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  5449     Let ~> HOL.Let
  5450     If ~> HOL.If
  5451     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  5452     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  5453     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  5454     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  5455     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  5456     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  5457     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  5458     op : ~> Set.member
  5459     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  5460 
  5461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5462 
  5463 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  5464 
  5465     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  5466     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  5467     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  5468     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  5469     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  5470     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  5471     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  5472     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  5473 
  5474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * More stylized fact names:
  5477 
  5478   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  5479   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  5480   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  5481   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  5482 
  5483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5484 
  5485 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  5486 
  5487   constants
  5488     null ~> List.null
  5489 
  5490   facts
  5491     mem_iff ~> member_def
  5492     null_empty ~> null_def
  5493 
  5494 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  5495 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  5496 generation.
  5497 
  5498 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  5499 Haskell code.
  5500 
  5501 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  5502 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  5503 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5504 
  5505 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  5506 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  5509 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  5510 
  5511 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  5512 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  5513 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  5516 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5517 
  5518 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  5519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  5522 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  5523 referred to by its qualified name.
  5524 
  5525   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  5526   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  5527   product ~>  Enum.product
  5528 
  5529 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  5530 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  5531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5532 
  5533 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  5534 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  5535 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  5536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  5539 sort_key.
  5540 
  5541 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  5542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  5545 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  5546 instead of finite cartesian products.
  5547 
  5548   types
  5549     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  5550               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  5551               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  5552         (depends on your needs)
  5553 
  5554   constants
  5555      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  5556      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  5557      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  5558 
  5559 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  5560 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  5561 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  5562 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  5565 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  5566 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  5567 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  5568 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5569 
  5570 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  5571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5572 
  5573 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  5574 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  5575 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  5576 
  5577 
  5578 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5579 
  5580 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  5581 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  5582 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  5583 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  5584 compatibility.
  5585 
  5586 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  5587 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  5588 
  5589 
  5590 *** HOLCF ***
  5591 
  5592 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  5593 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  5594 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  5595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5596 
  5597 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  5598 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  5599 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5600 
  5601   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  5602   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  5603   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  5604 
  5605 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  5606 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  5607 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5608 
  5609 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  5610 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  5611 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  5612 domain definition now works:
  5613 
  5614   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  5615 
  5616 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  5617 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  5618 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  5619 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  5620 
  5621   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  5622     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  5623 
  5624   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  5625 
  5626 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  5627 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  5628 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5629 
  5630 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  5631 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  5634 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  5635 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  5636 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  5637 
  5638 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  5639 
  5640 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5641 
  5642 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  5645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  5648 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  5649 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  5650 
  5651 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  5652 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  5653 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5654 
  5655 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  5656 still supported as an input translation.
  5657 
  5658 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  5659 
  5660   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  5661   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  5662   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  5663   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  5664   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  5665   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  5666   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  5667 
  5668 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  5669 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670 
  5671   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  5672   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  5673   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  5674   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  5675   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  5676   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  5677 
  5678 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  5679 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5680 
  5681 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  5682 
  5683   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  5684   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  5685   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  5686   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  5687 
  5688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5689 
  5690 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  5691 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5692 
  5693 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  5694 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5695 
  5696   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  5697   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  5698   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  5699   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  5700   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  5701   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  5702   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  5703   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  5704   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  5705   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  5706   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  5707   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  5708   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  5709   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  5710   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  5711   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  5712   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  5713   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  5714   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  5715   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  5716 
  5717 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5718 
  5719   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  5720   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  5721   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  5722   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  5723   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  5724   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  5725   box_less             ~> box_below
  5726   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  5727   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  5728   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  5729   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  5730   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  5731   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  5732   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  5733   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  5734   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  5735   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  5736   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  5737   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  5738   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  5739   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  5740   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  5741   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  5742   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  5743   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  5744   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  5745   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  5746   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  5747   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  5748   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  5749   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  5750   up_less              ~> up_below
  5751   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  5752   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  5753   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  5754   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  5755   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  5756   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  5757   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  5758   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  5759   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  5760   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  5761   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  5762   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  5763   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  5764 
  5765 
  5766 *** FOL and ZF ***
  5767 
  5768 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  5769 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5770 
  5771 
  5772 *** ML ***
  5773 
  5774 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  5775 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  5776 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  5777 
  5778 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  5779 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  5780 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  5781 
  5782 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5783 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5784 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5785 
  5786 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5787 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5788 
  5789 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5790 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5791 
  5792 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5793 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5794 
  5795 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5796 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5797 
  5798 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5799 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5800 almost all situations.
  5801 
  5802 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5803 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5804 Isabelle/ML.
  5805 
  5806 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5807 meaning.
  5808 
  5809 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5810 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5811 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5812 
  5813 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5814 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5815 
  5816 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5817 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5818 
  5819 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5820 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5821 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5822 
  5823 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5824 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5825 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5826 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5827 configuration options.
  5828 
  5829 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5830 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5831 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5832 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5833 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5834 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5835 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5836 
  5837 
  5838 
  5839 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5840 ---------------------------------
  5841 
  5842 *** General ***
  5843 
  5844 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5845 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5846 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5847 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5848 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5849 their full internal name.
  5850 
  5851 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5852 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5853 Some hints on upgrading:
  5854 
  5855   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5856     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5857     which are independent of this issue.
  5858 
  5859   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5860     provides the following special forms:
  5861 
  5862       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5863       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5864       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5865 
  5866     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5867     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5868     extra variables".
  5869 
  5870     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5871     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5872     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5873     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5874     "logic".
  5875 
  5876   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5877     antiquotations:
  5878 
  5879       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5880       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5881       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5882       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5883 
  5884   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5885     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5886     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5887     antiquotations.
  5888 
  5889 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5890 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5891 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5892 diagnose syntax problems.
  5893 
  5894 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5895 
  5896 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5897 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5898 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5899 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5900 
  5901 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5902 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5903 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5904 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5907 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5908 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5909 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5910 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5911 
  5912 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5913 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5914 
  5915 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5916 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5917 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5918 
  5919   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5920 
  5921 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5922 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5923 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5924 
  5925 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5926 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5930 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5931 
  5932 
  5933 *** Pure ***
  5934 
  5935 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5936 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5937 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5938 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5939 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5940 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5941 inspect proof terms.
  5942 
  5943 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5944 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5945 are added internally.  For example:
  5946 
  5947   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5948 
  5949 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5950 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5955 'class' instead.
  5956 
  5957 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5958 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5960 
  5961 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5962 invariants.
  5963 
  5964 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5965 user space functionality any longer.
  5966 
  5967 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5968 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5972 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5973 
  5974 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5975 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5976 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5977 
  5978 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5979 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5980 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5981 
  5982 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5983 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5984 
  5985 
  5986 *** HOL ***
  5987 
  5988 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5989 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5990 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5991 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5992 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5993 
  5994 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5995 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5996 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5997 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5998 
  5999   fun
  6000     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  6001   where
  6002     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  6003 
  6004   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  6005     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  6006 
  6007   quotient_definition
  6008     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  6009 
  6010 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  6011 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  6012 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  6013 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  6014 
  6015 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  6016 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  6017 
  6018 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  6019 separate HOL-SMT session.
  6020 
  6021 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  6022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  6025 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  6026 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  6027 
  6028 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  6029 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  6032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6033 
  6034 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  6035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6036 
  6037 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  6038 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6039 
  6040 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  6041 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  6042 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6043 
  6044   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  6045   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  6046   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  6047   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  6048   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  6049   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  6050   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  6051   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  6052   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  6053   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  6054   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  6055   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  6056   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  6057   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  6058   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  6059   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  6060   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  6061   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  6062   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  6063   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  6064   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  6065   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  6066   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  6067   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  6068   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  6069   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  6070   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  6071   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  6072   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  6073   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  6074 
  6075 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  6076 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  6077 
  6078 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  6079 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  6080 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  6083 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  6084 
  6085 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  6086 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6087 
  6088 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  6089 
  6090 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  6091 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6092 
  6093 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  6094 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6095 
  6096 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6097 
  6098 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  6099 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  6100 
  6101 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  6102 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  6103 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  6104 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6105 
  6106 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  6107   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  6108   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  6109   - inverse, divide: Rings
  6110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6111 
  6112 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  6113 lattices):
  6114 
  6115     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  6116     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  6117 
  6118     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  6119 
  6120     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  6121     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  6122     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6123     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  6124     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6125     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  6126     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  6127     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  6128     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  6129     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  6130     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  6131     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  6132     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  6133 
  6134     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  6135     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6136     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6137     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  6138     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  6139     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  6140     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  6141     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  6142     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  6143     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  6144     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  6145     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  6146     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  6147     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  6148     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  6149     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  6150     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  6151     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  6152 
  6153   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  6154   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  6155 
  6156     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  6157     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  6158     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  6159     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  6160     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  6161 
  6162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6163 
  6164 * Refined field classes:
  6165   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  6166     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  6167     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  6168   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  6169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6170 
  6171 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  6172   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  6173   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  6174   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  6175     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  6176   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  6177     equal_neg_zero.
  6178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6179 
  6180 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  6181 sets to lattices:
  6182 
  6183   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  6184   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  6185   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  6186   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  6187   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  6188   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  6189   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  6190   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  6191   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  6192   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  6193 
  6194 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  6195 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  6196 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  6197 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  6198 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  6199 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  6202 multiset order:
  6203 
  6204   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  6205     <= and <;
  6206   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  6207     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  6208     multiset_order;
  6209   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  6210     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  6211     generation;
  6212   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  6213     if needed.
  6214 
  6215 Renamed:
  6216 
  6217   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  6218   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  6219   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  6220 
  6221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6222 
  6223 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  6224 
  6225 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  6226 
  6227 * Theory List: added transpose.
  6228 
  6229 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  6230 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  6231 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6232 
  6233   Constants:
  6234   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  6235   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  6236   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  6237   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  6238   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  6239   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  6240   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  6241   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  6242   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  6243   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  6244   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  6245   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  6246   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  6247 
  6248   Lemmas:
  6249   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6250   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  6251   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  6252   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  6253   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  6254   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  6255   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  6256   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  6257   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  6258   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  6259   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  6260   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  6261   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6262 
  6263 * Sledgehammer:
  6264   - Renamed ATP commands:
  6265     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  6266     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  6267     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  6268     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  6269     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  6270     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6271   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  6272   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  6273     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  6274   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  6275     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature