NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Aug 11 19:34:36 2012 +0200 (2012-08-11 ago)
changeset 48772 e46cd0d26481
parent 48736 292b97e17fb7
child 48792 4aa5b965f70e
permissions -rw-r--r--
vacuous execution after first malformed command;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 
    33 *** HOL ***
    34 
    35 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    36 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    37 
    38 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    39 expressions.
    40 
    41 * Quickcheck:
    42 
    43   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    44     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    45     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    46 
    47 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    48 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    49 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    50 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    51 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Sledgehammer:
    54 
    55   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    56     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    57   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    58   - Renamed options:
    59       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    60       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Document preparation ***
    64 
    65 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    66 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    67 
    68 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
    69 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
    70 document/root.tex.
    71 
    72 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
    73 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    74 
    75 
    76 *** System ***
    77 
    78 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
    79 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
    80 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
    81 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
    82 
    83 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
    84 
    85 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
    86 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
    87 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
    88 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
    89 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
    90 
    91 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
    92 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
    93 
    94   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
    95 
    96 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
    97 required for "isabelle build", for example.
    98 
    99 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   100 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   101 "isabelle usedir".
   102 
   103 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   104 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   105 configuration.
   106 
   107 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   108 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   109 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   110 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   111 bundled as Isabelle component.
   112 
   113 
   114 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   115 ------------------------------
   116 
   117 *** General ***
   118 
   119 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   120 
   121   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   122     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   123   - markup for bound variables
   124   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   125   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   126   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   127     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   128 
   129 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   130 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   131 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   132 
   133 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   134 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   135 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   136 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   137 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   138 
   139   context
   140     fixes x y z :: 'a
   141     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   142   begin
   143 
   144   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   145 
   146   end
   147 
   148   thm my_trans
   149 
   150 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   151 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   152 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   153 
   154 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   155 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   156 
   157 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   158 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   159 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   160 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   161 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   162 
   163 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   164 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   165 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   166 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   167 indices of schematic variables.
   168 
   169 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   170 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   171 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   172 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   173 etc. was exploited.
   174 
   175 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   176 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   177 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   178 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   179 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   180 of the material of that old tutorial.
   181 
   182 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   183 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   184 manual.
   185 
   186 
   187 *** Pure ***
   188 
   189 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   190 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   191 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   192 
   193 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   194 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   195 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   196 undocumented feature.)
   197 
   198 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   199 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   200 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   201 
   202   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   203 
   204   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   205     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   206 
   207 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   208 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   209 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   210 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   211 
   212 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   213 
   214     num ~> num_token
   215     xnum ~> xnum_token
   216     xstr ~> str_token
   217 
   218 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   219 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   220 position information via constraints).
   221 
   222 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   223 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   224 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   227 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   228 
   229 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   230 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   231 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   234 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   237 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   238 
   239   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   240 
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   244 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   247 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   248 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   249 
   250 
   251 *** HOL ***
   252 
   253 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   254 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   255 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   256 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   257 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   258 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   259 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   260 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   261 possible.
   262 
   263 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   264 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   265 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   266 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   267 
   268 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   269 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   270 
   271 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   272 
   273 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   274 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   275 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   276 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   277 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   278 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   279 
   280   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   281     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   282 
   283   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   284     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   285     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   286 
   287   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   288     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   289 
   290   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   291     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   292     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   293 
   294   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   295     Redefine using other integer operations.
   296 
   297 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   298 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   299 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   300 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   301 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   302 
   303   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   304     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   305     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   306     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   307     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   308 
   309     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   310     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   311 
   312   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   313     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   314     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   315     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   316     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   317     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   318     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   319     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   320 
   321   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   322     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   323     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   324     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   325 
   326   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   327     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   328     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   329     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   330 
   331   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   332     from type nat to type int.
   333 
   334 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   335 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   336 
   337   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   338     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   339     type.  Example syntax:
   340 
   341     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   342       is List.insert
   343 
   344     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   345     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   346     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   347     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   348     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   349     by the package.
   350 
   351   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   352     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   353     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   354     code generation for each constant.
   355 
   356   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   357     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   358     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   359     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   360     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   361 
   362   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   363     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   364     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   365 
   366 * Quotient package:
   367 
   368   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   369     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   370 
   371   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   372     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   373 
   374   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   375     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   376     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   377 
   378   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   379     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   382 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   383 
   384 * Quickcheck:
   385 
   386   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   387     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   388     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   389     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   390     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   391 
   392     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   393     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   394     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   395 
   396     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   397     continues searching for genuine ones.
   398 
   399     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   400     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   401     show genuine counterexamples.
   402 
   403   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   404     value generators for a given type and operations.
   405 
   406     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   407     constructors of that type.
   408 
   409   - Support for multisets.
   410 
   411   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   412 
   413   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   414     conjectures in a locale context.
   415 
   416 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   417 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   418 
   419 * Sledgehammer:
   420   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   421     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   422   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   423   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   424     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   425   - Sped up the minimizer.
   426   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   427   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   428   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   429 
   430 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   431 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   432 
   433 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   434 
   435 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   438 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   439 
   440   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   441 
   442 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   443 a list and a nat.
   444 
   445 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   446 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   447 
   448 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   449 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   450 default.
   451 
   452 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   453 
   454   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   455 
   456 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   457 
   458 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   459 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   460 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   461 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   462 one_case.
   463 
   464 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   465 the result of the fact expression.
   466 
   467 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   468 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   469 of some relation theorems:
   470 
   471   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   472   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   473   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   474   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   475   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   476   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   477 
   478 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   479 
   480 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   481 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   482 
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   486 to match the constant's name:
   487 
   488   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   489   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   490   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   491   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   492   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   493   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   494   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   495   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   496   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   497   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   498   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   499   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   500   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   501   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   502   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   503   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   504   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   505   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   506   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   507   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   508   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   509   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   510   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   511   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   512 
   513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   514 
   515 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   516 and corresponding theorem names:
   517 
   518   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   519 
   520   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   521 
   522   - Renamed theorems:
   523 
   524     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   525     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   526     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   527     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   528     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   529     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   530     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   531     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   532     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   533     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   534     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   535     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   536     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   537     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   538     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   539     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   540     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   541     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   542     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   543     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   544     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   545     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   546     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   547 
   548     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   549 
   550     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   551 
   552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   553 
   554 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   556 
   557   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   558   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   559   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   560   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   561   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   562   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   563   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   564   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   565   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   566   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   567   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   568   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   569   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   570   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   571   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   572   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   573   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   574   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   575   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   576   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   577   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   578 
   579 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   580 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   581 
   582 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   583 
   584 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   585 
   586   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   587   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   588   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   589   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   590   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   591   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   592   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   593   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   594   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   595   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   596   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   597   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   598   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   599   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   600   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   601   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   602   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   603   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   604 
   605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   608 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   609 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   610 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   611 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   612 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   613 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   614 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   615 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   616 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   617 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   618 
   619 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   620 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   621 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   622 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   623 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   624 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   625 
   626 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   627 through option types.
   628 
   629 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   630 relations.
   631 
   632 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   635 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   636 
   637   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   638   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   639   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   640   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   641   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   642   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   643   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   644   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   645   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   646   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   647   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   648   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   649   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   650   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   651   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   652   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   653   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   654   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   655   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   656   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   657   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   658   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   659   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   660   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   661   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   662   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   663   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   664   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   665   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   666   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   667   zless_le ~> less_le
   668   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   669   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   670   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   671 
   672 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   673 
   674   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   675 
   676 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   677 
   678 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   679 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   680 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   681 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   683 
   684 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   685 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   686 
   687 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   688 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   689 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   690 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   691 follows:
   692 
   693   Operations:
   694   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   695   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   696   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   697   del -> rbt_del
   698   delete -> rbt_delete
   699   ins -> rbt_ins
   700   insert -> rbt_insert
   701   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   702   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   703   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   704   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   705   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   706   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   707   tree_less -> rbt_less
   708   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   709   union -> rbt_union
   710   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   711   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   712 
   713   Lemmas:
   714   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   715   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   716   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   717   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   718   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   719   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   720   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   721   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   722   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   723   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   724   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   725   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   726   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   727   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   728   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   729   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   730   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   731   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   732   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   733   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   734   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   735   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   736   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   737   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   738   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   739   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   740   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   741   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   742   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   743   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   744   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   745   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   746   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   747   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   748   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   749   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   750   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   751   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   752   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   753   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   754   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   755   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   756   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   757   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   758   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   759   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   760   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   761   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   762   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   763   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   764   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   765   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   766   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   767   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   768   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   769   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   770   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   771   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   772   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   773   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   774   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   775   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   776   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   777   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   778   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   779   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   780   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   781   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   782   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   783   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   784   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   785   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   786   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   787   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   788   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   789   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   790   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   791   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   792   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   793   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   794   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   795   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   796   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   797 
   798 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   799 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   800 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802   Changed Operations:
   803   float_abs -> abs
   804   float_nprt -> nprt
   805   float_pprt -> pprt
   806   pow2 -> use powr
   807   round_down -> float_round_down
   808   round_up -> float_round_up
   809   scale -> exponent
   810 
   811   Removed Operations:
   812   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   813 
   814   Renamed Lemmas:
   815   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   816   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   817   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   818   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   819   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   820   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   821   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   822   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   823   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   824   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   825   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   826   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   827   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   828   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   829   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   830   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   831   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   832   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   833   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   834   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   835   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   836   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   837   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   838   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   839   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   840   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   841   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   842   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   843   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   844   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   845   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   846   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   847   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   848   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   849   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   850   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   851 
   852   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   853   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   854   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   855   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   856   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   857   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   858   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   859   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   860   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   861   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   862 
   863 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   864 association lists with distinct keys.
   865 
   866 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   867 annotated commands.
   868 
   869 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   870 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   871 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   872 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   875 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   876 instead.
   877 
   878   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   879   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   880   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   881   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   882   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   883   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   884   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   885   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   886   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   887   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   888   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   889   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   890   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   891   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   892   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   893   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   894   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   895   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   896   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   897   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   898   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   899   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   900   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   901   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   902   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   903   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   904   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   905   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   906   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   907   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   908   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   909   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   910   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   911   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   912   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   913   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   914   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   915   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   916   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   917   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   918   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   919 
   920 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   921 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   922 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   923 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   924 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   925 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   926 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   927 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   928 
   929 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   930 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   931 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   932 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   933 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   934 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   935 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   936 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   937 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   938 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   939 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   940 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941 
   942   Renamed constants:
   943   measure -> emeasure
   944   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   945   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   946   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   947   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   948 
   949   Removed locales:
   950   completeable_measure_space
   951   finite_measure_space
   952   finite_prob_space
   953   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   954   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   955   finite_sigma_algebra
   956   measure_space
   957   pair_finite_prob_space
   958   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   959   pair_finite_space
   960   pair_sigma_algebra
   961   product_sigma_algebra
   962 
   963   Removed constants:
   964   conditional_space
   965   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   966   image_space
   967   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   968   pair_measure_generator
   969   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   970   subvimage
   971 
   972   Replacement theorems:
   973   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   974   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   975   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   976   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   977   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   978   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   979   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   980   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   981   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   982   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   983   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   984   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   985   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   986   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   987   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   988   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   989   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   990   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   991   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   992   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   993   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   994   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   995   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   996   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   997   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   998   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   999   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1000   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1001   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1002   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1003   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1004   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1005   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1006   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1007   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1008   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1009   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1010   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1011   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1012   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1013   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1014   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1015   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1016   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1017   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1018   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1019   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1020   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1021   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1022   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1023   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1024   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1025   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1026   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1027   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1028   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1029   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1030   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1031   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1032   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1033   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1034   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1035   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1036   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1037   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1038   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1039   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1040   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1041   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1042   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1043   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1044   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1045   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1046   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1047   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1048   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1049   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1050   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1051   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1052   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1053   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1054   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1055   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1056   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1057   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1058   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1059   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1060   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1061   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1062   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1063   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1064   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1065   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1066   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1067   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1068   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1069   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1070   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1071   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1072   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1073   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1074   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1075   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1076   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1077   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1078   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1079   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1080   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1081   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1082   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1083   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1084   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1085   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1086   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1087   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1088   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1089   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1090   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1091   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1092   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1093   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1094   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1095   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1096   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1097   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1098   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1099   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1100   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1101 
  1102 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1103 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1104 
  1105 
  1106 *** FOL ***
  1107 
  1108 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1109 
  1110 
  1111 *** ZF ***
  1112 
  1113 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1114 analysis.
  1115 
  1116 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1117 
  1118 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 
  1121 *** ML ***
  1122 
  1123 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1124 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1125 
  1126 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1127 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1128 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1129 
  1130 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1131 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1132 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1133 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1134 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1135 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1136 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1137 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1138 
  1139 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1140 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1141 
  1142 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1143 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1144 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1145 
  1146 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1147 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1150 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1151 context as well.
  1152 
  1153 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1154 
  1155   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1156   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1157   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1158   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1159   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1160   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1161   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1162   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1163   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1164   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1165   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1166   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1167 
  1168 
  1169 *** System ***
  1170 
  1171 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1172 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1173 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1174 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1175 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1176 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1177 the generic user home was intended.
  1178 
  1179 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1180 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1181 
  1182 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1183 (not just JRE).
  1184 
  1185 
  1186 
  1187 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1188 ------------------------------------
  1189 
  1190 *** General ***
  1191 
  1192 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1193 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1194 
  1195   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1196     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1197     files for checking).
  1198 
  1199   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1200     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1201     positions.
  1202 
  1203   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1204     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1205     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1206 
  1207   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1208     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1209     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1210 
  1211   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1212     cores.
  1213 
  1214   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1215     versions (garbage collection).
  1216 
  1217 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1218 including some remaining limitations.
  1219 
  1220 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1221 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1222 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1223 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1224 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1228 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1229 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1230 
  1231 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1232 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1233 usedir option -Q.
  1234 
  1235 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1236 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1237 
  1238   long_names   ~> names_long
  1239   short_names  ~> names_short
  1240   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1241 
  1242 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1243 
  1244   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1245 
  1246 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1247 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1248 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1249 
  1250 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1251 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1252 
  1253 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1254   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1255   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1256   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1257     "Classical Reasoner".
  1258 
  1259 
  1260 *** HOL ***
  1261 
  1262 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1263 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1266 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1267 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1268 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1269 class complete_linorder.
  1270 
  1271 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1272 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1273 
  1274 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1275 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1276 
  1277   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1278   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1279   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1280   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1281   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1282   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1283   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1284   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1285   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1286   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1287   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1288 
  1289 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1290 
  1291   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1292   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1293   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1294   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1295   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1296   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1297   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1298   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1299   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1300   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1301   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1302   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1303   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1304   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1305   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1306   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1307 
  1308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1309 
  1310 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1314 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1315 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1316 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1317 
  1318 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1319 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1320 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1324 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1325 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1326 
  1327 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1328 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1329 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1330 
  1331 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1332 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1333 
  1334 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1335 
  1336     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1337     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1338 
  1339 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1340 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1341 
  1342 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1343 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1344 
  1345 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1346 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1347 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1348 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1351   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1352   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1353   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1354   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1355   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1356   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1357 
  1358 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1359 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1360 
  1361   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1362   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1363   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1364   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1365   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1366   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1367   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1368   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1369   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1370   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1371   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1372   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1373   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1374   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1375   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1376   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1377   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1378   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1379   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1380   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1381   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1382   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1383   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1384   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1385   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1386   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1387   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1388   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1389   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1390   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1391   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1392   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1393   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1394   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1395   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1396   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1397   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1398   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1399   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1400   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1401   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1402   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1403   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1404   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1405   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1406   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1407   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1408   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1409   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1410   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1411   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1412   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1413   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1414   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1415   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1416   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1417   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1418   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1419   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1420   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1421   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1422   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1423   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1424   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1425   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1426   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1427   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1428   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1429   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1430   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1431   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1432   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1433   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1434   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1435   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1436   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1437   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1438   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1439   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1440   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1441   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1442   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1443 
  1444 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1445 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1446 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1447 
  1448 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1449 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1450 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1451 
  1452 * Code generation:
  1453 
  1454   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1455     characters in the target language.
  1456 
  1457   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1458     instead.
  1459 
  1460   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1461 
  1462   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1463     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1464 
  1465       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1466 
  1467 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1470 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1471 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1472 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1473 syntax.
  1474 
  1475 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1476 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1477 
  1478 * Nitpick:
  1479   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1480   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1481   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1482     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Sledgehammer:
  1485   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1486   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1487     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1488   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1489     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1490   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1491     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1493     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1494   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1495     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1496 
  1497 * Metis:
  1498   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1500     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Command 'try':
  1503   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1504     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1505   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1506     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1507 
  1508 * Quickcheck:
  1509   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1510     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1511   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1512     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1513   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1514     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1515     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1516     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1517   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1518     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1519 
  1520 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1521 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1522 
  1523 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1524 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1525 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1526 
  1527 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1528 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1532 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1533 
  1534 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1535 arithmetic.
  1536 
  1537 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1538 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1539 and lattice type classes.
  1540 
  1541 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1542 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1543 
  1544 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1545 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1546 
  1547 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1548 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1549 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1550 
  1551   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1552   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1553   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1554   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1555 
  1556 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1557 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1558 constants:
  1559 
  1560   type inat   ~> type enat
  1561   Fin         ~> enat
  1562   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1563   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1564   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1565 
  1566 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1567 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1570 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1571 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1572 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1573 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1574 
  1575 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1576 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1577 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1578 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1579 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1580 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1581 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1582 
  1583   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1584   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1585   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1586   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1587 
  1588 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1589 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1590 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1593   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1594   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1595   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1596   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1597   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1598   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1599   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1600   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1601   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1602   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1603   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1604   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1605   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1606   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1607   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1608   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1609   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1610   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1611   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1612   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1613   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1614   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1615   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1616   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1617   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1618   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1619   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1620   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1621   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1622   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1623   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1624   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1625   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1626   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1627   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1628   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1629   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1630   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1631   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1632   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1633   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1634   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1635   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1636   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1637   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1638   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1639   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1640   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1641   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1642   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1643 
  1644 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1645   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1646   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1647   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1648   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1649     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1654   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1655   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1656   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1657   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1658   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1659   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1660   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1661   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1662   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1663   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1664   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1665   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1666   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1667   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1668   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1669   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1670   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1671   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1672   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1673   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1674   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1675   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1676   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1677   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1678 
  1679 
  1680 *** Document preparation ***
  1681 
  1682 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1683 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1684 same.
  1685 
  1686 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1687 result.
  1688 
  1689 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1690 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1691 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1692 
  1693 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1694 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1695 
  1696 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1697 like this:
  1698 
  1699   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1700   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1701 
  1702 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1703 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1704 layouts.
  1705 
  1706 
  1707 *** ML ***
  1708 
  1709 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1710 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1711 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1712 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1713 under external program control.
  1714 
  1715 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1716 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1717 
  1718 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1719 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1720 (better known as Proof General).
  1721 
  1722 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1723 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1724 
  1725 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1726 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1727 
  1728 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1729 (including quotes etc.).
  1730 
  1731 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1732 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1733 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1734 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1735 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1736 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1737 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1738 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1739 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1740 
  1741 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1742 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1743 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1744 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1745 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1746 
  1747 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1748 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1749 
  1750 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1751 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1752 
  1753 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1754 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1755 
  1756 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1757 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1758 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1759 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1760 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1761 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1762 proper Proof.context.
  1763 
  1764 
  1765 *** System ***
  1766 
  1767 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1768 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1769 
  1770 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1771 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1772 
  1773 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1774 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1775 
  1776   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1777   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1778   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1779   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1780   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1781 
  1782 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1783 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1786 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1787 example:
  1788 
  1789   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1790 
  1791 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1792 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1793 
  1794 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1795 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1796 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1797 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1798 
  1799 
  1800 
  1801 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1802 ----------------------------------
  1803 
  1804 *** General ***
  1805 
  1806 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1807 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1808 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1809 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1810 like this:
  1811 
  1812   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1813 
  1814 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1815 
  1816 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1817 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1818 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1819 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1820 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1821 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1822 
  1823 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1824 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1825 the following package declarations:
  1826 
  1827   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1828   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1829 
  1830 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1831 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1832 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1833 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1834 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1835 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1836 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1837 
  1838 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1839 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1840 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1841 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1842 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1843 
  1844 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1845 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1846 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1847 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1848 
  1849 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1850 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1851 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1852 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1853 
  1854   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1855 
  1856   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1857   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1858   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1859   show_types                    show_types
  1860   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1861   show_consts                   show_consts
  1862   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1863 
  1864   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1865   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1866   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1867 
  1868   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1869   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1870 
  1871   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1872 
  1873   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1874   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1875   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1876   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1877   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1878 
  1879 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1880 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1881 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1882 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1883 
  1884 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1888   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1889 
  1890 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1891 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1892 float_token.
  1893 
  1894 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1895 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1897 
  1898 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1899 DejaVu Sans.
  1900 
  1901 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1902 
  1903 
  1904 *** Pure ***
  1905 
  1906 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1907 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1908 time.
  1909 
  1910 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1911 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1914 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1917 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1918 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1919 command already provided this functionality.
  1920 
  1921 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1922 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1923 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1924 without interpretations.
  1925 
  1926 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1927 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1928 
  1929 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1930 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1931 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1932 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1933 
  1934 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1935 'definition' instead.
  1936 
  1937 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1938 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1939 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1940 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1941 
  1942 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1943 constructors.
  1944 
  1945 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1946 the local file system.
  1947 
  1948 
  1949 *** HOL ***
  1950 
  1951 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1952 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1953 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1954 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1955 
  1956   declare [[coercion f]]
  1957 
  1958 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1959 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1960 
  1961   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1962 
  1963 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1964 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1965 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1966 other theories like this:
  1967 
  1968   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1969 
  1970 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1971 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1972 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1973 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1974 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1975 for examples.
  1976 
  1977 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1978 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1981 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1982 
  1983 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1984 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1985 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1986 
  1987 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1988 functorial structure of types.
  1989 
  1990 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1991 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1992 
  1993 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1994 languages.
  1995 
  1996 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1997 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1999 
  2000 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2001 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2002 
  2003 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2004 combinators any longer.
  2005 
  2006 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2007 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2008 
  2009 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2010 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2011 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2012 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2013 
  2014   record 'a foo = ...
  2015   ...
  2016   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2017 
  2018 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2019 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2023 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2024 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2025 
  2026 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2027 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2028 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2029 
  2030 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2031 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2034 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2035 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2036 independently.
  2037 
  2038 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2039 counter example search.
  2040 
  2041 * Sledgehammer:
  2042   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2043     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2044     sledgehammer").
  2045   - Renamed commands:
  2046     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2047     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2048     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2049     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050   - Renamed options:
  2051     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2052     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2053     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2054     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2055     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056 
  2057 * Nitpick:
  2058   - Renamed options:
  2059     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2060     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2061     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2062   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2063   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2064   - Added "whack" option.
  2065   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2066   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2067   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2068   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2069     higher cardinalities.
  2070   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2071 
  2072 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2073 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2074 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2075 
  2076     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2077 
  2078 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2079 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2080 
  2081 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2082 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2083 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2084 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2085 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2086 "smt_solver".
  2087 
  2088 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2089 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2090 
  2091 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2092 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2093 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2094 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2097   - Renamed:
  2098     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2099     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2100     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2101   - Added:
  2102     smt_verbose
  2103     smt_random_seed
  2104     smt_datatypes
  2105     smt_infer_triggers
  2106     smt_monomorph_limit
  2107     cvc3_options
  2108     remote_cvc3_options
  2109     remote_z3_options
  2110     yices_options
  2111 
  2112 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2113 header.
  2114 
  2115 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2116 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2117 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2118 
  2119   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2120 
  2121 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2124 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2129 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2132 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2133 
  2134 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2135 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2136 
  2137 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2138 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2139 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145 
  2146 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2147 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2150 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2151 for congruent(2)).
  2152 
  2153 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2154 
  2155   types
  2156     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2157     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2158 
  2159   constants
  2160     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2161     True ~> HOL.True
  2162     False ~> HOL.False
  2163     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2164     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2165     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2166     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2167     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2168     The ~> HOL.The
  2169     All ~> HOL.All
  2170     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2171     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2172     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2173     If ~> HOL.If
  2174     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2175     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2176     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2177     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2178     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2179     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2180     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2181     op : ~> Set.member
  2182     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2183 
  2184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2187 
  2188     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2189     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2190     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2191     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2192     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2193     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2194     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2195     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2196 
  2197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2198 
  2199 * More stylized fact names:
  2200 
  2201   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2202   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2203   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2204   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2205 
  2206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2209 
  2210   constants
  2211     null ~> List.null
  2212 
  2213   facts
  2214     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2215     null_empty ~> null_def
  2216 
  2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2218 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2219 generation.
  2220 
  2221 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2222 Haskell code.
  2223 
  2224 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2225 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2226 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2227 
  2228 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2229 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2232 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2233 
  2234 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2235 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2236 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2239 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2245 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2246 referred to by its qualified name.
  2247 
  2248   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2249   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2250   product ~>  Enum.product
  2251 
  2252 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2253 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2257 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2258 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2260 
  2261 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2262 sort_key.
  2263 
  2264 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2266 
  2267 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2268 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2269 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2270 
  2271   types
  2272     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2273               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2274               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2275         (depends on your needs)
  2276 
  2277   constants
  2278      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2279      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2280      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2281 
  2282 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2283 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2284 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2285 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2288 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2289 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2290 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2291 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295 
  2296 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2297 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2298 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2299 
  2300 
  2301 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2302 
  2303 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2304 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2305 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2306 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2307 compatibility.
  2308 
  2309 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2310 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2311 
  2312 
  2313 *** HOLCF ***
  2314 
  2315 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2316 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2317 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319 
  2320 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2321 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2322 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323 
  2324   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2325   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2326   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2327 
  2328 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2329 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2330 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2331 
  2332 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2333 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2334 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2335 domain definition now works:
  2336 
  2337   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2338 
  2339 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2340 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2341 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2342 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2343 
  2344   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2345     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2346 
  2347   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2348 
  2349 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2350 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2351 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2354 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355 
  2356 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2357 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2358 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2359 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2360 
  2361 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2362 
  2363 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2371 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2372 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2373 
  2374 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2375 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2376 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2379 still supported as an input translation.
  2380 
  2381 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2382 
  2383   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2384   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2385   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2386   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2387   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2388   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2389   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2390 
  2391 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2392 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2395   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2396   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2397   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2398   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2399   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2400 
  2401 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2402 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2405 
  2406   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2407   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2408   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2409   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2410 
  2411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412 
  2413 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2414 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2417 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2420   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2421   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2422   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2423   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2424   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2425   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2426   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2427   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2428   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2429   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2430   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2431   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2432   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2433   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2434   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2435   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2436   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2437   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2438   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2439 
  2440 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2443   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2444   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2445   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2446   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2447   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2448   box_less             ~> box_below
  2449   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2450   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2451   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2452   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2453   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2454   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2455   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2456   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2457   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2458   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2459   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2460   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2461   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2462   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2463   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2464   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2465   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2466   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2467   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2468   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2469   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2470   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2471   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2472   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2473   up_less              ~> up_below
  2474   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2475   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2476   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2477   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2478   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2479   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2480   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2481   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2482   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2483   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2484   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2485   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2486   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2487 
  2488 
  2489 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2490 
  2491 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2492 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 
  2495 *** ML ***
  2496 
  2497 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2498 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2499 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2500 
  2501 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2502 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2503 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2504 
  2505 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2506 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2507 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2508 
  2509 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2510 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2511 
  2512 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2513 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2514 
  2515 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2516 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2517 
  2518 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2519 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2520 
  2521 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2522 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2523 almost all situations.
  2524 
  2525 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2526 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2527 Isabelle/ML.
  2528 
  2529 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2530 meaning.
  2531 
  2532 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2533 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2534 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2535 
  2536 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2537 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2538 
  2539 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2540 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2541 
  2542 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2543 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2544 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2545 
  2546 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2547 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2548 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2549 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2550 configuration options.
  2551 
  2552 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2553 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2554 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2555 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2556 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2557 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2558 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2559 
  2560 
  2561 
  2562 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2563 ---------------------------------
  2564 
  2565 *** General ***
  2566 
  2567 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2568 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2569 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2570 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2571 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2572 their full internal name.
  2573 
  2574 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2575 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2576 Some hints on upgrading:
  2577 
  2578   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2579     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2580     which are independent of this issue.
  2581 
  2582   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2583     provides the following special forms:
  2584 
  2585       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2586       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2587       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2588 
  2589     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2590     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2591     extra variables".
  2592 
  2593     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2594     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2595     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2596     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2597     "logic".
  2598 
  2599   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2600     antiquotations:
  2601 
  2602       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2603       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2604       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2605       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2606 
  2607   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2608     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2609     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2610     antiquotations.
  2611 
  2612 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2613 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2614 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2615 diagnose syntax problems.
  2616 
  2617 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2618 
  2619 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2620 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2621 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2622 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2623 
  2624 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2625 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2626 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2627 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628 
  2629 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2630 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2631 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2632 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2633 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2636 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2637 
  2638 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2639 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2640 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2641 
  2642   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2643 
  2644 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2645 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2646 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2647 
  2648 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2649 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2651 
  2652 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2653 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2654 
  2655 
  2656 *** Pure ***
  2657 
  2658 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2659 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2660 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2661 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2662 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2663 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2664 inspect proof terms.
  2665 
  2666 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2667 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2668 are added internally.  For example:
  2669 
  2670   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2671 
  2672 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2673 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2678 'class' instead.
  2679 
  2680 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2681 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2685 invariants.
  2686 
  2687 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2688 user space functionality any longer.
  2689 
  2690 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2691 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2695 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2696 
  2697 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2698 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2699 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2700 
  2701 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2702 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2703 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2704 
  2705 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2706 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 
  2709 *** HOL ***
  2710 
  2711 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2712 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2713 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2714 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2715 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2716 
  2717 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2718 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2719 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2720 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2721 
  2722   fun
  2723     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2724   where
  2725     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2726 
  2727   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2728     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2729 
  2730   quotient_definition
  2731     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2732 
  2733 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2734 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2735 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2736 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2737 
  2738 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2739 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2740 
  2741 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2742 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2743 
  2744 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2748 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2749 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2750 
  2751 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2752 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2761 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2764 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2765 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2768   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2769   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2770   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2771   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2772   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2773   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2774   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2775   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2776   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2777   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2778   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2779   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2780   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2781   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2782   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2783   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2784   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2785   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2786   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2787   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2788   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2789   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2790   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2791   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2792   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2793   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2794   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2795   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2796   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2797 
  2798 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2799 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2800 
  2801 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2802 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2803 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2804 
  2805 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2806 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2807 
  2808 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2809 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2812 
  2813 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2814 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2815 
  2816 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2817 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2820 
  2821 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2822 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2823 
  2824 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2825 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2826 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2827 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2830   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2831   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2832   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2836 lattices):
  2837 
  2838     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2839     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2840 
  2841     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2842 
  2843     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2844     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2845     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2846     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2847     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2848     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2849     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2850     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2851     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2852     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2853     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2854     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2855     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2856 
  2857     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2858     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2859     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2860     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2861     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2862     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2863     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2864     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2865     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2866     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2867     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2868     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2869     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2870     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2871     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2872     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2873     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2874     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2875 
  2876   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2877   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2878 
  2879     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2880     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2881     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2882     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2883     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2884 
  2885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886 
  2887 * Refined field classes:
  2888   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2889     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2890     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2891   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893 
  2894 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2895   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2896   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2897   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2898     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2899   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2900     equal_neg_zero.
  2901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2902 
  2903 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2904 sets to lattices:
  2905 
  2906   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2907   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2908   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2909   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2910   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2911   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2912   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2913   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2914   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2915   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2916 
  2917 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2918 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2919 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2920 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2921 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2922 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2925 multiset order:
  2926 
  2927   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2928     <= and <;
  2929   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2930     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2931     multiset_order;
  2932   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2933     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2934     generation;
  2935   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2936     if needed.
  2937 
  2938 Renamed:
  2939 
  2940   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2941   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2942   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2943 
  2944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2945 
  2946 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2947 
  2948 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2949 
  2950 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2951 
  2952 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2953 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2954 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956   Constants:
  2957   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2958   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2959   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2960   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2961   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2962   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2963   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2964   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2965   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2966   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2967   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2968   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2969   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2970 
  2971   Lemmas:
  2972   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2973   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2974   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2975   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2976   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2977   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2978   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2979   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2980   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2981   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2982   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2983   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2984   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2985 
  2986 * Sledgehammer:
  2987   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2988     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2989     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2990     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2991     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2992     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2993     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2995   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2996     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2997   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2998     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2999     is still experimental.)
  3000   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3001     full-typed mode.
  3002   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3003 
  3004 * Nitpick:
  3005   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3006   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3007   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3008     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3009   - Added support for quotient types.
  3010   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3011     constructs.
  3012   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3013     "termination" proofs).
  3014   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3015   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3016   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3017   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3018     record getters.
  3019   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3020   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3021   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3022   - Added "atoms" option.
  3023   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3024     problems.
  3025   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3026     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3027     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3029     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3030   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3033   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3034   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3035   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3036   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3037   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3038   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3039   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3040   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3041   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 
  3044 *** HOLCF ***
  3045 
  3046 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3047 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3048 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3051 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3052 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3053 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3054 
  3055 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3056 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3057 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3058 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3059 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3062 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3063 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3066 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3067 
  3068   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3069   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3070 
  3071 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3072 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3075   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3076   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3077   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3078   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3079 
  3080 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3081 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3084   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3085   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3086 
  3087 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3088 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3092 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3097 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 
  3100 *** ML ***
  3101 
  3102 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3103 
  3104     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3105     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3106 
  3107     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3108     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3109     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3110     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3111 
  3112     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3113     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3114     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3115 
  3116 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3117 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3118 
  3119 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3120 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3121 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3122 
  3123 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3124 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3125 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3126 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3127 
  3128 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3129 the context or even global references.
  3130 
  3131 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3132 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3133 
  3134 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3135 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3136 
  3137   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3138   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3139   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3140   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3141   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3142   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3143   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3144   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3145   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3146   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3147 
  3148 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3149 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3150 
  3151 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3152 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3153 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3154 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3155 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3156 
  3157 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3158 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3159 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3160 Theory_Data version.
  3161 
  3162 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3163 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3164 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3165 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3166 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3167 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3168 explicitly in rare situations.
  3169 
  3170 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3171 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3175 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3178 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3179 quite rare).
  3180 
  3181 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3182 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3185 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3186 terms.
  3187 
  3188 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3189 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3190 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3191 
  3192 
  3193 *** System ***
  3194 
  3195 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3196 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3197 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3198 
  3199 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3200 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3201 respectively.
  3202 
  3203 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3204 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3205 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3206 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3207 
  3208   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3209 
  3210 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3211 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3212 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3213 component.
  3214 
  3215 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3216 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3217 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3218 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3219 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3220 the user for manual installation.
  3221 
  3222 
  3223 
  3224 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3225 -------------------------------------
  3226 
  3227 *** General ***
  3228 
  3229 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3230 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3231 
  3232 
  3233 *** Pure ***
  3234 
  3235 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3236 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3237 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3238 
  3239 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3240 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3241 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3242 
  3243 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3244 interpretation.
  3245 
  3246 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3247 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 
  3250 *** Document preparation ***
  3251 
  3252 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3253 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3254 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3255 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3256 
  3257 
  3258 *** HOL ***
  3259 
  3260 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3261 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3262 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3263 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3264 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3265 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3266 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3267 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3268 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3269 
  3270 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3271 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3272 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3273 
  3274 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3275 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3276 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3277 
  3278 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3279 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3280 
  3281 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3282 
  3283 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3284 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3285 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3286 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3287 
  3288 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3289 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3290 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3291 "mirabelle" utility.
  3292 
  3293 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3294 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3295 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3296 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3297 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3298 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3299 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3300 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3301 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3302 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3303 
  3304 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3305 procedure only.
  3306 
  3307 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3308 
  3309 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3310 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3311 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3312 that fail later.
  3313 
  3314 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3315 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3316 
  3317 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3318 the same method as the approximation method.
  3319 
  3320 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3321 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3322 series expansion.
  3323 
  3324 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3325 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3326 
  3327 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3328 reals.
  3329 
  3330 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3331 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3332 
  3333 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3334 fixpoint theorem.
  3335 
  3336 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3337   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3338     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3339   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3340     accordingly
  3341   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3342     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3343   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3344     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3345 
  3346 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3347 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3348 lattice.
  3349 
  3350 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3351 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3352 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3353 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3354 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3355 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3359   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3360     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3361   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3362     le_inf_iff
  3363   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3364     sup_aci)
  3365   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3366   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3367   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3368     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3369     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3370     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3371     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3372     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3373     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3374     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3375     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3376     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3377     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3378   - authentic syntax for
  3379     Set.Pow
  3380     Set.image
  3381   - mere abbreviations:
  3382     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3383     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3384     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3385     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3386     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3387     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3388     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3389     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3390   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3391 
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3393 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3394 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3395 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3396 
  3397 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3398 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3399 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3402 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3405 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3406 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3407 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3410 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3411 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3412 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3413 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3414 
  3415 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3416 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3420 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3423 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3424 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3425 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3426 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3427 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3428 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3432     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3433     code_post       replaces    code post
  3434     etc.
  3435   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Renamed methods:
  3438     sizechange -> size_change
  3439     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3440   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3443 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3444 
  3445 * Renamed theorems:
  3446     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3447     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3448     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3449     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3450     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3451   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3452 
  3453 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459 
  3460 *** HOLCF ***
  3461 
  3462 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3463 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3464 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3465 
  3466 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3467 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3468 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3469 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3470 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3471 
  3472 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3473 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3474 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3475 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3476 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3477 
  3478 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3479 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3480 constructor are pre-configured.
  3481 
  3482 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3483 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3484 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3485 
  3486 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3487 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3488 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3489 as well.)
  3490 
  3491 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3492 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3493 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3494 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3495 examples.
  3496 
  3497 
  3498 *** ML ***
  3499 
  3500 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3501 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3502 
  3503 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3504 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3505 position, logical grouping etc.
  3506 
  3507 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3508 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3509 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3510 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3511 
  3512 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3513 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3514 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3515 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3516 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3517 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3518 
  3519 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3520 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3521 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3522 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3523 experiments with references.
  3524 
  3525 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3526 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3527 
  3528 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3529 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3530 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3531 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3532 
  3533 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3534 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3535 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3536 
  3537 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3538 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3539 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3547 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3548 
  3549 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3550 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3551 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3552 
  3553 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3554 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3555 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3558 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3559 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3563 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3564 instead of global theory.
  3565 
  3566 
  3567 *** System ***
  3568 
  3569 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3570 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3571 usedir option -q.
  3572 
  3573 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3574 also the system manual.
  3575 
  3576 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3577 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3578 
  3579 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3580 this is always enabled.
  3581 
  3582 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3583 
  3584 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3585 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3586 currently supported on Linux only.
  3587 
  3588 
  3589 
  3590 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3591 --------------------------------
  3592 
  3593 *** General ***
  3594 
  3595 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3596 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3597 
  3598   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3599     "isatool."
  3600 
  3601   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3602     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3603 
  3604   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3605     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3606 
  3607 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3608 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3609 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3610 
  3611 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3612 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3613 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3614 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3615 via "isabelle emacs".
  3616 
  3617 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3618 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3619 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3620 
  3621 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3622 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3623 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3624 
  3625 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3626 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3627 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3628 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3629 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3630 
  3631 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3632 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3633 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3634 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3635 
  3636 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3637 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3638 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3639 
  3640 
  3641 *** Pure ***
  3642 
  3643 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3644 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3645 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3646 
  3647 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3648 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3649 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3650 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3651 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3652 
  3653 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3654 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3655 useful in locale declarations.
  3656 
  3657 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3658 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3659 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3660 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3661 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3662 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3663 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3664 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3665 no longer generated.
  3666 
  3667 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3668 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3669 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3670 
  3671 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3672 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3673 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3674 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3675 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3676 
  3677 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3678 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3679 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3680 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3681 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3682 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3683 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3684 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3685 
  3686 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3687 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3688 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3689 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3690 
  3691 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3694 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3695 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3696 
  3697 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3698 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3699 
  3700 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3701 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3702 in HOL, write
  3703 
  3704     class foo = ...
  3705 
  3706 instead of
  3707 
  3708     class foo = type + ...
  3709 
  3710 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3711 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3714 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3715 
  3716 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3717 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3718 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3719 
  3720 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3721 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3722 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3723 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3724 directly in regular applications.
  3725 
  3726 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3727 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3728 
  3729 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3730 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3731 
  3732 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3733 theory context.
  3734 
  3735 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3736 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3737 
  3738 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3739 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3740 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3741 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3742 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3743 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3744 
  3745   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3746 
  3747 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3748 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3749 normalization.
  3750 
  3751 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3752 addressing etc.
  3753 
  3754 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3755 
  3756   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3757   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3758 
  3759 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3760 
  3761   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3762      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3763      parts of the code generator framework).
  3764 
  3765   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3766      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3767      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3768 
  3769 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3772 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3775 patterns, e.g.
  3776 
  3777     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3778 
  3779 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3780 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3781 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3782 hyphen:
  3783 
  3784     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3785 
  3786 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3787 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3788 
  3789 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3790 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3791 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3792 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3793 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3794 higher-order unification.
  3795 
  3796 
  3797 *** Document preparation ***
  3798 
  3799 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3800 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3801 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3802 
  3803 
  3804 *** HOL ***
  3805 
  3806 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3807 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3808 
  3809 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3810 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3811 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3812 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3813 Main, as before.
  3814 
  3815 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3816 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3817 
  3818 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3819 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3820 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3821 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3822 
  3823 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3824 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3825 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3826 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3827 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3828 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3829 
  3830 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3831 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3832 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3833 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3834 
  3835 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3836 menu.
  3837 
  3838 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3839 (contains the empty clause).
  3840 
  3841 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3842 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3843 
  3844 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3845 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3846 
  3847 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3848 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3849 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3850 
  3851 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3852 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3853 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3854 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3855 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3856 
  3857 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3858 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3859 
  3860 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3861 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3862 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3863 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3864 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3865 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3866 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3867 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3868 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3869 
  3870 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3871 
  3872 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3873 
  3874 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3875 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3878 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3879 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3880 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3881 
  3882 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3883 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3884 
  3885     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3886     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3887     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3888     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3889     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3890     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3891     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3892     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3893 
  3894 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3895 theory Set.
  3896 
  3897 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3898 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3899 
  3900 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3901 
  3902 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3903 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3904 
  3905 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3906 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3907 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3908 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3909 allowed. For examples see
  3910 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3911 
  3912 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3913 
  3914 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3918 structure:
  3919 
  3920     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3921     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3922     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3923     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3924     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3925     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3926     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3927     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3928     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3929     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3930     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3931     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3932     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3933     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3934     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3935     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3936     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3937     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3938     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3939     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3940     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3941     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3942     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3943     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3944     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3945     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3946     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3947     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3948     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3949     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3950     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3951     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3952     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3953 
  3954     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3955     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3956     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3957     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3958     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3959     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3960     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3961     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3962     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3963     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3964 
  3965     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3966     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3967     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3968     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3969     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3970     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3971 
  3972 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3973 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3974 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3975 
  3976 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3977 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3978 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3979 
  3980 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3981 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982 
  3983 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3984 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3985 
  3986 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3987 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3988 proofs, e.g.
  3989 
  3990   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3991 
  3992 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3993 
  3994 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3995 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3996 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3999 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4003 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4004 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4008 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4009 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4010 preorder_class.*.
  4011 
  4012 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4013 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4014 
  4015 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4016 
  4017   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4018 
  4019 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4020 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4021 fold_image.
  4022 
  4023 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4024 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4025 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4026 the former will disappear at some point.
  4027 
  4028 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4029 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4030 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4031 
  4032 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4033 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4034 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4035 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4036 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4037 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4038 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4039 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4040 
  4041 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4042 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4043 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4044 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4045 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4046 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4047 
  4048     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4049     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4050     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4051     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4052     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4053     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4054     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4055 
  4056 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4057 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4058 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4059 
  4060 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4061 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4062 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4063 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4064 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4065 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4066 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4067 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4068 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4069 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4070 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4071 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4072 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4073 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4074 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4075 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4076 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4077 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4078 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4079 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4080 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4081 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4082 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4083 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4084 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4085 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4086 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4087 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4088 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4089 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4090 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4091 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4092 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4093 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4094 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4095 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4096 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4097 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4098 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4099 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4100 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4101 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4102 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4103 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4104 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4105 
  4106 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4109 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4110 
  4111 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4112 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4113 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4114 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4115 
  4116 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4117 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4118 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4119 theory RealVector.
  4120 
  4121 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4122 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4123 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4124 and inner products are included.
  4125 
  4126 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4127 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4128 supported.
  4129 
  4130 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4131 first diagonalization argument.
  4132 
  4133 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4134 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4135 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4136 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4137 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4138 
  4139     hide (open) const gcd
  4140     abbreviation gcd where
  4141       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4142     notation (output)
  4143       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4144 
  4145 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4146 
  4147 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4148 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4149 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150 
  4151 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4152 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4153 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4154 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4155 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4156 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4157 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4158 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4159 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4160 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4161 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4162 cases.
  4163 
  4164 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4165 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4166 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4167 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4168 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4169 
  4170     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4171     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4172     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4173     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4174     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4175 
  4176 
  4177 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4178 
  4179 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4180 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4181 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4182 
  4183 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4184 
  4185 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4186 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4187 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4188 
  4189 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4190 
  4191 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4192 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4193 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4194 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4195 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4196 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4197 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4198 
  4199 
  4200 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4201 
  4202 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4203 
  4204 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4205 theory targets.
  4206 
  4207 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4208 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4209 'inductive' etc.
  4210 
  4211 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4212 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4213 
  4214 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4215 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4216 
  4217 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4218 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4219 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4220 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4221 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4222 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4223 the algorithm W:
  4224 
  4225  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4226  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4227          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4228 
  4229 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4230 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4231 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4232 
  4233 
  4234 *** HOLCF ***
  4235 
  4236 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4237 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4238 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4239 
  4240 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4241 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4242 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4243 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4244 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4247 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4248 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 
  4251 *** ZF ***
  4252 
  4253 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4254 
  4255 
  4256 *** ML ***
  4257 
  4258 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4259 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4260 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4261 5.2.1!
  4262 
  4263 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4264 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4265 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4266 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4267 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4268 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4269 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4270 
  4271 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4272 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4273 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4274 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4275 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4276 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4277 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4278 
  4279 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4280 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4281 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4282 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4283 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4284 
  4285 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4286 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4287 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4288 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4289 Method.add_method.
  4290 
  4291 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4292 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4293 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4294 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4295 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4296 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4297 
  4298 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4299 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4300 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4301 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4302 examples.
  4303 
  4304 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4305 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4306 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4307 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4308 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4309 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4310 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4311 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4312 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4313 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4314 
  4315 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4316 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4317 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4318 
  4319 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4320 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4321 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4322 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4323 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4324 resort for legacy applications.
  4325 
  4326 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4327 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4328 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4329 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4330 explicit runtime argument.
  4331 
  4332 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4333 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4334 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4335 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4336 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4337 
  4338 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4339 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4340 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4341 theory state.
  4342 
  4343 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4344 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4345 
  4346   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4347   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4348   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4349   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4350   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4351   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4352   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4353   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4354   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4355   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4356 
  4357 
  4358 *** System ***
  4359 
  4360 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4361 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4362 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4363 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4364 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4365 
  4366 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4367 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4368 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4369 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4370 
  4371 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4372 
  4373 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4374 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4375 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4376 prover operations.
  4377 
  4378 
  4379 
  4380 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4381 -------------------------------
  4382 
  4383 *** General ***
  4384 
  4385 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4386 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4387 
  4388 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4389 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4390 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4391 provides a proper context already.
  4392 
  4393 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4394 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4395 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4396 
  4397 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4398 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4399 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4400 swap theory imports.
  4401 
  4402 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4403 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4404 
  4405 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4406 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4407 white space without escapes.
  4408 
  4409 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4410 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4411 "foo_bar".
  4412 
  4413 
  4414 *** Pure ***
  4415 
  4416 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4417 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4418 
  4419 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4420 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4421 
  4422 (1) unused_thms
  4423      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4424 
  4425 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4426      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4427      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4428 
  4429 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4430      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4431      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4432      their ancestors.
  4433 
  4434 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4435 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4436 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4437 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4438 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4439 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4440 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4441 
  4442 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4443 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4444 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4445 
  4446 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4447 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4448 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4449 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4450 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4451 
  4452 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4453 
  4454 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4455 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4456 update of theories within ML code.
  4457 
  4458 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4459 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4460 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4461 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4462 
  4463 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4464 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4465 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4469 
  4470 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4471 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4472 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4473 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4474 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4475 
  4476 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4477 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4478 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4479 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4480 situations.
  4481 
  4482 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4483 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4484 proof text.
  4485 
  4486 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4487 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4488 
  4489 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4490 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4491 predicates.
  4492 
  4493 
  4494 *** Document preparation ***
  4495 
  4496 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4497 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4498 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4499 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4500 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4501 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4502 
  4503 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4504 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4505 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4506 
  4507 
  4508 *** HOL ***
  4509 
  4510 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4511 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4512 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4513 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4514 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4515 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4516 
  4517 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4518 with multithreading.
  4519 
  4520 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4521 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4522 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4523 
  4524 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4525 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4526 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4527 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4528 
  4529 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4530 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4531 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4532 and makes them available separately.  See
  4533 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4534 
  4535 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4536 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4537 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4538 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4539 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4540 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4541 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4542 the declared rules.
  4543 
  4544 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4545 
  4546   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4547 
  4548 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4549 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4550 
  4551 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4552 
  4553   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4554 
  4555   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4556     definitions on => and bool.
  4557 
  4558   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4559     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4560     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4561 
  4562       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4563       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4564       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4565       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4566       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4567       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4568       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4569       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4570 
  4571   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4572     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4573     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4574 
  4575   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4576     The proof pattern
  4577 
  4578       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4579       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4580 
  4581     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4582     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4583 
  4584       have "EX S. P S"
  4585       proof
  4586         show "P S" <...>
  4587       qed
  4588 
  4589   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4590     The proof pattern
  4591 
  4592       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4593       also have "S = T" <...>
  4594       finally have "P T" .
  4595 
  4596     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4597     must be replaced by something like
  4598 
  4599       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4600       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4601       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4602 
  4603   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4604     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4605 
  4606       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4607 
  4608     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4609     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4610     type of the form
  4611 
  4612       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4613 
  4614     rather than
  4615 
  4616       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4617 
  4618 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4619 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4620 
  4621 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4622 
  4623 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4624 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4628 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4629 
  4630 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4631 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4634 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4635 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4638 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4639 
  4640   less_trans
  4641   less_linear
  4642   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4643   le_less_trans
  4644   less_le_trans
  4645   less_not_sym
  4646   less_asym
  4647 
  4648 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4649 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4650 and different variable names.
  4651 
  4652 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4653 
  4654 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4655 finite maps.
  4656 
  4657 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4658 
  4659 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4660 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4661 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4662 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4663 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4664 accordingly.
  4665 
  4666 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4667 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4668 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4669 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4670 
  4671 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4672 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4673 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4674 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4675 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4677 
  4678 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4679 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4682 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4683 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4684 
  4685 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4689 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4690 
  4691 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4692 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4695 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4698 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4702 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4705 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4706 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4707 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4708 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4709 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4712 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4713 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4714 
  4715 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4716 
  4717 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4718 
  4719 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4720 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4721 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4722 
  4723 
  4724 *** ZF ***
  4725 
  4726 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4727 same session:
  4728 
  4729   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4730   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4731   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4732   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4733   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4734   List      -> List_ZF
  4735   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4736 
  4737 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4738 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4739 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4740 
  4741 
  4742 *** ML ***
  4743 
  4744 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4745 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4746 
  4747 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4748 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4749 
  4750 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4751 
  4752 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4753 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4754 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4755 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4756 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4759 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4760 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4761 
  4762 
  4763 *** System ***
  4764 
  4765 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4766 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4767 
  4768 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4769 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4770 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4771 
  4772 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4773 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4774 
  4775 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4776 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4777 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4778 
  4779 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4780 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4781 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4782 
  4783 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4784 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4785 
  4786 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4787 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4788 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4789 script.
  4790 
  4791 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4792 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4793 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4794 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4795 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4796 
  4797 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4798 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4799 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4800 
  4801 
  4802 
  4803 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4804 -----------------------------------
  4805 
  4806 *** General ***
  4807 
  4808 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4809 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4810 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4811 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4812 
  4813 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4814 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4815 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4818 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4819 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4820 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 
  4822 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4823 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4824 quotes.
  4825 
  4826 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4827 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4828 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4829 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4830 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4831 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4832 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4833 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4834 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4835 
  4836 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4837 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4838 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4839 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4840 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4841 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4842 
  4843 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4844 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4845 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4846 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4847 
  4848 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4849 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4850 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4851 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4852 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4853 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4854 
  4855 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4856 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4857 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4858 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4859 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4860 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4861 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4862 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4863 
  4864 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4865 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4866 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4867 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4868 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4869 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4870 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4871 
  4872 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4873 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4874 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4875 
  4876 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4877 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4878 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4879 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4880 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4881 limit is imposed.
  4882 
  4883 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4884 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4885 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4886 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4887 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4888 and scalability.
  4889 
  4890 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4891 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4892 
  4893 
  4894 *** Document preparation ***
  4895 
  4896 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4897 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4898 current context.
  4899 
  4900 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4901 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4902 
  4903 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4904 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4905 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4906 
  4907 
  4908 *** Pure ***
  4909 
  4910 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4911 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4912 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4913 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4914 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4915 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4916 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4917 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4918 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4919 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4920 
  4921 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4922 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4923 sketch:
  4924 
  4925     internal compilation:
  4926         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4927     writing SML code to a file:
  4928         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4929     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4930         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4931     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4932         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4933 
  4934     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4935         method ``eval''
  4936 
  4937 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4938 
  4939 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4940 
  4941     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4942     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4943     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4944     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4945 
  4946 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4947 
  4948     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4949       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4950 
  4951     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4952       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4953 
  4954     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4955       {(target)}+
  4956         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4957 
  4958     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4959       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4960         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4961 
  4962 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4963 
  4964 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4965 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4966 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4967 codegen".
  4968 
  4969 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4970 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4971 annotations).
  4972 
  4973 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4974 syntax.
  4975 
  4976 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4977 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4978 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4979 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4980 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4981 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4982 
  4983 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4984 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4985 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4986 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4987 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4988 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4989 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4990 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4991 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4992 equations, see section "definitions".
  4993 
  4994 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4995 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4996 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4997 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4998 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4999 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5000 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5001 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5002 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5003 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5004 
  5005 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5006 configuration options:
  5007 
  5008   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5009   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5010   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5011   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5012   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5013   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5014   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5015   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5016   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5017 
  5018 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5019 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5020 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5021 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5022 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5023 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5024 order.
  5025 
  5026 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5027 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5028 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5029 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5030 context encountered later on.
  5031 
  5032 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5033 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5034 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5035 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5036 
  5037 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5038 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5039 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5040 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5041 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5042 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5043 
  5044 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5045 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5046 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5047 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5048 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5049 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5050 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5051 more permissive.
  5052 
  5053 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5054 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5055 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5056 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5057 maintainability of proof texts.
  5058 
  5059 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5060 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5061 
  5062   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5063   then guess x and y by clarify
  5064 
  5065 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5066 proof tools being involved here.
  5067 
  5068 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5069 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5070 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5071 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5072 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5073 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5074 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5075 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5076 
  5077 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5078 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5079 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5080 
  5081   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5082   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5083   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5084   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5085 
  5086 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5087 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5088 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5089 
  5090 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5091 both named and unnamed ones.
  5092 
  5093 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5094 
  5095   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5096 
  5097 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5098 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5099 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5100 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5101 
  5102 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5103 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5104 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5105 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5106 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5107 
  5108 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5109 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5110 
  5111 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5112 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5113 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5114 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5115 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5116 originally first one.
  5117 
  5118 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5119 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5120 expected.
  5121 
  5122 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5123 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5124 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5125 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5126 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5127 
  5128   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5129     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5130     obtains x where "P x"
  5131 
  5132   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5133     assumes "A & B"
  5134     obtains A and B
  5135 
  5136   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5137     assumes "A | B"
  5138     obtains
  5139       A
  5140     | B
  5141 
  5142 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5143 explicitly:
  5144 
  5145   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5146     obtains "~ thesis"
  5147 
  5148   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5149     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5150 
  5151 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5152 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5153 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5154 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5155 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5156 case_names).
  5157 
  5158 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5159 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5160 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5161 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5162 
  5163 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5164 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5165 top-level lemma.
  5166 
  5167 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5168 introduction rule (default "that").
  5169 
  5170 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5171 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5172 to occur.
  5173 
  5174 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5175 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5176 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5177 representations independently of name spaces.
  5178 
  5179 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5180 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5181 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5182 
  5183 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5184 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5185 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5186 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5187 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5188 current context.
  5189 
  5190 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5191 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5192 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5193 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5194 
  5195   axiomatization
  5196     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5197     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5198 
  5199   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5200   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5201 
  5202   abbreviation
  5203     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5204     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5205 
  5206 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5207 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5208 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5209 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5210 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5211 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5212 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5213 
  5214 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5215 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5216 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5217 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5218 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5219 
  5220 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5221 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5222 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5223 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5224 
  5225 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5226 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5227 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5228 
  5229   definition "K x _ = x"
  5230 
  5231   inductive conj for A B
  5232   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5233 
  5234 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5235 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5236 abbreviations on output.
  5237 
  5238 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5239 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5240 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5241 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5242 
  5243 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5244 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5245 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5246 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5247 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5248 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5249 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5250 
  5251 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5252 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5253 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5254 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5255 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5256 
  5257 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5258 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5259 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5260 
  5261 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5262 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5263 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5264 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5265 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5266 
  5267   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5268     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5269 
  5270 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5271 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5272 partial_order.
  5273 
  5274 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5275 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5276 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5277 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5278 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5279 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5280 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5281 examples.
  5282 
  5283 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5284 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5285 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5286 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5287 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5288 
  5289 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5290 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5291 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5292 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5293 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5294 
  5295   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5296   (induct set: foo bar)
  5297   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5298   (induct type: foo bar)
  5299 
  5300 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5301 new format.
  5302 
  5303 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5304 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5305 
  5306 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5307 considered a legacy feature.
  5308 
  5309 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5310 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5313 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5314 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5315 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5316   
  5317 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5318 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5319 manipulating the claset.
  5320 
  5321 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5322 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5323 least one premise.
  5324 
  5325 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5326 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5327 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5328 rule steps.
  5329 
  5330 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5331 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5332 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5333 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5334 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5335 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5336 
  5337 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5338 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5339 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5340 
  5341 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5342 the graph browser tool.
  5343 
  5344 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5345 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5346 
  5347 
  5348 *** HOL ***
  5349 
  5350 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5351 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5352 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5353 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5354 multi-threading.
  5355   
  5356 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5357 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5358 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5359 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5360 work with multi-threading.
  5361 
  5362 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5363 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5364 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5365 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5366 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5367 
  5368 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5369 
  5370 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5371 equality.
  5372 
  5373 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5374 the new 'class' package:
  5375 
  5376     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5377     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5378     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5379     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5380     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5381     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5382     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5383     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5384     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5385     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5386     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5387     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5388     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5389     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5390     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5391     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5392     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5393     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5394     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5395     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5396 
  5397 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5398 
  5399 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5400 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5401 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5402 names.
  5403 
  5404 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5405 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5406 
  5407 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5408 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5409 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5410 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5411 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5412 
  5413 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5414 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5415 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5416 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5417 
  5418 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5419 
  5420 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5421 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5422 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5423 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5425 
  5426 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5427 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5428 
  5429 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5430 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5431 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5432 
  5433 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5434 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5435 
  5436 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5437 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5438 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5439 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5440 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5441 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5442 in the current context.
  5443 
  5444 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5445 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5447 
  5448 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5449 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5450 
  5451 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5452 
  5453     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5454     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5455 
  5456     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5457       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5458     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5459     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5460 
  5461     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5462     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5463 
  5464   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5465 
  5466     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5467     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5468     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5469     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5470     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5471     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5472     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5473     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5474     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5475     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5476     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5477     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5478     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5479     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5480     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5481     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5482     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5483     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5484     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5485     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5486     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5487     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5488     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5489     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5490     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5491     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5492     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5493     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5494     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5495     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5496     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5497     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5498     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5499     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5500     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5501 
  5502     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5503     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5504     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5505     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5506     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5507     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5508     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5509     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5510     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5511     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5512     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5513     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5514     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5515     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5516     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5517     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5518     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5519 
  5520     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5521     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5522     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5523     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5524     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5525     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5526     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5527     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5528     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5529     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5530     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5531     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5532     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5533     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5534     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5535     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5536     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5537     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5538     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5539     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5540     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5541     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5542     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5543     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5544     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5545     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5546     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5547     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5548 
  5549     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5550     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5551     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5552     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5553     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5554     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5555 
  5556     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5557     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5558     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5559     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5560 
  5561     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5562     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5563 
  5564     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5565     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5566 
  5567 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5568 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5569 
  5570 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5571 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5572 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5573 "*.size".
  5574 
  5575 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5579 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5580 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5585 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5586 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5587 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5588 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5589 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5590 numerals on all operations.
  5591 
  5592 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5593 
  5594 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5595 
  5596 * Code generator library theories:
  5597   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5598     languages.
  5599   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5600     languages.
  5601   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5602     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5603   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5604   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5605     denominator).
  5606   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5607     representable by rational numbers.
  5608   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5609     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5610     includes Code_Integer.
  5611   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5612     target-language built-in integers.
  5613   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5614     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5615 
  5616 * New package for inductive predicates
  5617 
  5618   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5619 
  5620     inductive
  5621       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5622       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5623     where
  5624       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5625     | ...
  5626 
  5627   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5628 
  5629     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5630 
  5631     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5632     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5633 
  5634     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5635     intros
  5636       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5637       ...
  5638 
  5639   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5640   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5641 
  5642     inductive_set
  5643       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5644       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5645     where
  5646       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5647     | ...
  5648 
  5649   or
  5650 
  5651     inductive_set
  5652       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5653       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5654       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5655     where
  5656       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5657     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5658     | ...
  5659 
  5660   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5661 
  5662   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5663   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5664 
  5665   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5666 
  5667   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5668     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5669     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5670     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5671     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5672 
  5673   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5674     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5675     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5676     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5677     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5678     statements of the form
  5679 
  5680       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5681 
  5682     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5683     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5684 
  5685       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5686 
  5687   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5688 
  5689       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5690         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5691         ==> ... ==> P
  5692 
  5693     for predicates and
  5694 
  5695       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5696         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5697         ==> ... ==> P
  5698 
  5699     for sets rather than
  5700 
  5701       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5702         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5703         ==> ... ==> P
  5704 
  5705     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5706     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5707     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5708 
  5709   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5710     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5711     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5712 
  5713 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5714 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5715 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5716 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5717 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5718 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5719 
  5720 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5721 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5722 
  5723 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5724 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5725 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5726 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5727 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5728 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5729 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5730 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5731 variable.
  5732 
  5733 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5734 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5735 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5736 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5737   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5738   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5739 
  5740 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5741 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5742 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5743 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5744 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5745 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5746 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5747 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5748 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5749 
  5750 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5751 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5752 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5753 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5754 rat, etc.
  5755 
  5756 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5757 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5758 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5759 
  5760 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5761 
  5762 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5763 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5764 
  5765 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5766 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5767 
  5768 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5769 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5770 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5773 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5777 
  5778 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5779 
  5780 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5781 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5782 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5783 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5784 
  5785 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5786 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5787 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5788 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5789 
  5790 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5791 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5792 algebraic operations.
  5793 
  5794 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5796 
  5797 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5799 
  5800 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5801 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5802 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5803 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5804 adapted.
  5805  
  5806 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5807 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5808 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5809 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5810 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5811 
  5812 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5813 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5814 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5815 
  5816 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5817 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5818 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5819 
  5820 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5821 
  5822 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5823 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5824 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5825   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5826       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5827   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5828   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5829   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5830 
  5831 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5832 
  5833 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5834 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5835 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5836 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5837 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5838 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5839 
  5840 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5841 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5842 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5843 
  5844 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5845 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5846 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5848 
  5849 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5850 
  5851 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5852 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5853 
  5854 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5855 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5856 
  5857 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5858 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5859 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5860 
  5861 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5862 True/False.
  5863 
  5864 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5865 
  5866 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5867 
  5868 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5869 ``rule'' method.
  5870 
  5871 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5872 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5873 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5874 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5875 
  5876 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5877 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5878 
  5879 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5880 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5881 
  5882 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5883 Library.
  5884 
  5885 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5886 
  5887 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5888 as greatest fixed-point.
  5889 
  5890 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5891 association lists.
  5892 
  5893 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5894 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5895 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5896 
  5897 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5898 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5899 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5901 behavior.
  5902 
  5903 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5904 
  5905 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5906 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5907 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5908 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5909 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5910 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5911 
  5912 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5913 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5914 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5915 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5916 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5917 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5918 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5919 
  5920 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5921 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5922 
  5923 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5924 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5925 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5926 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5927 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5928 
  5929 
  5930 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5931 
  5932 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5933 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5934 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5935 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5937 
  5938 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5939 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5940 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5941 
  5942 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5943 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5944 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5945 
  5946 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5947 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5948 
  5949 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5950 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5951 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5955   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5956   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5957   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5958   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5959   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5960   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5961   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5962   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5963   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5964   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5965   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5966   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5967   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5968   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5969 
  5970 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5971 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5972 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5973 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5974 
  5975   approx        <-- capprox
  5976   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5977   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5978   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5979   monad         <-- cmonad
  5980   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5981   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5982   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5983   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5984 
  5985 
  5986 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5987 
  5988 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5989 
  5990 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5992 
  5993 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5994 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5995 
  5996 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5997 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5998 of algebraic structures.
  5999 
  6000 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6001 
  6002 
  6003 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6004 
  6005 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6006 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6007 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6008 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6009 
  6010 
  6011 *** ML ***
  6012 
  6013 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6014 (even on SML/NJ).
  6015 
  6016 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6017 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6018 compile-time.  For example:
  6019 
  6020 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6021 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6022 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6023 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6024 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6025 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6026 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6027 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6028 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6029 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6030 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6031 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6032 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6033 ML {* @{context} *}
  6034 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6035 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6036 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6037 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6038 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6039 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6040 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6041 
  6042 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6043 
  6044 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6045 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6046 
  6047 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6048 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6049 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6050 
  6051 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6052 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6053 
  6054 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6055 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6056 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6057 
  6058 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6059 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6060 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6061 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6062 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6063 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6064 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6065 declarations and definitions.
  6066 
  6067 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6068 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6069 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6070 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6071 
  6072 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6073 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6074 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6075 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6076 
  6077 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6078 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6079 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6080 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6081 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6082 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6083 
  6084 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6085 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6086 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6087 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6088 attributes, methods, etc.
  6089 
  6090 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6091 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6092 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6093 fold_map combinators.
  6094 
  6095 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6096 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6097 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6098 derivation.
  6099 
  6100 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6101 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6102 achieve the old behaviour.
  6103 
  6104 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6105 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6106 statements.
  6107 
  6108 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6109 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6110 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6111 
  6112 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6113 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6114 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6115 
  6116   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6117   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6118   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6119 
  6120 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6121 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6122 
  6123 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6124 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6125 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6126 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6127 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6128 
  6129 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6130 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6131 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6132 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6133 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6134 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6135 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6136 in a locale context).
  6137 
  6138 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6139 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6140 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6141 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6142 
  6143 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6144 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6145 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6146 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6147 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6148 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6149 
  6150 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6151 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6152 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6153 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6154 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6155 
  6156   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6157 
  6158 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6159 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6160 this:
  6161 
  6162   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6163 
  6164 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6165 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6166 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6167 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6168 
  6169 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6170 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6171 
  6172 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6173 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6174 
  6175 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6176 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6177 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6178 batch mode.
  6179 
  6180 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6181 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6182 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6183 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6184 
  6185 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6186 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6187 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6188 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6189 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6190 
  6191 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6192 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6193 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6194 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6195 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6196 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6197 
  6198 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6199 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6200 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6204 "Trueprop" etc.
  6205 
  6206 
  6207 *** System ***
  6208 
  6209 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6210 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6211 Isabelle installations.
  6212 
  6213 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6214 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6215 code.
  6216 
  6217 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6218 
  6219 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6220 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6221 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6222 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6223 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6224 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6225 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6226 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6227 Implementation manual.
  6228 
  6229 
  6230 
  6231 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6232 ----------------------------------
  6233 
  6234 *** General ***
  6235 
  6236 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6237 
  6238   theory <name>
  6239   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6240   uses <