NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Oct 25 23:33:07 2018 +0200 (12 months ago ago)
changeset 69190 f714114b0571
parent 69184 431414500576
child 69208 99bc66bc52a4
child 69216 7062639cfdaa
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    13 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    14 
    15 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    16 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    17 
    18 
    19 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    20 
    21 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    22 OpenJDK 11.
    23 
    24 
    25 *** Isar ***
    26 
    27 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    28 precedence over goal/proof.
    29 
    30 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    31 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    32 
    33 
    34 *** HOL ***
    35 
    36 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
    37 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
    38 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
    39 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
    40 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
    43 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
    44 
    45 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
    46 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
    47 
    48 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
    49 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    51 
    52 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
    53 are now uniformly called f_cong_strong. 
    54 
    55 * Sledgehammer: The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote
    56 provers, has been updated.
    57 
    58 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
    59 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
    60 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
    61 
    62   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
    63 
    64 
    65 *** ML ***
    66 
    67 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
    68 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
    69 
    70 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
    71 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
    72 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
    73 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
    74 ">" as separator. For example:
    75 
    76   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
    77   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
    78 
    79   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
    80   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
    81 
    82   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
    83   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
    84 
    85 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
    86 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
    87 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
    88 observes the official standard).
    89 
    90 
    91 *** System ***
    92 
    93 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
    94 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
    95 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
    96 
    97 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
    98 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
    99 is no longer required.
   100 
   101 * Support for OCaml via command-line tools "isabelle ocaml_setup",
   102 "isabelle ocaml", "isabelle ocamlc", "isabelle ocaml_opam". Existing
   103 settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and ISABELLE_OCAMLC are maintained
   104 dynamically according the state of ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT and
   105 ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION.
   106 
   107 * Support for Glasgow Haskell Compiler via command-line tools "isabelle
   108 ghc_setup", "isabelle ghci", "isabelle ghc", "isabelle ghc_stack".
   109 Existing settings variable ISABELLE_GHC is maintained dynamically
   110 according to the state of ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT and
   111 ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER.
   112 
   113 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   114 
   115 
   116 
   117 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   118 ---------------------------------
   119 
   120 *** General ***
   121 
   122 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   123 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   124 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   125 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   126 
   127 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   128 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   129 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   130 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   131 
   132 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   133 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   136 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   137 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   138 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   139 avoid this.
   140 
   141 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   142 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   143 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   144 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   145 
   146 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   147 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   148 instead.
   149 
   150 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   151 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   152 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   153 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   154 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   155 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   156 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   157 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   158 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   159 syntax), use option "-m".
   160 
   161 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   165 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   166 without specific Prover IDE management.
   167 
   168 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   169 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   170 context.
   171 
   172 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   173 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   174 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   175 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   176 
   177   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   178 
   179 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   180 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   181 
   182 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   183 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   184 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   185 output.
   186 
   187 
   188 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   189 
   190 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   191 for session management:
   192 
   193   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   194     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   195 
   196   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   197     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   198 
   199   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   200     and -S
   201 
   202   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   203     theories
   204 
   205   Examples:
   206     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   207     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   208     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   209     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   210     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   211 
   212 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   213 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   214 
   215 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   216 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   217 
   218 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   219 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   220 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   221 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   222 arguments into this format.
   223 
   224 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   225 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   226 
   227 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   228 functions (e.g. State output).
   229 
   230 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   231 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   232 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   233 
   234 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   235 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   236 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   239 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   240 
   241 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   242 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   243 Isabelle".
   244 
   245 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   246 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   247 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   248 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   249 Unicode content when saving the file.
   250 
   251 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   252 
   253 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   254 
   255 
   256 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   257 
   258 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   259 Isabelle/jEdit.
   260 
   261 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   262 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   263 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   264 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   265 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   266 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 
   269 *** Document preparation ***
   270 
   271 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   272 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   273 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   274 are supported:
   275 
   276   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   277   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   278   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   279 
   280 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   281 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   282 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   283 
   284 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   285 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   286 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   287 
   288 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   289 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   290 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   291 
   292 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   293 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   294 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   295 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   296 
   297 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   298 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   299 
   300 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   301 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   302 normally need to import.
   303 
   304 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   305 session name verbatim.
   306 
   307 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   308 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   309 
   310 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   311 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   312 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   315 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   316 anymore.
   317 
   318 
   319 *** Isar ***
   320 
   321 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   322 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   323 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   324 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   325 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   326 
   327 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   328 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   329 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   330 
   331 
   332 *** Pure ***
   333 
   334 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   335 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   336 
   337 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   338 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   339 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   340 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   341 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   342 
   343 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   344 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   345 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   346 duplicate constant declarations.
   347 
   348 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   349 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   350 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   351 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   352 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   353 
   354 
   355 *** HOL ***
   356 
   357 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   358 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   359 
   360 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   361 
   362   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   363 
   364   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   365     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   366     constraints instead.
   367 
   368   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   369 
   370   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   371     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   372     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   373     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   374 
   375   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   376     standard target languages.
   377 
   378   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   379     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   380     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   381     HOL string values and vice versa.
   382 
   383   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   384     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   385 
   386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   389 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   390 
   391 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   392 
   393 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   394 former axioms:
   395 
   396   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   397 
   398 are replaced by:
   399 
   400   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   401 
   402 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   403 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   404 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   405 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   406 
   407 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   408 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   409 
   410 * Clarifed theorem names:
   411 
   412   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   413   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   414 
   415 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 * SMT module:
   418 
   419   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   420     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   423     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   424     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   427 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   428 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   432 
   433 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   437 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   441 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   442 Renamed:
   443 
   444   span_inc ~> span_superset
   445   span_superset ~> span_base
   446   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   447 
   448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   451 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   454 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   455 
   456 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   457 
   458   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   459     input syntax
   460 
   461   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   462 
   463 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   464 
   465 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   466 
   467 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   468 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   472   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   473   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   474   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   475 
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   479 
   480   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   481   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   482   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   483   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   484   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   485 
   486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   489 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   490 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   491 broken proofs.
   492 
   493 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   494 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   495 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   496 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   497 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   498 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   499 
   500 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   501 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   502 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   503 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   504 examples.
   505 
   506 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   507 
   508 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   509 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   510 
   511 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   512 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   513 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 
   516 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   517 infix/prefix notation.
   518 
   519 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   520 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   522 
   523 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   524 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   528 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   530 
   531 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   532 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   533 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   534 
   535 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   536 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   537 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   538 
   539 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   540 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   541 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   542 
   543 
   544 *** ML ***
   545 
   546 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   547 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   548 
   549 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   550 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   551 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   552 "isabelle process".
   553 
   554 
   555 *** System ***
   556 
   557 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   558 longer supported.
   559 
   560 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   561 support has been discontinued.
   562 
   563 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   564 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   565 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   566 
   567 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   568 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   569 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   570 quotes):
   571 
   572   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   573   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   574 
   575   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   576   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   577 
   578   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   579   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   580 
   581 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   582   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   583   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   584   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   585 
   586 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   587 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   588 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   589 only.
   590 
   591 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   592 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   593 up-to-date status of a session.
   594 
   595 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   596 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   597 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   598 directory.
   599 
   600 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   601 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   602 
   603 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   604 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   605 
   606 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   607 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   608 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   609 See also the "system" manual.
   610 
   611 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   612 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   613 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   614 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   615 been discontinued.
   616 
   617 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   618 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   621 repository for the generated session files.
   622 
   623 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   624 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   625 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   626 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   627 ISABELLE_HOME).
   628 
   629 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   630 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   631 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   632 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   633 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   634 
   635 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   636 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   637 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   638 
   639 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   640 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   641 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   642 32/64 bit.
   643 
   644 
   645 
   646 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   647 ----------------------------------
   648 
   649 *** General ***
   650 
   651 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   652 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   653 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   654 
   655 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   656 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   657 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   658 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   659 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   660 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   661 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   662 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   663 
   664 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   665 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   666 just the theory base name as before).
   667 
   668 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   669 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   670 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   671 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   672 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   673 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   674 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   675 
   676 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   677 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   678 leads to the follow renamings:
   679 
   680   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   681   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   682   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   683   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   684   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   685 
   686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   689 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   690 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   691 
   692 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   693 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   694 
   695 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   696 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   697 antiquotations:
   698 
   699   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   700     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   701   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   702     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   703   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   704 
   705 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   706 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   707 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   708 tutorial on code generation.
   709 
   710 
   711 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   712 
   713 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   714 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   715 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   716 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   717 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   718 
   719 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   720 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   721 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   722 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   723 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   724 effectively always enabled.
   725 
   726 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   727 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   728 buffers.
   729 
   730 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   731 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   732 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   733 represented by a different border color.
   734 
   735 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   736 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   737 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   738 
   739 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   740 document in the default web browser.
   741 
   742 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   743 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   744 used for formal checking.
   745 
   746 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   747 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   748 enabled at all times.
   749 
   750 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   751 
   752 
   753 *** Pure ***
   754 
   755 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   756 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   757 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   758 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   761   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   762     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   763   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   764     malformed.
   765   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   766     malformed.
   767 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768 
   769 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   770 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   771 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 
   774 *** HOL ***
   775 
   776 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   777 
   778 * SMT module:
   779   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   780     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   781     disabled by default.
   782   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   783   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   784 
   785 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   786 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   787 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   791 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   792 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   794 
   795 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   796 of "Complex_Main").
   797 
   798 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   799 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   805 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
   808 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
   811 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
   812 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
   813 
   814 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
   815 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   816 
   817 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
   818 
   819 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
   820 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
   823 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
   824 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
   825 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * Generalized some facts:
   828     measure_induct_rule
   829     measure_induct
   830     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
   831     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
   832     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
   833     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
   834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835 
   836 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
   837 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
   838 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
   839 euclidean size.
   840 
   841 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
   842   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
   843   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
   844     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
   845     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
   846   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
   847     available as "bezout_coefficients".
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
   851 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
   852 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
   853 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
   856   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
   857   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
   858 
   859 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
   860 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   861 
   862 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
   863 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
   864 
   865 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
   866 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
   867 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
   870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   871 
   872 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
   873 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
   874 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
   875 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
   876 
   877 syntax (ASCII)
   878   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
   879   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
   880   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
   881 
   882 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
   883 multisets have been renamed:
   884 
   885   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
   886   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
   887 
   888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
   891 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
   892 
   893 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
   894 
   895 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
   896 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
   897 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
   898 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
   899 
   900 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
   901 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
   902 
   903 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
   904 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
   905 
   906 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
   907 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
   908 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
   909 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
   910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 
   913 *** System ***
   914 
   915 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
   916 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
   917 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
   918 
   919 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
   920 "Application File Format" in the sense of
   921 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
   922 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
   923 
   924 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
   925 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
   926 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
   927 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
   928 
   929 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
   930 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
   931 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
   932 unchanged.
   933 
   934 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
   935 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
   938 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
   939 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
   940 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
   941 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
   942 
   943 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
   944 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
   945 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
   946 
   947 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
   948 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
   949 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
   950 
   951 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
   952 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
   953 
   954   isabelle imports -I -a
   955   isabelle imports -U -a
   956   isabelle imports -U -i -a
   957   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
   958 
   959 
   960 
   961 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
   962 -------------------------------------
   963 
   964 *** General ***
   965 
   966 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
   967   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
   968     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   969   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
   970     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
   971     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
   972     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
   973     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
   974 
   975 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
   976 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
   977 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
   978 
   979 bundle foo
   980 begin
   981   declare a [simp]
   982   declare b [intro]
   983 end
   984 
   985 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
   986 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
   987 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
   988 
   989 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
   990 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
   991 discontinued.
   992 
   993 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
   994 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
   995 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
   996 
   997 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
   998 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
   999 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1000 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1001 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1004 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1005 
  1006 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1007 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1008 
  1009 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1010 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1011 examples.
  1012 
  1013 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1014 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1015 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1016 
  1017 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1018 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1019 
  1020 
  1021 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1022 
  1023 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1024 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1025 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1026 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1027 
  1028 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1029 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1030 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1031 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1032 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1033 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1034 
  1035 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1036 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1037 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1038 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1039 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1040 
  1041 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1042 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1043 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1044 
  1045 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1046 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1047 
  1048 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1049 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1050 
  1051 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1052 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1053 
  1054 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1055 
  1056 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1057 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1058 systematic renaming.
  1059 
  1060 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1061 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1062 theorem statement.
  1063 
  1064 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1065 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1066 
  1067 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1068 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1069 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1070 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1071 
  1072 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1073 following independent stages:
  1074 
  1075   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1076   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1077   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1078   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1079 
  1080 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1081 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1082 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1083 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1084 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1085 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1086 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1087 
  1088 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1089 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1090 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1091 
  1092 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1093 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1094 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1095 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1096 
  1097 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1098 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1099 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1100 
  1101 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1102 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1103 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1104 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1105 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1106 old keymaps.
  1107 
  1108 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1109 and diverse:
  1110 
  1111   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1112   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1113   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1114 
  1115 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1116 have to be changed.
  1117 
  1118 
  1119 *** Document preparation ***
  1120 
  1121 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1122 
  1123 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1124 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1125 
  1126 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1127 this allows special forms of document output.
  1128 
  1129 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1130 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1131 derivatives.
  1132 
  1133 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1134 
  1135 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1136 Isabelle2015).
  1137 
  1138 
  1139 *** Isar ***
  1140 
  1141 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1142 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1143 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1144 
  1145 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1146 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1147 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1148 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1149 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1150 
  1151 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1152 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1153 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1154 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1155 
  1156 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1157 context.
  1158 
  1159 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1160 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1161 
  1162 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1163 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1164 
  1165 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1166 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1167 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1168 
  1169 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1170 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1174 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1175 definitions.
  1176 
  1177 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1178 expression, e.g.
  1179 
  1180   (use facts in simp)
  1181   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1182 
  1183 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1184 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1185 
  1186 
  1187 *** Pure ***
  1188 
  1189 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1190 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1191 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1192 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1193 
  1194 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1195 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1196 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1197 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1198 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1199 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1200 
  1201 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1202 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1203 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1204 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1205 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1206 types where this is really intended.
  1207 
  1208 
  1209 *** HOL ***
  1210 
  1211 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1212 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1213 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1214 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1215 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1216 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1217 
  1218 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1219 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1220 
  1221 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1222 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 * Sledgehammer:
  1225   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1226   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1227 
  1228 * (Co)datatype package:
  1229   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1230     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1231     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1232     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1233   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1234     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1235   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1236     to the map function.
  1237   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1238   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1239        terms of map and set
  1240        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1241   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1242        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1243     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1244   - Renamed lemmas:
  1245       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1246       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1247     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1248   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1249   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1250     equivalent) form.
  1251     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1252 
  1253 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1254 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1255 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1256 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1257 
  1258 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1259 
  1260   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1261   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1262 
  1263 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1264 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1265 eliminated altogether.
  1266 
  1267 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1268 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1269 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1270 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1271 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1272 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1273 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1274 
  1275 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1277 
  1278 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1279 
  1280     setsum ~> sum
  1281     setprod ~> prod
  1282     listsum ~> sum_list
  1283     listprod ~> prod_list
  1284 
  1285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1286 
  1287 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1288     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1289     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1290     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1291     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1292     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1293     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1294     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1295     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1296     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1297     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1298     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1299     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1300     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1301     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1302     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1303     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1304     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1305     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1306     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1307     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1308     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1309     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1310     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1311     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1312     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1313     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1314     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1315     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1316     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1320 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1321 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1324 
  1325 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1326 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1327 
  1328   - Logical representation:
  1329     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1330     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1331       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1332     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1333       are non-canonical.
  1334   - Printing and parsing:
  1335     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1336       (as before).
  1337     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1338     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1339       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1340       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1341     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1342       printed as their logical representation.
  1343   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1344     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1345   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1346 
  1347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1348 
  1349 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1350 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1351 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1352 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1353 
  1354 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1355 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1356 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1357 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1358 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1359 
  1360 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1361 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1364 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1365 
  1366 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1367 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1368 interface for the generated code.
  1369 
  1370 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1371 spelt out explicitly.
  1372 
  1373 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1374 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1375 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1376 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1377 
  1378 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1379 products.
  1380 
  1381 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1382 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1383 
  1384 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1385 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1386 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1387 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1388 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1389 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1390 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392 
  1393 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1394 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1395 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1396 
  1397 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1399 
  1400   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1401   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1402   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1403 
  1404 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1405   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1406     le_add_same_cancel1
  1407     le_add_same_cancel2
  1408     less_add_same_cancel1
  1409     less_add_same_cancel2
  1410     add_le_same_cancel1
  1411     add_le_same_cancel2
  1412     add_less_same_cancel1
  1413     add_less_same_cancel2
  1414 
  1415 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1416   superseeded by a more general version:
  1417     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1418     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1419     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1420     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1421     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1422     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1423     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1424     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1426 
  1427 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1428 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1431 
  1432 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1433 
  1434   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1435   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1436 
  1437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1443 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1444 A)".
  1445 
  1446 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1447 
  1448 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1449 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1450 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1451 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1452 
  1453 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1454 dioid.
  1455 
  1456 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1457 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1458 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1459 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1462 of a more general type also:
  1463   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1464   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1465   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1466   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1467   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1468   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1469   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1470   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1471   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1472   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1473   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1474   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1475   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1476   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1477   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1478   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1479   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1480   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1481   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1482   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1483   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1484   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1485   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1486   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1487   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1488   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1489   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1490   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1491   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1492   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1493   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1494   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1495   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1496   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1497   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1498   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1499   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1500   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1501   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1502   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1503   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1504   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1505   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1506   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1507   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1508   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1509   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1510   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1511   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1512   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1513   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1514   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1515   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1516   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1517   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1518   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1519   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1520   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1521   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1522   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1523   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1524   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1525   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1526   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1527   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1528   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1529   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1530   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1531   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1532   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1533   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1534   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1535   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1536   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1537   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1538   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1539   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1540   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1541   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1542   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1543   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1544   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1545   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1546   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1547   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1548   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1549   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1550   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1554 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1557 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1558 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1559 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1560 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1561 
  1562 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1563 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1564 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1565 once.
  1566 
  1567 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1568 set_mset rather than count.
  1569 
  1570   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1571     by default.
  1572 
  1573   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1574     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1575 
  1576   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1577     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1578 
  1579   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1580     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1581 
  1582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1585 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1586 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1587 underscores.
  1588 
  1589 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1590 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1591 relation.
  1592 
  1593 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1594 everywhere fix bijections.
  1595 
  1596 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1597 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1598 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1599 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1600 
  1601 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1602 
  1603 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1604 
  1605 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1606 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1607 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1610 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1611 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1612 
  1613 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1614 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1615 
  1616 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1617 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1618 domain.
  1619 
  1620 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1621 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1624   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1625 
  1626 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1627 Probability Mass Functions.
  1628 
  1629 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1630 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1631 folding over a list in random order.
  1632 
  1633 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1634 subprobability distributions.
  1635 
  1636 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1637 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1638 
  1639     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1640     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1641     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1642     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1643     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1644     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1645     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1646     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1647     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1648     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1649     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1650     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1651     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1652     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1653     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1654     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1655     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1656     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1657     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1658     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1659     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1660     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1661 
  1662 Some functions have been renamed:
  1663     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1664 
  1665 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1666     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1667     #\<subset># ~> <
  1668     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1669     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1673 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1674 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1675 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1676 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1679 been renamed:
  1680 
  1681     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1682     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1683     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1684     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1685     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1686     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1687     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1688     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1689     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1690 
  1691     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1692     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1693     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1694     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1695     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1696     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1697     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1698     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1699     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1700     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1701     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1706 
  1707 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1708 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1709 
  1710     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1711     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1712     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1713     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1714     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1715     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1716     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1717     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1718     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1719     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1720     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1721     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1722     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1723     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1724     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1725     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1726     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1727 
  1728 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1729 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1730 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1731 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1732 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1733 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1734 
  1735 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1736 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1738 
  1739 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1740 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1741 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1744 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1745 removed or changed:
  1746 
  1747   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1748   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1749   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1750   union_single_eq_diff
  1751   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1752   diff_single_eq_union
  1753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1754 
  1755 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1756 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1757 
  1758   mset_add
  1759   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1760   diff_single_eq_union
  1761   union_single_eq_diff
  1762   union_single_eq_member
  1763   add_eq_conv_diff
  1764   insert_noteq_member
  1765   add_eq_conv_ex
  1766   multi_member_split
  1767   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1768   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1769   mset_subset_insertD
  1770   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1771   insert_union_subset_iff
  1772   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1773   inter_add_left1
  1774   inter_add_left2
  1775   inter_add_right1
  1776   inter_add_right2
  1777   sup_union_left1
  1778   sup_union_left2
  1779   sup_union_right1
  1780   sup_union_right2
  1781   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1782   multi_nonempty_split
  1783   mset_insort
  1784   mset_update
  1785   mult1I
  1786   less_add
  1787   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1788   rel_mset_Zero
  1789   msed_map_invL
  1790   msed_map_invR
  1791   msed_rel_invL
  1792   msed_rel_invR
  1793   le_multiset_right_total
  1794   multiset_induct
  1795   multiset_induct2_size
  1796   multiset_induct2
  1797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1798 
  1799 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1800 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1801 element:
  1802 
  1803   image_mset
  1804   mset
  1805   replicate_mset
  1806   mult1
  1807   pred_mset
  1808   rel_mset'
  1809   mset_insort
  1810 
  1811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  1814 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  1815 
  1816   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  1817   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  1818   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  1819   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  1820   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  1821   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1822   count_single [simp] ~> []
  1823   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1824   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  1825   size_single [simp] ~> []
  1826   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1827   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1828   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1829   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1830   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  1831   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  1832   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  1833   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  1834   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  1835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  1838 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  1839 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  1843 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  1844 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1845 
  1846 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  1847 multisets:
  1848 
  1849   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  1850   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  1851 
  1852 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  1853 and union of multisets have been changed:
  1854 
  1855   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  1856   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  1857 
  1858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1859 
  1860 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  1861 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  1862 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  1865 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  1866 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  1867 
  1868 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  1869 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  1870 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  1871 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  1872 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  1873 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  1876 the following renaming
  1877 
  1878   prefixeq -> prefix
  1879   prefix -> strict_prefix
  1880   suffixeq -> suffix
  1881   suffix -> strict_suffix
  1882 
  1883 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  1884 
  1885 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  1886 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  1887 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  1888 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  1889 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  1890 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891 
  1892 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  1893 theories.
  1894 
  1895 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  1896 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  1897 
  1898 
  1899 *** ML ***
  1900 
  1901 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  1902 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  1903 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  1904 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  1905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  1908 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  1909 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  1910 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  1911 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1912 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  1913 superseded by General.Div.
  1914 
  1915 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  1916 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  1919 with approximative output quality.
  1920 
  1921 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  1922 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923 
  1924 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  1925 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  1926 requiring separate files.
  1927 
  1928 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  1929 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  1930 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  1931 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  1932 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  1933 
  1934 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  1935 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  1936 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  1937 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  1938 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  1939 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  1940 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941 
  1942 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  1943 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  1944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  1947 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  1948 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  1949 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1950 
  1951 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  1952 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1953 
  1954 
  1955 *** System ***
  1956 
  1957 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  1958 
  1959 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  1960 much less disk space.
  1961 
  1962 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  1963 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  1964 particular:
  1965 
  1966   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  1967     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  1968   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  1969   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  1970 
  1971 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  1972 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  1973 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  1976 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  1977 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  1978 return code 1.
  1979 
  1980 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  1981 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  1982 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  1983 
  1984 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  1985 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  1986 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  1987 
  1988 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  1989 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  1990 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  1991 by default).
  1992 
  1993 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  1994 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  1995 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  1996 resulting log files.
  1997 
  1998 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  1999 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2000 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2001 implicit default via option -p.
  2002 
  2003 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2004 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2005 
  2006 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2007 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2008 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2009 
  2010 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2011 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2012 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2013 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2014 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2015 
  2016 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2017 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2018 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2019 
  2020 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2021 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2022 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2023 
  2024 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2025 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2026 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2027 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2028 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2029 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2030 been discontinued.
  2031 
  2032 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2033 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2034 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2035 
  2036 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2037 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2038 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2039 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2040 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2041 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2042 
  2043 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2044 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2045 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2046 connection).
  2047 
  2048 
  2049 
  2050 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2051 -----------------------------------
  2052 
  2053 *** General ***
  2054 
  2055 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2056 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2057 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2058 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2059 examples that do require HOL.
  2060 
  2061 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2062 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2063 
  2064 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2065 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2066 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2067 has been removed (see below).
  2068 
  2069 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2070 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2071 
  2072 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2073 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2074 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2075 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2076 
  2077 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2078 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2079 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2080 meaning.
  2081 
  2082 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2083 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2084 to update old sources.
  2085 
  2086 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2087 
  2088   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2089   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2090   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2091   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2092 
  2093 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2094 accordingly.
  2095 
  2096 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2097 'theorem'.
  2098 
  2099 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2100 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2101 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2102 
  2103 
  2104 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2105 
  2106 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2107 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2108 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2109 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2110 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2111 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2112 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2113 any effect on the running ML program.
  2114 
  2115 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2116 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2117 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2118 update.
  2119 
  2120 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2121 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2122 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2123 
  2124 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2125 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2126 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2127 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2128 visibility.
  2129 
  2130 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2131 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2132 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2133 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2134 panel.
  2135 
  2136 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2137 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2138 
  2139 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2140 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2141 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2142 
  2143 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2144 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2145 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2146 
  2147 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2148 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2149 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2150 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2151 
  2152 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2153 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2154 the editor.
  2155 
  2156 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2157 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2158 
  2159 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2160 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2161 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2162 instead.
  2163 
  2164 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2165 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2166 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2167 
  2168 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2169 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2170 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2171 
  2172 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2173 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2174 
  2175 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2176 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2177 
  2178 
  2179 *** Document preparation ***
  2180 
  2181 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2182 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2183 
  2184 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2185 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2186 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2187 
  2188 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2189 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2190 follows:
  2191 
  2192   \<^item>  itemize
  2193   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2194   \<^descr>  description
  2195 
  2196 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2197 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2198 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2199 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2200 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2201 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2202 
  2203 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2204 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2205 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2206 
  2207 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2208 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2209 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2210 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2211 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2212 
  2213 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2214 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2215 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2216 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2217 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2218 
  2219 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2220 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2221 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2222 
  2223 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2224 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2225 
  2226 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2227 
  2228 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2229 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2230 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2231 
  2232 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2233 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2234 
  2235 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2236 entities of the Isar language.
  2237 
  2238 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2239 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2240 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2241 
  2242 
  2243 *** Isar ***
  2244 
  2245 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2246 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2247 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2248 example:
  2249 
  2250   have result: "C x y"
  2251     if "A x" and "B y"
  2252     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2253     <proof>
  2254 
  2255 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2256 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2257 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2258 
  2259   {
  2260     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2261     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2262     have "C x y" <proof>
  2263   }
  2264   note result = this
  2265 
  2266 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2267 instead of 'assume' above.
  2268 
  2269 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2270 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2271 
  2272   assume result: "C x y"
  2273     if "A x" and "B y"
  2274     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2275 
  2276 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2277 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2278 
  2279 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2280 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2281 example:
  2282 
  2283   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2284 
  2285 is equivalent to:
  2286 
  2287   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2288 
  2289 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2290 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2291 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2292 follows:
  2293 
  2294   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2295 
  2296 or:
  2297 
  2298   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2299 
  2300 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2301 
  2302   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2303 
  2304 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2305 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2306 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2307 of the local context elements yet.
  2308 
  2309 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2310 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2311 
  2312   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2313   then have something
  2314   proof cases
  2315     case a
  2316     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2317   next
  2318     case b
  2319     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2320   next
  2321     case c
  2322     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2323   qed
  2324 
  2325 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2326 
  2327   case a: (c xs)
  2328   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2329 
  2330 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2331 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2332 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2333 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2334 and always put attributes in front.
  2335 
  2336 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2337 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2338 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2339 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2340 
  2341 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2342 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2343 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2344 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2345 
  2346   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2347     supply [simp] = a
  2348   proof
  2349     show A by simp
  2350   next
  2351     show A by simp
  2352   qed
  2353 
  2354 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2355 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2356 
  2357 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2358 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2359 
  2360 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2361 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2362 
  2363 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2364 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2365 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2366 manual.
  2367 
  2368 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2369 ('apply' scripts).
  2370 
  2371 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2372 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2373 example:
  2374 
  2375 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2376   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2377 proof goal_cases
  2378   case (1 x)
  2379   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2380 next
  2381   case (2 y z)
  2382   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2383 qed
  2384 
  2385 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2386   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2387 proof goal_cases
  2388   case prems: 1
  2389   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2390 next
  2391   case prems: 2
  2392   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2393 qed
  2394 
  2395 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2396 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2397 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2398 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2399 
  2400 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2401 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2402 
  2403 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2404 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2405 
  2406 
  2407 *** Pure ***
  2408 
  2409 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2410 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2411 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2412 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2413 
  2414 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2415 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2418 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2419 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2420 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2421 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2422 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2423 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2424 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2425 
  2426   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2427   begin
  2428     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2429   end
  2430 
  2431   locale morphism =
  2432     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2433     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2434   begin
  2435     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2436   end
  2437 
  2438 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2439 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2440 
  2441 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2442 'defines'.
  2443 
  2444 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2445 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2446 
  2447 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2448 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2449 
  2450 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2451 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2454 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2455 exploited.
  2456 
  2457 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2458 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2459 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2460 
  2461 
  2462 *** HOL ***
  2463 
  2464 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2465 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2466 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2467 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2468 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2469 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2472 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2473 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2474 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2475 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2476 
  2477 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2478 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2479 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2480 simplify porting old theories:
  2481 
  2482   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2483 
  2484   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2485 
  2486   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2487   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2488 
  2489   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2490 
  2491   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2492   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2493 
  2494   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2495 
  2496   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2497     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2498 
  2499   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2500   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2501   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2502 
  2503   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2504   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2505   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2506 
  2507 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2508 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2509 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2510 
  2511 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2512 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2513 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2514 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2515 
  2516 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2517 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2518 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2519 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2522 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2523 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2524 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525 
  2526 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2527 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2528 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2532 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2533 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2534 
  2535 Consolidated facts:
  2536   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2537   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2538   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2539   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2540   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2541   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2542   split_split ~> prod.split
  2543   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2544   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2545   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2546   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2547   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2548   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2549   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2550   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2551   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2552   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2553   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2554   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2555   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2556   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2557   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2558   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2559   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2560   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2561   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2562   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2563   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2564   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2565   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2566   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2567   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2568   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2569   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2570   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2571 
  2572 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2573   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2574   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2575   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2576   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2577 
  2578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2581 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2582 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2583 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2584 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2585 
  2586 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2587   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2588   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2589   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2590   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2591   real_of_one of_int_1
  2592   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2593   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2594   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2595   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2596   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2597   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2598   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2599   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2600   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2601   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2602   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2603   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2604   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2605   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2606   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2607   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2608   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2609 
  2610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2613 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2616 
  2617 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Sledgehammer:
  2620   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2621   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2622     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2623   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2624   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2625   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2626     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2628 
  2629 * Nitpick:
  2630   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2631   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2632   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2633   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2634   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2635 
  2636 * (Co)datatype package:
  2637   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2638     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2639   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2640   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2641     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2643     being defined.
  2644   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2645 
  2646 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2647 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2648 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2649 
  2650 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2651 
  2652 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2653 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2654 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2655 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2656 
  2657 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2659 
  2660 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2661 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2662 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2663 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2664 
  2665 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2666 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2667 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2668 
  2669 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2670 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2671 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2672 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2673 
  2674 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2675 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2676 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2677 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2678 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2679 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2680 during instantiation.
  2681 
  2682 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2683 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2684 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2685 
  2686 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2687 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2688 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2689 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2690 
  2691   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2692   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2693 
  2694 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696 * Library/Multiset:
  2697   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2698       < ~> <#
  2699       > ~> >#
  2700       <= ~> <=#
  2701       >= ~> >=#
  2702       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2703       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2704     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2706       \<subset>#
  2707       \<subseteq>#
  2708       \<supset>#
  2709       \<supseteq>#
  2710   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2711     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2712     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2713     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2714     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2715     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2716     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717   - Renamed conversions:
  2718       multiset_of ~> mset
  2719       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2720       set_of ~> set_mset
  2721     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2722   - Renamed lemmas:
  2723       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2724       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2725       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2726     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2727   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2728     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2729     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2730     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2731 
  2732 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2733 
  2734 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2735 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2736 chain-complete partial orders.
  2737 
  2738 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2739 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2740 
  2741 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2742 periodic functions.
  2743 
  2744 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2745 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2746 GCD.
  2747 
  2748 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2749 
  2750 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2751 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2752 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2753 
  2754 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2755 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2756 
  2757 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2758 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2759 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2760 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2761 
  2762 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2763 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2764 
  2765 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2766 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2767 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2768 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2769 properties.
  2770 
  2771 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2772 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2773 
  2774 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2775 structures.
  2776 
  2777 
  2778 *** ML ***
  2779 
  2780 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2781 system are available:
  2782 
  2783   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2784   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2785   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2786 
  2787 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2788 
  2789 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2790 Isar proof method.
  2791 
  2792 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2793 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2794 breaks.
  2795 
  2796 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2797 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2798 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2801 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2802 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2803 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2804 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2805 
  2806 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2807 
  2808   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  2809   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  2810 
  2811   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  2812   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  2813 
  2814 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  2815 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  2816 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  2817 
  2818 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  2819 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  2820 instead (with proper context).
  2821 
  2822 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  2823 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  2824 
  2825 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  2826 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  2827 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  2828 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  2829 the proof context discipline.
  2830 
  2831 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  2832 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  2833 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  2834 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  2835 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 
  2838 *** System ***
  2839 
  2840 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  2841 
  2842 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  2843 conflations:
  2844 
  2845     hence  ~>  then have
  2846     thus   ~>  then show
  2847 
  2848 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  2849 maintainability of proofs.
  2850 
  2851 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  2852 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  2853 performance.
  2854 
  2855 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  2856 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  2857 
  2858     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  2859 
  2860 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  2861 space.
  2862 
  2863 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  2864 platforms as follows.
  2865 
  2866   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  2867     associated with the main app bundle
  2868 
  2869   - isabelle jedit: settings
  2870     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  2871     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2872 
  2873   - isabelle build: settings
  2874     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2875 
  2876 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  2877 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  2878 
  2879 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  2880 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  2881 required after change.
  2882 
  2883 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  2884 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  2885 
  2886 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  2887 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  2888 
  2889 
  2890 
  2891 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  2892 ------------------------------
  2893 
  2894 *** General ***
  2895 
  2896 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  2897 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  2898 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  2899 
  2900   context
  2901   begin
  2902 
  2903   private definition ...
  2904   private lemma ...
  2905 
  2906   qualified definition ...
  2907   qualified lemma ...
  2908 
  2909   lemma ...
  2910   theorem ...
  2911 
  2912   end
  2913 
  2914 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  2915 naming policy.
  2916 
  2917 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  2918 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  2919 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  2920 
  2921 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  2922 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  2923 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  2924 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  2925 
  2926 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  2927 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  2928 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  2929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  2932 theory context.
  2933 
  2934 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  2935 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  2936 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  2937 
  2938 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  2939 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  2940 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  2941 sources.
  2942 
  2943 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  2944 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  2945 
  2946 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  2947 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  2948 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  2949 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  2950 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  2951 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  2952 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  2953 
  2954 
  2955 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2956 
  2957 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  2958 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  2959 
  2960 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  2961 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  2962 in the buffer.
  2963 
  2964 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  2965 marker, SideKick parser.
  2966 
  2967 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  2968 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  2969 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  2970 
  2971 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  2972 Options / Text Area).
  2973 
  2974 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  2975 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  2976 
  2977 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  2978 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  2979 
  2980 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  2981 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  2982 
  2983 
  2984 *** Document preparation ***
  2985 
  2986 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  2987 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  2988 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  2989 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  2990 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  2991 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  2992 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  2993 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  2996 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  2997 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  2998 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  2999 
  3000 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3001 style.
  3002 
  3003 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3004 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3005 
  3006 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3007 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3008 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3009 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3010 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3011 
  3012 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3013 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3014 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3015 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3016 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3017 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3018 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3021 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3022 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 
  3026 *** Pure ***
  3027 
  3028 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3029 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3030 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3031 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3032 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3033 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3034 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3035 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3036 
  3037 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3038 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3039 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3040 
  3041 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3042 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3043 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3044 different index.
  3045 
  3046 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3047 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3048 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3049 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3050 
  3051 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3052 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3053 token category instead.
  3054 
  3055 
  3056 *** HOL ***
  3057 
  3058 * New (co)datatype package:
  3059   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3060     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3061     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3062     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3063     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064   - Renamed theorems:
  3065       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3066       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3067       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3068       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3069       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3070       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3071       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3072       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3073       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3074       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3075       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3076       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3077       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3078     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3080     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3081     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3083     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3084     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3086     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3087     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3088     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3089     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3090     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3091     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092   - Renamed theories:
  3093       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3094       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3095       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3096       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3097       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3098       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3099     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3101     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3102     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3103     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3104     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3105     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3106     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3107     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3108     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3109   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3110     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3111     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3112     rules.
  3113 
  3114 * Old datatype package:
  3115   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3116     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3117     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3118     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3119     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120   - Renamed theorems:
  3121       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3122     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123   - Renamed theory:
  3124       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3125     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Nitpick:
  3128   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3129     operations.
  3130 
  3131 * Sledgehammer:
  3132   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3133     default.
  3134   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3135     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3136   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3137     Removed sub-command:
  3138       min
  3139   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3140     dramatically improved.
  3141   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3142 
  3143 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3144   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3145     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3146     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3147     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3148     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3149     point to it.
  3150     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3152     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3154     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3155   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3156     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3157 
  3158 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3159 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3160 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3161 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3162 
  3163 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3164 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3165 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3168 
  3169 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3170 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3171 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3172 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3175 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3179 
  3180 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3181 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3182 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3185 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3188 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3189 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3190 
  3191 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3192 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3193 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3194 needed.
  3195 
  3196 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3197 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3198 
  3199 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3200 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3202 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3203 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3204 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3205 
  3206 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3207 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3208 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3209 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3210 
  3211 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3212 type class hierarchy:
  3213   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3214   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3215   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3216   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3217 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3220   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3221   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3222 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223 
  3224 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3225 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3226 
  3227 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3228   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3229   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3230   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3231 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3234 and part of theory Main.
  3235   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237 
  3238 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3242 Fact rename:
  3243     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3247 
  3248 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3249 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3250 
  3251 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3252 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3253 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3254 
  3255 * Library/Multiset:
  3256   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3257   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3258     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3259   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3260       <# ~> #<#
  3261       <=# ~> #<=#
  3262       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3263       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3264     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3266       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3267       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3268     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269   - Renamed
  3270       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3271       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3272       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3273     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3275   - Added attributes:
  3276       image_mset.id [simp]
  3277       image_mset_id [simp]
  3278       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3279       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3280       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3281       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3282       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3283       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3284     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3287 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3288 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3289 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3292 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3293 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3294 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3295 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3296 examples.
  3297 
  3298 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3299   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3300   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3301   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3302     projection
  3303 
  3304 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3305 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3306 
  3307 
  3308 *** ML ***
  3309 
  3310 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3311 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3312 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3313 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3314 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3315 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3316 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3317 
  3318 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3319 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3320 
  3321 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3322 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3323 
  3324 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3328 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3329 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3330 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3331 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3332 nested.
  3333 
  3334 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3335 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3338 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3339 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3343 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3344 Thm.term_of etc.
  3345 
  3346 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3347 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3348 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349 
  3350 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3351 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3352 
  3353 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3354 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3355 
  3356 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3357 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3358 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3361 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3362 
  3363 
  3364 *** System ***
  3365 
  3366 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3367 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3368 
  3369 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3370 
  3371 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3372 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3373 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3374 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3378 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3379 
  3380 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3381 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3382 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3383 
  3384 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3385 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3386 
  3387 
  3388 
  3389 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3390 ---------------------------------
  3391 
  3392 *** General ***
  3393 
  3394 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3395 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3396 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3397 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3398 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3399 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3400 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3401 some examples.
  3402 
  3403 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3404 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3405 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3406 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3407 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3408 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3409 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3410 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3411 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3412 
  3413 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3414 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3415 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3416 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3417 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3418 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3419 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3420 proof tools.
  3421 
  3422 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3423 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3424 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3425 
  3426 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3427 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3428 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3429 
  3430 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3431 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3432 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3433 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3436 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3437 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3441 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3442 
  3443 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3444 not check existence within the file-system.
  3445 
  3446 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3447 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3448 
  3449 
  3450 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3451 
  3452 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3453 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3454 buffer.
  3455 
  3456 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3457 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3458 
  3459 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3460 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3461 
  3462 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3463 auxiliary ML files.
  3464 
  3465 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3466 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3467 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3468 
  3469 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3470 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3471 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3472 
  3473 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3474 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3475 
  3476 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3477 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3478 caret".
  3479 
  3480 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3481 completion popup and context-menu.
  3482 
  3483 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3484 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3485 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3486 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3487 
  3488 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3489 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3490 
  3491 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3492 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3493 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3494 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3495 
  3496 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3497 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3498 
  3499 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3500 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3501 
  3502 * Improved monitor panel.
  3503 
  3504 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3505 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3506 
  3507 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3508 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3509 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3510 
  3511 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3512 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3513 within the context.
  3514 
  3515 
  3516 *** Pure ***
  3517 
  3518 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3519 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3520 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3521 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3522 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3523 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3524 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3525 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3526 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3527 
  3528 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3529 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3530 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3531 renaming needs to be applied:
  3532 
  3533   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3534   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3535   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3536   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3537   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3538 
  3539 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3540 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3541 old constants:
  3542 
  3543 setup {*
  3544   fn thy => thy
  3545     |> Sign.root_path
  3546     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3547     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3548     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3549     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3550 *}
  3551 
  3552 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3553 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3554 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3555 
  3556 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3557 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3558 instantiated theorem.
  3559 
  3560 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3561 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3562 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3563 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3564 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3565 
  3566   attribute_setup standard =
  3567     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3568 
  3569 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3570 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3571 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3572 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3573 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3574 
  3575 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3576 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3577 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3578 
  3579 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3580 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3581 
  3582 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3583 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3584 
  3585 
  3586 *** HOL ***
  3587 
  3588 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3589 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3598 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3604 with the given constants.
  3605 
  3606 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3607 operations on records.
  3608 
  3609 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3610 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3615 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3616 
  3617 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3620 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3621 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3622 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3623 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3626 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3629   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3630   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3631   part of theory "Main".
  3632 
  3633   Theory renamings:
  3634     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3635     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3636     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3637     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3638     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3639     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3640     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3641     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3642     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3643     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3644     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3645     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3646     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3647     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3648     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3649     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3650     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3651     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3652     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3653     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3654     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3655     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3656 
  3657   New theories:
  3658     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3659     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3660     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3661     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3662     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3663 
  3664   Discontinued theories:
  3665     BNF/BNF.thy
  3666     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3667 
  3668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3669 
  3670 * New (co)datatype package:
  3671   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3672   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3673     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3674   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3675     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3676   - Renamed commands:
  3677       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3678       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3679       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3680     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3682     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3683     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3685     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3686     using "prim(co)rec".
  3687     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3689     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3690     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3692     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3693     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3694     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Old datatype package:
  3697   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3698     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3699     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3701     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3702     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3705   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3706   BNF-based datatype package.
  3707 
  3708   Renamed constants:
  3709     Option.set ~> set_option
  3710     Option.map ~> map_option
  3711     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3712 
  3713   Renamed theorems:
  3714     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3715     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3716     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3717     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3718     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3719     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3720     map.simps ~> list.map
  3721     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3722     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3723     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3724 
  3725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726 
  3727 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3728     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3729     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3730     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3731     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3732     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3733     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3734     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3735     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3736     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3737     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3738 
  3739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3740 
  3741 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3742   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3743   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3744   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3745   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3746     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3747     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3748       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3749       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3750       automatically
  3751     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3752     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3753       automatically for datatypes
  3754   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3755     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3756       more
  3757       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3759       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3760       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3762       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3763       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3765     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3767     form
  3768     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3770     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3772     Code_Numeral.natural
  3773     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3775     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3778 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3779 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3780 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3781 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3782 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3783 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3786 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3787 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3788 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3789 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3790 
  3791 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3792 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3793 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3794 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3795 
  3796 * Sledgehammer:
  3797   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3798   - MaSh overhaul:
  3799     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3800       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3801     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3802       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3803       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3804       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3805   - New option:
  3806       smt_proofs
  3807   - Renamed options:
  3808       isar_compress ~> compress
  3809       isar_try0 ~> try0
  3810 
  3811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  3814 
  3815 * Nitpick:
  3816   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  3817     take infinite values.
  3818   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  3819     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  3820   - Removed "std" option.
  3821   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  3822     "hide_types".
  3823 
  3824 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  3825 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826 
  3827 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  3828 
  3829 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  3830   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  3831   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  3832     SUP instead uniformly.
  3833   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  3834     or SUP and Sup.
  3835   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  3836   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  3837   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  3838     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  3839     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  3840 
  3841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3842 
  3843 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  3844 
  3845 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  3846 
  3847   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3848   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3849   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3850   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3851 
  3852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  3855 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  3856 
  3857 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  3858 
  3859     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  3860     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  3861     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  3862     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  3863     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  3864     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  3865     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  3866     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  3867     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  3868     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  3869     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  3870     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  3871     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  3872     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  3873     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3874     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3875     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  3876     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  3877     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  3878     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  3879     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  3880     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  3881     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  3882     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  3883     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  3884     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  3885     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  3886     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  3887     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  3888     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  3889     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  3890     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  3891     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  3892     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  3893     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  3894     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  3895     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  3896     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  3897     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  3898     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  3899     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  3900     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  3901     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  3902     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3903     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3904     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  3905     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  3906     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  3907     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  3908     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  3909     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  3910     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  3911     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  3912     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  3913     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  3914     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  3915     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  3916     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  3917     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  3918 
  3919   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  3920   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  3921   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  3922     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  3923 
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  3927 
  3928   Fact consolidations:
  3929     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  3930     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  3931     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  3932     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  3933     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  3934     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  3935     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  3936     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  3937     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  3938     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  3939     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  3940     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  3941     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  3942     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  3943     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  3944     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  3945     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  3946     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  3947     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  3948     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  3949     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  3950     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  3951     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  3952     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  3953     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  3954     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  3955     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  3956     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  3957     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  3958     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  3959     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  3960     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  3961     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  3962     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  3963     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  3964     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  3965     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  3966     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  3967     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  3968     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  3969 
  3970 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  3971 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  3972 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  3973 
  3974 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  3975 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  3976 
  3977 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  3978 
  3979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  3982 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  3985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  3988     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  3989 
  3990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  3993   consolidation:
  3994     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  3995     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  3996 
  3997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998 
  3999 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4000   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4001   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4002   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4003     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4004   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4005     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4006   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4007 
  4008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4011 
  4012     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4013     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4014     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4015     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4016     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4017     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4018     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4019     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4020     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4021     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4022     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4023     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4024     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4025 
  4026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4029 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4030 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4031 
  4032 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4033     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4034     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4035     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4036     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4037 
  4038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4039 
  4040 * Fact name consolidation:
  4041     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4042     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4043     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4044     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4045     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4046 
  4047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4050 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4051 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4052 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4053 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4054 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4055 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4059 
  4060 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4061 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4062 
  4063 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4064 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4065 
  4066 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4067 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4068 or the brute way with
  4069 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4070 
  4071 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4072 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4073 stating boundedness of sets.
  4074 
  4075 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4076 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4077 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4078 
  4079 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4080   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4081   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4082   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4083   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4084   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4085   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4086   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4087   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4088   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4089   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4090   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4091 
  4092   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4093 
  4094   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4095 
  4096     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4097     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4098     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4099     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4100     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4101 
  4102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4103 
  4104 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4105   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4106 
  4107   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4108 
  4109   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4110 
  4111   - removed constant isDiff
  4112 
  4113   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4114     input syntax.
  4115 
  4116   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4117 
  4118   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4119 
  4120   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4121 
  4122   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4123 
  4124   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4125     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4126     has_vector_derivative.
  4127 
  4128   - Other renamings:
  4129     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4130     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4131     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4132     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4133     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4134     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4135     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4136 
  4137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4140 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4141 in continuous_intros.
  4142 
  4143 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4144 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4145 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4146 
  4147 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4148 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4149 especially removes
  4150 
  4151     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4152 
  4153 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4154     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4155 
  4156 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4157 
  4158   Renamings:
  4159     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4160     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4161     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4162     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4163     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4164     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4165     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4166     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4167     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4168     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4169     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4170     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4171 
  4172     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4173     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4174     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4175 
  4176   Removed theorems:
  4177     complex_zero_def
  4178     complex_add_def
  4179     complex_minus_def
  4180     complex_diff_def
  4181     complex_one_def
  4182     complex_mult_def
  4183     complex_inverse_def
  4184     complex_scaleR_def
  4185 
  4186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4189 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4192 
  4193 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4194 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4195 
  4196 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4197 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4200 
  4201 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 * HOL-Word:
  4205   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4206     of "word_arith_wis".
  4207   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4208     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4209     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4210 
  4211 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4212   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4213   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4214   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4215     (except the AFP)
  4216 
  4217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4220   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4221   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4222     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4223   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4224     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4225     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4226     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4227     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4228     intervals.
  4229   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4230     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4231     - renamed theorems:
  4232         interval ~> box
  4233         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4234         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4235         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4236         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4237         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4238         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4239         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4240         open_interval ~> open_box
  4241         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4242         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4243         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4244         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4245         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4246         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4247         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4248         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4249         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4250         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4251         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4252         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4253         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4254         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4255         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4256         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4257         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4258         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4259         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4260         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4261         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4262         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4263         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4264         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4265 
  4266     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4267         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4268         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4269         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4270         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4271         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4272         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4273         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4274         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4275         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4276         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4277         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4278         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4279         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4280         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4281         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4282         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4283         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4284 
  4285   - renamed theorems:
  4286     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4287     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4288     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4289 
  4290 * HOL-Probability:
  4291   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4292 
  4293     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4294       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4295 
  4296     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4297 
  4298   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4299     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4300 
  4301     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4302     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4303     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4304     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4305     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4306     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4307     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4308     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4309     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4310     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4311     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4312     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4313     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4314     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4315     integral_indicator          ~>
  4316          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4317     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4318     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4319     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4320 
  4321     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4322          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4323 
  4324     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4325          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4326 
  4327     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4328          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4329 
  4330     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4331          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4332          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4333 
  4334     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4335          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4336 
  4337     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4338          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4339 
  4340     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4341          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4342          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4343 
  4344     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4345          nn_integral_real_affine
  4346 
  4347     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4348          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4349 
  4350     The following theorems where removed:
  4351 
  4352     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4353     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4354     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4355     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4356     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4357     integral_cmul_indicator
  4358     integral_real
  4359 
  4360   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4361     distributed random variables.
  4362 
  4363 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4364 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 
  4368 *** Scala ***
  4369 
  4370 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4371 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4372 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4373 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4374 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4377 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 
  4380 *** ML ***
  4381 
  4382 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4383 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4384 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4385 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4386 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4387 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4388 
  4389 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4390 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4391 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4392 actually belongs to it).
  4393 
  4394 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4395 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4396 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4397 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4398 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4399 of schematic variables.
  4400 
  4401 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4402 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4405 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4406 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4412 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4413 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4417 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4419 formal context.
  4420 
  4421 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4422 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4425 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4426 
  4427 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4428 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4429 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4430 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4431 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4432 
  4433 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4434 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4435 purposes.
  4436 
  4437 
  4438 *** System ***
  4439 
  4440 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4441 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4442 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4443 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4444 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4445 
  4446 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4447 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4448 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4449 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4450 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4451 settings variable.
  4452 
  4453 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4454 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4455 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4456 
  4457 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4458 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4459 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4460 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4461 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4462 
  4463 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4464 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4465 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4466 
  4467 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4468 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4469 
  4470 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4471 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4472 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4473 
  4474 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4475 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4476 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4477 processing is started.
  4478 
  4479 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4480 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4481 
  4482 
  4483 
  4484 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4485 -------------------------------------
  4486 
  4487 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4488 
  4489 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4490 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4491 
  4492 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4493 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4494 
  4495 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4496 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4497 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4498 
  4499 
  4500 *** System ***
  4501 
  4502 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4503 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4504 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4505 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4506 
  4507 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4508 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4509 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4510 
  4511 
  4512 
  4513 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4514 -------------------------------------
  4515 
  4516 *** General ***
  4517 
  4518 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4519 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4520 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4523 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4526 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4527 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4528 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4529 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4530 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4531 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4532 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4533 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4534 syntax.
  4535 
  4536 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4537 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538 
  4539 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4540 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4541 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4542 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4543 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4544 
  4545 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4549 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4550 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4551 
  4552 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4553 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4554 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4555 
  4556 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4557 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4558 
  4559 
  4560 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4561 
  4562 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4563 Documentation panel.
  4564 
  4565 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4566 documentation.
  4567 
  4568 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4569 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4570 
  4571 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4572 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4573 normal editing and checking process.
  4574 
  4575 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4576 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4577 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4578 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4579 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4580 
  4581 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4582 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4583 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4584 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4585 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4586 
  4587 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4588 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4589 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4590 
  4591 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4592 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4593 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4594 to resolve conflict.
  4595 
  4596 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4597 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4598 
  4599 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4600 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4601 such command executions while editing.
  4602 
  4603 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4604 document content.
  4605 
  4606 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4607 toplevel theorem statements.
  4608 
  4609 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4610 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4611 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4612 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4613 
  4614 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4615 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4616 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4617 
  4618 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4619 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4620 
  4621 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4622 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4623 
  4624 
  4625 *** Pure ***
  4626 
  4627 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4628 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4629 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4630 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4631 details.
  4632 
  4633 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4634 
  4635 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4636 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4637 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4638 
  4639 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4641 
  4642 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4643 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4644 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4645 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4648 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4649 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4652 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4653 
  4654 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4655 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4656 situations.
  4657 
  4658 
  4659 *** HOL ***
  4660 
  4661 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4662 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4666 
  4667 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4668 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4669 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4670 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4671 
  4672   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4673 
  4674 * Code generator:
  4675   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4676     'code_instance'.
  4677   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4678     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4679 
  4680 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4681 examples.
  4682 
  4683 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4684 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4685 to distinguish both when desired.
  4686 
  4687 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4688 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4689 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4690 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4691 
  4692 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4693 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4694 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4695 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4696 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4697 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4700 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4701 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4702 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4703 
  4704 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4705 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4706 
  4707 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4708 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4709 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4710 
  4711 * Lifting:
  4712   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4713     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4714       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4715       transfer rules
  4716     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4717       correspondence relation can be generated
  4718     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4719       parametricity
  4720     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4721   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4722   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4723     copies
  4724   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4725     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4726     anonymous context)
  4727   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4728     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4729   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4730     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4731   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4732     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4733 
  4734 * Transfer:
  4735   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4736     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4737   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4738   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4739     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4740   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4741 
  4742 * Reification and reflection:
  4743   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4744     "Reification".
  4745   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4746   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4750   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4751     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4752     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4753   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4754     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4755   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4756     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4757     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4758     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4759     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4760     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4761     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4762     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4763   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4764     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4765   - Fact renames:
  4766       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4767       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4769 
  4770 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4771 
  4772 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4773 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4774 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4778 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4779 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4780 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4781 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4782 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4783 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4784 lemmas.
  4785 
  4786 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4787 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4788 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4791 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4792 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4793 
  4794 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4795 top and bottom elements.
  4796 
  4797 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4798 
  4799 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4800 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4801 
  4802  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4803    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4804    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4805 
  4806  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4807    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  4808    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  4809 
  4810    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  4811    arbitrary filter.
  4812 
  4813  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  4814    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  4815    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  4816    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  4817    on a compact set.
  4818 
  4819  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  4820    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  4821    linear_continuum_topology).
  4822 
  4823  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  4824    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  4825    on all sequences converging to x.
  4826 
  4827  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  4828    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  4829    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  4830    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  4831    left or right.
  4832 
  4833  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  4834 
  4835      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  4836 
  4837  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  4838    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  4839 
  4840  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  4841    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  4842    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  4843    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  4844    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  4845    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  4846 
  4847  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  4848 
  4849    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  4850 
  4851    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  4852      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  4853 
  4854    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  4855 
  4856    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  4857      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  4858 
  4859    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  4860 
  4861    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  4862 
  4863  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  4864 
  4865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Nitpick:
  4868   - Added option "spy".
  4869   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  4870 
  4871 * Sledgehammer:
  4872   - Renamed option:
  4873       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  4874     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  4876   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  4877   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  4878 
  4879 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  4880 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  4881 
  4882 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  4883   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  4884   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  4885     generated code.
  4886   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  4887   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  4888   - Fact renames:
  4889     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  4890     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  4891     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  4892 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  4895 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  4896 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  4897 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  4898 
  4899 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  4900 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  4901 
  4902 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  4905 
  4906     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  4907     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  4908 
  4909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  4912 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  4913 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  4914 
  4915 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  4916 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  4917 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  4918 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4919 
  4920 * HOL-BNF:
  4921   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  4922     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  4923     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  4924     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  4925   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  4926     coinduct).
  4927   - Renamed keywords:
  4928     data ~> datatype_new
  4929     codata ~> codatatype
  4930     bnf_def ~> bnf
  4931   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  4932     discs ~> disc
  4933     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  4934     map_id' ~> map_id
  4935     sels ~> sel
  4936     set_map' ~> set_map
  4937     sets ~> set
  4938 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4939 
  4940 
  4941 *** ML ***
  4942 
  4943 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  4944 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  4945 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  4946 Examples.thy in particular.
  4947 
  4948 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  4949 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  4950 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  4951 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  4952 
  4953 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  4954 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  4955 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  4956 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  4957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4958 
  4959 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  4960 
  4961     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  4962     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  4963 
  4964 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  4967 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  4968 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  4969 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  4970 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  4971 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  4972 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  4973 
  4974 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  4975 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  4976 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  4977 clasets separately from the context.
  4978 
  4979 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  4980 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  4981 
  4982 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  4983 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  4984 
  4985 
  4986 *** System ***
  4987 
  4988 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  4989 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990 
  4991 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  4992 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4993 
  4994 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  4995 settings variable.
  4996 
  4997 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  4998 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  4999 always pdf.
  5000 
  5001 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5002 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5003 
  5004 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5005 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5006 
  5007 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5008 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5009 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5010 
  5011 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5012 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5013 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5014 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5015 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5016 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5017 
  5018 
  5019 
  5020 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5021 -----------------------------------
  5022 
  5023 *** General ***
  5024 
  5025 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5026 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5027 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5028 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5029 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5030 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5031 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5032 
  5033 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5034 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5035 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5036 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5037 
  5038 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5039 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5040 
  5041 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5042 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5043 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5044 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5045 dependencies properly.
  5046 
  5047 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5048 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5049 
  5050 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5051 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5052 
  5053 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5054 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5055 and "class ... context ...".
  5056 
  5057 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5058 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5059 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5060 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5061 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5062 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5063 
  5064 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5065 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5066 
  5067 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5068 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5069 
  5070 
  5071 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5072 
  5073 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5074 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5075 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5076 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5077 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5078 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5079 
  5080 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5081 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5082 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5083 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5084 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5085 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5086 
  5087 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5088 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5089 browser on demand.
  5090 
  5091 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5092 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5093 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5094 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5095 
  5096 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5097 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5098 
  5099 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5100 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5101 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5102 potentially infinite message streams.
  5103 
  5104 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5105 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5106 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5107 schemes.
  5108 
  5109 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5110 symbols.
  5111 
  5112 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5113 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5114 
  5115 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5116 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5117 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5118 
  5119 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5120 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5121 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5122 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5123 
  5124 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5125 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5126 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5127 
  5128 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5129 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5130 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5131 Isabelle distribution.
  5132 
  5133 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5134 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5135 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5136 
  5137 
  5138 *** Pure ***
  5139 
  5140 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5141 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5142 
  5143 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5144 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5145 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5148 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5149 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5150 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5151 with some care where this is really required.
  5152 
  5153 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5154 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5155 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5156 
  5157   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5158 
  5159 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5160 a Hasse diagram.
  5161 
  5162 
  5163 *** HOL ***
  5164 
  5165 * Sledgehammer:
  5166 
  5167   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5168     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5169   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5170   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5171   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5172   - Renamed options:
  5173       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5174       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5175       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5176       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5177 
  5178 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5179 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5180 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5181 
  5182 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * Lifting:
  5186   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5187   - quot_del attribute
  5188   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5189 
  5190 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5191 expressions.
  5192 
  5193 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5194 pointfree expressions.
  5195 
  5196 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5197 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5198 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5199 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5203 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5204 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5205 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5206 accordingly.
  5207 
  5208 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5209 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5210 
  5211 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5212 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5213 
  5214 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5215 
  5216 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5217 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5218 
  5219 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5220 
  5221 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5222 
  5223   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5224   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5225 
  5226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5227 
  5228 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5229 
  5230   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5231   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5232 
  5233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5234 
  5235 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5236 
  5237   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5238     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5239     output f x converges to G.
  5240 
  5241   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5242     infinity (at_bot).
  5243 
  5244   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5245     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5246 
  5247   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5248     at_top".
  5249 
  5250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5253 lattice type classes.
  5254 
  5255 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5256 
  5257     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5258     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5259 
  5260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5261 
  5262 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5263 changes as follows.
  5264 
  5265   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5266 
  5267       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5268       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5269 
  5270   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5271     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5272     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5273     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5274 
  5275   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5276     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5277     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5278 
  5279   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5280     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5281     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5282     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5283 
  5284   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5285     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5286 
  5287       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5288       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5289       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5290       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5291       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5292       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5293       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5294       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5295       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5296       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5297       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5298       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5299       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5300       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5301       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5302       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5303 
  5304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5305 
  5306 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5307 
  5308 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5309 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5310 
  5311 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5312 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5313 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5314 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5315 
  5316   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5317   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5318   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5319   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5320   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5321   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5322   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5323   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5324   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5325   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5326 
  5327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5330 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5331 Data").
  5332 
  5333 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5334 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5335 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5336 code.
  5337 
  5338 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5339 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5340 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5342 
  5343 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5344 
  5345 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5346 
  5347 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5348 
  5349   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5350   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5351 
  5352 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5353 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5354 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5355 
  5356   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5357 
  5358     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5359     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5360     cart_base i  removed
  5361     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5362 
  5363   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5364 
  5365   Renamed lemmas:
  5366 
  5367     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5368     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5369     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5370     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5371     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5372     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5373     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5374     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5375     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5376     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5377 
  5378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5379 
  5380 * HOL/Probability:
  5381 
  5382   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5383 
  5384   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5385     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5386     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5387 
  5388   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5389     projective family).
  5390 
  5391 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5392 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5393 
  5394 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5395 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5396 datatypes.
  5397 
  5398 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5399 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5400 
  5401 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5402 trees for the code generator.
  5403 
  5404 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5405 Lifting/Transfer.
  5406 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5407 
  5408 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5410 
  5411 
  5412 *** Document preparation ***
  5413 
  5414 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5415 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5416 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5417 
  5418 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5419 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5420 
  5421 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5422 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5423 document/root.tex.
  5424 
  5425 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5426 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5427 
  5428 
  5429 *** ML ***
  5430 
  5431 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5432 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5433 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5434 
  5435 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5436 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5437 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5438 
  5439 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5440 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5441 necessarily printing visible text.
  5442 
  5443 
  5444 *** System ***
  5445 
  5446 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5447 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5448 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5449 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5450 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5451 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5452 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5453 
  5454 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5455 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5456 
  5457   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5458 
  5459 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5460 
  5461 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5462 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5463 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5464 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5465 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5466 
  5467 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5468 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5469 
  5470 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5471 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5472 
  5473 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5477 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5478 version of Isabelle.
  5479 
  5480 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5481 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5482 
  5483 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5484 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5485 for home-made settings.
  5486 
  5487 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5488 
  5489 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5490 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5491 configuration.
  5492 
  5493 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5494 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5495 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5496 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5497 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5498 
  5499 
  5500 
  5501 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5502 ------------------------------
  5503 
  5504 *** General ***
  5505 
  5506 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5507 
  5508   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5509     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5510   - markup for bound variables
  5511   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5512   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5513   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5514     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5515 
  5516 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5517 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5518 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5519 
  5520 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5521 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5522 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5523 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5524 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5525 
  5526   context
  5527     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5528     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5529   begin
  5530 
  5531   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5532 
  5533   end
  5534 
  5535   thm my_trans
  5536 
  5537 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5538 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5539 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5540 
  5541 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5542 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5543 
  5544 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5545 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5546 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5547 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5548 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5549 
  5550 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5551 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5552 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5553 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5554 indices of schematic variables.
  5555 
  5556 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5557 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5558 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5559 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5560 etc. was exploited.
  5561 
  5562 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5563 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5564 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5565 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5566 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5567 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5568 
  5569 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5570 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5571 manual.
  5572 
  5573 
  5574 *** Pure ***
  5575 
  5576 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5577 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5578 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5579 
  5580 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5581 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5582 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5583 undocumented feature.)
  5584 
  5585 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5586 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5587 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5588 
  5589   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5590 
  5591   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5592     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5593 
  5594 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5595 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5596 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5597 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5598 
  5599 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5600 
  5601     num ~> num_token
  5602     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5603     xstr ~> str_token
  5604 
  5605 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5606 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5607 position information via constraints).
  5608 
  5609 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5610 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5611 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5612 
  5613 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5614 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5615 
  5616 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5617 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5618 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5619 
  5620 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5621 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5622 
  5623 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5624 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5625 
  5626   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5627 
  5628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5629 
  5630 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5631 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5634 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5635 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5636 
  5637 
  5638 *** HOL ***
  5639 
  5640 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5641 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5642 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5643 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5644 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5645 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5646 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5647 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5648 possible.
  5649 
  5650 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5651 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5652 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5653 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5654 
  5655 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5656 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5657 
  5658 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5659 
  5660 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5661 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5662 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5663 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5664 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5665 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5666 
  5667   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5668     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5669 
  5670   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5671     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5672     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5673 
  5674   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5675     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5676 
  5677   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5678     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5679     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5680 
  5681   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5682     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5683 
  5684 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5685 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5686 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5687 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5688 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5689 
  5690   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5691     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5692     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5693     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5694     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5695 
  5696     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5697     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5698 
  5699   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5700     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5701     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5702     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5703     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5704     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5705     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5706     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5707 
  5708   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5709     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5710     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5711     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5712 
  5713   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5714     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5715     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5716     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5717 
  5718   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5719     from type nat to type int.
  5720 
  5721 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5722 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5723 
  5724   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5725     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5726     type.  Example syntax:
  5727 
  5728     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5729       is List.insert
  5730 
  5731     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5732     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5733     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5734     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5735     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5736     by the package.
  5737 
  5738   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5739     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5740     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5741     code generation for each constant.
  5742 
  5743   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5744     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5745     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5746     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5747     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5748 
  5749   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5750     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5751     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5752 
  5753 * Quotient package:
  5754 
  5755   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5756     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5757 
  5758   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5759     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5760 
  5761   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5762     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5763     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5764 
  5765   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5766     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5767 
  5768 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5769 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5770 
  5771 * Quickcheck:
  5772 
  5773   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5774     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5775     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5776     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5777     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5778 
  5779     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5780     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5781     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5782 
  5783     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5784     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5785 
  5786     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5787     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5788     show genuine counterexamples.
  5789 
  5790   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5791     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5792 
  5793     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5794     constructors of that type.
  5795 
  5796   - Support for multisets.
  5797 
  5798   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5799 
  5800   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5801     conjectures in a locale context.
  5802 
  5803 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5804 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5805 
  5806 * Sledgehammer:
  5807   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  5808     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  5809   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  5810   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  5811     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  5812   - Sped up the minimizer.
  5813   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  5814   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  5815   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  5816 
  5817 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  5818 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  5819 
  5820 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  5821 
  5822 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  5825 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  5826 
  5827   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  5828 
  5829 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  5830 a list and a nat.
  5831 
  5832 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  5833 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  5834 
  5835 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  5836 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  5837 default.
  5838 
  5839 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  5840 
  5841   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  5842 
  5843 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  5844 
  5845 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  5846 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  5847 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  5848 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  5849 one_case.
  5850 
  5851 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  5852 the result of the fact expression.
  5853 
  5854 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  5855 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  5856 of some relation theorems:
  5857 
  5858   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  5859   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5860   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  5861   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  5862   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  5863   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  5864 
  5865 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  5866 
  5867 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  5868 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  5869 
  5870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871 
  5872 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  5873 to match the constant's name:
  5874 
  5875   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  5876   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  5877   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  5878   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  5879   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  5880   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  5881   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  5882   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  5883   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  5884   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  5885   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  5886   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  5887   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  5888   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  5889   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  5890   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  5891   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  5892   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  5893   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  5894   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  5895   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  5896   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5897   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5898   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  5899 
  5900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5901 
  5902 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  5903 and corresponding theorem names:
  5904 
  5905   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  5906 
  5907   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  5908 
  5909   - Renamed theorems:
  5910 
  5911     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  5912     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  5913     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  5914     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  5915     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  5916     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  5917     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  5918     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  5919     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  5920     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  5921     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  5922     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  5923     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5924     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  5925     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  5926     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  5927     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  5928     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  5929     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  5930     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  5931     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  5932     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  5933     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  5934 
  5935     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  5936 
  5937     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  5938 
  5939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  5942 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5943 
  5944   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  5945   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  5946   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  5947   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  5948   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  5949   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  5950   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  5951   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  5952   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  5953   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  5954   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  5955   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  5956   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  5957   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  5958   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  5959   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  5960   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  5961   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  5962   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  5963   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  5964   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  5965 
  5966 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  5967 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  5972 
  5973   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  5974   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  5975   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  5976   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  5977   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  5978   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  5979   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  5980   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  5981   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  5982   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  5983   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  5984   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  5985   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  5986   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  5987   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  5988   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  5989   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  5990   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  5991 
  5992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 
  5994 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  5995 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  5996 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  5997 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  5998 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  5999 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6000 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6001 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6002 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6003 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6004 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6005 
  6006 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6007 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6008 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6009 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6010 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6011 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6012 
  6013 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6014 through option types.
  6015 
  6016 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6017 relations.
  6018 
  6019 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6020 
  6021 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6022 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6023 
  6024   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6025   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6026   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6027   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6028   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6029   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6030   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6031   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6032   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6033   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6034   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6035   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6036   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6037   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6038   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6039   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6040   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6041   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6042   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6043   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6044   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6045   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6046   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6047   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6048   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6049   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6050   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6051   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6052   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6053   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6054   zless_le ~> less_le
  6055   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6056   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6057   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6058 
  6059 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6060 
  6061   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6062 
  6063 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  6064 
  6065 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  6066 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  6067 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  6068 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  6069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6072 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  6073 
  6074 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  6075 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  6076 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  6077 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  6078 follows:
  6079 
  6080   Operations:
  6081   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  6082   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  6083   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  6084   del -> rbt_del
  6085   delete -> rbt_delete
  6086   ins -> rbt_ins
  6087   insert -> rbt_insert
  6088   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  6089   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  6090   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  6091   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  6092   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  6093   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  6094   tree_less -> rbt_less
  6095   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  6096   union -> rbt_union
  6097   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  6098   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  6099 
  6100   Lemmas:
  6101   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  6102   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  6103   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  6104   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  6105   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  6106   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  6107   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  6108   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  6109   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  6110   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  6111   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  6112   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  6113   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  6114   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  6115   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  6116   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  6117   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  6118   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  6119   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  6120   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  6121   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  6122   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  6123   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  6124   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  6125   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  6126   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  6127   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  6128   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  6129   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  6130   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  6131   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  6132   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  6133   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  6134   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  6135   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  6136   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  6137   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  6138   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  6139   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  6140   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  6141   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  6142   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  6143   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  6144   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  6145   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  6146   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  6147   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  6148   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  6149   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  6150   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  6151   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  6152   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  6153   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  6154   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  6155   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  6156   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  6157   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  6158   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  6159   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  6160   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  6161   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  6162   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  6163   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  6164   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  6165   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  6166   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  6167   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  6168   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  6169   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  6170   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  6171   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  6172   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  6173   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  6174   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  6175   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  6176   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  6177   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  6178   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  6179   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  6180   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  6181   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  6182   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  6183   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  6184 
  6185 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  6186 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  6187 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6188 
  6189   Changed Operations:
  6190   float_abs -> abs
  6191   float_nprt -> nprt
  6192   float_pprt -> pprt
  6193   pow2 -> use powr
  6194   round_down -> float_round_down
  6195   round_up -> float_round_up
  6196   scale -> exponent
  6197 
  6198   Removed Operations:
  6199   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  6200 
  6201   Renamed Lemmas:
  6202   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  6203   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  6204   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  6205   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  6206   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  6207   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  6208   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  6209   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  6210   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  6211   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  6212   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  6213   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  6214   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  6215   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  6216   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  6217   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  6218   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  6219   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  6220   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  6221   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  6222   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  6223   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  6224   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  6225   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  6226   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  6227   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  6228   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  6229   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  6230   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  6231   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  6232   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  6233   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  6234   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  6235   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  6236   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  6237   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  6238 
  6239   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  6240   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  6241   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  6242   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  6243   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  6244   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  6245   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  6246   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  6247   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  6248   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  6249 
  6250 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  6251 association lists with distinct keys.
  6252 
  6253 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  6254 annotated commands.
  6255 
  6256 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  6257 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  6258 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  6259 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6260 
  6261 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  6262 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  6263 instead.
  6264 
  6265   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  6266   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  6267   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  6268   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  6269   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  6270   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  6271   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  6272   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6273   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6274   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6275   word_add_commute ~> add_commute