NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Jun 28 14:05:12 2013 +0200 (2013-06-28 ago)
changeset 52471 ff0e0bb81597
parent 52470 dedd7952a62c
child 52487 48bc24467008
permissions -rw-r--r--
support for idea-icons (using ideaIC-129.354/platform/icons/src from IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition 12.1.2);
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" and "proofs" as system
    10 options (see also "isabelle options"), configuration option within the
    11 context (see also Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in
    12 Isabelle/Isar.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official
    13 Isabelle means these options, instead of poking into mutable
    14 references.
    15 
    16 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    17 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    18 
    19 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    20 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    21 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    22 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    23 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    24 presentation of theories.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    27 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    28 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    31 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    32 
    33 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    34 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    35 
    36 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    37 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    38 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    39 
    40 
    41 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    42 
    43 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    44 documentation.
    45 
    46 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    47 timing information.
    48 
    49 * Option to skip over proofs, using implicit 'sorry' internally.
    50 
    51 
    52 *** Pure ***
    53 
    54 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
    55 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
    56 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57 
    58 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
    59 Particulary, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
    60 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.
    61 See "isar-ref" manual for details.
    62 
    63 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
    64 
    65 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    66 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    67 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    68 
    69 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
    70 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    71 
    72 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
    73 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
    74 situations.
    75 
    76 
    77 *** HOL ***
    78 
    79 * Code generator:
    80   * 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' / 'code_instance'.
    81   * 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in generated code,
    82     subsuming 'code_modulename'.
    83   See the Isar reference manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for examples.
    84 
    85 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
    86   * Use lifting for primitive definitions.
    87   * Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for generated code.
    88   * Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
    89   * Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
    90   * Fact renames:
    91     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
    92     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
    93     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
    94 IMCOMPATIBILTIY.
    95 
    96 * Reification and reflection:
    97   * Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure "Reification".
    98   * Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
    99   * The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   101 
   102 * Weaker precendence of syntax for big intersection and union on sets,
   103 in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   104 
   105 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check
   106   phase rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators
   107   is separated from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   108   "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   109 
   110   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   111 
   112 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   113 
   114 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   115   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   116     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   117     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   118   - Locales (Ā»mini packagesĀ«) for fundamental definitions with
   119     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   120   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   121     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   122     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   123     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   124     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   125     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   126     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   127     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
   128   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   129     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   130   - Fact renames:
   131       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   132       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   133 
   134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   135 
   136 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   137 
   138 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.
   139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
   142 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
   143 
   144 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
   145 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
   146 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   147 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   148 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
   149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   152 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   153 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
   154 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a complete
   157   lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and bottom elements.
   158   Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and extended reals.
   159   Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation of
   160   conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   161   conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from Inf_...
   162   to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice lemmas.
   163 
   164   Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of conditionally-complete
   165   lattices and inner dense linorders which have more than one element.
   166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without top
   169   and bottom elements.
   170 
   171 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   172 
   173 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   174   HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   175 
   176  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   177    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   178    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   179 
   180  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   181    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   182    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   183 
   184    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   185    filter.
   186 
   187  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   188    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   189    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   190    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   191 
   192  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   193    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   194    linear_continuum_topology).
   195 
   196  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   197    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   198    all sequences converging to x.
   199 
   200  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   201    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   202    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   203    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   204 
   205  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   206 
   207      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   208 
   209  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   210    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   211 
   212  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   213    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   214    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   215    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   216    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   217    equivalence by the simplifier.
   218 
   219  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   220 
   221    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   222 
   223    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   224      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   225 
   226    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   227 
   228    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   229      Limits
   230 
   231    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   232 
   233    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   234 
   235  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   236 
   237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238 
   239 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   240 
   241     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   242     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   243 
   244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Sledgehammer:
   247 
   248   - Renamed option:
   249       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   250 
   251 * HOL-Spec_Check: a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle's ML environment.
   252   
   253   With HOL-Spec_Check, ML developers can check specifications with the
   254   ML function check_property. The specifications must be of the form
   255   "ALL x1 ... xn. Prop x1 ... xn". Simple examples are in
   256   src/HOL/Spec_Check/Examples.thy.
   257 
   258 
   259 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   260 
   261 * Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and .../poly.
   262 Existing theories should be based on src/HOL/Library/Polynomial
   263 instead.  The latter provides integration with HOL's type classes for
   264 rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   265 
   266 
   267 *** ML ***
   268 
   269 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   270 
   271     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   272     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   273 
   274 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   275 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   276 
   277 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   278 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   279 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   280 clasets separately from the context.
   281 
   282 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   283 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   284 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   285 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   286 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   287 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   288 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   289 
   290 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   292 
   293 
   294 *** System ***
   295 
   296 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   297 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   300 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   303 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   304 
   305 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   306 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   307 
   308 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   309 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   310 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   311 
   312 
   313 
   314 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   315 -----------------------------------
   316 
   317 *** General ***
   318 
   319 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   320 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   321 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   322 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   323 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   324 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   325 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   326 
   327 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   328 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   329 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   330 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   331 
   332 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   333 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   334 
   335 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   336 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   337 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   338 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   339 dependencies properly.
   340 
   341 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   342 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   343 
   344 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   345 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   346 
   347 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   348 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   349 and "class ... context ...".
   350 
   351 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   352 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   353 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   354 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   355 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   356 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   357 
   358 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   359 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   360 
   361 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   362 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   363 
   364 
   365 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   366 
   367 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   368 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   369 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   370 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   371 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   372 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   373 
   374 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   375 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   376 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   377 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   378 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   379 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   380 
   381 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   382 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   383 browser on demand.
   384 
   385 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   386 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   387 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   388 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   389 
   390 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   391 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   392 
   393 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   394 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   395 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   396 potentially infinite message streams.
   397 
   398 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   399 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   400 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   401 schemes.
   402 
   403 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   404 symbols.
   405 
   406 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   407 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   408 
   409 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   410 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   411 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   412 
   413 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   414 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   415 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   416 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   417 
   418 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   419 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   420 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   421 
   422 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   423 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   424 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   425 Isabelle distribution.
   426 
   427 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   428 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   429 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   430 
   431 
   432 *** Pure ***
   433 
   434 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   435 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   436 
   437 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   438 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   439 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   442 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   443 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   444 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   445 with some care where this is really required.
   446 
   447 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   448 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   449 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   450 
   451   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   452 
   453 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   454 a Hasse diagram.
   455 
   456 
   457 *** HOL ***
   458 
   459 * Sledgehammer:
   460 
   461   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   462     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   463   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   464   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   465   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   466   - Renamed options:
   467       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   468       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   469       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   470       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   471 
   472 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   473 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   474 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   475 
   476 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Lifting:
   480   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   481   - quot_del attribute
   482   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   483 
   484 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   485 expressions.
   486 
   487 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   488 pointfree expressions.
   489 
   490 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   491 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   492 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   493 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   497 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   498 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   499 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   500 accordingly.
   501 
   502 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   503 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   506 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   509 
   510 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   511 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   512 
   513 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   514 
   515 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   516 
   517   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   518   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   519 
   520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   523 
   524   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   525   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   526 
   527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   530 
   531   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   532     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   533     output f x converges to G.
   534 
   535   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   536     infinity (at_bot).
   537 
   538   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   539     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   540 
   541   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   542     at_top".
   543 
   544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   547 lattice type classes.
   548 
   549 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   550 
   551     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   552     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   553 
   554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   555 
   556 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   557 changes as follows.
   558 
   559   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   560 
   561       prefix ~> prefixeq
   562       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   563 
   564   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   565     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   566     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   567     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   568 
   569   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   570     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   571     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   572 
   573   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   574     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   575     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   576     Library/Prefix_Order.
   577 
   578   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   579     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   580 
   581       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   582       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   583       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   584       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   585       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   586       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   587       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   588       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   589       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   590       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   591       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   592       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   593       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   594       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   595       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   596       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   597 
   598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   599 
   600 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   601 
   602 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   603 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   604 
   605 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   606 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   607 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   608 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   609 
   610   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   611   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   612   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   613   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   614   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   615   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   616   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   617   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   618   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   619   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   620 
   621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   624 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   625 Data").
   626 
   627 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   628 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   629 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   630 code.
   631 
   632 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   633 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   634 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   638 
   639 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   640 
   641 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   642 
   643   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   644   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   645 
   646 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   647 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   648 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   649 
   650   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   651 
   652     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   653     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   654     cart_base i  removed
   655     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   656 
   657   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   658 
   659   Renamed lemmas:
   660 
   661     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   662     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   663     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   664     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   665     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   666     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   667     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   668     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   669     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   670     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   671 
   672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * HOL/Probability:
   675 
   676   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   677 
   678   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   679     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   680     (borel_measurable_induct).
   681 
   682   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   683     projective family).
   684 
   685 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   686 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   687 
   688 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   689 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   690 datatypes.
   691 
   692 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   693 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   694 
   695 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   696 trees for the code generator.
   697 
   698 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   699 Lifting/Transfer.
   700 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 
   706 *** Document preparation ***
   707 
   708 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   709 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   710 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   711 
   712 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   713 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   714 
   715 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   716 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   717 document/root.tex.
   718 
   719 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   720 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 
   723 *** ML ***
   724 
   725 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   726 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   727 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   728 
   729 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   730 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   731 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   732 
   733 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   734 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   735 necessarily printing visible text.
   736 
   737 
   738 *** System ***
   739 
   740 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   741 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   742 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   743 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   744 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   745 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   746 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   747 
   748 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   749 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   750 
   751   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   752 
   753 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   754 
   755 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   756 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   757 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   758 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   759 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   760 
   761 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   762 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   763 
   764 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   765 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   766 
   767 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   771 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   772 version of Isabelle.
   773 
   774 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   775 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   776 
   777 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   778 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   779 for home-made settings.
   780 
   781 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   782 
   783 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   784 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   785 configuration.
   786 
   787 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   788 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   789 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   790 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   791 bundled as Isabelle component.
   792 
   793 
   794 
   795 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   796 ------------------------------
   797 
   798 *** General ***
   799 
   800 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   801 
   802   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   803     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   804   - markup for bound variables
   805   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   806   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   807   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   808     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   809 
   810 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   811 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   812 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   813 
   814 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   815 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   816 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   817 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   818 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   819 
   820   context
   821     fixes x y z :: 'a
   822     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   823   begin
   824 
   825   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   826 
   827   end
   828 
   829   thm my_trans
   830 
   831 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   832 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   833 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   834 
   835 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   836 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   837 
   838 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   839 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   840 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   841 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   842 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   843 
   844 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   845 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   846 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   847 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   848 indices of schematic variables.
   849 
   850 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   851 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   852 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   853 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   854 etc. was exploited.
   855 
   856 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   857 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   858 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   859 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   860 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   861 of the material of that old tutorial.
   862 
   863 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   864 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   865 manual.
   866 
   867 
   868 *** Pure ***
   869 
   870 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   871 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   872 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   873 
   874 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   875 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   876 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   877 undocumented feature.)
   878 
   879 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   880 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   881 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   882 
   883   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   884 
   885   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   886     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   887 
   888 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   889 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   890 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   891 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   892 
   893 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   894 
   895     num ~> num_token
   896     xnum ~> xnum_token
   897     xstr ~> str_token
   898 
   899 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   900 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   901 position information via constraints).
   902 
   903 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   904 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   905 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   906 
   907 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   908 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   909 
   910 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   911 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   912 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   915 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   918 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   919 
   920   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   921 
   922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923 
   924 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   925 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   926 
   927 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   928 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   929 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   930 
   931 
   932 *** HOL ***
   933 
   934 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   935 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   936 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   937 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   938 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   939 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   940 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   941 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   942 possible.
   943 
   944 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   945 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   946 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   947 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   948 
   949 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   950 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   953 
   954 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   955 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   956 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   957 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   958 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   959 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   960 
   961   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   962     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   963 
   964   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   965     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   966     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   967 
   968   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   969     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   970 
   971   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   972     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   973     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   974 
   975   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   976     Redefine using other integer operations.
   977 
   978 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   979 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   980 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   981 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   982 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   983 
   984   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   985     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   986     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   987     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   988     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   989 
   990     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   991     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   992 
   993   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   994     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   995     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   996     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   997     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   998     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   999     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1000     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1001 
  1002   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1003     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1004     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1005     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1006 
  1007   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1008     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1009     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1010     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1011 
  1012   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1013     from type nat to type int.
  1014 
  1015 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1016 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1017 
  1018   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1019     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1020     type.  Example syntax:
  1021 
  1022     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1023       is List.insert
  1024 
  1025     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1026     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1027     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1028     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1029     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1030     by the package.
  1031 
  1032   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1033     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1034     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1035     code generation for each constant.
  1036 
  1037   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1038     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1039     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1040     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1041     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1042 
  1043   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1044     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1045     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1046 
  1047 * Quotient package:
  1048 
  1049   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1050     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1051 
  1052   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1053     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1054 
  1055   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1056     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1057     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1060     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1063 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1064 
  1065 * Quickcheck:
  1066 
  1067   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1068     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1069     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1070     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1071     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1072 
  1073     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1074     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1075     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1076 
  1077     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1078     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1079 
  1080     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1081     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1082     show genuine counterexamples.
  1083 
  1084   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1085     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1086 
  1087     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1088     constructors of that type.
  1089 
  1090   - Support for multisets.
  1091 
  1092   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1093 
  1094   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1095     conjectures in a locale context.
  1096 
  1097 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1098 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1099 
  1100 * Sledgehammer:
  1101   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1102     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1103   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1104   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1105     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1106   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1107   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1108   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1109   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1110 
  1111 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1112 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1113 
  1114 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1115 
  1116 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1119 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1120 
  1121   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1122 
  1123 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1124 a list and a nat.
  1125 
  1126 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1127 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1128 
  1129 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1130 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1131 default.
  1132 
  1133 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1134 
  1135   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1136 
  1137 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1138 
  1139 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1140 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1141 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1142 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1143 one_case.
  1144 
  1145 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1146 the result of the fact expression.
  1147 
  1148 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1149 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1150 of some relation theorems:
  1151 
  1152   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1153   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1154   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1155   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1156   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1157   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1158 
  1159 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1160 
  1161 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1162 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1163 
  1164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1167 to match the constant's name:
  1168 
  1169   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1170   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1171   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1172   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1173   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1174   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1175   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1176   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1177   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1178   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1179   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1180   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1181   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1182   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1183   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1184   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1185   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1186   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1187   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1188   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1189   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1190   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1191   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1192   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1193 
  1194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195 
  1196 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1197 and corresponding theorem names:
  1198 
  1199   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1200 
  1201   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1202 
  1203   - Renamed theorems:
  1204 
  1205     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1206     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1207     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1208     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1209     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1210     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1211     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1212     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1213     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1214     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1215     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1216     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1217     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1218     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1219     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1220     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1221     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1222     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1223     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1224     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1225     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1226     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1227     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1228 
  1229     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1230 
  1231     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1232 
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1236 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1237 
  1238   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1239   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1240   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1241   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1242   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1243   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1244   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1245   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1246   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1247   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1248   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1249   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1250   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1251   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1252   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1253   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1254   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1255   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1256   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1257   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1258   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1259 
  1260 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1261 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1266 
  1267   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1268   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1269   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1270   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1271   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1272   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1273   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1274   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1275   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1276   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1277   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1278   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1279   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1280   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1281   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1282   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1283   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1284   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1285 
  1286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1287 
  1288 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1289 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1290 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1291 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1292 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1293 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1294 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1295 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1296 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1297 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1298 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1299 
  1300 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1301 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1302 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1303 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1304 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1305 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1306 
  1307 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1308 through option types.
  1309 
  1310 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1311 relations.
  1312 
  1313 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1316 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1317 
  1318   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1319   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1320   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1321   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1322   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1323   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1324   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1325   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1326   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1327   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1328   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1329   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1330   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1331   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1332   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1333   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1334   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1335   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1336   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1337   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1338   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1339   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1340   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1341   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1342   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1343   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1344   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1345   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1346   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1347   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1348   zless_le ~> less_le
  1349   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1350   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1351   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1352 
  1353 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1354 
  1355   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1356 
  1357 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1358 
  1359 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1360 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1361 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1362 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1364 
  1365 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1366 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1367 
  1368 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1369 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1370 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1371 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1372 follows:
  1373 
  1374   Operations:
  1375   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1376   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1377   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1378   del -> rbt_del
  1379   delete -> rbt_delete
  1380   ins -> rbt_ins
  1381   insert -> rbt_insert
  1382   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1383   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1384   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1385   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1386   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1387   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1388   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1389   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1390   union -> rbt_union
  1391   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1392   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1393 
  1394   Lemmas:
  1395   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1396   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1397   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1398   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1399   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1400   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1401   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1402   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1403   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1404   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1405   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1406   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1407   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1408   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1409   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1410   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1411   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1412   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1413   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1414   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1415   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1416   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1417   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1418   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1419   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1420   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1421   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1422   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1423   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1424   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1425   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1426   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1427   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1428   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1429   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1430   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1431   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1432   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1433   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1434   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1435   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1436   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1437   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1438   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1439   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1440   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1441   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1442   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1443   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1444   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1445   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1446   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1447   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1448   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1449   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1450   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1451   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1452   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1453   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1454   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1455   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1456   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1457   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1458   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1459   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1460   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1461   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1462   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1463   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1464   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1465   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1466   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1467   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1468   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1469   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1470   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1471   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1472   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1473   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1474   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1475   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1476   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1477   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1478 
  1479 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1480 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1481 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1482 
  1483   Changed Operations:
  1484   float_abs -> abs
  1485   float_nprt -> nprt
  1486   float_pprt -> pprt
  1487   pow2 -> use powr
  1488   round_down -> float_round_down
  1489   round_up -> float_round_up
  1490   scale -> exponent
  1491 
  1492   Removed Operations:
  1493   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1494 
  1495   Renamed Lemmas:
  1496   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1497   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1498   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1499   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1500   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1501   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1502   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1503   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1504   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1505   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1506   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1507   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1508   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1509   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1510   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1511   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1512   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1513   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1514   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1515   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1516   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1517   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1518   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1519   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1520   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1521   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1522   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1523   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1524   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1525   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1526   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1527   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1528   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1529   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1530   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1531   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1532 
  1533   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1534   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1535   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1536   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1537   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1538   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1539   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1540   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1541   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1542   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1543 
  1544 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1545 association lists with distinct keys.
  1546 
  1547 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1548 annotated commands.
  1549 
  1550 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1551 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1552 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1553 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1556 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1557 instead.
  1558 
  1559   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1560   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1561   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1562   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1563   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1564   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1565   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1566   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1567   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1568   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1569   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1570   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1571   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1572   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1573   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1574   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1575   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1576   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1577   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1578   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1579   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1580   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1581   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1582   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1583   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1584   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1585   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1586   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1587   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1588   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1589   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1590   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1591   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1592   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1593   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1594   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1595   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1596   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1597   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1598   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1599   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1600 
  1601 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1602 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1603 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1604 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1605 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1606 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1607 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1608 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1609 
  1610 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1611 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1612 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1613 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1614 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1615 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1616 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1617 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1618 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1619 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1620 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1621 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623   Renamed constants:
  1624   measure -> emeasure
  1625   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1626   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1627   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1628   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1629 
  1630   Removed locales:
  1631   completeable_measure_space
  1632   finite_measure_space
  1633   finite_prob_space
  1634   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1635   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1636   finite_sigma_algebra
  1637   measure_space
  1638   pair_finite_prob_space
  1639   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1640   pair_finite_space
  1641   pair_sigma_algebra
  1642   product_sigma_algebra
  1643 
  1644   Removed constants:
  1645   conditional_space
  1646   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1647   image_space
  1648   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1649   pair_measure_generator
  1650   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1651   subvimage
  1652 
  1653   Replacement theorems:
  1654   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1655   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1656   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1657   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1658   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1659   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1660   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1661   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1662   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1663   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1664   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1665   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1666   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1667   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1668   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1669   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1670   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1671   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1672   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1673   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1674   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1675   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1676   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1677   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1678   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1679   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1680   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1681   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1682   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1683   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1684   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1685   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1686   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1687   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1688   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1689   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1690   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1691   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1692   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1693   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1694   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1695   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1696   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1697   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1698   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1699   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1700   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1701   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1702   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1703   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1704   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1705   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1706   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1707   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1708   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1709   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1710   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1711   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1712   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1713   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1714   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1715   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1716   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1717   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1718   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1719   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1720   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1721   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1722   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1723   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1724   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1725   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1726   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1727   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1728   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1729   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1730   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1731   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1732   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1733   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1734   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1735   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1736   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1737   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1738   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1739   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1740   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1741   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1742   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1743   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1744   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1745   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1746   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1747   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1748   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1749   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1750   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1751   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1752   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1753   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1754   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1755   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1756   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1757   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1758   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1759   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1760   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1761   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1762   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1763   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1764   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1765   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1766   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1767   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1768   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1769   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1770   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1771   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1772   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1773   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1774   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1775   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1776   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1777   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1778   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1779   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1780   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1781   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1782 
  1783 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1784 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1785 
  1786 
  1787 *** FOL ***
  1788 
  1789 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1790 
  1791 
  1792 *** ZF ***
  1793 
  1794 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1795 analysis.
  1796 
  1797 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1798 
  1799 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 
  1802 *** ML ***
  1803 
  1804 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1805 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1806 
  1807 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1808 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1809 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1810 
  1811 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1812 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1813 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1814 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1815 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1816 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1817 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1818 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1819 
  1820 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1821 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1822 
  1823 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1824 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1825 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1826 
  1827 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1828 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1831 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1832 context as well.
  1833 
  1834 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1835 
  1836   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1837   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1838   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1839   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1840   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1841   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1842   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1843   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1844   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1845   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1846   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1847   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1848 
  1849 
  1850 *** System ***
  1851 
  1852 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1853 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1854 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1855 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1856 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1857 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1858 the generic user home was intended.
  1859 
  1860 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1861 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1862 
  1863 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1864 (not just JRE).
  1865 
  1866 
  1867 
  1868 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1869 ------------------------------------
  1870 
  1871 *** General ***
  1872 
  1873 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1874 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1875 
  1876   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1877     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1878     files for checking).
  1879 
  1880   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1881     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1882     positions.
  1883 
  1884   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1885     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1886     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1887 
  1888   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1889     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1890     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1891 
  1892   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1893     cores.
  1894 
  1895   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1896     versions (garbage collection).
  1897 
  1898 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1899 including some remaining limitations.
  1900 
  1901 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1902 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1903 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1904 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1905 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1909 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1910 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1911 
  1912 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1913 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1914 usedir option -Q.
  1915 
  1916 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1917 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1918 
  1919   long_names   ~> names_long
  1920   short_names  ~> names_short
  1921   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1922 
  1923 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1924 
  1925   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1926 
  1927 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1928 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1929 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1930 
  1931 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1932 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1933 
  1934 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1935   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1936   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1937   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1938     "Classical Reasoner".
  1939 
  1940 
  1941 *** HOL ***
  1942 
  1943 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1944 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1947 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1948 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1949 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1950 class complete_linorder.
  1951 
  1952 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1953 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1954 
  1955 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1956 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1957 
  1958   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1959   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1960   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1961   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1962   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1963   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1964   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1965   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1966   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1967   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1968   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1969 
  1970 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1971 
  1972   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1973   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1974   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1975   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1976   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1977   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1978   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1979   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1980   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1981   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1982   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1983   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1984   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1985   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1986   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1987   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1988 
  1989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1990 
  1991 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1995 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1996 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1997 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2000 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2001 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2005 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2006 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2007 
  2008 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2009 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2010 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2011 
  2012 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2013 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2014 
  2015 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2016 
  2017     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2018     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2019 
  2020 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2021 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2024 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2025 
  2026 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2027 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2028 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2029 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2030 
  2031   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2032   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2033   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2034   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2035   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2036   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2037   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2038 
  2039 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2040 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2043   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2044   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2045   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2046   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2047   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2048   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2049   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2050   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2051   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2052   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2053   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2054   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2055   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2056   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2057   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2058   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2059   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2060   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2061   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2062   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2063   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2064   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2065   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2066   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2067   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2068   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2069   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2070   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2071   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2072   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2073   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2074   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2075   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2076   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2077   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2078   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2079   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2080   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2081   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2082   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2083   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2084   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2085   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2086   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2087   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2088   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2089   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2090   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2091   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2092   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2093   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2094   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2095   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2096   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2097   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2098   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2099   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2100   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2101   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2102   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2103   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2104   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2105   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2106   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2107   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2108   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2109   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2110   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2111   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2112   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2113   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2114   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2115   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2116   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2117   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2118   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2119   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2120   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2121   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2122   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2123   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2124 
  2125 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2126 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2127 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2128 
  2129 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2130 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2131 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2132 
  2133 * Code generation:
  2134 
  2135   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2136     characters in the target language.
  2137 
  2138   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2139     instead.
  2140 
  2141   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2142 
  2143   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2144     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2145 
  2146       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2147 
  2148 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2151 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2152 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2153 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2154 syntax.
  2155 
  2156 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2157 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2158 
  2159 * Nitpick:
  2160   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2161   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2162   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2163     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2164 
  2165 * Sledgehammer:
  2166   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2167   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2168     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2169   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2170     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2171   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2172     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2174     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2175   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2176     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Metis:
  2179   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2181     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * Command 'try':
  2184   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2185     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2187     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2188 
  2189 * Quickcheck:
  2190   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2191     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2192   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2193     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2194   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2195     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2196     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2197     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2198   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2199     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2200 
  2201 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2202 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2203 
  2204 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2205 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2206 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2207 
  2208 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2209 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2213 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214 
  2215 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2216 arithmetic.
  2217 
  2218 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2219 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2220 and lattice type classes.
  2221 
  2222 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2223 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2224 
  2225 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2226 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2227 
  2228 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2229 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2230 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2233   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2234   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2235   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2236 
  2237 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2238 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2239 constants:
  2240 
  2241   type inat   ~> type enat
  2242   Fin         ~> enat
  2243   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2244   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2245   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2246 
  2247 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2248 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2251 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2252 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2253 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2254 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2255 
  2256 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2257 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2258 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2259 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2260 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2261 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2262 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2263 
  2264   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2265   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2266   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2267   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2268 
  2269 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2270 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2271 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2274   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2275   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2276   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2277   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2278   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2279   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2280   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2281   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2282   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2283   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2284   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2285   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2286   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2287   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2288   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2289   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2290   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2291   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2292   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2293   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2294   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2295   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2296   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2297   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2298   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2299   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2300   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2301   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2302   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2303   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2304   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2305   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2306   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2307   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2308   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2309   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2310   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2311   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2312   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2313   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2314   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2315   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2316   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2317   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2318   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2319   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2320   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2321   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2322   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2323   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2324 
  2325 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2326   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2327   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2328   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2329   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2330     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2331 
  2332 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2335   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2336   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2337   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2338   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2339   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2340   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2341   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2342   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2343   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2344   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2345   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2346   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2347   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2348   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2349   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2350   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2351   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2352   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2353   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2354   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2355   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2356   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2357   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2358   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2359 
  2360 
  2361 *** Document preparation ***
  2362 
  2363 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2364 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2365 same.
  2366 
  2367 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2368 result.
  2369 
  2370 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2371 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2372 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2373 
  2374 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2375 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2376 
  2377 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2378 like this:
  2379 
  2380   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2381   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2382 
  2383 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2384 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2385 layouts.
  2386 
  2387 
  2388 *** ML ***
  2389 
  2390 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2391 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2392 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2393 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2394 under external program control.
  2395 
  2396 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2397 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2398 
  2399 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2400 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2401 (better known as Proof General).
  2402 
  2403 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2404 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2405 
  2406 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2407 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2408 
  2409 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2410 (including quotes etc.).
  2411 
  2412 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2413 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2414 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2415 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2416 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2417 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2418 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2419 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2420 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2421 
  2422 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2423 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2424 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2425 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2426 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2427 
  2428 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2429 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2430 
  2431 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2432 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2433 
  2434 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2435 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2436 
  2437 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2438 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2439 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2440 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2441 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2442 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2443 proper Proof.context.
  2444 
  2445 
  2446 *** System ***
  2447 
  2448 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2449 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2450 
  2451 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2452 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2453 
  2454 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2455 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2456 
  2457   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2458   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2459   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2460   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2461   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2462 
  2463 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2464 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2467 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2468 example:
  2469 
  2470   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2471 
  2472 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2473 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2474 
  2475 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2476 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2477 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2478 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2479 
  2480 
  2481 
  2482 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2483 ----------------------------------
  2484 
  2485 *** General ***
  2486 
  2487 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2488 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2489 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2490 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2491 like this:
  2492 
  2493   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2494 
  2495 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2496 
  2497 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2498 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2499 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2500 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2501 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2502 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2503 
  2504 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2505 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2506 the following package declarations:
  2507 
  2508   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2509   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2510 
  2511 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2512 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2513 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2514 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2515 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2516 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2517 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2518 
  2519 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2520 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2521 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2522 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2523 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2524 
  2525 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2526 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2527 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2528 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2529 
  2530 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2531 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2532 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2533 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2534 
  2535   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2536 
  2537   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2538   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2539   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2540   show_types                    show_types
  2541   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2542   show_consts                   show_consts
  2543   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2544 
  2545   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2546   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2547   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2548 
  2549   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2550   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2551 
  2552   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2553 
  2554   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2555   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2556   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2557   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2558   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2559 
  2560 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2561 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2562 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2563 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2564 
  2565 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2567 
  2568   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2569   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2570 
  2571 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2572 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2573 float_token.
  2574 
  2575 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2576 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578 
  2579 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2580 DejaVu Sans.
  2581 
  2582 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2583 
  2584 
  2585 *** Pure ***
  2586 
  2587 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2588 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2589 time.
  2590 
  2591 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2592 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2595 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2596 
  2597 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2598 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2599 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2600 command already provided this functionality.
  2601 
  2602 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2603 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2604 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2605 without interpretations.
  2606 
  2607 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2608 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2609 
  2610 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2611 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2612 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2613 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2614 
  2615 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2616 'definition' instead.
  2617 
  2618 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2619 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2620 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2621 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2622 
  2623 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2624 constructors.
  2625 
  2626 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2627 the local file system.
  2628 
  2629 
  2630 *** HOL ***
  2631 
  2632 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2633 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2634 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2635 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2636 
  2637   declare [[coercion f]]
  2638 
  2639 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2640 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2641 
  2642   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2643 
  2644 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2645 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2646 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2647 other theories like this:
  2648 
  2649   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2650 
  2651 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2652 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2653 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2654 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2655 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2656 for examples.
  2657 
  2658 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2659 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2660 
  2661 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2662 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2663 
  2664 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2665 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2666 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2667 
  2668 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2669 functorial structure of types.
  2670 
  2671 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2672 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2673 
  2674 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2675 languages.
  2676 
  2677 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2678 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2682 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2685 combinators any longer.
  2686 
  2687 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2688 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2689 
  2690 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2691 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2692 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2693 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2694 
  2695   record 'a foo = ...
  2696   ...
  2697   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2698 
  2699 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2700 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2704 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2705 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2706 
  2707 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2708 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2709 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2710 
  2711 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2712 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2715 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2716 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2717 independently.
  2718 
  2719 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2720 counter example search.
  2721 
  2722 * Sledgehammer:
  2723   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2724     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2725     sledgehammer").
  2726   - Renamed commands:
  2727     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2728     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2729     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2730     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731   - Renamed options:
  2732     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2733     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2734     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2735     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2736     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2737 
  2738 * Nitpick:
  2739   - Renamed options:
  2740     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2741     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2742     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2744   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2745   - Added "whack" option.
  2746   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2747   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2748   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2749   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2750     higher cardinalities.
  2751   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2752 
  2753 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2754 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2755 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2756 
  2757     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2758 
  2759 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2760 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2761 
  2762 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2763 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2764 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2765 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2766 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2767 "smt_solver".
  2768 
  2769 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2770 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2771 
  2772 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2773 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2774 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2775 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2778   - Renamed:
  2779     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2780     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2781     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2782   - Added:
  2783     smt_verbose
  2784     smt_random_seed
  2785     smt_datatypes
  2786     smt_infer_triggers
  2787     smt_monomorph_limit
  2788     cvc3_options
  2789     remote_cvc3_options
  2790     remote_z3_options
  2791     yices_options
  2792 
  2793 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2794 header.
  2795 
  2796 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2797 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2798 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2799 
  2800   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2801 
  2802 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2805 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2810 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811 
  2812 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2813 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2814 
  2815 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2816 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2817 
  2818 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2819 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2820 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2821 
  2822 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2828 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2831 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2832 for congruent(2)).
  2833 
  2834 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2835 
  2836   types
  2837     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2838     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2839 
  2840   constants
  2841     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2842     True ~> HOL.True
  2843     False ~> HOL.False
  2844     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2845     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2846     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2847     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2848     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2849     The ~> HOL.The
  2850     All ~> HOL.All
  2851     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2852     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2853     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2854     If ~> HOL.If
  2855     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2856     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2857     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2858     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2859     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2860     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2861     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2862     op : ~> Set.member
  2863     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2864 
  2865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2866 
  2867 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2868 
  2869     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2870     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2871     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2872     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2873     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2874     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2875     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2876     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2877 
  2878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2879 
  2880 * More stylized fact names:
  2881 
  2882   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2883   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2884   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2885   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2886 
  2887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2890 
  2891   constants
  2892     null ~> List.null
  2893 
  2894   facts
  2895     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2896     null_empty ~> null_def
  2897 
  2898 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2899 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2900 generation.
  2901 
  2902 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2903 Haskell code.
  2904 
  2905 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2906 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2907 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2910 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2913 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2914 
  2915 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2916 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2917 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2920 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2926 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2927 referred to by its qualified name.
  2928 
  2929   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2930   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2931   product ~>  Enum.product
  2932 
  2933 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2934 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2938 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2939 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2943 sort_key.
  2944 
  2945 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2949 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2950 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2951 
  2952   types
  2953     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2954               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2955               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2956         (depends on your needs)
  2957 
  2958   constants
  2959      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2960      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2961      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2962 
  2963 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2964 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2965 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2966 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2967 
  2968 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2969 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2970 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2971 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2972 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2978 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2979 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2980 
  2981 
  2982 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2983 
  2984 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2985 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2986 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2987 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2988 compatibility.
  2989 
  2990 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2991 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2992 
  2993 
  2994 *** HOLCF ***
  2995 
  2996 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2997 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2998 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000 
  3001 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3002 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3003 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3006   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3007   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3008 
  3009 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3010 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3011 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3014 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3015 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3016 domain definition now works:
  3017 
  3018   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3019 
  3020 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3021 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3022 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3023 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3024 
  3025   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3026     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3027 
  3028   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3029 
  3030 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3031 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3032 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3035 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3038 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3039 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3040 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3041 
  3042 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3043 
  3044 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3047 
  3048 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3052 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3053 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3054 
  3055 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3056 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3057 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3060 still supported as an input translation.
  3061 
  3062 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3063 
  3064   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3065   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3066   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3067   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3068   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3069   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3070   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3071 
  3072 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3073 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3076   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3077   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3078   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3079   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3080   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3081 
  3082 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3083 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3086 
  3087   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3088   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3089   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3090   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3091 
  3092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3095 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3098 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3101   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3102   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3103   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3104   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3105   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3106   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3107   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3108   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3109   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3110   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3111   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3112   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3113   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3114   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3115   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3116   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3117   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3118   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3119   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3120 
  3121 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3124   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3125   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3126   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3127   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3128   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3129   box_less             ~> box_below
  3130   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3131   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3132   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3133   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3134   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3135   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3136   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3137   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3138   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3139   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3140   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3141   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3142   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3143   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3144   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3145   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3146   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3147   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3148   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3149   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3150   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3151   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3152   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3153   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3154   up_less              ~> up_below
  3155   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3156   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3157   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3158   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3159   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3160   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3161   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3162   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3163   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3164   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3165   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3166   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3167   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3168 
  3169 
  3170 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3171 
  3172 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3173 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 
  3176 *** ML ***
  3177 
  3178 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3179 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3180 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3181 
  3182 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3183 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3184 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3185 
  3186 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3187 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3188 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3189 
  3190 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3191 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3192 
  3193 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3194 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3195 
  3196 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3197 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3198 
  3199 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3200 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3201 
  3202 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3203 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3204 almost all situations.
  3205 
  3206 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3207 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3208 Isabelle/ML.
  3209 
  3210 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3211 meaning.
  3212 
  3213 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3214 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3215 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3216 
  3217 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3218 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3219 
  3220 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3221 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3222 
  3223 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3224 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3225 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3226 
  3227 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3228 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3229 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3230 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3231 configuration options.
  3232 
  3233 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3234 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3235 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3236 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3237 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3238 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3239 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3240 
  3241 
  3242 
  3243 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3244 ---------------------------------
  3245 
  3246 *** General ***
  3247 
  3248 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3249 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3250 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3251 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3252 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3253 their full internal name.
  3254 
  3255 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3256 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3257 Some hints on upgrading:
  3258 
  3259   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3260     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3261     which are independent of this issue.
  3262 
  3263   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3264     provides the following special forms:
  3265 
  3266       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3267       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3268       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3269 
  3270     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3271     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3272     extra variables".
  3273 
  3274     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3275     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3276     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3277     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3278     "logic".
  3279 
  3280   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3281     antiquotations:
  3282 
  3283       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3284       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3285       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3286       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3287 
  3288   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3289     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3290     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3291     antiquotations.
  3292 
  3293 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3294 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3295 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3296 diagnose syntax problems.
  3297 
  3298 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3299 
  3300 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3301 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3302 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3303 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3304 
  3305 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3306 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3307 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3308 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3311 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3312 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3313 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3314 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3317 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3318 
  3319 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3320 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3321 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3322 
  3323   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3324 
  3325 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3326 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3327 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3328 
  3329 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3330 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3334 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3335 
  3336 
  3337 *** Pure ***
  3338 
  3339 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3340 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3341 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3342 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3343 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3344 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3345 inspect proof terms.
  3346 
  3347 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3348 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3349 are added internally.  For example:
  3350 
  3351   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3352 
  3353 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3354 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3359 'class' instead.
  3360 
  3361 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3362 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3366 invariants.
  3367 
  3368 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3369 user space functionality any longer.
  3370 
  3371 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3372 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3376 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3377 
  3378 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3379 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3380 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3381 
  3382 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3383 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3384 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3385 
  3386 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3387 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 
  3390 *** HOL ***
  3391 
  3392 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3393 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3394 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3395 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3396 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3397 
  3398 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3399 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3400 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3401 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3402 
  3403   fun
  3404     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3405   where
  3406     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3407 
  3408   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3409     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3410 
  3411   quotient_definition
  3412     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3413 
  3414 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3415 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3416 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3417 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3418 
  3419 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3420 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3421 
  3422 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3423 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3424 
  3425 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3429 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3430 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3431 
  3432 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3433 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3442 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3445 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3446 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3449   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3450   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3451   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3452   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3453   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3454   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3455   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3456   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3457   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3458   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3459   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3460   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3461   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3462   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3463   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3464   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3465   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3466   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3467   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3468   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3469   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3470   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3471   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3472   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3473   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3474   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3475   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3476   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3477   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3478 
  3479 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3480 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3481 
  3482 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3483 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3484 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3485 
  3486 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3487 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3488 
  3489 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3490 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3493 
  3494 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3495 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3498 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3503 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3504 
  3505 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3506 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3507 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3508 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3511   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3512   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3513   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3517 lattices):
  3518 
  3519     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3520     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3521 
  3522     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3523 
  3524     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3525     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3526     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3527     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3528     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3529     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3530     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3531     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3532     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3533     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3534     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3535     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3536     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3537 
  3538     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3539     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3540     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3541     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3542     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3543     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3544     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3545     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3546     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3547     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3548     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3549     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3550     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3551     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3552     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3553     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3554     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3555     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3556 
  3557   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3558   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3559 
  3560     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3561     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3562     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3563     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3564     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3565 
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Refined field classes:
  3569   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3570     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3571     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3572   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3576   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3577   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3578   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3579     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3580   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3581     equal_neg_zero.
  3582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3585 sets to lattices:
  3586 
  3587   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3588   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3589   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3590   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3591   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3592   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3593   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3594   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3595   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3596   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3597 
  3598 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3599 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3600 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3601 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3602 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3603 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3606 multiset order:
  3607 
  3608   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3609     <= and <;
  3610   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3611     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3612     multiset_order;
  3613   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3614     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3615     generation;
  3616   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3617     if needed.
  3618 
  3619 Renamed:
  3620 
  3621   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3622   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3623   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3624 
  3625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3628 
  3629 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3630 
  3631 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3632 
  3633 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3634 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3635 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637   Constants:
  3638   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3639   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3640   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3641   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3642   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3643   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3644   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3645   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3646   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3647   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3648   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3649   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3650   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3651 
  3652   Lemmas:
  3653   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3654   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3655   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3656   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3657   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3658   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3659   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3660   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3661   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3662   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3663   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3664   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3665   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3666 
  3667 * Sledgehammer:
  3668   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3669     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3670     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3671     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3672     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3673     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3674     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3676   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3677     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3678   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3679     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3680     is still experimental.)
  3681   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3682     full-typed mode.
  3683   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3684 
  3685 * Nitpick:
  3686   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3687   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3688   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3689     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3690   - Added support for quotient types.
  3691   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3692     constructs.
  3693   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3694     "termination" proofs).
  3695   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3696   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3697   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3698   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3699     record getters.
  3700   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3701   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3702   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3703   - Added "atoms" option.
  3704   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3705     problems.
  3706   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3707     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3708     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3710     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3714   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3715   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3716   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3717   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3718   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3719   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3720   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3721   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3722   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 
  3725 *** HOLCF ***
  3726 
  3727 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3728 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3729 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3730 
  3731 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3732 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3733 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3734 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3737 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3738 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3739 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3740 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3743 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3744 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3747 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3750   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3751 
  3752 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3753 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3756   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3757   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3758   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3759   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3760 
  3761 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3762 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3765   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3766   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3767 
  3768 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3769 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3773 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3778 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 
  3781 *** ML ***
  3782 
  3783 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3784 
  3785     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3786     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3787 
  3788     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3789     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3790     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3791     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3792 
  3793     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3794     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3795     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3796 
  3797 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3798 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3799 
  3800 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3801 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3802 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3803 
  3804 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3805 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3806 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3807 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3808 
  3809 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3810 the context or even global references.
  3811 
  3812 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3813 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3814 
  3815 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3816 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3817 
  3818   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3819   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3820   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3821   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3822   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3823   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3824   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3825   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3826   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3827   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3828 
  3829 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3830 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3831 
  3832 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3833 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3834 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3835 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3836 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3837 
  3838 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3839 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3840 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3841 Theory_Data version.
  3842 
  3843 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3844 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3845 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3846 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3847 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3848 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3849 explicitly in rare situations.
  3850 
  3851 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3852 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3856 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3859 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3860 quite rare).
  3861 
  3862 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3863 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3866 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3867 terms.
  3868 
  3869 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3870 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3871 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3872 
  3873 
  3874 *** System ***
  3875 
  3876 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3877 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3878 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3879 
  3880 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3881 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3882 respectively.
  3883 
  3884 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3885 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3886 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3887 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3888 
  3889   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3890 
  3891 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3892 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3893 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3894 component.
  3895 
  3896 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3897 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3898 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3899 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3900 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3901 the user for manual installation.
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 
  3905 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3906 -------------------------------------
  3907 
  3908 *** General ***
  3909 
  3910 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3911 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3912 
  3913 
  3914 *** Pure ***
  3915 
  3916 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3917 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3918 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3919 
  3920 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3921 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3922 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3923 
  3924 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3925 interpretation.
  3926 
  3927 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3928 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 
  3931 *** Document preparation ***
  3932 
  3933 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3934 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3935 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3936 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3937 
  3938 
  3939 *** HOL ***
  3940 
  3941 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3942 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3943 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3944 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3945 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3946 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3947 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3948 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3949 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3950 
  3951 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3952 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3953 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3954 
  3955 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3956 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3957 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3958 
  3959 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3960 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3961 
  3962 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3963 
  3964 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3965 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3966 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3967 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3968 
  3969 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3970 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3971 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3972 "mirabelle" utility.
  3973 
  3974 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3975 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3976 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3977 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3978 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3979 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3980 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3981 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3982 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3983 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3984 
  3985 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3986 procedure only.
  3987 
  3988 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3989 
  3990 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3991 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3992 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3993 that fail later.
  3994 
  3995 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3996 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3997 
  3998 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3999 the same method as the approximation method.
  4000 
  4001 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4002 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4003 series expansion.
  4004 
  4005 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4006 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4007 
  4008 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4009 reals.
  4010 
  4011 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4012 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4013 
  4014 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4015 fixpoint theorem.
  4016 
  4017 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4018   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4019     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4020   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4021     accordingly
  4022   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4023     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4024   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4025     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4026 
  4027 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4028 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4029 lattice.
  4030 
  4031 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4032 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4033 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4034 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4035 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4036 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4040   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4041     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4042   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4043     le_inf_iff
  4044   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4045     sup_aci)
  4046   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4047   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4048   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4049     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4050     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4051     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4052     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4053     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4054     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4055     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4056     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4057     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4058     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4059   - authentic syntax for
  4060     Set.Pow
  4061     Set.image
  4062   - mere abbreviations:
  4063     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4064     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4065     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4066     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4067     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4068     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4069     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4070     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4071   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4072 
  4073 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4074 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4075 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4076 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4077 
  4078 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4079 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4080 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4083 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4086 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4087 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4088 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4091 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4092 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4093 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4094 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4095 
  4096 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4097 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4101 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4104 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4105 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4106 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4107 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4108 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4109 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4111 
  4112 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4113     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4114     code_post       replaces    code post
  4115     etc.
  4116   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * Renamed methods:
  4119     sizechange -> size_change
  4120     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4121   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4124 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4125 
  4126 * Renamed theorems:
  4127     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4128     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4129     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4130     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4131     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4132   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 
  4141 *** HOLCF ***
  4142 
  4143 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4144 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4145 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4146 
  4147 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4148 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4149 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4150 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4151 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4152 
  4153 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4154 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4155 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4156 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4157 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4158 
  4159 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4160 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4161 constructor are pre-configured.
  4162 
  4163 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4164 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4165 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4166 
  4167 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4168 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4169 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4170 as well.)
  4171 
  4172 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4173 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4174 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4175 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4176 examples.
  4177 
  4178 
  4179 *** ML ***
  4180 
  4181 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4182 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4183 
  4184 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4185 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4186 position, logical grouping etc.
  4187 
  4188 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4189 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4190 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4191 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4192 
  4193 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4194 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4195 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4196 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4197 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4198 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4199 
  4200 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4201 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4202 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4203 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4204 experiments with references.
  4205 
  4206 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4207 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4208 
  4209 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4210 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4211 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4212 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4213 
  4214 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4215 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4216 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4217 
  4218 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4219 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4220 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4228 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4229 
  4230 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4231 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4232 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4233 
  4234 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4235 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4236 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4239 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4240 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4244 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4245 instead of global theory.
  4246 
  4247 
  4248 *** System ***
  4249 
  4250 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4251 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4252 usedir option -q.
  4253 
  4254 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4255 also the system manual.
  4256 
  4257 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4258 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4259 
  4260 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4261 this is always enabled.
  4262 
  4263 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4264 
  4265 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4266 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4267 currently supported on Linux only.
  4268 
  4269 
  4270 
  4271 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4272 --------------------------------
  4273 
  4274 *** General ***
  4275 
  4276 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4277 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4278 
  4279   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4280     "isatool."
  4281 
  4282   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4283     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4284 
  4285   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4286     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4287 
  4288 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4289 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4290 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4291 
  4292 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4293 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4294 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4295 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4296 via "isabelle emacs".
  4297 
  4298 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4299 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4300 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4301 
  4302 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4303 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4304 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4305 
  4306 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4307 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4308 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4309 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4310 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4311 
  4312 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4313 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4314 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4315 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4316 
  4317 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4318 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4319 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4320 
  4321 
  4322 *** Pure ***
  4323 
  4324 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4325 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4326 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4327 
  4328 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4329 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4330 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4331 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4332 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4333 
  4334 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4335 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4336 useful in locale declarations.
  4337 
  4338 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4339 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4340 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4341 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4342 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4343 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4344 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4345 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4346 no longer generated.
  4347 
  4348 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4349 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4350 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4351 
  4352 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4353 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4354 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4355 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4356 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4357 
  4358 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4360 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4361 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4362 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4363 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4364 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4365 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4366 
  4367 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4368 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4369 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4370 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4371 
  4372 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4375 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4376 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4377 
  4378 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4379 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4382 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4383 in HOL, write
  4384 
  4385     class foo = ...
  4386 
  4387 instead of
  4388 
  4389     class foo = type + ...
  4390 
  4391 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4392 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4395 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4396 
  4397 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4398 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4399 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4400 
  4401 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4402 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4403 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4404 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4405 directly in regular applications.
  4406 
  4407 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4408 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4409 
  4410 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4411 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4412 
  4413 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4414 theory context.
  4415 
  4416 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4417 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 
  4419 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4420 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4421 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4422 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4423 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4424 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4425 
  4426   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4427 
  4428 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4429 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4430 normalization.
  4431 
  4432 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4433 addressing etc.
  4434 
  4435 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4436 
  4437   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4438   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4439 
  4440 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4441 
  4442   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4443      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4444      parts of the code generator framework).
  4445 
  4446   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4447      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4448      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4449 
  4450 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4451 
  4452 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4453 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454 
  4455 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4456 patterns, e.g.
  4457 
  4458     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4459 
  4460 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4461 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4462 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4463 hyphen:
  4464 
  4465     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4466 
  4467 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4468 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4469 
  4470 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4471 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4472 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4473 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4474 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4475 higher-order unification.
  4476 
  4477 
  4478 *** Document preparation ***
  4479 
  4480 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4481 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4482 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4483 
  4484 
  4485 *** HOL ***
  4486 
  4487 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4488 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4489 
  4490 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4491 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4492 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4493 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4494 Main, as before.
  4495 
  4496 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4497 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4498 
  4499 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4500 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4501 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4502 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4503 
  4504 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4505 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4506 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4507 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4508 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4509 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4510 
  4511 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4512 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4513 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4514 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4515 
  4516 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4517 menu.
  4518 
  4519 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4520 (contains the empty clause).
  4521 
  4522 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4523 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4524 
  4525 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4526 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4527 
  4528 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4529 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4530 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4531 
  4532 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4533 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4534 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4535 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4536 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4537 
  4538 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4539 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4540 
  4541 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4542 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4543 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4544 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4545 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4546 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4547 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4548 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4549 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4550 
  4551 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4552 
  4553 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4554 
  4555 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4556 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4559 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4560 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4561 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4562 
  4563 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4564 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4565 
  4566     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4567     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4568     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4569     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4570     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4571     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4572     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4573     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4574 
  4575 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4576 theory Set.
  4577 
  4578 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4579 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4580 
  4581 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4582 
  4583 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4584 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4585 
  4586 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4587 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4588 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4589 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4590 allowed. For examples see
  4591 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4592 
  4593 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4594 
  4595 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4599 structure:
  4600 
  4601     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4602     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4603     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4604     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4605     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4606     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4607     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4608     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4609     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4610     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4611     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4612     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4613     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4614     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4615     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4616     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4617     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4618     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4619     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4620     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4621     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4622     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4623     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4624     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4625     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4626     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4627     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4628     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4629     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4630     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4631     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4632     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4633     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4634 
  4635     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4636     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4637     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4638     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4639     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4640     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4641     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4642     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4643     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4644     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4645 
  4646     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4647     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4648     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4649     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4650     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4651     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4652 
  4653 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4654 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4655 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4656 
  4657 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4658 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4659 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4660 
  4661 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4662 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4665 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4666 
  4667 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4668 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4669 proofs, e.g.
  4670 
  4671   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4672 
  4673 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4674 
  4675 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4676 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4677 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4680 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 
  4683 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4684 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4685 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4689 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4690 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4691 preorder_class.*.
  4692 
  4693 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4694 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4695 
  4696 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4697 
  4698   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4699 
  4700 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4701 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4702 fold_image.
  4703 
  4704 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4705 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4706 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4707 the former will disappear at some point.
  4708 
  4709 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4710 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4711 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4712 
  4713 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4714 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4715 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4716 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4717 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4718 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4719 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4720 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4721 
  4722 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4723 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4724 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4725 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4726 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4727 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4728 
  4729     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4730     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4731     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4732     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4733     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4734     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4735     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4736 
  4737 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4738 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4739 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4740 
  4741 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4742 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4743 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4744 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4745 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4746 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4747 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4748 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4749 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4750 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4751 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4752 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4753 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4754 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4755 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4756 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4757 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4758 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4759 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4760 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4761 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4762 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4763 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4764 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4765 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4766 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4767 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4768 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4769 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4770 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4771 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4772 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4773 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4774 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4775 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4776 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4777 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4778 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4779 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4780 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4781 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4782 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4783 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4784 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4785 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4786 
  4787 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4790 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4791 
  4792 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4793 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4794 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4795 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4796 
  4797 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4798 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4799 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4800 theory RealVector.
  4801 
  4802 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4803 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4804 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4805 and inner products are included.
  4806 
  4807 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4808 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4809 supported.
  4810 
  4811 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4812 first diagonalization argument.
  4813 
  4814 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4815 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4816 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4817 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4818 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4819 
  4820     hide (open) const gcd
  4821     abbreviation gcd where
  4822       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4823     notation (output)
  4824       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4825 
  4826 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4827 
  4828 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4829 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4830 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4833 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4834 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4835 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4836 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4837 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4838 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4839 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4840 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4841 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4842 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4843 cases.
  4844 
  4845 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4846 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4847 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4848 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4849 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4850 
  4851     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4852     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4853     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4854     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4855     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4856 
  4857 
  4858 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4859 
  4860 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4861 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4862 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4863 
  4864 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4865 
  4866 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4867 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4868 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4869 
  4870 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4871 
  4872 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4873 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4874 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4875 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4876 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4877 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4878 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4879 
  4880 
  4881 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4882 
  4883 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4884 
  4885 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4886 theory targets.
  4887 
  4888 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4889 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4890 'inductive' etc.
  4891 
  4892 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4893 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4894 
  4895 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4896 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4897 
  4898 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4899 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4900 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4901 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4902 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4903 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4904 the algorithm W:
  4905 
  4906  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4907  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4908          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4909 
  4910 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4911 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4912 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4913 
  4914 
  4915 *** HOLCF ***
  4916 
  4917 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4918 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4919 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4920 
  4921 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4922 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4923 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4924 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4925 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4926 
  4927 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4928 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4929 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4930 
  4931 
  4932 *** ZF ***
  4933 
  4934 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4935 
  4936 
  4937 *** ML ***
  4938 
  4939 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4940 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4941 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4942 5.2.1!
  4943 
  4944 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4945 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4946 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4947 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4948 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4949 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4950 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4951 
  4952 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4953 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4954 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4955 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4957 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4958 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4959 
  4960 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4961 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4962 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4963 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4964 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4965 
  4966 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4967 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4968 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4969 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4970 Method.add_method.
  4971 
  4972 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4973 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4974 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4975 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4976 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4977 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4978 
  4979 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4980 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4981 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4982 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4983 examples.
  4984 
  4985 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4986 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4987 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4988 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4989 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4990 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4991 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4992 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4993 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4994 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4995 
  4996 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4997 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4998 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4999 
  5000 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5001 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5002 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5003 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5004 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5005 resort for legacy applications.
  5006 
  5007 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5008 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5009 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5010 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5011 explicit runtime argument.
  5012 
  5013 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5014 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5015 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5016 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5017 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5018 
  5019 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5020 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5021 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5022 theory state.
  5023 
  5024 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5025 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5026 
  5027   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5028   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5029   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5030   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5031   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5032   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5033   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5034   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5035   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5036   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5037 
  5038 
  5039 *** System ***
  5040 
  5041 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5042 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5043 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5044 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5045 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5046 
  5047 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5048 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5049 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5050 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5051 
  5052 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5053 
  5054 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5055 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5056 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5057 prover operations.
  5058 
  5059 
  5060 
  5061 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5062 -------------------------------
  5063 
  5064 *** General ***
  5065 
  5066 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5067 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5068 
  5069 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5070 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5071 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5072 provides a proper context already.
  5073 
  5074 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5075 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5076 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5077 
  5078 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5079 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5080 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5081 swap theory imports.
  5082 
  5083 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5084 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5085 
  5086 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5087 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5088 white space without escapes.
  5089 
  5090 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5091 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5092 "foo_bar".
  5093 
  5094 
  5095 *** Pure ***
  5096 
  5097 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5098 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5099 
  5100 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5101 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5102 
  5103 (1) unused_thms
  5104      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5105 
  5106 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5107      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5108      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5109 
  5110 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5111      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5112      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5113      their ancestors.
  5114 
  5115 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5116 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5117 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5118 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5119 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5120 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5121 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5122 
  5123 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5124 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5125 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5126 
  5127 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5128 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5129 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5130 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5131 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5132 
  5133 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5134 
  5135 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5136 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5137 update of theories within ML code.
  5138 
  5139 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5140 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5141 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5142 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5143 
  5144 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5145 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5146 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5150 
  5151 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5152 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5153 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5154 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5155 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5156 
  5157 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5158 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5159 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5160 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5161 situations.
  5162 
  5163 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5164 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5165 proof text.
  5166 
  5167 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5168 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5169 
  5170 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5171 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5172 predicates.
  5173 
  5174 
  5175 *** Document preparation ***
  5176 
  5177 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5178 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5179 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5180 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5181 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5182 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5183 
  5184 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5185 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5186 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5187 
  5188 
  5189 *** HOL ***
  5190 
  5191 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5192 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5193 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5194 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5195 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5196 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5197 
  5198 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5199 with multithreading.
  5200 
  5201 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5202 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5203 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5204 
  5205 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5206 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5207 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5208 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5209 
  5210 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5211 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5212 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5213 and makes them available separately.  See
  5214 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5215 
  5216 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5217 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5218 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5219 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5220 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5221 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5222 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5223 the declared rules.
  5224 
  5225 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5226 
  5227   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5228 
  5229 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5230 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5231 
  5232 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5233 
  5234   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5235 
  5236   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5237     definitions on => and bool.
  5238 
  5239   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5240     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5241     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5242 
  5243       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5244       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5245       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5246       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5247       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5248       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5249       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5250       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5251 
  5252   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5253     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5254     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5255 
  5256   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5257     The proof pattern
  5258 
  5259       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5260       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5261 
  5262     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5263     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5264 
  5265       have "EX S. P S"
  5266       proof
  5267         show "P S" <...>
  5268       qed
  5269 
  5270   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5271     The proof pattern
  5272 
  5273       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5274       also have "S = T" <...>
  5275       finally have "P T" .
  5276 
  5277     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5278     must be replaced by something like
  5279 
  5280       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5281       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5282       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5283 
  5284   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5285     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5286 
  5287       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5288 
  5289     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5290     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5291     type of the form
  5292 
  5293       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5294 
  5295     rather than
  5296 
  5297       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5298 
  5299 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5300 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5301 
  5302 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5305 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5309 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5312 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5313 
  5314 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5315 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5316 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5319 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5320 
  5321   less_trans
  5322   less_linear
  5323   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5324   le_less_trans
  5325   less_le_trans
  5326   less_not_sym
  5327   less_asym
  5328 
  5329 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5330 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5331 and different variable names.
  5332 
  5333 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5334 
  5335 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5336 finite maps.
  5337 
  5338 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5339 
  5340 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5341 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5342 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5343 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5344 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5345 accordingly.
  5346 
  5347 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5348 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5349 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5350 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5351 
  5352 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5353 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5354 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5355 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5356 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5358 
  5359 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5360 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5361 
  5362 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5363 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5364 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5365 
  5366 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5368 
  5369 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5370 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5371 
  5372 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5373 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5374 
  5375 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5376 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5377 
  5378 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5379 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5383 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5386 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5387 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5388 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5389 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5390 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5391 
  5392 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5393 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5394 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5395 
  5396 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5397 
  5398 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5399 
  5400 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5401 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5402 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5403 
  5404 
  5405 *** ZF ***
  5406 
  5407 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5408 same session:
  5409 
  5410   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5411   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5412   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5413   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5414   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5415   List      -> List_ZF
  5416   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5417 
  5418 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5419 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5420 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5421 
  5422 
  5423 *** ML ***
  5424 
  5425 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5426 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5427 
  5428 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5429 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5430 
  5431 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5432 
  5433 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5434 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5435 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5436 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5437 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438 
  5439 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5440 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5441 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5442 
  5443 
  5444 *** System ***
  5445 
  5446 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5447 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5448 
  5449 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5450 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5451 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5452 
  5453 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5454 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5455 
  5456 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5457 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5458 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5459 
  5460 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5461 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5462 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5463 
  5464 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5465 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5466 
  5467 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5468 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5469 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5470 script.
  5471 
  5472 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5473 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5474 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5475 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5476 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5477 
  5478 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5479 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5480 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5481 
  5482 
  5483 
  5484 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5485 -----------------------------------
  5486 
  5487 *** General ***
  5488 
  5489 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5490 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5491 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5492 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5493 
  5494 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5495 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5496 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5499 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5500 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5501 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5504 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5505 quotes.
  5506 
  5507 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5508 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5509 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5510 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5511 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5512 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5513 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5514 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5515 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5516 
  5517 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5518 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5519 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5520 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5521 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5522 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5523 
  5524 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5525 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5526 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5527 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5528 
  5529 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5530 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5531 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5532 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5533 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5534 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5535 
  5536 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5537 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5538 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5539 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5540 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5541 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5542 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5543 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5544 
  5545 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5546 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5547 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5548 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5549 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5550 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5551 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5552 
  5553 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5554 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5555 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5556 
  5557 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5558 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5559 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5560 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5561 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5562 limit is imposed.
  5563 
  5564 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5565 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5566 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5567 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5568 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5569 and scalability.
  5570 
  5571 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5572 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5573 
  5574 
  5575 *** Document preparation ***
  5576 
  5577 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5578 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5579 current context.
  5580 
  5581 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5582 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5583 
  5584 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5585 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5586 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5587 
  5588 
  5589 *** Pure ***
  5590 
  5591 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5592 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5593 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5594 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5595 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5596 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5597 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5598 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5599 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5600 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5601 
  5602 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5603 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5604 sketch:
  5605 
  5606     internal compilation:
  5607         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5608     writing SML code to a file:
  5609         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5610     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5611         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5612     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5613         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5614 
  5615     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5616         method ``eval''
  5617 
  5618 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5619 
  5620 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5621 
  5622     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5623     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5624     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5625     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5626 
  5627 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5628 
  5629     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5630       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5631 
  5632     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5633       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5634 
  5635     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5636       {(target)}+
  5637         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5638 
  5639     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5640       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5641         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5642 
  5643 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5644 
  5645 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5646 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5647 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5648 codegen".
  5649 
  5650 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5651 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5652 annotations).
  5653 
  5654 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5655 syntax.
  5656 
  5657 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5658 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5659 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5660 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5661 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5662 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5663 
  5664 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5665 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5666 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5667 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5668 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5669 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5670 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5671 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5672 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5673 equations, see section "definitions".
  5674 
  5675 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5676 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5677 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5678 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5679 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5680 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5681 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5682 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5683 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5684 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5685 
  5686 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5687 configuration options:
  5688 
  5689   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5690   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5691   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5692   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5693   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5694   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5695   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5696   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5697   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5698 
  5699 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5700 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5701 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5702 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5703 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5704 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5705 order.
  5706 
  5707 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5708 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5709 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5710 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5711 context encountered later on.
  5712 
  5713 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5714 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5715 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5716 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5717 
  5718 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5719 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5720 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5721 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5722 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5723 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5724 
  5725 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5726 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5727 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5728 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5729 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5730 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5731 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5732 more permissive.
  5733 
  5734 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5735 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5736 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5737 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5738 maintainability of proof texts.
  5739 
  5740 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5741 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5742 
  5743   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5744   then guess x and y by clarify
  5745 
  5746 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5747 proof tools being involved here.
  5748 
  5749 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5750 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5751 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5752 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5753 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5754 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5755 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5756 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5757 
  5758 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5759 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5760 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5761 
  5762   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5763   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5764   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5765   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5766 
  5767 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5768 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5769 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5770 
  5771 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5772 both named and unnamed ones.
  5773 
  5774 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5775 
  5776   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5777 
  5778 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5779 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5780 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5781 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5782 
  5783 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5784 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5785 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5786 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5787 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5788 
  5789 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5790 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5791 
  5792 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5793 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5794 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5795 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5796 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5797 originally first one.
  5798 
  5799 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5800 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5801 expected.
  5802 
  5803 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5804 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5805 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5806 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5807 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5808 
  5809   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5810     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5811     obtains x where "P x"
  5812 
  5813   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5814     assumes "A & B"
  5815     obtains A and B
  5816 
  5817   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5818     assumes "A | B"
  5819     obtains
  5820       A
  5821     | B
  5822 
  5823 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5824 explicitly:
  5825 
  5826   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5827     obtains "~ thesis"
  5828 
  5829   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5830     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5831 
  5832 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5833 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5834 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5835 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5836 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5837 case_names).
  5838 
  5839 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5840 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5841 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5842 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5843 
  5844 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5845 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5846 top-level lemma.
  5847 
  5848 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5849 introduction rule (default "that").
  5850 
  5851 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5852 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5853 to occur.
  5854 
  5855 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5856 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5857 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5858 representations independently of name spaces.
  5859 
  5860 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5861 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5862 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5863 
  5864 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5865 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5866 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5867 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5868 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5869 current context.
  5870 
  5871 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5872 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5873 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5874 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5875 
  5876   axiomatization
  5877     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5878     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5879 
  5880   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5881   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5882 
  5883   abbreviation
  5884     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5885     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5886 
  5887 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5888 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5889 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5890 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5891 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5892 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5893 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5894 
  5895 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5896 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5897 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5898 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5899 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5900 
  5901 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5902 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5903 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5904 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5905 
  5906 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5907 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5908 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5909 
  5910   definition "K x _ = x"
  5911 
  5912   inductive conj for A B
  5913   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5914 
  5915 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5916 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5917 abbreviations on output.
  5918 
  5919 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5920 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5921 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5922 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5923 
  5924 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5925 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5926 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5927 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5928 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5929 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5930 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5931 
  5932 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5933 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5934 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5935 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5936 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5937 
  5938 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5939 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5940 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5941 
  5942 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5943 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5944 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5945 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5946 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5947 
  5948   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5949     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5950 
  5951 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5952 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5953 partial_order.
  5954 
  5955 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5956 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5957 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5958 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5959 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5960 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5961 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5962 examples.
  5963 
  5964 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5965 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5966 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5967 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5968 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5969 
  5970 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5971 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5972 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5973 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5974 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5975 
  5976   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5977   (induct set: foo bar)
  5978   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5979   (induct type: foo bar)
  5980 
  5981 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5982 new format.
  5983 
  5984 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5985 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5986 
  5987 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5988 considered a legacy feature.
  5989 
  5990 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5991 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5992 
  5993 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5994 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5995 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5996 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5997   
  5998 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5999 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6000 manipulating the claset.
  6001 
  6002 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6003 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6004 least one premise.
  6005 
  6006 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6007 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6008 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6009 rule steps.
  6010 
  6011 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6012 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6013 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6014 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6015 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6016 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6017 
  6018 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6019 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6020 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6021 
  6022 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6023 the graph browser tool.
  6024 
  6025 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6026 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6027 
  6028 
  6029 *** HOL ***
  6030 
  6031 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6032 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6033 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6034 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6035 multi-threading.
  6036   
  6037 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6038 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6039 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6040 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6041 work with multi-threading.
  6042 
  6043 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6044 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6045 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6046 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6047 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6048 
  6049 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6050 
  6051 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6052 equality.
  6053 
  6054 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6055 the new 'class' package:
  6056 
  6057     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6058     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6059     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6060     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6061     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6062     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6063     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6064     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6065     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6066     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6067     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6068     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6069     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6070     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6071     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6072     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6073     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6074     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6075     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6076     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6077 
  6078 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6079 
  6080 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6081 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6082 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6083 names.
  6084 
  6085 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  6086 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  6087 
  6088 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  6089 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  6090 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  6091 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  6092 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  6093 
  6094 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  6095 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  6096 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  6097 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  6098 
  6099 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  6100 
  6101 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  6102 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  6103 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  6104 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  6105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6106 
  6107 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  6108 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6109 
  6110 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  6111 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  6112 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6113 
  6114 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  6115 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  6116 
  6117 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  6118 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  6119 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  6120 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  6121 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  6122 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  6123 in the current context.
  6124 
  6125 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  6126 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  6127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  6130 with new class dense_linear_order.
  6131 
  6132 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  6133 
  6134     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  6135     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  6136 
  6137     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  6138       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  6139     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  6140     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  6141 
  6142     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  6143     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  6144 
  6145   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  6146 
  6147     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  6148     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  6149     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  6150     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  6151     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  6152     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  6153     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  6154     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  6155     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  6156     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  6157     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  6158     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  6159     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  6160     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  6161     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  6162     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  6163     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  6164     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  6165     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  6166     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  6167     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  6168     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  6169     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  6170     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  6171     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  6172     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  6173     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  6174     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  6175     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  6176     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  6177     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  6178     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  6179     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  6180     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  6181     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  6182 
  6183     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  6184     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  6185     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  6186     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  6187     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  6188     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  6189     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  6190     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  6191     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  6192     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  6193     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  6194     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  6195     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  6196     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  6197     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  6198     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  6199     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  6200 
  6201     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  6202     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  6203     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  6204     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  6205     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  6206     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  6207     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  6208     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  6209     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  6210     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  6211     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  6212     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  6213     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  6214     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  6215     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  6216     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  6217     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  6218     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  6219     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  6220     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  6221     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6222     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  6223     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6224     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  6225     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  6226     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  6227     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  6228     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  6229 
  6230     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  6231     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  6232     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  6233     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  6234     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  6235     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  6236 
  6237     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  6238     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  6239     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  6240     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  6241 
  6242     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  6243     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  6244 
  6245     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  6246     join_max                ~> sup_max
  6247 
  6248 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  6249 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  6250 
  6251 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  6252 "foo.s