(* Author: Florian Haftmann, TU Muenchen *)
header {* A constructive version of Cantor's first diagonalization argument. *}
theory Diagonalize
imports Main
begin
subsection {* Summation from @{text "0"} to @{text "n"} *}
definition sum :: "nat \ nat" where
"sum n = n * Suc n div 2"
lemma sum_0:
"sum 0 = 0"
unfolding sum_def by simp
lemma sum_Suc:
"sum (Suc n) = Suc n + sum n"
unfolding sum_def by simp
lemma sum2:
"2 * sum n = n * Suc n"
proof -
have "2 dvd n * Suc n"
proof (cases "2 dvd n")
case True then show ?thesis by simp
next
case False then have "2 dvd Suc n" by arith
then show ?thesis by (simp del: mult_Suc_right)
qed
then have "n * Suc n div 2 * 2 = n * Suc n"
by (rule dvd_div_mult_self [of "2::nat"])
then show ?thesis by (simp add: sum_def)
qed
lemma sum_strict_mono:
"strict_mono sum"
proof (rule strict_monoI)
fix m n :: nat
assume "m < n"
then have "m * Suc m < n * Suc n" by (intro mult_strict_mono) simp_all
then have "2 * sum m < 2 * sum n" by (simp add: sum2)
then show "sum m < sum n" by auto
qed
lemma sum_not_less_self:
"n \ sum n"
proof -
have "2 * n \ n * Suc n" by auto
with sum2 have "2 * n \ 2 * sum n" by simp
then show ?thesis by simp
qed
lemma sum_rest_aux:
assumes "q \ n"
assumes "sum m \ sum n + q"
shows "m \ n"
proof (rule ccontr)
assume "\ m \ n"
then have "n < m" by simp
then have "m \ Suc n" by simp
then have "m = m - Suc n + Suc n" by simp
then have "m = Suc (n + (m - Suc n))" by simp
then obtain r where "m = Suc (n + r)" by auto
with `sum m \ sum n + q` have "sum (Suc (n + r)) \ sum n + q" by simp
then have "sum (n + r) + Suc (n + r) \ sum n + q" unfolding sum_Suc by simp
with `m = Suc (n + r)` have "sum (n + r) + m \ sum n + q" by simp
have "sum n \ sum (n + r)" unfolding strict_mono_less_eq [OF sum_strict_mono] by simp
moreover from `q \ n` `n < m` have "q < m" by simp
ultimately have "sum n + q < sum (n + r) + m" by auto
with `sum (n + r) + m \ sum n + q` show False
by auto
qed
lemma sum_rest:
assumes "q \ n"
shows "sum m \ sum n + q \ m \ n"
using assms apply (auto intro: sum_rest_aux)
apply (simp add: strict_mono_less_eq [OF sum_strict_mono, symmetric, of m n])
done
subsection {* Diagonalization: an injective embedding of two @{typ nat}s to one @{typ nat} *}
definition diagonalize :: "nat \ nat \ nat" where
"diagonalize m n = sum (m + n) + m"
lemma diagonalize_inject:
assumes "diagonalize a b = diagonalize c d"
shows "a = c" and "b = d"
proof -
from assms have diageq: "sum (a + b) + a = sum (c + d) + c"
by (simp add: diagonalize_def)
have "a + b = c + d \ a + b \ Suc (c + d) \ c + d \ Suc (a + b)" by arith
then have "a = c \ b = d"
proof (elim disjE)
assume sumeq: "a + b = c + d"
then have "a = c" using diageq by auto
moreover from sumeq this have "b = d" by auto
ultimately show ?thesis ..
next
assume "a + b \ Suc (c + d)"
with strict_mono_less_eq [OF sum_strict_mono]
have "sum (a + b) \ sum (Suc (c + d))" by simp
with diageq show ?thesis by (simp add: sum_Suc)
next
assume "c + d \ Suc (a + b)"
with strict_mono_less_eq [OF sum_strict_mono]
have "sum (c + d) \ sum (Suc (a + b))" by simp
with diageq show ?thesis by (simp add: sum_Suc)
qed
then show "a = c" and "b = d" by auto
qed
subsection {* The reverse diagonalization: reconstruction a pair of @{typ nat}s from one @{typ nat} *}
text {* The inverse of the @{const sum} function *}
definition tupelize :: "nat \ nat \ nat" where
"tupelize q = (let d = Max {d. sum d \ q}; m = q - sum d
in (m, d - m))"
lemma tupelize_diagonalize:
"tupelize (diagonalize m n) = (m, n)"
proof -
from sum_rest
have "\r. sum r \ sum (m + n) + m \ r \ m + n" by simp
then have "Max {d. sum d \ (sum (m + n) + m)} = m + n"
by (auto intro: Max_eqI)
then show ?thesis
by (simp add: tupelize_def diagonalize_def)
qed
lemma snd_tupelize:
"snd (tupelize n) \ n"
proof -
have "sum 0 \ n" by (simp add: sum_0)
then have "Max {m \ nat. sum m \ n} \ Max {m \ nat. m \ n}"
by (intro Max_mono [of "{m. sum m \ n}" "{m. m \ n}"])
(auto intro: Max_mono order_trans sum_not_less_self)
also have "Max {m \ nat. m \ n} \ n"
by (subst Max_le_iff) auto
finally have "Max {m. sum m \ n} \ n" .
then show ?thesis by (simp add: tupelize_def Let_def)
qed
end