Theory Set

section Extending FOL by a modified version of HOL set theory

theory Set
imports FOL
begin

declare [[eta_contract]]

typedecl 'a set
instance set :: ("term") "term" ..


subsection Set comprehension and membership

axiomatization Collect :: "['a  o]  'a set"
  and mem :: "['a, 'a set]  o"  (infixl ":" 50)
where mem_Collect_iff: "(a : Collect(P))  P(a)"
  and set_extension: "A = B  (ALL x. x:A  x:B)"

syntax
  "_Coll" :: "[idt, o]  'a set"  ("(1{_./ _})")
translations
  "{x. P}" == "CONST Collect(λx. P)"

lemma CollectI: "P(a)  a : {x. P(x)}"
  apply (rule mem_Collect_iff [THEN iffD2])
  apply assumption
  done

lemma CollectD: "a : {x. P(x)}  P(a)"
  apply (erule mem_Collect_iff [THEN iffD1])
  done

lemmas CollectE = CollectD [elim_format]

lemma set_ext: "(x. x:A  x:B)  A = B"
  apply (rule set_extension [THEN iffD2])
  apply simp
  done


subsection Bounded quantifiers

definition Ball :: "['a set, 'a  o]  o"
  where "Ball(A, P) == ALL x. x:A  P(x)"

definition Bex :: "['a set, 'a  o]  o"
  where "Bex(A, P) == EX x. x:A  P(x)"

syntax
  "_Ball" :: "[idt, 'a set, o]  o"  ("(ALL _:_./ _)" [0, 0, 0] 10)
  "_Bex" :: "[idt, 'a set, o]  o"  ("(EX _:_./ _)" [0, 0, 0] 10)
translations
  "ALL x:A. P"  == "CONST Ball(A, λx. P)"
  "EX x:A. P"   == "CONST Bex(A, λx. P)"

lemma ballI: "(x. x:A  P(x))  ALL x:A. P(x)"
  by (simp add: Ball_def)

lemma bspec: "ALL x:A. P(x); x:A  P(x)"
  by (simp add: Ball_def)

lemma ballE: "ALL x:A. P(x); P(x)  Q; ¬ x:A  Q  Q"
  unfolding Ball_def by blast

lemma bexI: "P(x); x:A  EX x:A. P(x)"
  unfolding Bex_def by blast

lemma bexCI: "EX x:A. ¬P(x)  P(a); a:A  EX x:A. P(x)"
  unfolding Bex_def by blast

lemma bexE: "EX x:A. P(x); x. x:A; P(x)  Q  Q"
  unfolding Bex_def by blast

(*Trival rewrite rule;   (! x:A.P)=P holds only if A is nonempty!*)
lemma ball_rew: "(ALL x:A. True)  True"
  by (blast intro: ballI)

subsubsection Congruence rules

lemma ball_cong:
  "A = A'; x. x:A'  P(x)  P'(x) 
    (ALL x:A. P(x))  (ALL x:A'. P'(x))"
  by (blast intro: ballI elim: ballE)

lemma bex_cong:
  "A = A'; x. x:A'  P(x)  P'(x) 
    (EX x:A. P(x))  (EX x:A'. P'(x))"
  by (blast intro: bexI elim: bexE)


subsection Further operations

definition subset :: "['a set, 'a set]  o"  (infixl "<=" 50)
  where "A <= B == ALL x:A. x:B"

definition mono :: "['a set  'b set]  o"
  where "mono(f) == (ALL A B. A <= B  f(A) <= f(B))"

definition singleton :: "'a  'a set"  ("{_}")
  where "{a} == {x. x=a}"

definition empty :: "'a set"  ("{}")
  where "{} == {x. False}"

definition Un :: "['a set, 'a set]  'a set"  (infixl "Un" 65)
  where "A Un B == {x. x:A | x:B}"

definition Int :: "['a set, 'a set]  'a set"  (infixl "Int" 70)
  where "A Int B == {x. x:A  x:B}"

definition Compl :: "('a set)  'a set"
  where "Compl(A) == {x. ¬x:A}"


subsection Big Intersection / Union

definition INTER :: "['a set, 'a  'b set]  'b set"
  where "INTER(A, B) == {y. ALL x:A. y: B(x)}"

definition UNION :: "['a set, 'a  'b set]  'b set"
  where "UNION(A, B) == {y. EX x:A. y: B(x)}"

syntax
  "_INTER" :: "[idt, 'a set, 'b set]  'b set"  ("(INT _:_./ _)" [0, 0, 0] 10)
  "_UNION" :: "[idt, 'a set, 'b set]  'b set"  ("(UN _:_./ _)" [0, 0, 0] 10)
translations
  "INT x:A. B" == "CONST INTER(A, λx. B)"
  "UN x:A. B" == "CONST UNION(A, λx. B)"

definition Inter :: "(('a set)set)  'a set"
  where "Inter(S) == (INT x:S. x)"

definition Union :: "(('a set)set)  'a set"
  where "Union(S) == (UN x:S. x)"


subsection Rules for subsets

lemma subsetI: "(x. x:A  x:B)  A <= B"
  unfolding subset_def by (blast intro: ballI)

(*Rule in Modus Ponens style*)
lemma subsetD: "A <= B; c:A  c:B"
  unfolding subset_def by (blast elim: ballE)

(*Classical elimination rule*)
lemma subsetCE: "A <= B; ¬(c:A)  P; c:B  P  P"
  by (blast dest: subsetD)

lemma subset_refl: "A <= A"
  by (blast intro: subsetI)

lemma subset_trans: "A <= B; B <= C  A <= C"
  by (blast intro: subsetI dest: subsetD)


subsection Rules for equality

(*Anti-symmetry of the subset relation*)
lemma subset_antisym: "A <= B; B <= A  A = B"
  by (blast intro: set_ext dest: subsetD)

lemmas equalityI = subset_antisym

(* Equality rules from ZF set theory -- are they appropriate here? *)
lemma equalityD1: "A = B  A<=B"
  and equalityD2: "A = B  B<=A"
  by (simp_all add: subset_refl)

lemma equalityE: "A = B; A <= B; B <= A  P  P"
  by (simp add: subset_refl)

lemma equalityCE: "A = B; c:A; c:B  P; ¬ c:A; ¬ c:B  P  P"
  by (blast elim: equalityE subsetCE)

lemma trivial_set: "{x. x:A} = A"
  by (blast intro: equalityI subsetI CollectI dest: CollectD)


subsection Rules for binary union

lemma UnI1: "c:A  c : A Un B"
  and UnI2: "c:B  c : A Un B"
  unfolding Un_def by (blast intro: CollectI)+

(*Classical introduction rule: no commitment to A vs B*)
lemma UnCI: "(¬c:B  c:A)  c : A Un B"
  by (blast intro: UnI1 UnI2)

lemma UnE: "c : A Un B; c:A  P; c:B  P  P"
  unfolding Un_def by (blast dest: CollectD)


subsection Rules for small intersection

lemma IntI: "c:A; c:B  c : A Int B"
  unfolding Int_def by (blast intro: CollectI)

lemma IntD1: "c : A Int B  c:A"
  and IntD2: "c : A Int B  c:B"
  unfolding Int_def by (blast dest: CollectD)+

lemma IntE: "c : A Int B; c:A; c:B  P  P"
  by (blast dest: IntD1 IntD2)


subsection Rules for set complement

lemma ComplI: "(c:A  False)  c : Compl(A)"
  unfolding Compl_def by (blast intro: CollectI)

(*This form, with negated conclusion, works well with the Classical prover.
  Negated assumptions behave like formulae on the right side of the notional
  turnstile...*)
lemma ComplD: "c : Compl(A)  ¬c:A"
  unfolding Compl_def by (blast dest: CollectD)

lemmas ComplE = ComplD [elim_format]


subsection Empty sets

lemma empty_eq: "{x. False} = {}"
  by (simp add: empty_def)

lemma emptyD: "a : {}  P"
  unfolding empty_def by (blast dest: CollectD)

lemmas emptyE = emptyD [elim_format]

lemma not_emptyD:
  assumes "¬ A={}"
  shows "EX x. x:A"
proof -
  have "¬ (EX x. x:A)  A = {}"
    by (rule equalityI) (blast intro!: subsetI elim!: emptyD)+
  with assms show ?thesis by blast
qed


subsection Singleton sets

lemma singletonI: "a : {a}"
  unfolding singleton_def by (blast intro: CollectI)

lemma singletonD: "b : {a}  b=a"
  unfolding singleton_def by (blast dest: CollectD)

lemmas singletonE = singletonD [elim_format]


subsection Unions of families

(*The order of the premises presupposes that A is rigid; b may be flexible*)
lemma UN_I: "a:A; b: B(a)  b: (UN x:A. B(x))"
  unfolding UNION_def by (blast intro: bexI CollectI)

lemma UN_E: "b : (UN x:A. B(x)); x. x:A; b: B(x)  R  R"
  unfolding UNION_def by (blast dest: CollectD elim: bexE)

lemma UN_cong: "A = B; x. x:B  C(x) = D(x)  (UN x:A. C(x)) = (UN x:B. D(x))"
  by (simp add: UNION_def cong: bex_cong)


subsection Intersections of families

lemma INT_I: "(x. x:A  b: B(x))  b : (INT x:A. B(x))"
  unfolding INTER_def by (blast intro: CollectI ballI)

lemma INT_D: "b : (INT x:A. B(x)); a:A  b: B(a)"
  unfolding INTER_def by (blast dest: CollectD bspec)

(*"Classical" elimination rule -- does not require proving X:C *)
lemma INT_E: "b : (INT x:A. B(x)); b: B(a)  R; ¬ a:A  R  R"
  unfolding INTER_def by (blast dest: CollectD bspec)

lemma INT_cong: "A = B; x. x:B  C(x) = D(x)  (INT x:A. C(x)) = (INT x:B. D(x))"
  by (simp add: INTER_def cong: ball_cong)


subsection Rules for Unions

(*The order of the premises presupposes that C is rigid; A may be flexible*)
lemma UnionI: "X:C; A:X  A : Union(C)"
  unfolding Union_def by (blast intro: UN_I)

lemma UnionE: "A : Union(C); X.  A:X; X:C  R  R"
  unfolding Union_def by (blast elim: UN_E)


subsection Rules for Inter

lemma InterI: "(X. X:C  A:X)  A : Inter(C)"
  unfolding Inter_def by (blast intro: INT_I)

(*A "destruct" rule -- every X in C contains A as an element, but
  A:X can hold when X:C does not!  This rule is analogous to "spec". *)
lemma InterD: "A : Inter(C);  X:C  A:X"
  unfolding Inter_def by (blast dest: INT_D)

(*"Classical" elimination rule -- does not require proving X:C *)
lemma InterE: "A : Inter(C); A:X  R; ¬ X:C  R  R"
  unfolding Inter_def by (blast elim: INT_E)


section Derived rules involving subsets; Union and Intersection as lattice operations

subsection Big Union -- least upper bound of a set

lemma Union_upper: "B:A  B <= Union(A)"
  by (blast intro: subsetI UnionI)

lemma Union_least: "(X. X:A  X<=C)  Union(A) <= C"
  by (blast intro: subsetI dest: subsetD elim: UnionE)


subsection Big Intersection -- greatest lower bound of a set

lemma Inter_lower: "B:A  Inter(A) <= B"
  by (blast intro: subsetI dest: InterD)

lemma Inter_greatest: "(X. X:A  C<=X)  C <= Inter(A)"
  by (blast intro: subsetI InterI dest: subsetD)


subsection Finite Union -- the least upper bound of 2 sets

lemma Un_upper1: "A <= A Un B"
  by (blast intro: subsetI UnI1)

lemma Un_upper2: "B <= A Un B"
  by (blast intro: subsetI UnI2)

lemma Un_least: "A<=C; B<=C  A Un B <= C"
  by (blast intro: subsetI elim: UnE dest: subsetD)


subsection Finite Intersection -- the greatest lower bound of 2 sets

lemma Int_lower1: "A Int B <= A"
  by (blast intro: subsetI elim: IntE)

lemma Int_lower2: "A Int B <= B"
  by (blast intro: subsetI elim: IntE)

lemma Int_greatest: "C<=A; C<=B  C <= A Int B"
  by (blast intro: subsetI IntI dest: subsetD)


subsection Monotonicity

lemma monoI: "(A B. A <= B  f(A) <= f(B))  mono(f)"
  unfolding mono_def by blast

lemma monoD: "mono(f); A <= B  f(A) <= f(B)"
  unfolding mono_def by blast

lemma mono_Un: "mono(f)  f(A) Un f(B) <= f(A Un B)"
  by (blast intro: Un_least dest: monoD intro: Un_upper1 Un_upper2)

lemma mono_Int: "mono(f)  f(A Int B) <= f(A) Int f(B)"
  by (blast intro: Int_greatest dest: monoD intro: Int_lower1 Int_lower2)


subsection Automated reasoning setup

lemmas [intro!] = ballI subsetI InterI INT_I CollectI ComplI IntI UnCI singletonI
  and [intro] = bexI UnionI UN_I
  and [elim!] = bexE UnionE UN_E CollectE ComplE IntE UnE emptyE singletonE
  and [elim] = ballE InterD InterE INT_D INT_E subsetD subsetCE

lemma mem_rews:
  "(a : A Un B)     (a:A | a:B)"
  "(a : A Int B)    (a:A  a:B)"
  "(a : Compl(B))   (¬a:B)"
  "(a : {b})        (a=b)"
  "(a : {})          False"
  "(a : {x. P(x)})   P(a)"
  by blast+

lemmas [simp] = trivial_set empty_eq mem_rews
  and [cong] = ball_cong bex_cong INT_cong UN_cong


section Equalities involving union, intersection, inclusion, etc.

subsection Binary Intersection

lemma Int_absorb: "A Int A = A"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Int_commute: "A Int B  =  B Int A"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Int_assoc: "(A Int B) Int C  =  A Int (B Int C)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Int_Un_distrib: "(A Un B) Int C  =  (A Int C) Un (B Int C)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma subset_Int_eq: "(A<=B)  (A Int B = A)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI elim: equalityE)


subsection Binary Union

lemma Un_absorb: "A Un A = A"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Un_commute: "A Un B  =  B Un A"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Un_assoc: "(A Un B) Un C  =  A Un (B Un C)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Un_Int_distrib: "(A Int B) Un C  =  (A Un C) Int (B Un C)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Un_Int_crazy:
    "(A Int B) Un (B Int C) Un (C Int A) = (A Un B) Int (B Un C) Int (C Un A)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma subset_Un_eq: "(A<=B)  (A Un B = B)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI elim: equalityE)


subsection Simple properties of Compl› -- complement of a set

lemma Compl_disjoint: "A Int Compl(A) = {x. False}"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Compl_partition: "A Un Compl(A) = {x. True}"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma double_complement: "Compl(Compl(A)) = A"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Compl_Un: "Compl(A Un B) = Compl(A) Int Compl(B)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Compl_Int: "Compl(A Int B) = Compl(A) Un Compl(B)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Compl_UN: "Compl(UN x:A. B(x)) = (INT x:A. Compl(B(x)))"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Compl_INT: "Compl(INT x:A. B(x)) = (UN x:A. Compl(B(x)))"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

(*Halmos, Naive Set Theory, page 16.*)
lemma Un_Int_assoc_eq: "((A Int B) Un C = A Int (B Un C))  (C<=A)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI elim: equalityE)


subsection Big Union and Intersection

lemma Union_Un_distrib: "Union(A Un B) = Union(A) Un Union(B)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Union_disjoint:
    "(Union(C) Int A = {x. False})  (ALL B:C. B Int A = {x. False})"
  by (blast intro: equalityI elim: equalityE)

lemma Inter_Un_distrib: "Inter(A Un B) = Inter(A) Int Inter(B)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)


subsection Unions and Intersections of Families

lemma UN_eq: "(UN x:A. B(x)) = Union({Y. EX x:A. Y=B(x)})"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

(*Look: it has an EXISTENTIAL quantifier*)
lemma INT_eq: "(INT x:A. B(x)) = Inter({Y. EX x:A. Y=B(x)})"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Int_Union_image: "A Int Union(B) = (UN C:B. A Int C)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)

lemma Un_Inter_image: "A Un Inter(B) = (INT C:B. A Un C)"
  by (blast intro: equalityI)


section Monotonicity of various operations

lemma Union_mono: "A<=B  Union(A) <= Union(B)"
  by blast

lemma Inter_anti_mono: "B <= A  Inter(A) <= Inter(B)"
  by blast

lemma UN_mono: "A <= B; x. x:A  f(x)<=g(x)  (UN x:A. f(x)) <= (UN x:B. g(x))"
  by blast

lemma INT_anti_mono: "B <= A; x. x:A  f(x) <= g(x)  (INT x:A. f(x)) <= (INT x:A. g(x))"
  by blast

lemma Un_mono: "A <= C; B <= D  A Un B <= C Un D"
  by blast

lemma Int_mono: "A <= C; B <= D  A Int B <= C Int D"
  by blast

lemma Compl_anti_mono: "A <= B  Compl(B) <= Compl(A)"
  by blast

end