# Theory Finite_Set

```(*  Title:      HOL/Finite_Set.thy
Author:     Tobias Nipkow
Author:     Lawrence C Paulson
Author:     Markus Wenzel
Author:     Andrei Popescu
*)

section ‹Finite sets›

theory Finite_Set
imports Product_Type Sum_Type Fields
begin

subsection ‹Predicate for finite sets›

context notes [[inductive_internals]]
begin

inductive finite :: "'a set ⇒ bool"
where
emptyI [simp, intro!]: "finite {}"
| insertI [simp, intro!]: "finite A ⟹ finite (insert a A)"

end

simproc_setup finite_Collect ("finite (Collect P)") = ‹K Set_Comprehension_Pointfree.simproc›

declare [[simproc del: finite_Collect]]

lemma finite_induct [case_names empty insert, induct set: finite]:
― ‹Discharging ‹x ∉ F› entails extra work.›
assumes "finite F"
assumes "P {}"
and insert: "⋀x F. finite F ⟹ x ∉ F ⟹ P F ⟹ P (insert x F)"
shows "P F"
using ‹finite F›
proof induct
show "P {}" by fact
next
fix x F
assume F: "finite F" and P: "P F"
show "P (insert x F)"
proof cases
assume "x ∈ F"
then have "insert x F = F" by (rule insert_absorb)
with P show ?thesis by (simp only:)
next
assume "x ∉ F"
from F this P show ?thesis by (rule insert)
qed
qed

lemma infinite_finite_induct [case_names infinite empty insert]:
assumes infinite: "⋀A. ¬ finite A ⟹ P A"
and empty: "P {}"
and insert: "⋀x F. finite F ⟹ x ∉ F ⟹ P F ⟹ P (insert x F)"
shows "P A"
proof (cases "finite A")
case False
with infinite show ?thesis .
next
case True
then show ?thesis by (induct A) (fact empty insert)+
qed

subsubsection ‹Choice principles›

lemma ex_new_if_finite: ― ‹does not depend on def of finite at all›
assumes "¬ finite (UNIV :: 'a set)" and "finite A"
shows "∃a::'a. a ∉ A"
proof -
from assms have "A ≠ UNIV" by blast
then show ?thesis by blast
qed

text ‹A finite choice principle. Does not need the SOME choice operator.›

lemma finite_set_choice: "finite A ⟹ ∀x∈A. ∃y. P x y ⟹ ∃f. ∀x∈A. P x (f x)"
proof (induct rule: finite_induct)
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case (insert a A)
then obtain f b where f: "∀x∈A. P x (f x)" and ab: "P a b"
by auto
show ?case (is "∃f. ?P f")
proof
show "?P (λx. if x = a then b else f x)"
using f ab by auto
qed
qed

subsubsection ‹Finite sets are the images of initial segments of natural numbers›

lemma finite_imp_nat_seg_image_inj_on:
assumes "finite A"
shows "∃(n::nat) f. A = f ` {i. i < n} ∧ inj_on f {i. i < n}"
using assms
proof induct
case empty
show ?case
proof
show "∃f. {} = f ` {i::nat. i < 0} ∧ inj_on f {i. i < 0}"
by simp
qed
next
case (insert a A)
have notinA: "a ∉ A" by fact
from insert.hyps obtain n f where "A = f ` {i::nat. i < n}" "inj_on f {i. i < n}"
by blast
then have "insert a A = f(n:=a) ` {i. i < Suc n}" and "inj_on (f(n:=a)) {i. i < Suc n}"
using notinA by (auto simp add: image_def Ball_def inj_on_def less_Suc_eq)
then show ?case by blast
qed

lemma nat_seg_image_imp_finite: "A = f ` {i::nat. i < n} ⟹ finite A"
proof (induct n arbitrary: A)
case 0
then show ?case by simp
next
case (Suc n)
let ?B = "f ` {i. i < n}"
have finB: "finite ?B" by (rule Suc.hyps[OF refl])
show ?case
proof (cases "∃k<n. f n = f k")
case True
then have "A = ?B"
using Suc.prems by (auto simp:less_Suc_eq)
then show ?thesis
using finB by simp
next
case False
then have "A = insert (f n) ?B"
using Suc.prems by (auto simp:less_Suc_eq)
then show ?thesis using finB by simp
qed
qed

lemma finite_conv_nat_seg_image: "finite A ⟷ (∃n f. A = f ` {i::nat. i < n})"
by (blast intro: nat_seg_image_imp_finite dest: finite_imp_nat_seg_image_inj_on)

lemma finite_imp_inj_to_nat_seg:
assumes "finite A"
shows "∃f n. f ` A = {i::nat. i < n} ∧ inj_on f A"
proof -
from finite_imp_nat_seg_image_inj_on [OF ‹finite A›]
obtain f and n :: nat where bij: "bij_betw f {i. i<n} A"
by (auto simp: bij_betw_def)
let ?f = "the_inv_into {i. i<n} f"
have "inj_on ?f A ∧ ?f ` A = {i. i<n}"
by (fold bij_betw_def) (rule bij_betw_the_inv_into[OF bij])
then show ?thesis by blast
qed

lemma finite_Collect_less_nat [iff]: "finite {n::nat. n < k}"
by (fastforce simp: finite_conv_nat_seg_image)

lemma finite_Collect_le_nat [iff]: "finite {n::nat. n ≤ k}"

subsection ‹Finiteness and common set operations›

lemma rev_finite_subset: "finite B ⟹ A ⊆ B ⟹ finite A"
proof (induct arbitrary: A rule: finite_induct)
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case (insert x F A)
have A: "A ⊆ insert x F" and r: "A - {x} ⊆ F ⟹ finite (A - {x})"
by fact+
show "finite A"
proof cases
assume x: "x ∈ A"
with A have "A - {x} ⊆ F" by (simp add: subset_insert_iff)
with r have "finite (A - {x})" .
then have "finite (insert x (A - {x}))" ..
also have "insert x (A - {x}) = A"
using x by (rule insert_Diff)
finally show ?thesis .
next
show ?thesis when "A ⊆ F"
using that by fact
assume "x ∉ A"
with A show "A ⊆ F"
qed
qed

lemma finite_subset: "A ⊆ B ⟹ finite B ⟹ finite A"
by (rule rev_finite_subset)

lemma finite_UnI:
assumes "finite F" and "finite G"
shows "finite (F ∪ G)"
using assms by induct simp_all

lemma finite_Un [iff]: "finite (F ∪ G) ⟷ finite F ∧ finite G"
by (blast intro: finite_UnI finite_subset [of _ "F ∪ G"])

lemma finite_insert [simp]: "finite (insert a A) ⟷ finite A"
proof -
have "finite {a} ∧ finite A ⟷ finite A" by simp
then have "finite ({a} ∪ A) ⟷ finite A" by (simp only: finite_Un)
then show ?thesis by simp
qed

lemma finite_Int [simp, intro]: "finite F ∨ finite G ⟹ finite (F ∩ G)"
by (blast intro: finite_subset)

lemma finite_Collect_conjI [simp, intro]:
"finite {x. P x} ∨ finite {x. Q x} ⟹ finite {x. P x ∧ Q x}"

lemma finite_Collect_disjI [simp]:
"finite {x. P x ∨ Q x} ⟷ finite {x. P x} ∧ finite {x. Q x}"

lemma finite_Diff [simp, intro]: "finite A ⟹ finite (A - B)"
by (rule finite_subset, rule Diff_subset)

lemma finite_Diff2 [simp]:
assumes "finite B"
shows "finite (A - B) ⟷ finite A"
proof -
have "finite A ⟷ finite ((A - B) ∪ (A ∩ B))"
also have "… ⟷ finite (A - B)"
using ‹finite B› by simp
finally show ?thesis ..
qed

lemma finite_Diff_insert [iff]: "finite (A - insert a B) ⟷ finite (A - B)"
proof -
have "finite (A - B) ⟷ finite (A - B - {a})" by simp
moreover have "A - insert a B = A - B - {a}" by auto
ultimately show ?thesis by simp
qed

lemma finite_compl [simp]:
"finite (A :: 'a set) ⟹ finite (- A) ⟷ finite (UNIV :: 'a set)"

lemma finite_Collect_not [simp]:
"finite {x :: 'a. P x} ⟹ finite {x. ¬ P x} ⟷ finite (UNIV :: 'a set)"

lemma finite_Union [simp, intro]:
"finite A ⟹ (⋀M. M ∈ A ⟹ finite M) ⟹ finite (⋃A)"
by (induct rule: finite_induct) simp_all

lemma finite_UN_I [intro]:
"finite A ⟹ (⋀a. a ∈ A ⟹ finite (B a)) ⟹ finite (⋃a∈A. B a)"
by (induct rule: finite_induct) simp_all

lemma finite_UN [simp]: "finite A ⟹ finite (⋃(B ` A)) ⟷ (∀x∈A. finite (B x))"
by (blast intro: finite_subset)

lemma finite_Inter [intro]: "∃A∈M. finite A ⟹ finite (⋂M)"
by (blast intro: Inter_lower finite_subset)

lemma finite_INT [intro]: "∃x∈I. finite (A x) ⟹ finite (⋂x∈I. A x)"
by (blast intro: INT_lower finite_subset)

lemma finite_imageI [simp, intro]: "finite F ⟹ finite (h ` F)"
by (induct rule: finite_induct) simp_all

lemma finite_image_set [simp]: "finite {x. P x} ⟹ finite {f x |x. P x}"

lemma finite_image_set2:
"finite {x. P x} ⟹ finite {y. Q y} ⟹ finite {f x y |x y. P x ∧ Q y}"
by (rule finite_subset [where B = "⋃x ∈ {x. P x}. ⋃y ∈ {y. Q y}. {f x y}"]) auto

lemma finite_imageD:
assumes "finite (f ` A)" and "inj_on f A"
shows "finite A"
using assms
proof (induct "f ` A" arbitrary: A)
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case (insert x B)
then have B_A: "insert x B = f ` A"
by simp
then obtain y where "x = f y" and "y ∈ A"
by blast
from B_A ‹x ∉ B› have "B = f ` A - {x}"
by blast
with B_A ‹x ∉ B› ‹x = f y› ‹inj_on f A› ‹y ∈ A› have "B = f ` (A - {y})"
moreover from ‹inj_on f A› have "inj_on f (A - {y})"
by (rule inj_on_diff)
ultimately have "finite (A - {y})"
by (rule insert.hyps)
then show "finite A"
by simp
qed

lemma finite_image_iff: "inj_on f A ⟹ finite (f ` A) ⟷ finite A"
using finite_imageD by blast

lemma finite_surj: "finite A ⟹ B ⊆ f ` A ⟹ finite B"
by (erule finite_subset) (rule finite_imageI)

lemma finite_range_imageI: "finite (range g) ⟹ finite (range (λx. f (g x)))"
by (drule finite_imageI) (simp add: range_composition)

lemma finite_subset_image:
assumes "finite B"
shows "B ⊆ f ` A ⟹ ∃C⊆A. finite C ∧ B = f ` C"
using assms
proof induct
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case insert
then show ?case
by (clarsimp simp del: image_insert simp add: image_insert [symmetric]) blast
qed

lemma all_subset_image: "(∀B. B ⊆ f ` A ⟶ P B) ⟷ (∀B. B ⊆ A ⟶ P(f ` B))"
by (safe elim!: subset_imageE) (use image_mono in ‹blast+›) (* slow *)

lemma all_finite_subset_image:
"(∀B. finite B ∧ B ⊆ f ` A ⟶ P B) ⟷ (∀B. finite B ∧ B ⊆ A ⟶ P (f ` B))"
proof safe
fix B :: "'a set"
assume B: "finite B" "B ⊆ f ` A" and P: "∀B. finite B ∧ B ⊆ A ⟶ P (f ` B)"
show "P B"
using finite_subset_image [OF B] P by blast
qed blast

lemma ex_finite_subset_image:
"(∃B. finite B ∧ B ⊆ f ` A ∧ P B) ⟷ (∃B. finite B ∧ B ⊆ A ∧ P (f ` B))"
proof safe
fix B :: "'a set"
assume B: "finite B" "B ⊆ f ` A" and "P B"
show "∃B. finite B ∧ B ⊆ A ∧ P (f ` B)"
using finite_subset_image [OF B] ‹P B› by blast
qed blast

lemma finite_vimage_IntI: "finite F ⟹ inj_on h A ⟹ finite (h -` F ∩ A)"
proof (induct rule: finite_induct)
case (insert x F)
then show ?case
by (simp add: vimage_insert [of h x F] finite_subset [OF inj_on_vimage_singleton] Int_Un_distrib2)
qed simp

lemma finite_finite_vimage_IntI:
assumes "finite F"
and "⋀y. y ∈ F ⟹ finite ((h -` {y}) ∩ A)"
shows "finite (h -` F ∩ A)"
proof -
have *: "h -` F ∩ A = (⋃ y∈F. (h -` {y}) ∩ A)"
by blast
show ?thesis
by (simp only: * assms finite_UN_I)
qed

lemma finite_vimageI: "finite F ⟹ inj h ⟹ finite (h -` F)"
using finite_vimage_IntI[of F h UNIV] by auto

lemma finite_vimageD': "finite (f -` A) ⟹ A ⊆ range f ⟹ finite A"
by (auto simp add: subset_image_iff intro: finite_subset[rotated])

lemma finite_vimageD: "finite (h -` F) ⟹ surj h ⟹ finite F"
by (auto dest: finite_vimageD')

lemma finite_vimage_iff: "bij h ⟹ finite (h -` F) ⟷ finite F"
unfolding bij_def by (auto elim: finite_vimageD finite_vimageI)

lemma finite_inverse_image_gen:
assumes "finite A" "inj_on f D"
shows "finite {j∈D. f j ∈ A}"
using finite_vimage_IntI [OF assms]
by (simp add: Collect_conj_eq inf_commute vimage_def)

lemma finite_inverse_image:
assumes "finite A" "inj f"
shows "finite {j. f j ∈ A}"
using finite_inverse_image_gen [OF assms] by simp

lemma finite_Collect_bex [simp]:
assumes "finite A"
shows "finite {x. ∃y∈A. Q x y} ⟷ (∀y∈A. finite {x. Q x y})"
proof -
have "{x. ∃y∈A. Q x y} = (⋃y∈A. {x. Q x y})" by auto
with assms show ?thesis by simp
qed

lemma finite_Collect_bounded_ex [simp]:
assumes "finite {y. P y}"
shows "finite {x. ∃y. P y ∧ Q x y} ⟷ (∀y. P y ⟶ finite {x. Q x y})"
proof -
have "{x. ∃y. P y ∧ Q x y} = (⋃y∈{y. P y}. {x. Q x y})"
by auto
with assms show ?thesis
by simp
qed

lemma finite_Plus: "finite A ⟹ finite B ⟹ finite (A <+> B)"

lemma finite_PlusD:
fixes A :: "'a set" and B :: "'b set"
assumes fin: "finite (A <+> B)"
shows "finite A" "finite B"
proof -
have "Inl ` A ⊆ A <+> B"
by auto
then have "finite (Inl ` A :: ('a + 'b) set)"
using fin by (rule finite_subset)
then show "finite A"
by (rule finite_imageD) (auto intro: inj_onI)
next
have "Inr ` B ⊆ A <+> B"
by auto
then have "finite (Inr ` B :: ('a + 'b) set)"
using fin by (rule finite_subset)
then show "finite B"
by (rule finite_imageD) (auto intro: inj_onI)
qed

lemma finite_Plus_iff [simp]: "finite (A <+> B) ⟷ finite A ∧ finite B"
by (auto intro: finite_PlusD finite_Plus)

lemma finite_Plus_UNIV_iff [simp]:
"finite (UNIV :: ('a + 'b) set) ⟷ finite (UNIV :: 'a set) ∧ finite (UNIV :: 'b set)"
by (subst UNIV_Plus_UNIV [symmetric]) (rule finite_Plus_iff)

lemma finite_SigmaI [simp, intro]:
"finite A ⟹ (⋀a. a∈A ⟹ finite (B a)) ⟹ finite (SIGMA a:A. B a)"
unfolding Sigma_def by blast

lemma finite_SigmaI2:
assumes "finite {x∈A. B x ≠ {}}"
and "⋀a. a ∈ A ⟹ finite (B a)"
shows "finite (Sigma A B)"
proof -
from assms have "finite (Sigma {x∈A. B x ≠ {}} B)"
by auto
also have "Sigma {x:A. B x ≠ {}} B = Sigma A B"
by auto
finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma finite_cartesian_product: "finite A ⟹ finite B ⟹ finite (A × B)"
by (rule finite_SigmaI)

lemma finite_Prod_UNIV:
"finite (UNIV :: 'a set) ⟹ finite (UNIV :: 'b set) ⟹ finite (UNIV :: ('a × 'b) set)"
by (simp only: UNIV_Times_UNIV [symmetric] finite_cartesian_product)

lemma finite_cartesian_productD1:
assumes "finite (A × B)" and "B ≠ {}"
shows "finite A"
proof -
from assms obtain n f where "A × B = f ` {i::nat. i < n}"
then have "fst ` (A × B) = fst ` f ` {i::nat. i < n}"
by simp
with ‹B ≠ {}› have "A = (fst ∘ f) ` {i::nat. i < n}"
then have "∃n f. A = f ` {i::nat. i < n}"
by blast
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma finite_cartesian_productD2:
assumes "finite (A × B)" and "A ≠ {}"
shows "finite B"
proof -
from assms obtain n f where "A × B = f ` {i::nat. i < n}"
then have "snd ` (A × B) = snd ` f ` {i::nat. i < n}"
by simp
with ‹A ≠ {}› have "B = (snd ∘ f) ` {i::nat. i < n}"
then have "∃n f. B = f ` {i::nat. i < n}"
by blast
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma finite_cartesian_product_iff:
"finite (A × B) ⟷ (A = {} ∨ B = {} ∨ (finite A ∧ finite B))"
by (auto dest: finite_cartesian_productD1 finite_cartesian_productD2 finite_cartesian_product)

lemma finite_prod:
"finite (UNIV :: ('a × 'b) set) ⟷ finite (UNIV :: 'a set) ∧ finite (UNIV :: 'b set)"
using finite_cartesian_product_iff[of UNIV UNIV] by simp

lemma finite_Pow_iff [iff]: "finite (Pow A) ⟷ finite A"
proof
assume "finite (Pow A)"
then have "finite ((λx. {x}) ` A)"
by (blast intro: finite_subset)  (* somewhat slow *)
then show "finite A"
by (rule finite_imageD [unfolded inj_on_def]) simp
next
assume "finite A"
then show "finite (Pow A)"
qed

corollary finite_Collect_subsets [simp, intro]: "finite A ⟹ finite {B. B ⊆ A}"

lemma finite_set: "finite (UNIV :: 'a set set) ⟷ finite (UNIV :: 'a set)"
by (simp only: finite_Pow_iff Pow_UNIV[symmetric])

lemma finite_UnionD: "finite (⋃A) ⟹ finite A"
by (blast intro: finite_subset [OF subset_Pow_Union])

lemma finite_bind:
assumes "finite S"
assumes "∀x ∈ S. finite (f x)"
shows "finite (Set.bind S f)"
using assms by (simp add: bind_UNION)

lemma finite_filter [simp]: "finite S ⟹ finite (Set.filter P S)"
unfolding Set.filter_def by simp

lemma finite_set_of_finite_funs:
assumes "finite A" "finite B"
shows "finite {f. ∀x. (x ∈ A ⟶ f x ∈ B) ∧ (x ∉ A ⟶ f x = d)}" (is "finite ?S")
proof -
let ?F = "λf. {(a,b). a ∈ A ∧ b = f a}"
have "?F ` ?S ⊆ Pow(A × B)"
by auto
from finite_subset[OF this] assms have 1: "finite (?F ` ?S)"
by simp
have 2: "inj_on ?F ?S"
by (fastforce simp add: inj_on_def set_eq_iff fun_eq_iff)  (* somewhat slow *)
show ?thesis
by (rule finite_imageD [OF 1 2])
qed

lemma not_finite_existsD:
assumes "¬ finite {a. P a}"
shows "∃a. P a"
proof (rule classical)
assume "¬ ?thesis"
with assms show ?thesis by auto
qed

subsection ‹Further induction rules on finite sets›

lemma finite_ne_induct [case_names singleton insert, consumes 2]:
assumes "finite F" and "F ≠ {}"
assumes "⋀x. P {x}"
and "⋀x F. finite F ⟹ F ≠ {} ⟹ x ∉ F ⟹ P F  ⟹ P (insert x F)"
shows "P F"
using assms
proof induct
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case (insert x F)
then show ?case by cases auto
qed

lemma finite_subset_induct [consumes 2, case_names empty insert]:
assumes "finite F" and "F ⊆ A"
and empty: "P {}"
and insert: "⋀a F. finite F ⟹ a ∈ A ⟹ a ∉ F ⟹ P F ⟹ P (insert a F)"
shows "P F"
using ‹finite F› ‹F ⊆ A›
proof induct
show "P {}" by fact
next
fix x F
assume "finite F" and "x ∉ F" and P: "F ⊆ A ⟹ P F" and i: "insert x F ⊆ A"
show "P (insert x F)"
proof (rule insert)
from i show "x ∈ A" by blast
from i have "F ⊆ A" by blast
with P show "P F" .
show "finite F" by fact
show "x ∉ F" by fact
qed
qed

lemma finite_empty_induct:
assumes "finite A"
and "P A"
and remove: "⋀a A. finite A ⟹ a ∈ A ⟹ P A ⟹ P (A - {a})"
shows "P {}"
proof -
have "P (A - B)" if "B ⊆ A" for B :: "'a set"
proof -
from ‹finite A› that have "finite B"
by (rule rev_finite_subset)
from this ‹B ⊆ A› show "P (A - B)"
proof induct
case empty
from ‹P A› show ?case by simp
next
case (insert b B)
have "P (A - B - {b})"
proof (rule remove)
from ‹finite A› show "finite (A - B)"
by induct auto
from insert show "b ∈ A - B"
by simp
from insert show "P (A - B)"
by simp
qed
also have "A - B - {b} = A - insert b B"
by (rule Diff_insert [symmetric])
finally show ?case .
qed
qed
then have "P (A - A)" by blast
then show ?thesis by simp
qed

lemma finite_update_induct [consumes 1, case_names const update]:
assumes finite: "finite {a. f a ≠ c}"
and const: "P (λa. c)"
and update: "⋀a b f. finite {a. f a ≠ c} ⟹ f a = c ⟹ b ≠ c ⟹ P f ⟹ P (f(a := b))"
shows "P f"
using finite
proof (induct "{a. f a ≠ c}" arbitrary: f)
case empty
with const show ?case by simp
next
case (insert a A)
then have "A = {a'. (f(a := c)) a' ≠ c}" and "f a ≠ c"
by auto
with ‹finite A› have "finite {a'. (f(a := c)) a' ≠ c}"
by simp
have "(f(a := c)) a = c"
by simp
from insert ‹A = {a'. (f(a := c)) a' ≠ c}› have "P (f(a := c))"
by simp
with ‹finite {a'. (f(a := c)) a' ≠ c}› ‹(f(a := c)) a = c› ‹f a ≠ c›
have "P ((f(a := c))(a := f a))"
by (rule update)
then show ?case by simp
qed

lemma finite_subset_induct' [consumes 2, case_names empty insert]:
assumes "finite F" and "F ⊆ A"
and empty: "P {}"
and insert: "⋀a F. ⟦finite F; a ∈ A; F ⊆ A; a ∉ F; P F ⟧ ⟹ P (insert a F)"
shows "P F"
using assms(1,2)
proof induct
show "P {}" by fact
next
fix x F
assume "finite F" and "x ∉ F" and
P: "F ⊆ A ⟹ P F" and i: "insert x F ⊆ A"
show "P (insert x F)"
proof (rule insert)
from i show "x ∈ A" by blast
from i have "F ⊆ A" by blast
with P show "P F" .
show "finite F" by fact
show "x ∉ F" by fact
show "F ⊆ A" by fact
qed
qed

subsection ‹Class ‹finite››

class finite =
assumes finite_UNIV: "finite (UNIV :: 'a set)"
begin

lemma finite [simp]: "finite (A :: 'a set)"
by (rule subset_UNIV finite_UNIV finite_subset)+

lemma finite_code [code]: "finite (A :: 'a set) ⟷ True"
by simp

end

instance prod :: (finite, finite) finite
by standard (simp only: UNIV_Times_UNIV [symmetric] finite_cartesian_product finite)

lemma inj_graph: "inj (λf. {(x, y). y = f x})"
by (rule inj_onI) (auto simp add: set_eq_iff fun_eq_iff)

instance "fun" :: (finite, finite) finite
proof
show "finite (UNIV :: ('a ⇒ 'b) set)"
proof (rule finite_imageD)
let ?graph = "λf::'a ⇒ 'b. {(x, y). y = f x}"
have "range ?graph ⊆ Pow UNIV"
by simp
moreover have "finite (Pow (UNIV :: ('a * 'b) set))"
by (simp only: finite_Pow_iff finite)
ultimately show "finite (range ?graph)"
by (rule finite_subset)
show "inj ?graph"
by (rule inj_graph)
qed
qed

instance bool :: finite

instance set :: (finite) finite
by standard (simp only: Pow_UNIV [symmetric] finite_Pow_iff finite)

instance unit :: finite

instance sum :: (finite, finite) finite
by standard (simp only: UNIV_Plus_UNIV [symmetric] finite_Plus finite)

subsection ‹A basic fold functional for finite sets›

text ‹
The intended behaviour is ‹fold f z {x⇩1, …, x⇩n} = f x⇩1 (… (f x⇩n z)…)›
if ‹f› is ``left-commutative''.
The commutativity requirement is relativised to the carrier set ‹S›:
›

locale comp_fun_commute_on =
fixes S :: "'a set"
fixes f :: "'a ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'b"
assumes comp_fun_commute_on: "x ∈ S ⟹ y ∈ S ⟹ f y ∘ f x = f x ∘ f y"
begin

lemma fun_left_comm: "x ∈ S ⟹ y ∈ S ⟹ f y (f x z) = f x (f y z)"
using comp_fun_commute_on by (simp add: fun_eq_iff)

lemma commute_left_comp: "x ∈ S ⟹ y ∈ S ⟹ f y ∘ (f x ∘ g) = f x ∘ (f y ∘ g)"

end

inductive fold_graph :: "('a ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'b) ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'a set ⇒ 'b ⇒ bool"
for f :: "'a ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'b" and z :: 'b
where
emptyI [intro]: "fold_graph f z {} z"
| insertI [intro]: "x ∉ A ⟹ fold_graph f z A y ⟹ fold_graph f z (insert x A) (f x y)"

inductive_cases empty_fold_graphE [elim!]: "fold_graph f z {} x"

lemma fold_graph_closed_lemma:
"fold_graph f z A x ∧ x ∈ B"
if "fold_graph g z A x"
"⋀a b. a ∈ A ⟹ b ∈ B ⟹ f a b = g a b"
"⋀a b. a ∈ A ⟹ b ∈ B ⟹ g a b ∈ B"
"z ∈ B"
using that(1-3)
proof (induction rule: fold_graph.induct)
case (insertI x A y)
have "fold_graph f z A y" "y ∈ B"
unfolding atomize_conj
by (rule insertI.IH) (auto intro: insertI.prems)
then have "g x y ∈ B" and f_eq: "f x y = g x y"
by (auto simp: insertI.prems)
moreover have "fold_graph f z (insert x A) (f x y)"
by (rule fold_graph.insertI; fact)
ultimately
show ?case
qed (auto intro!: that)

lemma fold_graph_closed_eq:
"fold_graph f z A = fold_graph g z A"
if "⋀a b. a ∈ A ⟹ b ∈ B ⟹ f a b = g a b"
"⋀a b. a ∈ A ⟹ b ∈ B ⟹ g a b ∈ B"
"z ∈ B"
using fold_graph_closed_lemma[of f z A _ B g] fold_graph_closed_lemma[of g z A _ B f] that
by auto

definition fold :: "('a ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'b) ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'a set ⇒ 'b"
where "fold f z A = (if finite A then (THE y. fold_graph f z A y) else z)"

lemma fold_closed_eq: "fold f z A = fold g z A"
if "⋀a b. a ∈ A ⟹ b ∈ B ⟹ f a b = g a b"
"⋀a b. a ∈ A ⟹ b ∈ B ⟹ g a b ∈ B"
"z ∈ B"
unfolding Finite_Set.fold_def
by (subst fold_graph_closed_eq[where B=B and g=g]) (auto simp: that)

text ‹
A tempting alternative for the definition is
\<^term>‹if finite A then THE y. fold_graph f z A y else e›.
It allows the removal of finiteness assumptions from the theorems
‹fold_comm›, ‹fold_reindex› and ‹fold_distrib›.
The proofs become ugly. It is not worth the effort. (???)
›

lemma finite_imp_fold_graph: "finite A ⟹ ∃x. fold_graph f z A x"
by (induct rule: finite_induct) auto

subsubsection ‹From \<^const>‹fold_graph› to \<^term>‹fold››

context comp_fun_commute_on
begin

lemma fold_graph_finite:
assumes "fold_graph f z A y"
shows "finite A"
using assms by induct simp_all

lemma fold_graph_insertE_aux:
assumes "A ⊆ S"
assumes "fold_graph f z A y" "a ∈ A"
shows "∃y'. y = f a y' ∧ fold_graph f z (A - {a}) y'"
using assms(2-,1)
proof (induct set: fold_graph)
case emptyI
then show ?case by simp
next
case (insertI x A y)
show ?case
proof (cases "x = a")
case True
with insertI show ?thesis by auto
next
case False
then obtain y' where y: "y = f a y'" and y': "fold_graph f z (A - {a}) y'"
using insertI by auto
from insertI have "x ∈ S" "a ∈ S" by auto
then have "f x y = f a (f x y')"
unfolding y by (intro fun_left_comm; simp)
moreover have "fold_graph f z (insert x A - {a}) (f x y')"
using y' and ‹x ≠ a› and ‹x ∉ A›
ultimately show ?thesis
by fast
qed
qed

lemma fold_graph_insertE:
assumes "insert x A ⊆ S"
assumes "fold_graph f z (insert x A) v" and "x ∉ A"
obtains y where "v = f x y" and "fold_graph f z A y"
using assms by (auto dest: fold_graph_insertE_aux[OF ‹insert x A ⊆ S› _ insertI1])

lemma fold_graph_determ:
assumes "A ⊆ S"
assumes "fold_graph f z A x" "fold_graph f z A y"
shows "y = x"
using assms(2-,1)
proof (induct arbitrary: y set: fold_graph)
case emptyI
then show ?case by fast
next
case (insertI x A y v)
from ‹insert x A ⊆ S› and ‹fold_graph f z (insert x A) v› and ‹x ∉ A›
obtain y' where "v = f x y'" and "fold_graph f z A y'"
by (rule fold_graph_insertE)
from ‹fold_graph f z A y'› insertI have "y' = y"
by simp
with ‹v = f x y'› show "v = f x y"
by simp
qed

lemma fold_equality: "A ⊆ S ⟹ fold_graph f z A y ⟹ fold f z A = y"
by (cases "finite A") (auto simp add: fold_def intro: fold_graph_determ dest: fold_graph_finite)

lemma fold_graph_fold:
assumes "A ⊆ S"
assumes "finite A"
shows "fold_graph f z A (fold f z A)"
proof -
from ‹finite A› have "∃x. fold_graph f z A x"
by (rule finite_imp_fold_graph)
moreover note fold_graph_determ[OF ‹A ⊆ S›]
ultimately have "∃!x. fold_graph f z A x"
by (rule ex_ex1I)
then have "fold_graph f z A (The (fold_graph f z A))"
by (rule theI')
with assms show ?thesis
qed

text ‹The base case for ‹fold›:›

lemma (in -) fold_infinite [simp]: "¬ finite A ⟹ fold f z A = z"
by (auto simp: fold_def)

lemma (in -) fold_empty [simp]: "fold f z {} = z"
by (auto simp: fold_def)

text ‹The various recursion equations for \<^const>‹fold›:›

lemma fold_insert [simp]:
assumes "insert x A ⊆ S"
assumes "finite A" and "x ∉ A"
shows "fold f z (insert x A) = f x (fold f z A)"
proof (rule fold_equality[OF ‹insert x A ⊆ S›])
fix z
from ‹insert x A ⊆ S› ‹finite A› have "fold_graph f z A (fold f z A)"
by (blast intro: fold_graph_fold)
with ‹x ∉ A› have "fold_graph f z (insert x A) (f x (fold f z A))"
by (rule fold_graph.insertI)
then show "fold_graph f z (insert x A) (f x (fold f z A))"
by simp
qed

declare (in -) empty_fold_graphE [rule del] fold_graph.intros [rule del]
― ‹No more proofs involve these.›

lemma fold_fun_left_comm:
assumes "insert x A ⊆ S" "finite A"
shows "f x (fold f z A) = fold f (f x z) A"
using assms(2,1)
proof (induct rule: finite_induct)
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case (insert y F)
then have "fold f (f x z) (insert y F) = f y (fold f (f x z) F)"
by simp
also have "… = f x (f y (fold f z F))"
using insert by (simp add: fun_left_comm[where ?y=x])
also have "… = f x (fold f z (insert y F))"
proof -
from insert have "insert y F ⊆ S" by simp
from fold_insert[OF this] insert show ?thesis by simp
qed
finally show ?case ..
qed

lemma fold_insert2:
"insert x A ⊆ S ⟹ finite A ⟹ x ∉ A ⟹ fold f z (insert x A)  = fold f (f x z) A"

lemma fold_rec:
assumes "A ⊆ S"
assumes "finite A" and "x ∈ A"
shows "fold f z A = f x (fold f z (A - {x}))"
proof -
have A: "A = insert x (A - {x})"
using ‹x ∈ A› by blast
then have "fold f z A = fold f z (insert x (A - {x}))"
by simp
also have "… = f x (fold f z (A - {x}))"
by (rule fold_insert) (use assms in ‹auto›)
finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma fold_insert_remove:
assumes "insert x A ⊆ S"
assumes "finite A"
shows "fold f z (insert x A) = f x (fold f z (A - {x}))"
proof -
from ‹finite A› have "finite (insert x A)"
by auto
moreover have "x ∈ insert x A"
by auto
ultimately have "fold f z (insert x A) = f x (fold f z (insert x A - {x}))"
using ‹insert x A ⊆ S› by (blast intro: fold_rec)
then show ?thesis
by simp
qed

lemma fold_set_union_disj:
assumes "A ⊆ S" "B ⊆ S"
assumes "finite A" "finite B" "A ∩ B = {}"
shows "Finite_Set.fold f z (A ∪ B) = Finite_Set.fold f (Finite_Set.fold f z A) B"
using ‹finite B› assms(1,2,3,5)
proof induct
case (insert x F)
have "fold f z (A ∪ insert x F) = f x (fold f (fold f z A) F)"
using insert by auto
also have "… = fold f (fold f z A) (insert x F)"
using insert by (blast intro: fold_insert[symmetric])
finally show ?case .
qed simp

end

text ‹Other properties of \<^const>‹fold›:›

lemma fold_graph_image:
assumes "inj_on g A"
shows "fold_graph f z (g ` A) = fold_graph (f ∘ g) z A"
proof
fix w
show "fold_graph f z (g ` A) w = fold_graph (f o g) z A w"
proof
assume "fold_graph f z (g ` A) w"
then show "fold_graph (f ∘ g) z A w"
using assms
proof (induct "g ` A" w arbitrary: A)
case emptyI
then show ?case by (auto intro: fold_graph.emptyI)
next
case (insertI x A r B)
from ‹inj_on g B› ‹x ∉ A› ‹insert x A = image g B› obtain x' A'
where "x' ∉ A'" and [simp]: "B = insert x' A'" "x = g x'" "A = g ` A'"
by (rule inj_img_insertE)
from insertI.prems have "fold_graph (f ∘ g) z A' r"
by (auto intro: insertI.hyps)
with ‹x' ∉ A'› have "fold_graph (f ∘ g) z (insert x' A') ((f ∘ g) x' r)"
by (rule fold_graph.insertI)
then show ?case
by simp
qed
next
assume "fold_graph (f ∘ g) z A w"
then show "fold_graph f z (g ` A) w"
using assms
proof induct
case emptyI
then show ?case
by (auto intro: fold_graph.emptyI)
next
case (insertI x A r)
from ‹x ∉ A› insertI.prems have "g x ∉ g ` A"
by auto
moreover from insertI have "fold_graph f z (g ` A) r"
by simp
ultimately have "fold_graph f z (insert (g x) (g ` A)) (f (g x) r)"
by (rule fold_graph.insertI)
then show ?case
by simp
qed
qed
qed

lemma fold_image:
assumes "inj_on g A"
shows "fold f z (g ` A) = fold (f ∘ g) z A"
proof (cases "finite A")
case False
with assms show ?thesis
by (auto dest: finite_imageD simp add: fold_def)
next
case True
then show ?thesis
by (auto simp add: fold_def fold_graph_image[OF assms])
qed

lemma fold_cong:
assumes "comp_fun_commute_on S f" "comp_fun_commute_on S g"
and "A ⊆ S" "finite A"
and cong: "⋀x. x ∈ A ⟹ f x = g x"
and "s = t" and "A = B"
shows "fold f s A = fold g t B"
proof -
have "fold f s A = fold g s A"
using ‹finite A› ‹A ⊆ S› cong
proof (induct A)
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case insert
interpret f: comp_fun_commute_on S f by (fact ‹comp_fun_commute_on S f›)
interpret g: comp_fun_commute_on S g by (fact ‹comp_fun_commute_on S g›)
from insert show ?case by simp
qed
with assms show ?thesis by simp
qed

text ‹A simplified version for idempotent functions:›

locale comp_fun_idem_on = comp_fun_commute_on +
assumes comp_fun_idem_on: "x ∈ S ⟹ f x ∘ f x = f x"
begin

lemma fun_left_idem: "x ∈ S ⟹ f x (f x z) = f x z"
using comp_fun_idem_on by (simp add: fun_eq_iff)

lemma fold_insert_idem:
assumes "insert x A ⊆ S"
assumes fin: "finite A"
shows "fold f z (insert x A)  = f x (fold f z A)"
proof cases
assume "x ∈ A"
then obtain B where "A = insert x B" and "x ∉ B"
by (rule set_insert)
then show ?thesis
using assms by (simp add: comp_fun_idem_on fun_left_idem)
next
assume "x ∉ A"
then show ?thesis
using assms by auto
qed

declare fold_insert [simp del] fold_insert_idem [simp]

lemma fold_insert_idem2: "insert x A ⊆ S ⟹ finite A ⟹ fold f z (insert x A) = fold f (f x z) A"

end

subsubsection ‹Liftings to ‹comp_fun_commute_on› etc.›

lemma (in comp_fun_commute_on) comp_comp_fun_commute_on:
"range g ⊆ S ⟹ comp_fun_commute_on R (f ∘ g)"
by standard (force intro: comp_fun_commute_on)

lemma (in comp_fun_idem_on) comp_comp_fun_idem_on:
assumes "range g ⊆ S"
shows "comp_fun_idem_on R (f ∘ g)"
proof
interpret f_g: comp_fun_commute_on R "f o g"
by (fact comp_comp_fun_commute_on[OF ‹range g ⊆ S›])
show "x ∈ R ⟹ y ∈ R ⟹ (f ∘ g) y ∘ (f ∘ g) x = (f ∘ g) x ∘ (f ∘ g) y" for x y
by (fact f_g.comp_fun_commute_on)
qed (use ‹range g ⊆ S› in ‹force intro: comp_fun_idem_on›)

lemma (in comp_fun_commute_on) comp_fun_commute_on_funpow:
"comp_fun_commute_on S (λx. f x ^^ g x)"
proof
fix x y assume "x ∈ S" "y ∈ S"
show "f y ^^ g y ∘ f x ^^ g x = f x ^^ g x ∘ f y ^^ g y"
proof (cases "x = y")
case True
then show ?thesis by simp
next
case False
show ?thesis
proof (induct "g x" arbitrary: g)
case 0
then show ?case by simp
next
case (Suc n g)
have hyp1: "f y ^^ g y ∘ f x = f x ∘ f y ^^ g y"
proof (induct "g y" arbitrary: g)
case 0
then show ?case by simp
next
case (Suc n g)
define h where "h z = g z - 1" for z
with Suc have "n = h y"
by simp
with Suc have hyp: "f y ^^ h y ∘ f x = f x ∘ f y ^^ h y"
by auto
from Suc h_def have "g y = Suc (h y)"
by simp
with ‹x ∈ S› ‹y ∈ S› show ?case
qed
define h where "h z = (if z = x then g x - 1 else g z)" for z
with Suc have "n = h x"
by simp
with Suc have "f y ^^ h y ∘ f x ^^ h x = f x ^^ h x ∘ f y ^^ h y"
by auto
with False h_def have hyp2: "f y ^^ g y ∘ f x ^^ h x = f x ^^ h x ∘ f y ^^ g y"
by simp
from Suc h_def have "g x = Suc (h x)"
by simp
then show ?case
by (simp del: funpow.simps add: funpow_Suc_right o_assoc hyp2) (simp add: comp_assoc hyp1)
qed
qed
qed

subsubsection ‹\<^term>‹UNIV› as carrier set›

locale comp_fun_commute =
fixes f :: "'a ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'b"
assumes comp_fun_commute: "f y ∘ f x = f x ∘ f y"
begin

lemma (in -) comp_fun_commute_def': "comp_fun_commute f = comp_fun_commute_on UNIV f"
unfolding comp_fun_commute_def comp_fun_commute_on_def by blast

text ‹
We abuse the ‹rewrites› functionality of locales to remove trivial assumptions that
result from instantiating the carrier set to \<^term>‹UNIV›.
›
sublocale comp_fun_commute_on UNIV f
rewrites "⋀X. (X ⊆ UNIV) ≡ True"
and "⋀x. x ∈ UNIV ≡ True"
and "⋀P. (True ⟹ P) ≡ Trueprop P"
and "⋀P Q. (True ⟹ PROP P ⟹ PROP Q) ≡ (PROP P ⟹ True ⟹ PROP Q)"
proof -
show "comp_fun_commute_on UNIV f"
qed simp_all

end

lemma (in comp_fun_commute) comp_comp_fun_commute: "comp_fun_commute (f o g)"
unfolding comp_fun_commute_def' by (fact comp_comp_fun_commute_on)

lemma (in comp_fun_commute) comp_fun_commute_funpow: "comp_fun_commute (λx. f x ^^ g x)"
unfolding comp_fun_commute_def' by (fact comp_fun_commute_on_funpow)

locale comp_fun_idem = comp_fun_commute +
assumes comp_fun_idem: "f x o f x = f x"
begin

lemma (in -) comp_fun_idem_def': "comp_fun_idem f = comp_fun_idem_on UNIV f"
unfolding comp_fun_idem_on_def comp_fun_idem_def comp_fun_commute_def'
unfolding comp_fun_idem_axioms_def comp_fun_idem_on_axioms_def
by blast

text ‹
Again, we abuse the ‹rewrites› functionality of locales to remove trivial assumptions that
result from instantiating the carrier set to \<^term>‹UNIV›.
›
sublocale comp_fun_idem_on UNIV f
rewrites "⋀X. (X ⊆ UNIV) ≡ True"
and "⋀x. x ∈ UNIV ≡ True"
and "⋀P. (True ⟹ P) ≡ Trueprop P"
and "⋀P Q. (True ⟹ PROP P ⟹ PROP Q) ≡ (PROP P ⟹ True ⟹ PROP Q)"
proof -
show "comp_fun_idem_on UNIV f"
by standard (simp_all add: comp_fun_idem comp_fun_commute)
qed simp_all

end

lemma (in comp_fun_idem) comp_comp_fun_idem: "comp_fun_idem (f o g)"
unfolding comp_fun_idem_def' by (fact comp_comp_fun_idem_on)

subsubsection ‹Expressing set operations via \<^const>‹fold››

lemma comp_fun_commute_const: "comp_fun_commute (λ_. f)"
by standard (rule refl)

lemma comp_fun_idem_insert: "comp_fun_idem insert"
by standard auto

lemma comp_fun_idem_remove: "comp_fun_idem Set.remove"
by standard auto

lemma (in semilattice_inf) comp_fun_idem_inf: "comp_fun_idem inf"
by standard (auto simp add: inf_left_commute)

lemma (in semilattice_sup) comp_fun_idem_sup: "comp_fun_idem sup"
by standard (auto simp add: sup_left_commute)

lemma union_fold_insert:
assumes "finite A"
shows "A ∪ B = fold insert B A"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_idem insert
by (fact comp_fun_idem_insert)
from ‹finite A› show ?thesis
by (induct A arbitrary: B) simp_all
qed

lemma minus_fold_remove:
assumes "finite A"
shows "B - A = fold Set.remove B A"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_idem Set.remove
by (fact comp_fun_idem_remove)
from ‹finite A› have "fold Set.remove B A = B - A"
by (induct A arbitrary: B) auto  (* slow *)
then show ?thesis ..
qed

lemma comp_fun_commute_filter_fold:
"comp_fun_commute (λx A'. if P x then Set.insert x A' else A')"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_idem Set.insert by (fact comp_fun_idem_insert)
show ?thesis by standard (auto simp: fun_eq_iff)
qed

lemma Set_filter_fold:
assumes "finite A"
shows "Set.filter P A = fold (λx A'. if P x then Set.insert x A' else A') {} A"
using assms
proof -
interpret commute_insert: comp_fun_commute "(λx A'. if P x then Set.insert x A' else A')"
by (fact comp_fun_commute_filter_fold)
from ‹finite A› show ?thesis
by induct (auto simp add: Set.filter_def)
qed

lemma inter_Set_filter:
assumes "finite B"
shows "A ∩ B = Set.filter (λx. x ∈ A) B"
using assms
by induct (auto simp: Set.filter_def)

lemma image_fold_insert:
assumes "finite A"
shows "image f A = fold (λk A. Set.insert (f k) A) {} A"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_commute "λk A. Set.insert (f k) A"
by standard auto
show ?thesis
using assms by (induct A) auto
qed

lemma Ball_fold:
assumes "finite A"
shows "Ball A P = fold (λk s. s ∧ P k) True A"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_commute "λk s. s ∧ P k"
by standard auto
show ?thesis
using assms by (induct A) auto
qed

lemma Bex_fold:
assumes "finite A"
shows "Bex A P = fold (λk s. s ∨ P k) False A"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_commute "λk s. s ∨ P k"
by standard auto
show ?thesis
using assms by (induct A) auto
qed

lemma comp_fun_commute_Pow_fold: "comp_fun_commute (λx A. A ∪ Set.insert x ` A)"
by (clarsimp simp: fun_eq_iff comp_fun_commute_def) blast

lemma Pow_fold:
assumes "finite A"
shows "Pow A = fold (λx A. A ∪ Set.insert x ` A) {{}} A"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_commute "λx A. A ∪ Set.insert x ` A"
by (rule comp_fun_commute_Pow_fold)
show ?thesis
using assms by (induct A) (auto simp: Pow_insert)
qed

lemma fold_union_pair:
assumes "finite B"
shows "(⋃y∈B. {(x, y)}) ∪ A = fold (λy. Set.insert (x, y)) A B"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_commute "λy. Set.insert (x, y)"
by standard auto
show ?thesis
using assms by (induct arbitrary: A) simp_all
qed

lemma comp_fun_commute_product_fold:
"finite B ⟹ comp_fun_commute (λx z. fold (λy. Set.insert (x, y)) z B)"
by standard (auto simp: fold_union_pair [symmetric])

lemma product_fold:
assumes "finite A" "finite B"
shows "A × B = fold (λx z. fold (λy. Set.insert (x, y)) z B) {} A"
proof -
interpret commute_product: comp_fun_commute "(λx z. fold (λy. Set.insert (x, y)) z B)"
by (fact comp_fun_commute_product_fold[OF ‹finite B›])
from assms show ?thesis unfolding Sigma_def
by (induct A) (simp_all add: fold_union_pair)
qed

context complete_lattice
begin

lemma inf_Inf_fold_inf:
assumes "finite A"
shows "inf (Inf A) B = fold inf B A"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_idem inf
by (fact comp_fun_idem_inf)
from ‹finite A› fold_fun_left_comm show ?thesis
by (induct A arbitrary: B) (simp_all add: inf_commute fun_eq_iff)
qed

lemma sup_Sup_fold_sup:
assumes "finite A"
shows "sup (Sup A) B = fold sup B A"
proof -
interpret comp_fun_idem sup
by (fact comp_fun_idem_sup)
from ‹finite A› fold_fun_left_comm show ?thesis
by (induct A arbitrary: B) (simp_all add: sup_commute fun_eq_iff)
qed

lemma Inf_fold_inf: "finite A ⟹ Inf A = fold inf top A"
using inf_Inf_fold_inf [of A top] by (simp add: inf_absorb2)

lemma Sup_fold_sup: "finite A ⟹ Sup A = fold sup bot A"
using sup_Sup_fold_sup [of A bot] by (simp add: sup_absorb2)

lemma inf_INF_fold_inf:
assumes "finite A"
shows "inf B (⨅(f ` A)) = fold (inf ∘ f) B A" (is "?inf = ?fold")
proof -
interpret comp_fun_idem inf by (fact comp_fun_idem_inf)
interpret comp_fun_idem "inf ∘ f" by (fact comp_comp_fun_idem)
from ‹finite A› have "?fold = ?inf"
by (induct A arbitrary: B) (simp_all add: inf_left_commute)
then show ?thesis ..
qed

lemma sup_SUP_fold_sup:
assumes "finite A"
shows "sup B (⨆(f ` A)) = fold (sup ∘ f) B A" (is "?sup = ?fold")
proof -
interpret comp_fun_idem sup by (fact comp_fun_idem_sup)
interpret comp_fun_idem "sup ∘ f" by (fact comp_comp_fun_idem)
from ‹finite A› have "?fold = ?sup"
by (induct A arbitrary: B) (simp_all add: sup_left_commute)
then show ?thesis ..
qed

lemma INF_fold_inf: "finite A ⟹ ⨅(f ` A) = fold (inf ∘ f) top A"
using inf_INF_fold_inf [of A top] by simp

lemma SUP_fold_sup: "finite A ⟹ ⨆(f ` A) = fold (sup ∘ f) bot A"
using sup_SUP_fold_sup [of A bot] by simp

lemma finite_Inf_in:
assumes "finite A" "A≠{}" and inf: "⋀x y. ⟦x ∈ A; y ∈ A⟧ ⟹ inf x y ∈ A"
shows "Inf A ∈ A"
proof -
have "Inf B ∈ A" if "B ≤ A" "B≠{}" for B
using finite_subset [OF ‹B ⊆ A› ‹finite A›] that
by (induction B) (use inf in ‹force+›)
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma finite_Sup_in:
assumes "finite A" "A≠{}" and sup: "⋀x y. ⟦x ∈ A; y ∈ A⟧ ⟹ sup x y ∈ A"
shows "Sup A ∈ A"
proof -
have "Sup B ∈ A" if "B ≤ A" "B≠{}" for B
using finite_subset [OF ‹B ⊆ A› ‹finite A›] that
by (induction B) (use sup in ‹force+›)
then show ?thesis
qed

end

subsection ‹Locales as mini-packages for fold operations›

subsubsection ‹The natural case›

locale folding_on =
fixes S :: "'a set"
fixes f :: "'a ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'b" and z :: "'b"
assumes comp_fun_commute_on: "x ∈ S ⟹ y ∈ S ⟹ f y o f x = f x o f y"
begin

interpretation fold?: comp_fun_commute_on S f

definition F :: "'a set ⇒ 'b"
where eq_fold: "F A = Finite_Set.fold f z A"

lemma empty [simp]: "F {} = z"

lemma infinite [simp]: "¬ finite A ⟹ F A = z"

lemma insert [simp]:
assumes "insert x A ⊆ S" and "finite A" and "x ∉ A"
shows "F (insert x A) = f x (F A)"
proof -
from fold_insert assms
have "Finite_Set.fold f z (insert x A)
= f x (Finite_Set.fold f z A)"
by simp
with ‹finite A› show ?thesis by (simp add: eq_fold fun_eq_iff)
qed

lemma remove:
assumes "A ⊆ S" and "finite A" and "x ∈ A"
shows "F A = f x (F (A - {x}))"
proof -
from ‹x ∈ A› obtain B where A: "A = insert x B" and "x ∉ B"
by (auto dest: mk_disjoint_insert)
moreover from ‹finite A› A have "finite B" by simp
ultimately show ?thesis
using ‹A ⊆ S› by auto
qed

lemma insert_remove:
assumes "insert x A ⊆ S" and "finite A"
shows "F (insert x A) = f x (F (A - {x}))"
using assms by (cases "x ∈ A") (simp_all add: remove insert_absorb)

end

subsubsection ‹With idempotency›

locale folding_idem_on = folding_on +
assumes comp_fun_idem_on: "x ∈ S ⟹ y ∈ S ⟹ f x ∘ f x = f x"
begin

declare insert [simp del]

interpretation fold?: comp_fun_idem_on S f
by standard (simp_all add: comp_fun_commute_on comp_fun_idem_on)

lemma insert_idem [simp]:
assumes "insert x A ⊆ S" and "finite A"
shows "F (insert x A) = f x (F A)"
proof -
from fold_insert_idem assms
have "fold f z (insert x A) = f x (fold f z A)" by simp
with ‹finite A› show ?thesis by (simp add: eq_fold fun_eq_iff)
qed

end

subsubsection ‹\<^term>‹UNIV› as the carrier set›

locale folding =
fixes f :: "'a ⇒ 'b ⇒ 'b" and z :: "'b"
assumes comp_fun_commute: "f y ∘ f x = f x ∘ f y"
begin

lemma (in -) folding_def': "folding f = folding_on UNIV f"
unfolding folding_def folding_on_def by blast

text ‹
Again, we abuse the ‹rewrites› functionality of locales to remove trivial assumptions that
result from instantiating the carrier set to \<^term>‹UNIV›.
›
sublocale folding_on UNIV f
rewrites "⋀X. (X ⊆ UNIV) ≡ True"
and "⋀x. x ∈ UNIV ≡ True"
and "⋀P. (True ⟹ P) ≡ Trueprop P"
and "⋀P Q. (True ⟹ PROP P ⟹ PROP Q) ≡ (PROP P ⟹ True ⟹ PROP Q)"
proof -
show "folding_on UNIV f"
qed simp_all

end

locale folding_idem = folding +
assumes comp_fun_idem: "f x ∘ f x = f x"
begin

lemma (in -) folding_idem_def': "folding_idem f = folding_idem_on UNIV f"
unfolding folding_idem_def folding_def' folding_idem_on_def
unfolding folding_idem_axioms_def folding_idem_on_axioms_def
by blast

text ‹
Again, we abuse the ‹rewrites› functionality of locales to remove trivial assumptions that
result from instantiating the carrier set to \<^term>‹UNIV›.
›
sublocale folding_idem_on UNIV f
rewrites "⋀X. (X ⊆ UNIV) ≡ True"
and "⋀x. x ∈ UNIV ≡ True"
and "⋀P. (True ⟹ P) ≡ Trueprop P"
and "⋀P Q. (True ⟹ PROP P ⟹ PROP Q) ≡ (PROP P ⟹ True ⟹ PROP Q)"
proof -
show "folding_idem_on UNIV f"
qed simp_all

end

subsection ‹Finite cardinality›

text ‹
\<^prop>‹card A ≡ LEAST n. ∃f. A = {f i |i. i < n}›
is ugly to work with.
But now that we have \<^const>‹fold› things are easy:
›

global_interpretation card: folding "λ_. Suc" 0
defines card = "folding_on.F (λ_. Suc) 0"
by standard (rule refl)

lemma card_insert_disjoint: "finite A ⟹ x ∉ A ⟹ card (insert x A) = Suc (card A)"
by (fact card.insert)

lemma card_insert_if: "finite A ⟹ card (insert x A) = (if x ∈ A then card A else Suc (card A))"
by auto (simp add: card.insert_remove card.remove)

lemma card_ge_0_finite: "card A > 0 ⟹ finite A"
by (rule ccontr) simp

lemma card_0_eq [simp]: "finite A ⟹ card A = 0 ⟷ A = {}"
by (auto dest: mk_disjoint_insert)

lemma finite_UNIV_card_ge_0: "finite (UNIV :: 'a set) ⟹ card (UNIV :: 'a set) > 0"
by (rule ccontr) simp

lemma card_eq_0_iff: "card A = 0 ⟷ A = {} ∨ ¬ finite A"
by auto

lemma card_range_greater_zero: "finite (range f) ⟹ card (range f) > 0"
by (rule ccontr) (simp add: card_eq_0_iff)

lemma card_gt_0_iff: "0 < card A ⟷ A ≠ {} ∧ finite A"
by (simp add: neq0_conv [symmetric] card_eq_0_iff)

lemma card_Suc_Diff1:
assumes "finite A" "x ∈ A" shows "Suc (card (A - {x})) = card A"
proof -
have "Suc (card (A - {x})) = card (insert x (A - {x}))"
using assms by (simp add: card.insert_remove)
also have "... = card A"
using assms by (simp add: card_insert_if)
finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma card_insert_le_m1:
assumes "n > 0" "card y ≤ n - 1" shows  "card (insert x y) ≤ n"
using assms
by (cases "finite y") (auto simp: card_insert_if)

lemma card_Diff_singleton:
assumes "x ∈ A" shows "card (A - {x}) = card A - 1"
proof (cases "finite A")
case True
with assms show ?thesis
qed auto

lemma card_Diff_singleton_if:
"card (A - {x}) = (if x ∈ A then card A - 1 else card A)"

lemma card_Diff_insert[simp]:
assumes "a ∈ A" and "a ∉ B"
shows "card (A - insert a B) = card (A - B) - 1"
proof -
have "A - insert a B = (A - B) - {a}"
using assms by blast
then show ?thesis
using assms by (simp add: card_Diff_singleton)
qed

lemma card_insert_le: "card A ≤ card (insert x A)"
proof (cases "finite A")
case True
then show ?thesis   by (simp add: card_insert_if)
qed auto

lemma card_Collect_less_nat[simp]: "card {i::nat. i < n} = n"
by (induct n) (simp_all add:less_Suc_eq Collect_disj_eq)

lemma card_Collect_le_nat[simp]: "card {i::nat. i ≤ n} = Suc n"
using card_Collect_less_nat[of "Suc n"] by (simp add: less_Suc_eq_le)

lemma card_mono:
assumes "finite B" and "A ⊆ B"
shows "card A ≤ card B"
proof -
from assms have "finite A"
by (auto intro: finite_subset)
then show ?thesis
using assms
proof (induct A arbitrary: B)
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case (insert x A)
then have "x ∈ B"
by simp
from insert have "A ⊆ B - {x}" and "finite (B - {x})"
by auto
with insert.hyps have "card A ≤ card (B - {x})"
by auto
with ‹finite A› ‹x ∉ A› ‹finite B› ‹x ∈ B› show ?case
by simp (simp only: card.remove)
qed
qed

lemma card_seteq:
assumes "finite B" and A: "A ⊆ B" "card B ≤ card A"
shows "A = B"
using assms
proof (induction arbitrary: A rule: finite_induct)
case (insert b B)
then have A: "finite A" "A - {b} ⊆ B"
by force+
then have "card B ≤ card (A - {b})"
using insert by (auto simp add: card_Diff_singleton_if)
then have "A - {b} = B"
using A insert.IH by auto
then show ?case
using insert.hyps insert.prems by auto
qed auto

lemma psubset_card_mono: "finite B ⟹ A < B ⟹ card A < card B"
using card_seteq [of B A] by (auto simp add: psubset_eq)

lemma card_Un_Int:
assumes "finite A" "finite B"
shows "card A + card B = card (A ∪ B) + card (A ∩ B)"
using assms
proof (induct A)
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case insert
then show ?case
by (auto simp add: insert_absorb Int_insert_left)
qed

lemma card_Un_disjoint: "finite A ⟹ finite B ⟹ A ∩ B = {} ⟹ card (A ∪ B) = card A + card B"
using card_Un_Int [of A B] by simp

lemma card_Un_disjnt: "⟦finite A; finite B; disjnt A B⟧ ⟹ card (A ∪ B) = card A + card B"

lemma card_Un_le: "card (A ∪ B) ≤ card A + card B"
proof (cases "finite A ∧ finite B")
case True
then show ?thesis
using le_iff_add card_Un_Int [of A B] by auto
qed auto

lemma card_Diff_subset:
assumes "finite B"
and "B ⊆ A"
shows "card (A - B) = card A - card B"
using assms
proof (cases "finite A")
case False
with assms show ?thesis
by simp
next
case True
with assms show ?thesis
by (induct B arbitrary: A) simp_all
qed

lemma card_Diff_subset_Int:
assumes "finite (A ∩ B)"
shows "card (A - B) = card A - card (A ∩ B)"
proof -
have "A - B = A - A ∩ B" by auto
with assms show ?thesis
qed

lemma diff_card_le_card_Diff:
assumes "finite B"
shows "card A - card B ≤ card (A - B)"
proof -
have "card A - card B ≤ card A - card (A ∩ B)"
using card_mono[OF assms Int_lower2, of A] by arith
also have "… = card (A - B)"
using assms by (simp add: card_Diff_subset_Int)
finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma card_le_sym_Diff:
assumes "finite A" "finite B" "card A ≤ card B"
shows "card(A - B) ≤ card(B - A)"
proof -
have "card(A - B) = card A - card (A ∩ B)" using assms(1,2) by(simp add: card_Diff_subset_Int)
also have "… ≤ card B - card (A ∩ B)" using assms(3) by linarith
also have "… = card(B - A)" using assms(1,2) by(simp add: card_Diff_subset_Int Int_commute)
finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma card_less_sym_Diff:
assumes "finite A" "finite B" "card A < card B"
shows "card(A - B) < card(B - A)"
proof -
have "card(A - B) = card A - card (A ∩ B)" using assms(1,2) by(simp add: card_Diff_subset_Int)
also have "… < card B - card (A ∩ B)" using assms(1,3) by (simp add: card_mono diff_less_mono)
also have "… = card(B - A)" using assms(1,2) by(simp add: card_Diff_subset_Int Int_commute)
finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma card_Diff1_less_iff: "card (A - {x}) < card A ⟷ finite A ∧ x ∈ A"
proof (cases "finite A ∧ x ∈ A")
case True
then show ?thesis
by (auto simp: card_gt_0_iff intro: diff_less)
qed auto

lemma card_Diff1_less: "finite A ⟹ x ∈ A ⟹ card (A - {x}) < card A"
unfolding card_Diff1_less_iff by auto

lemma card_Diff2_less:
assumes "finite A" "x ∈ A" "y ∈ A" shows "card (A - {x} - {y}) < card A"
proof (cases "x = y")
case True
with assms show ?thesis
by (simp add: card_Diff1_less del: card_Diff_insert)
next
case False
then have "card (A - {x} - {y}) < card (A - {x})" "card (A - {x}) < card A"
using assms by (intro card_Diff1_less; simp)+
then show ?thesis
by (blast intro: less_trans)
qed

lemma card_Diff1_le: "card (A - {x}) ≤ card A"
proof (cases "finite A")
case True
then show ?thesis
by (cases "x ∈ A") (simp_all add: card_Diff1_less less_imp_le)
qed auto

lemma card_psubset: "finite B ⟹ A ⊆ B ⟹ card A < card B ⟹ A < B"
by (erule psubsetI) blast

lemma card_le_inj:
assumes fA: "finite A"
and fB: "finite B"
and c: "card A ≤ card B"
shows "∃f. f ` A ⊆ B ∧ inj_on f A"
using fA fB c
proof (induct arbitrary: B rule: finite_induct)
case empty
then show ?case by simp
next
case (insert x s t)
then show ?case
proof (induct rule: finite_induct [OF insert.prems(1)])
case 1
then show ?case by simp
next
case (2 y t)
from "2.prems"(1,2,5) "2.hyps"(1,2) have cst: "card s ≤ card t"
by simp
from "2.prems"(3) [OF "2.hyps"(1) cst]
obtain f where *: "f ` s ⊆ t" "inj_on f s"
by blast
let ?g = "(λa. if a = x then y else f a)"
have "?g ` insert x s ⊆ insert y t ∧ inj_on ?g (insert x s)"
using * "2.prems"(2) "2.hyps"(2) unfolding inj_on_def by auto
then show ?case by (rule exI[where ?x="?g"])
qed
qed

lemma card_subset_eq:
assumes fB: "finite B"
and AB: "A ⊆ B"
and c: "card A = card B"
shows "A = B"
proof -
from fB AB have fA: "finite A"
by (auto intro: finite_subset)
from fA fB have fBA: "finite (B - A)"
by auto
have e: "A ∩ (B - A) = {}"
by blast
have eq: "A ∪ (B - A) = B"
using AB by blast
from card_Un_disjoint[OF fA fBA e, unfolded eq c] have "card (B - A) = 0"
by arith
then have "B - A = {}"
unfolding card_eq_0_iff using fA fB by simp
with AB show "A = B"
by blast
qed

lemma insert_partition:
"x ∉ F ⟹ ∀c1 ∈ insert x F. ∀c2 ∈ insert x F. c1 ≠ c2 ⟶ c1 ∩ c2 = {} ⟹ x ∩ ⋃F = {}"
by auto

lemma finite_psubset_induct [consumes 1, case_names psubset]:
assumes finite: "finite A"
and major: "⋀A. finite A ⟹ (⋀B. B ⊂ A ⟹ P B) ⟹ P A"
shows "P A"
using finite
proof (induct A taking: card rule: measure_induct_rule)
case (less A)
have fin: "finite A" by fact
have ```