src/Pure/library.ML
author wenzelm
Sat Jul 25 12:43:45 2009 +0200 (2009-07-25)
changeset 32188 005f9abae1e3
parent 31986 a68f88d264f7
child 32352 4839a704939a
permissions -rw-r--r--
eliminated redundant Library.multiply;
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(*  Title:      Pure/library.ML
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    Author:     Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
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Basic library: functions, pairs, booleans, lists, integers,
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strings, lists as sets, orders, current directory, misc.
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See also General/basics.ML for the most fundamental concepts.
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*)
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infix 2 ?
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infix 3 o oo ooo oooo
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infix 4 ~~ upto downto
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infix orf andf \ \\ mem mem_int mem_string union union_int
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  union_string inter inter_int inter_string subset subset_int subset_string
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signature BASIC_LIBRARY =
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sig
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  (*functions*)
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  val undefined: 'a -> 'b
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  val I: 'a -> 'a
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  val K: 'a -> 'b -> 'a
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  val curry: ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'a -> 'b -> 'c
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  val uncurry: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a * 'b -> 'c
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  val ? : bool * ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  val oo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'b
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  val ooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'b
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  val oooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'b
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  val funpow: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  val funpow_yield: int -> ('a -> 'b * 'a) -> 'a -> 'b list * 'a
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  (*errors*)
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  exception SYS_ERROR of string
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  val sys_error: string -> 'a
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  exception ERROR of string
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  val error: string -> 'a
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  val cat_error: string -> string -> 'a
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  val assert_all: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> ('a -> string) -> unit
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  (*pairs*)
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  val pair: 'a -> 'b -> 'a * 'b
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  val rpair: 'a -> 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val fst: 'a * 'b -> 'a
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  val snd: 'a * 'b -> 'b
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  val eq_fst: ('a * 'c -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val eq_snd: ('b * 'd -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val eq_pair: ('a * 'c -> bool) -> ('b * 'd -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val swap: 'a * 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val apfst: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apsnd: ('a -> 'b) -> 'c * 'a -> 'c * 'b
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  val pairself: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'a -> 'b * 'b
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  (*booleans*)
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  val equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val not_equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val orf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val andf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val exists: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val forall: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val set: bool ref -> bool
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  val reset: bool ref -> bool
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  val toggle: bool ref -> bool
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  val change: 'a ref -> ('a -> 'a) -> unit
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  val change_result: 'a ref -> ('a -> 'b * 'a) -> 'b
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  val setmp_noncritical: 'a ref -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  val setmp: 'a ref -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  val setmp_thread_data: 'a Universal.tag -> 'a -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  (*lists*)
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  exception UnequalLengths
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  val single: 'a -> 'a list
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  val the_single: 'a list -> 'a
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  val singleton: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val yield_singleton: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'c) -> 'a -> 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apply: ('a -> 'a) list -> 'a -> 'a
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  val perhaps_apply: ('a -> 'a option) list -> 'a -> 'a option
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  val perhaps_loop: ('a -> 'a option) -> 'a -> 'a option
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  val foldl1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val foldr1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val flat: 'a list list -> 'a list
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  val unflat: 'a list list -> 'b list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow_options: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a option list -> 'b option list
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  val burrow_fst: ('a list -> 'b list) -> ('a * 'c) list -> ('b * 'c) list
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  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
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  val maps: ('a -> 'b list) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val filter: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val filter_out: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val map_filter: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val chop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val dropwhile: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a
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  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_drop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_list: 'a list list -> int -> 'a list
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  val map_index: (int * 'a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
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  val split_last: 'a list -> 'a list * 'a
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  val find_index: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> int
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  val find_first: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a option
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  val get_index: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> (int * 'b) option
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  val get_first: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b option
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  val eq_list: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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  val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val zip_options: 'a list -> 'b option list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val ~~ : 'a list * 'b list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val map_split: ('a -> 'b * 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list * 'c list
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  val split_list: ('a * 'b) list -> 'a list * 'b list
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  val map_product: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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  val fold_product: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val separate: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val surround: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val replicate: int -> 'a -> 'a list
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  val is_prefix: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> bool
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  val take_prefix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val chop_prefix: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'a list * ('a list * 'b list)
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  val take_suffix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val prefixes1: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val prefixes: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val suffixes1: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val suffixes: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  (*integers*)
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  val inc: int ref -> int
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  val dec: int ref -> int
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  val upto: int * int -> int list
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  val downto: int * int -> int list
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  val radixpand: int * int -> int list
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  val radixstring: int * string * int -> string
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  val string_of_int: int -> string
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  val signed_string_of_int: int -> string
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  val string_of_indexname: string * int -> string
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  val read_radix_int: int -> string list -> int * string list
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  val read_int: string list -> int * string list
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  val oct_char: string -> string
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  (*strings*)
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  val nth_string: string -> int -> string
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  val fold_string: (string -> 'a -> 'a) -> string -> 'a -> 'a
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  val exists_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val forall_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val first_field: string -> string -> (string * string) option
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  val enclose: string -> string -> string -> string
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  val unenclose: string -> string
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  val quote: string -> string
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  val space_implode: string -> string list -> string
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  val commas: string list -> string
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  val commas_quote: string list -> string
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  val cat_lines: string list -> string
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  val space_explode: string -> string -> string list
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  val split_lines: string -> string list
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  val prefix_lines: string -> string -> string
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  val prefix: string -> string -> string
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  val suffix: string -> string -> string
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  val unprefix: string -> string -> string
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  val unsuffix: string -> string -> string
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  val replicate_string: int -> string -> string
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  val translate_string: (string -> string) -> string -> string
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  val match_string: string -> string -> bool
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  (*lists as sets -- see also Pure/General/ord_list.ML*)
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  val member: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'b -> bool
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  val insert: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val remove: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val update: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val subtract: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val merge: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val mem: ''a * ''a list -> bool
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  val mem_int: int * int list -> bool
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  val mem_string: string * string list -> bool
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  val union: ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val union_int: int list * int list -> int list
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  val union_string: string list * string list -> string list
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  val gen_union: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val gen_inter: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'a list
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  val inter: ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val inter_int: int list * int list -> int list
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  val inter_string: string list * string list -> string list
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  val subset: ''a list * ''a list -> bool
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  val subset_int: int list * int list -> bool
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  val subset_string: string list * string list -> bool
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  val eq_set: ''a list * ''a list -> bool
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  val eq_set_string: string list * string list -> bool
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  val gen_subset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val gen_eq_set: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val \ : ''a list * ''a -> ''a list
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  val \\ : ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val distinct: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val has_duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  (*lists as multisets*)
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  val remove1: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val submultiset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  (*orders*)
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  val is_equal: order -> bool
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  val rev_order: order -> order
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  val make_ord: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a * 'a -> order
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  val bool_ord: bool * bool -> order
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  val int_ord: int * int -> order
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  val string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val fast_string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val option_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a option * 'b option -> order
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  val prod_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> ('c * 'd -> order) -> ('a * 'c) * ('b * 'd) -> order
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  val dict_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val list_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val sort: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_distinct: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_strings: string list -> string list
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  val sort_wrt: ('a -> string) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val tag_list: int -> 'a list -> (int * 'a) list
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  val untag_list: (int * 'a) list -> 'a list
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  val order_list: (int * 'a) list -> 'a list
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  (*random numbers*)
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  exception RANDOM
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  val random: unit -> real
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  val random_range: int -> int -> int
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  val one_of: 'a list -> 'a
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  val frequency: (int * 'a) list -> 'a
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  (*misc*)
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  val divide_and_conquer: ('a -> 'a list * ('b list -> 'b)) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val partition_eq: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val partition_list: (int -> 'a -> bool) -> int -> int -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val gensym: string -> string
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  type stamp
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  val stamp: unit -> stamp
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  type serial
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  val serial: unit -> serial
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  val serial_string: unit -> string
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  structure Object: sig type T end
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end;
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signature LIBRARY =
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sig
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  include BASIC_LIBRARY
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  val foldl: ('a * 'b -> 'a) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a
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  val foldr: ('a * 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list * 'b -> 'b
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  val foldl_map: ('a * 'b -> 'a * 'c) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a * 'c list
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  val take: int * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val drop: int * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val last_elem: 'a list -> 'a
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end;
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structure Library: LIBRARY =
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struct
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(* functions *)
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fun undefined _ = raise Match;
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fun I x = x;
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fun K x = fn _ => x;
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fun curry f x y = f (x, y);
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fun uncurry f (x, y) = f x y;
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(*conditional application*)
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fun b ? f = fn x => if b then f x else x;
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(*composition with multiple args*)
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fun (f oo g) x y = f (g x y);
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fun (f ooo g) x y z = f (g x y z);
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fun (f oooo g) x y z w = f (g x y z w);
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(*function exponentiation: f (... (f x) ...) with n applications of f*)
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fun funpow (0 : int) _ = I
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  | funpow n f = f #> funpow (n - 1) f;
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fun funpow_yield (0 : int) _ x = ([], x)
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  | funpow_yield n f x = x |> f ||>> funpow_yield (n - 1) f |>> op ::;
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(* errors *)
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exception SYS_ERROR of string;
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fun sys_error msg = raise SYS_ERROR msg;
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exception ERROR of string;
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fun error msg = raise ERROR msg;
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fun cat_error "" msg = error msg
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  | cat_error msg1 msg2 = error (msg1 ^ "\n" ^ msg2);
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fun assert_all pred list msg =
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  let
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    fun ass [] = ()
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      | ass (x :: xs) = if pred x then ass xs else error (msg x);
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  in ass list end;
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wenzelm@18681
   292
wenzelm@21395
   293
(* pairs *)
wenzelm@233
   294
wenzelm@233
   295
fun pair x y = (x, y);
wenzelm@233
   296
fun rpair x y = (y, x);
wenzelm@233
   297
wenzelm@233
   298
fun fst (x, y) = x;
wenzelm@233
   299
fun snd (x, y) = y;
wenzelm@233
   300
haftmann@17498
   301
fun eq_fst eq ((x1, _), (x2, _)) = eq (x1, x2);
haftmann@17498
   302
fun eq_snd eq ((_, y1), (_, y2)) = eq (y1, y2);
haftmann@19454
   303
fun eq_pair eqx eqy ((x1, y1), (x2, y2)) = eqx (x1, x2) andalso eqy (y1, y2);
wenzelm@233
   304
wenzelm@233
   305
fun swap (x, y) = (y, x);
wenzelm@233
   306
wenzelm@233
   307
fun apfst f (x, y) = (f x, y);
wenzelm@233
   308
fun apsnd f (x, y) = (x, f y);
wenzelm@4212
   309
fun pairself f (x, y) = (f x, f y);
wenzelm@233
   310
wenzelm@233
   311
wenzelm@21395
   312
(* booleans *)
wenzelm@233
   313
wenzelm@21395
   314
(*polymorphic equality*)
wenzelm@233
   315
fun equal x y = x = y;
wenzelm@233
   316
fun not_equal x y = x <> y;
wenzelm@233
   317
wenzelm@21395
   318
(*combining predicates*)
wenzelm@16721
   319
fun p orf q = fn x => p x orelse q x;
wenzelm@16721
   320
fun p andf q = fn x => p x andalso q x;
wenzelm@233
   321
wenzelm@25752
   322
val exists = List.exists;
wenzelm@25752
   323
val forall = List.all;
clasohm@0
   324
wenzelm@19644
   325
wenzelm@380
   326
(* flags *)
wenzelm@380
   327
wenzelm@380
   328
fun set flag = (flag := true; true);
wenzelm@380
   329
fun reset flag = (flag := false; false);
wenzelm@380
   330
fun toggle flag = (flag := not (! flag); ! flag);
wenzelm@380
   331
wenzelm@9118
   332
fun change r f = r := f (! r);
wenzelm@28157
   333
fun change_result r f = let val (x, y) = f (! r) in r := y; x end;
wenzelm@9118
   334
wenzelm@18712
   335
(*temporarily set flag during execution*)
wenzelm@23932
   336
fun setmp_noncritical flag value f x =
wenzelm@26079
   337
  uninterruptible (fn restore_attributes => fn () =>
wenzelm@26079
   338
    let
wenzelm@26079
   339
      val orig_value = ! flag;
wenzelm@26079
   340
      val _ = flag := value;
wenzelm@26079
   341
      val result = Exn.capture (restore_attributes f) x;
wenzelm@26079
   342
      val _ = flag := orig_value;
wenzelm@26079
   343
    in Exn.release result end) ();
wenzelm@2958
   344
wenzelm@26079
   345
fun setmp flag value f x =
wenzelm@26079
   346
  NAMED_CRITICAL "setmp" (fn () => setmp_noncritical flag value f x);
wenzelm@23932
   347
wenzelm@25797
   348
fun setmp_thread_data tag orig_data data f x =
wenzelm@26079
   349
  uninterruptible (fn restore_attributes => fn () =>
wenzelm@26079
   350
    let
wenzelm@28122
   351
      val _ = Thread.setLocal (tag, data);
wenzelm@26079
   352
      val result = Exn.capture (restore_attributes f) x;
wenzelm@28122
   353
      val _ = Thread.setLocal (tag, orig_data);
wenzelm@26079
   354
    in Exn.release result end) ();
wenzelm@25797
   355
wenzelm@19644
   356
wenzelm@21395
   357
wenzelm@233
   358
(** lists **)
wenzelm@233
   359
skalberg@15570
   360
exception UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@233
   361
wenzelm@5285
   362
fun single x = [x];
wenzelm@233
   363
wenzelm@20882
   364
fun the_single [x] = x
wenzelm@20882
   365
  | the_single _ = raise Empty;
wenzelm@20882
   366
wenzelm@20882
   367
fun singleton f x = the_single (f [x]);
wenzelm@19273
   368
haftmann@25061
   369
fun yield_singleton f x = f [x] #>> the_single;
haftmann@25061
   370
wenzelm@5904
   371
fun apply [] x = x
wenzelm@5904
   372
  | apply (f :: fs) x = apply fs (f x);
wenzelm@5904
   373
wenzelm@25058
   374
fun perhaps_apply funs arg =
wenzelm@25058
   375
  let
wenzelm@25058
   376
    fun app [] res = res
wenzelm@25058
   377
      | app (f :: fs) (changed, x) =
wenzelm@25058
   378
          (case f x of
wenzelm@25058
   379
            NONE => app fs (changed, x)
wenzelm@25058
   380
          | SOME x' => app fs (true, x'));
wenzelm@25058
   381
  in (case app funs (false, arg) of (false, _) => NONE | (true, arg') => SOME arg') end;
wenzelm@25058
   382
wenzelm@25058
   383
fun perhaps_loop f arg =
wenzelm@25058
   384
  let
wenzelm@25058
   385
    fun loop (changed, x) =
wenzelm@25058
   386
      (case f x of
wenzelm@25058
   387
        NONE => (changed, x)
wenzelm@25058
   388
      | SOME x' => loop (true, x'));
wenzelm@25058
   389
  in (case loop (false, arg) of (false, _) => NONE | (true, arg') => SOME arg') end;
wenzelm@25058
   390
wenzelm@233
   391
wenzelm@21395
   392
(* fold -- old versions *)
haftmann@16691
   393
wenzelm@233
   394
(*the following versions of fold are designed to fit nicely with infixes*)
clasohm@0
   395
wenzelm@233
   396
(*  (op @) (e, [x1, ..., xn])  ===>  ((e @ x1) @ x2) ... @ xn
wenzelm@233
   397
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
wenzelm@233
   398
fun foldl (f: 'a * 'b -> 'a) : 'a * 'b list -> 'a =
wenzelm@233
   399
  let fun itl (e, [])  = e
wenzelm@233
   400
        | itl (e, a::l) = itl (f(e, a), l)
wenzelm@233
   401
  in  itl end;
wenzelm@233
   402
wenzelm@233
   403
(*  (op @) ([x1, ..., xn], e)  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (xn @ e))
wenzelm@233
   404
    for operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
wenzelm@233
   405
fun foldr f (l, e) =
wenzelm@233
   406
  let fun itr [] = e
wenzelm@233
   407
        | itr (a::l) = f(a, itr l)
wenzelm@233
   408
  in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   409
berghofe@25681
   410
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>  ((x1 @ x2) @ x3) ... @ xn
berghofe@25681
   411
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
berghofe@25681
   412
fun foldl1 f [] = raise Empty
berghofe@25681
   413
  | foldl1 f (x :: xs) = foldl f (x, xs);
berghofe@25681
   414
wenzelm@233
   415
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (x[n-1] @ xn))
wenzelm@233
   416
    for n > 0, operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
paulson@20443
   417
fun foldr1 f [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@20510
   418
  | foldr1 f l =
paulson@20443
   419
      let fun itr [x] = x
wenzelm@20510
   420
            | itr (x::l) = f(x, itr l)
paulson@20443
   421
      in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   422
wenzelm@16705
   423
fun foldl_map f =
wenzelm@16705
   424
  let
wenzelm@16705
   425
    fun fold_aux (x, []) = (x, [])
wenzelm@16705
   426
      | fold_aux (x, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@16705
   427
          let
wenzelm@16705
   428
            val (x', y') = f (x, y);
wenzelm@16705
   429
            val (x'', ys') = fold_aux (x', ys);
wenzelm@16705
   430
          in (x'', y' :: ys') end;
wenzelm@16705
   431
  in fold_aux end;
wenzelm@16705
   432
wenzelm@233
   433
wenzelm@233
   434
(* basic list functions *)
wenzelm@233
   435
wenzelm@20510
   436
fun eq_list eq (list1, list2) =
haftmann@20348
   437
  let
wenzelm@20510
   438
    fun eq_lst (x :: xs, y :: ys) = eq (x, y) andalso eq_lst (xs, ys)
wenzelm@20510
   439
      | eq_lst _ = true;
wenzelm@20510
   440
  in length list1 = length list2 andalso eq_lst (list1, list2) end;
haftmann@20348
   441
wenzelm@19483
   442
fun maps f [] = []
wenzelm@19483
   443
  | maps f (x :: xs) = f x @ maps f xs;
wenzelm@19483
   444
haftmann@25538
   445
val filter = List.filter;
haftmann@25538
   446
fun filter_out f = filter (not o f);
haftmann@25538
   447
val map_filter = List.mapPartial;
haftmann@25538
   448
wenzelm@24593
   449
fun chop (0: int) xs = ([], xs)
wenzelm@23220
   450
  | chop _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@23220
   451
  | chop n (x :: xs) = chop (n - 1) xs |>> cons x;
wenzelm@19011
   452
wenzelm@233
   453
(*take the first n elements from a list*)
wenzelm@24593
   454
fun take (n: int, []) = []
wenzelm@233
   455
  | take (n, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   456
      if n > 0 then x :: take (n - 1, xs) else [];
wenzelm@233
   457
wenzelm@233
   458
(*drop the first n elements from a list*)
wenzelm@24593
   459
fun drop (n: int, []) = []
wenzelm@233
   460
  | drop (n, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   461
      if n > 0 then drop (n - 1, xs) else x :: xs;
clasohm@0
   462
nipkow@4713
   463
fun dropwhile P [] = []
nipkow@4713
   464
  | dropwhile P (ys as x::xs) = if P x then dropwhile P xs else ys;
nipkow@4713
   465
wenzelm@233
   466
(*return nth element of a list, where 0 designates the first element;
wenzelm@18461
   467
  raise Subscript if list too short*)
haftmann@18011
   468
fun nth xs i = List.nth (xs, i);
wenzelm@233
   469
wenzelm@18461
   470
fun nth_list xss i = nth xss i handle Subscript => [];
wenzelm@18461
   471
haftmann@18011
   472
fun nth_map 0 f (x :: xs) = f x :: xs
haftmann@18011
   473
  | nth_map n f (x :: xs) = x :: nth_map (n - 1) f xs
wenzelm@24593
   474
  | nth_map (_: int) _ [] = raise Subscript;
wenzelm@11773
   475
haftmann@24846
   476
fun nth_drop n xs =
haftmann@24846
   477
  List.take (xs, n) @ List.drop (xs, n + 1);
haftmann@24846
   478
haftmann@18514
   479
fun map_index f =
haftmann@18514
   480
  let
wenzelm@24593
   481
    fun mapp (_: int) [] = []
wenzelm@24593
   482
      | mapp i (x :: xs) = f (i, x) :: mapp (i + 1) xs
haftmann@18514
   483
  in mapp 0 end;
haftmann@18514
   484
haftmann@21118
   485
fun fold_index f =
haftmann@21118
   486
  let
wenzelm@24593
   487
    fun fold_aux (_: int) [] y = y
wenzelm@24593
   488
      | fold_aux i (x :: xs) y = fold_aux (i + 1) xs (f (i, x) y);
haftmann@21118
   489
  in fold_aux 0 end;
haftmann@21118
   490
skalberg@15570
   491
val last_elem = List.last;
wenzelm@233
   492
wenzelm@3762
   493
(*rear decomposition*)
skalberg@15570
   494
fun split_last [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@3762
   495
  | split_last [x] = ([], x)
wenzelm@3762
   496
  | split_last (x :: xs) = apfst (cons x) (split_last xs);
wenzelm@3762
   497
ballarin@29209
   498
(*find position of first element satisfying a predicate*)
wenzelm@4212
   499
fun find_index pred =
wenzelm@24593
   500
  let fun find (_: int) [] = ~1
wenzelm@4212
   501
        | find n (x :: xs) = if pred x then n else find (n + 1) xs;
wenzelm@4212
   502
  in find 0 end;
wenzelm@3762
   503
wenzelm@4212
   504
(*find first element satisfying predicate*)
paulson@22593
   505
val find_first = List.find;
wenzelm@233
   506
wenzelm@4916
   507
(*get first element by lookup function*)
skalberg@15531
   508
fun get_first _ [] = NONE
wenzelm@4916
   509
  | get_first f (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@4916
   510
      (case f x of
skalberg@15531
   511
        NONE => get_first f xs
wenzelm@4916
   512
      | some => some);
wenzelm@4916
   513
haftmann@19233
   514
fun get_index f =
haftmann@19233
   515
  let
wenzelm@24593
   516
    fun get (_: int) [] = NONE
wenzelm@19461
   517
      | get i (x :: xs) =
haftmann@19233
   518
          case f x
wenzelm@19461
   519
           of NONE => get (i + 1) xs
haftmann@19233
   520
            | SOME y => SOME (i, y)
haftmann@19233
   521
  in get 0 end;
haftmann@19233
   522
skalberg@15531
   523
val flat = List.concat;
wenzelm@233
   524
wenzelm@12136
   525
fun unflat (xs :: xss) ys =
wenzelm@19424
   526
      let val (ps, qs) = chop (length xs) ys
nipkow@13629
   527
      in ps :: unflat xss qs end
wenzelm@12136
   528
  | unflat [] [] = []
skalberg@15570
   529
  | unflat _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@12136
   530
wenzelm@21479
   531
fun burrow f xss = unflat xss (f (flat xss));
haftmann@18359
   532
wenzelm@24864
   533
fun burrow_options f os = map (try hd) (burrow f (map the_list os));
wenzelm@24864
   534
haftmann@18549
   535
fun fold_burrow f xss s =
haftmann@18549
   536
  apfst (unflat xss) (f (flat xss) s);
haftmann@18359
   537
wenzelm@233
   538
(*separate s [x1, x2, ..., xn]  ===>  [x1, s, x2, s, ..., s, xn]*)
wenzelm@233
   539
fun separate s (x :: (xs as _ :: _)) = x :: s :: separate s xs
wenzelm@233
   540
  | separate _ xs = xs;
wenzelm@233
   541
wenzelm@25980
   542
fun surround s (x :: xs) = s :: x :: surround s xs
wenzelm@25980
   543
  | surround s [] = [s];
wenzelm@25980
   544
wenzelm@233
   545
(*make the list [x, x, ..., x] of length n*)
wenzelm@24593
   546
fun replicate (n: int) x =
wenzelm@233
   547
  let fun rep (0, xs) = xs
wenzelm@233
   548
        | rep (n, xs) = rep (n - 1, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   549
  in
skalberg@15570
   550
    if n < 0 then raise Subscript
wenzelm@233
   551
    else rep (n, [])
wenzelm@233
   552
  end;
wenzelm@233
   553
wenzelm@4248
   554
wenzelm@25549
   555
(* direct product *)
wenzelm@25549
   556
haftmann@25538
   557
fun map_product f _ [] = []
haftmann@25538
   558
  | map_product f [] _ = []
haftmann@25538
   559
  | map_product f (x :: xs) ys = map (f x) ys @ map_product f xs ys;
wenzelm@233
   560
haftmann@25538
   561
fun fold_product f _ [] z = z
haftmann@25538
   562
  | fold_product f [] _ z = z
haftmann@25538
   563
  | fold_product f (x :: xs) ys z = z |> fold (f x) ys |> fold_product f xs ys;
wenzelm@233
   564
wenzelm@25549
   565
wenzelm@25549
   566
(* lists of pairs *)
wenzelm@233
   567
skalberg@15570
   568
exception UnequalLengths;
skalberg@15570
   569
haftmann@18330
   570
fun map2 _ [] [] = []
haftmann@18330
   571
  | map2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = f x y :: map2 f xs ys
haftmann@18330
   572
  | map2 _ _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@380
   573
wenzelm@23220
   574
fun fold2 f [] [] z = z
wenzelm@23220
   575
  | fold2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) z = fold2 f xs ys (f x y z)
wenzelm@23220
   576
  | fold2 f _ _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@380
   577
haftmann@25943
   578
fun map_split f [] = ([], [])
haftmann@25943
   579
  | map_split f (x :: xs) =
haftmann@25943
   580
      let
haftmann@25943
   581
        val (y, w) = f x;
haftmann@25943
   582
        val (ys, ws) = map_split f xs;
haftmann@25943
   583
      in (y :: ys, w :: ws) end;
haftmann@25943
   584
wenzelm@19799
   585
fun zip_options (x :: xs) (SOME y :: ys) = (x, y) :: zip_options xs ys
wenzelm@19799
   586
  | zip_options (_ :: xs) (NONE :: ys) = zip_options xs ys
wenzelm@19799
   587
  | zip_options _ [] = []
wenzelm@19799
   588
  | zip_options [] _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@4956
   589
wenzelm@233
   590
(*combine two lists forming a list of pairs:
wenzelm@233
   591
  [x1, ..., xn] ~~ [y1, ..., yn]  ===>  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]*)
wenzelm@233
   592
fun [] ~~ [] = []
wenzelm@233
   593
  | (x :: xs) ~~ (y :: ys) = (x, y) :: (xs ~~ ys)
skalberg@15570
   594
  | _ ~~ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@233
   595
wenzelm@233
   596
(*inverse of ~~; the old 'split':
wenzelm@233
   597
  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]  ===>  ([x1, ..., xn], [y1, ..., yn])*)
skalberg@15570
   598
val split_list = ListPair.unzip;
wenzelm@233
   599
haftmann@28347
   600
fun burrow_fst f xs = split_list xs |>> f |> op ~~;
haftmann@28347
   601
wenzelm@233
   602
wenzelm@233
   603
(* prefixes, suffixes *)
wenzelm@233
   604
haftmann@18441
   605
fun is_prefix _ [] _ = true
haftmann@18441
   606
  | is_prefix eq (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = eq (x, y) andalso is_prefix eq xs ys
haftmann@18441
   607
  | is_prefix eq _ _ = false;
wenzelm@233
   608
wenzelm@233
   609
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., x(i-1)], [xi, ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   610
   where xi is the first element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   611
fun take_prefix (pred : 'a -> bool)  (xs: 'a list) : 'a list * 'a list =
wenzelm@233
   612
  let fun take (rxs, []) = (rev rxs, [])
wenzelm@255
   613
        | take (rxs, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@255
   614
            if  pred x  then  take(x :: rxs, xs)  else  (rev rxs, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   615
  in  take([], xs)  end;
wenzelm@233
   616
haftmann@20108
   617
fun chop_prefix eq ([], ys) = ([], ([], ys))
haftmann@20108
   618
  | chop_prefix eq (xs, []) = ([], (xs, []))
wenzelm@23220
   619
  | chop_prefix eq (xs as x :: xs', ys as y :: ys') =
haftmann@20108
   620
      if eq (x, y) then
haftmann@20108
   621
        let val (ps', xys'') = chop_prefix eq (xs', ys')
wenzelm@23220
   622
        in (x :: ps', xys'') end
haftmann@20108
   623
      else ([], (xs, ys));
haftmann@20108
   624
wenzelm@233
   625
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., xi], [x(i+1), ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   626
   where xi is the last element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   627
fun take_suffix _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@233
   628
  | take_suffix pred (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   629
      (case take_suffix pred xs of
wenzelm@233
   630
        ([], sffx) => if pred x then ([], x :: sffx) else ([x], sffx)
wenzelm@233
   631
      | (prfx, sffx) => (x :: prfx, sffx));
wenzelm@233
   632
wenzelm@12249
   633
fun prefixes1 [] = []
wenzelm@12249
   634
  | prefixes1 (x :: xs) = map (cons x) ([] :: prefixes1 xs);
wenzelm@12249
   635
wenzelm@19011
   636
fun prefixes xs = [] :: prefixes1 xs;
wenzelm@19011
   637
wenzelm@12249
   638
fun suffixes1 xs = map rev (prefixes1 (rev xs));
wenzelm@19011
   639
fun suffixes xs = [] :: suffixes1 xs;
wenzelm@233
   640
wenzelm@23220
   641
wenzelm@23220
   642
wenzelm@233
   643
(** integers **)
wenzelm@233
   644
wenzelm@24593
   645
fun inc i = (i := ! i + (1: int); ! i);
wenzelm@24593
   646
fun dec i = (i := ! i - (1: int); ! i);
wenzelm@233
   647
wenzelm@233
   648
wenzelm@233
   649
(* lists of integers *)
wenzelm@233
   650
wenzelm@233
   651
(*make the list [from, from + 1, ..., to]*)
wenzelm@24593
   652
fun ((i: int) upto j) =
wenzelm@21859
   653
  if i > j then [] else i :: (i + 1 upto j);
wenzelm@233
   654
wenzelm@233
   655
(*make the list [from, from - 1, ..., to]*)
wenzelm@24593
   656
fun ((i: int) downto j) =
wenzelm@21859
   657
  if i < j then [] else i :: (i - 1 downto j);
wenzelm@233
   658
wenzelm@233
   659
wenzelm@233
   660
(* convert integers to strings *)
wenzelm@233
   661
wenzelm@233
   662
(*expand the number in the given base;
wenzelm@233
   663
  example: radixpand (2, 8) gives [1, 0, 0, 0]*)
wenzelm@233
   664
fun radixpand (base, num) : int list =
wenzelm@233
   665
  let
wenzelm@233
   666
    fun radix (n, tail) =
wenzelm@233
   667
      if n < base then n :: tail
wenzelm@233
   668
      else radix (n div base, (n mod base) :: tail)
wenzelm@233
   669
  in radix (num, []) end;
wenzelm@233
   670
wenzelm@233
   671
(*expands a number into a string of characters starting from "zerochar";
wenzelm@233
   672
  example: radixstring (2, "0", 8) gives "1000"*)
wenzelm@233
   673
fun radixstring (base, zerochar, num) =
wenzelm@233
   674
  let val offset = ord zerochar;
wenzelm@233
   675
      fun chrof n = chr (offset + n)
wenzelm@233
   676
  in implode (map chrof (radixpand (base, num))) end;
wenzelm@233
   677
wenzelm@233
   678
paulson@3407
   679
val string_of_int = Int.toString;
wenzelm@233
   680
wenzelm@21942
   681
fun signed_string_of_int i =
wenzelm@21942
   682
  if i < 0 then "-" ^ string_of_int (~ i) else string_of_int i;
wenzelm@21942
   683
wenzelm@23220
   684
fun string_of_indexname (a, 0) = a
wenzelm@23220
   685
  | string_of_indexname (a, i) = a ^ "_" ^ string_of_int i;
wenzelm@233
   686
wenzelm@233
   687
wenzelm@14826
   688
(* read integers *)
wenzelm@14826
   689
wenzelm@24630
   690
fun read_radix_int radix cs =
wenzelm@20095
   691
  let
wenzelm@20095
   692
    val zero = ord "0";
wenzelm@20095
   693
    val limit = zero + radix;
wenzelm@20095
   694
    fun scan (num, []) = (num, [])
wenzelm@20095
   695
      | scan (num, c :: cs) =
wenzelm@20095
   696
        if zero <= ord c andalso ord c < limit then
wenzelm@24630
   697
          scan (radix * num + (ord c - zero), cs)
wenzelm@20095
   698
        else (num, c :: cs);
wenzelm@24630
   699
  in scan (0, cs) end;
wenzelm@14826
   700
wenzelm@24630
   701
val read_int = read_radix_int 10;
wenzelm@14826
   702
wenzelm@24630
   703
fun oct_char s = chr (#1 (read_radix_int 8 (explode s)));
wenzelm@14826
   704
wenzelm@14826
   705
wenzelm@14826
   706
wenzelm@233
   707
(** strings **)
wenzelm@233
   708
wenzelm@16188
   709
(* functions tuned for strings, avoiding explode *)
wenzelm@6312
   710
haftmann@18011
   711
fun nth_string str i =
wenzelm@6959
   712
  (case try String.substring (str, i, 1) of
skalberg@15531
   713
    SOME s => s
skalberg@15570
   714
  | NONE => raise Subscript);
wenzelm@6312
   715
wenzelm@16188
   716
fun fold_string f str x0 =
wenzelm@6282
   717
  let
wenzelm@6282
   718
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@16188
   719
    fun iter (x, i) =
wenzelm@16188
   720
      if i < n then iter (f (String.substring (str, i, 1)) x, i + 1) else x;
wenzelm@16188
   721
  in iter (x0, 0) end;
wenzelm@6282
   722
wenzelm@14968
   723
fun exists_string pred str =
wenzelm@14968
   724
  let
wenzelm@14968
   725
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@14968
   726
    fun ex i = i < n andalso (pred (String.substring (str, i, 1)) orelse ex (i + 1));
wenzelm@14968
   727
  in ex 0 end;
wenzelm@6312
   728
wenzelm@16188
   729
fun forall_string pred = not o exists_string (not o pred);
wenzelm@16188
   730
wenzelm@28025
   731
fun first_field sep str =
wenzelm@28022
   732
  let
wenzelm@28025
   733
    val n = size sep;
wenzelm@28022
   734
    val len = size str;
wenzelm@28022
   735
    fun find i =
wenzelm@28022
   736
      if i + n > len then NONE
wenzelm@28025
   737
      else if String.substring (str, i, n) = sep then SOME i
wenzelm@28022
   738
      else find (i + 1);
wenzelm@28025
   739
  in
wenzelm@28025
   740
    (case find 0 of
wenzelm@28025
   741
      NONE => NONE
wenzelm@28025
   742
    | SOME i => SOME (String.substring (str, 0, i), String.extract (str, i + n, NONE)))
wenzelm@28025
   743
  end;
wenzelm@28022
   744
lcp@512
   745
(*enclose in brackets*)
lcp@512
   746
fun enclose lpar rpar str = lpar ^ str ^ rpar;
wenzelm@6642
   747
fun unenclose str = String.substring (str, 1, size str - 2);
wenzelm@255
   748
wenzelm@233
   749
(*simple quoting (does not escape special chars)*)
lcp@512
   750
val quote = enclose "\"" "\"";
wenzelm@233
   751
wenzelm@4212
   752
(*space_implode "..." (explode "hello") = "h...e...l...l...o"*)
wenzelm@233
   753
fun space_implode a bs = implode (separate a bs);
wenzelm@233
   754
wenzelm@255
   755
val commas = space_implode ", ";
wenzelm@380
   756
val commas_quote = commas o map quote;
wenzelm@255
   757
wenzelm@233
   758
(*concatenate messages, one per line, into a string*)
wenzelm@255
   759
val cat_lines = space_implode "\n";
wenzelm@233
   760
wenzelm@4212
   761
(*space_explode "." "h.e..l.lo" = ["h", "e", "", "l", "lo"]*)
wenzelm@3832
   762
fun space_explode _ "" = []
paulson@21899
   763
  | space_explode sep s = String.fields (fn c => str c = sep) s;
wenzelm@3832
   764
wenzelm@3832
   765
val split_lines = space_explode "\n";
wenzelm@3832
   766
wenzelm@14826
   767
fun prefix_lines "" txt = txt
wenzelm@14826
   768
  | prefix_lines prfx txt = txt |> split_lines |> map (fn s => prfx ^ s) |> cat_lines;
wenzelm@14826
   769
wenzelm@18681
   770
fun prefix prfx s = prfx ^ s;
wenzelm@16188
   771
fun suffix sffx s = s ^ sffx;
wenzelm@5285
   772
wenzelm@18681
   773
fun unprefix prfx s =
wenzelm@18681
   774
  if String.isPrefix prfx s then String.substring (s, size prfx, size s - size prfx)
wenzelm@18681
   775
  else raise Fail "unprefix";
wenzelm@18681
   776
wenzelm@16188
   777
fun unsuffix sffx s =
wenzelm@17061
   778
  if String.isSuffix sffx s then String.substring (s, 0, size s - size sffx)
wenzelm@17061
   779
  else raise Fail "unsuffix";
wenzelm@5285
   780
wenzelm@24593
   781
fun replicate_string (0: int) _ = ""
wenzelm@10951
   782
  | replicate_string 1 a = a
wenzelm@10951
   783
  | replicate_string k a =
wenzelm@10951
   784
      if k mod 2 = 0 then replicate_string (k div 2) (a ^ a)
wenzelm@10951
   785
      else replicate_string (k div 2) (a ^ a) ^ a;
wenzelm@10951
   786
haftmann@31250
   787
fun translate_string f = String.translate (f o String.str);
haftmann@31250
   788
kleing@29882
   789
(*crude matching of str against simple glob pat*)
kleing@29882
   790
fun match_string pat str =
kleing@29882
   791
  let
kleing@29882
   792
    fun match [] _ = true
kleing@29882
   793
      | match (p :: ps) s =
kleing@29882
   794
          size p <= size s andalso
kleing@29882
   795
            (case try (unprefix p) s of
kleing@29882
   796
              SOME s' => match ps s'
kleing@29882
   797
            | NONE => match (p :: ps) (String.substring (s, 1, size s - 1)));
kleing@29882
   798
  in match (space_explode "*" pat) str end;
wenzelm@23220
   799
wenzelm@16492
   800
(** lists as sets -- see also Pure/General/ord_list.ML **)
wenzelm@233
   801
wenzelm@26439
   802
(* canonical operations *)
wenzelm@26439
   803
wenzelm@18923
   804
fun member eq list x =
wenzelm@18923
   805
  let
wenzelm@18923
   806
    fun memb [] = false
wenzelm@18923
   807
      | memb (y :: ys) = eq (x, y) orelse memb ys;
wenzelm@18923
   808
  in memb list end;
berghofe@1576
   809
wenzelm@18923
   810
fun insert eq x xs = if member eq xs x then xs else x :: xs;
wenzelm@18923
   811
fun remove eq x xs = if member eq xs x then filter_out (fn y => eq (x, y)) xs else xs;
wenzelm@24049
   812
fun update eq x xs = cons x (remove eq x xs);
wenzelm@233
   813
wenzelm@19301
   814
fun subtract eq = fold (remove eq);
wenzelm@19301
   815
wenzelm@30572
   816
fun merge eq (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@30572
   817
  if pointer_eq (xs, ys) then xs
wenzelm@30572
   818
  else if null xs then ys
wenzelm@30572
   819
  else fold_rev (insert eq) ys xs;
clasohm@0
   820
wenzelm@26439
   821
wenzelm@26439
   822
(* old-style infixes *)
wenzelm@26439
   823
wenzelm@18923
   824
fun x mem xs = member (op =) xs x;
wenzelm@18923
   825
fun (x: int) mem_int xs = member (op =) xs x;
wenzelm@18923
   826
fun (x: string) mem_string xs = member (op =) xs x;
berghofe@1576
   827
wenzelm@233
   828
(*union of sets represented as lists: no repetitions*)
wenzelm@233
   829
fun xs union [] = xs
wenzelm@233
   830
  | [] union ys = ys
haftmann@20854
   831
  | (x :: xs) union ys = xs union (insert (op =) x ys);
clasohm@0
   832
paulson@2175
   833
(*union of sets, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   834
fun (xs:int list) union_int [] = xs
berghofe@1576
   835
  | [] union_int ys = ys
haftmann@20854
   836
  | (x :: xs) union_int ys = xs union_int (insert (op =) x ys);
berghofe@1576
   837
paulson@2175
   838
(*union of sets, optimized version for strings*)
berghofe@1576
   839
fun (xs:string list) union_string [] = xs
berghofe@1576
   840
  | [] union_string ys = ys
haftmann@20854
   841
  | (x :: xs) union_string ys = xs union_string (insert (op =) x ys);
berghofe@1576
   842
clasohm@0
   843
(*generalized union*)
wenzelm@233
   844
fun gen_union eq (xs, []) = xs
wenzelm@233
   845
  | gen_union eq ([], ys) = ys
wenzelm@18923
   846
  | gen_union eq (x :: xs, ys) = gen_union eq (xs, insert eq x ys);
wenzelm@233
   847
wenzelm@233
   848
wenzelm@233
   849
(*intersection*)
wenzelm@233
   850
fun [] inter ys = []
wenzelm@233
   851
  | (x :: xs) inter ys =
wenzelm@233
   852
      if x mem ys then x :: (xs inter ys) else xs inter ys;
wenzelm@233
   853
paulson@2175
   854
(*intersection, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   855
fun ([]:int list) inter_int ys = []
berghofe@1576
   856
  | (x :: xs) inter_int ys =
berghofe@1576
   857
      if x mem_int ys then x :: (xs inter_int ys) else xs inter_int ys;
berghofe@1576
   858
paulson@2175
   859
(*intersection, optimized version for strings *)
berghofe@1576
   860
fun ([]:string list) inter_string ys = []
berghofe@1576
   861
  | (x :: xs) inter_string ys =
berghofe@1576
   862
      if x mem_string ys then x :: (xs inter_string ys) else xs inter_string ys;
berghofe@1576
   863
paulson@7090
   864
(*generalized intersection*)
paulson@7090
   865
fun gen_inter eq ([], ys) = []
wenzelm@12284
   866
  | gen_inter eq (x::xs, ys) =
wenzelm@18923
   867
      if member eq ys x then x :: gen_inter eq (xs, ys)
wenzelm@18923
   868
      else gen_inter eq (xs, ys);
paulson@7090
   869
wenzelm@233
   870
wenzelm@233
   871
(*subset*)
wenzelm@233
   872
fun [] subset ys = true
wenzelm@233
   873
  | (x :: xs) subset ys = x mem ys andalso xs subset ys;
wenzelm@233
   874
paulson@2175
   875
(*subset, optimized version for ints*)
wenzelm@16439
   876
fun ([]: int list) subset_int ys = true
berghofe@1576
   877
  | (x :: xs) subset_int ys = x mem_int ys andalso xs subset_int ys;
berghofe@1576
   878
paulson@2175
   879
(*subset, optimized version for strings*)
wenzelm@16439
   880
fun ([]: string list) subset_string ys = true
berghofe@1576
   881
  | (x :: xs) subset_string ys = x mem_string ys andalso xs subset_string ys;
berghofe@1576
   882
wenzelm@4363
   883
(*set equality*)
wenzelm@4363
   884
fun eq_set (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@4363
   885
  xs = ys orelse (xs subset ys andalso ys subset xs);
wenzelm@4363
   886
paulson@2182
   887
(*set equality for strings*)
wenzelm@16439
   888
fun eq_set_string ((xs: string list), ys) =
berghofe@1576
   889
  xs = ys orelse (xs subset_string ys andalso ys subset_string xs);
berghofe@1576
   890
wenzelm@18923
   891
fun gen_subset eq (xs, ys) = forall (member eq ys) xs;
paulson@2182
   892
wenzelm@19301
   893
fun gen_eq_set eq (xs, ys) =
haftmann@20348
   894
  eq_list eq (xs, ys) orelse
wenzelm@19301
   895
    (gen_subset eq (xs, ys) andalso gen_subset (eq o swap) (ys, xs));
wenzelm@19301
   896
wenzelm@265
   897
wenzelm@233
   898
(*removing an element from a list WITHOUT duplicates*)
wenzelm@233
   899
fun (y :: ys) \ x = if x = y then ys else y :: (ys \ x)
wenzelm@233
   900
  | [] \ x = [];
paulson@2243
   901
fun ys \\ xs = foldl (op \) (ys,xs);
clasohm@0
   902
wenzelm@233
   903
wenzelm@233
   904
(*makes a list of the distinct members of the input; preserves order, takes
wenzelm@233
   905
  first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@19046
   906
fun distinct eq lst =
wenzelm@233
   907
  let
wenzelm@233
   908
    fun dist (rev_seen, []) = rev rev_seen
wenzelm@233
   909
      | dist (rev_seen, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@18923
   910
          if member eq rev_seen x then dist (rev_seen, xs)
wenzelm@233
   911
          else dist (x :: rev_seen, xs);
wenzelm@19046
   912
  in dist ([], lst) end;
wenzelm@233
   913
wenzelm@255
   914
(*returns a list containing all repeated elements exactly once; preserves
wenzelm@255
   915
  order, takes first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@18966
   916
fun duplicates eq lst =
wenzelm@255
   917
  let
wenzelm@255
   918
    fun dups (rev_dups, []) = rev rev_dups
wenzelm@255
   919
      | dups (rev_dups, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@18923
   920
          if member eq rev_dups x orelse not (member eq xs x) then
wenzelm@255
   921
            dups (rev_dups, xs)
wenzelm@255
   922
          else dups (x :: rev_dups, xs);
wenzelm@18966
   923
  in dups ([], lst) end;
wenzelm@255
   924
wenzelm@16878
   925
fun has_duplicates eq =
wenzelm@16878
   926
  let
wenzelm@16878
   927
    fun dups [] = false
wenzelm@16878
   928
      | dups (x :: xs) = member eq xs x orelse dups xs;
wenzelm@16878
   929
  in dups end;
wenzelm@16878
   930
wenzelm@255
   931
wenzelm@23220
   932
nipkow@22142
   933
(** lists as multisets **)
nipkow@22142
   934
nipkow@22142
   935
fun remove1 _ _ [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@23220
   936
  | remove1 eq y (x::xs) = if eq (y, x) then xs else x :: remove1 eq y xs;
nipkow@22142
   937
wenzelm@23220
   938
fun submultiset _ ([], _)  = true
wenzelm@23220
   939
  | submultiset eq (x :: xs, ys) = member eq ys x andalso submultiset eq (xs, remove1 eq x ys);
wenzelm@233
   940
clasohm@0
   941
clasohm@0
   942
wenzelm@2506
   943
(** orders **)
wenzelm@2506
   944
wenzelm@18966
   945
fun is_equal EQUAL = true
wenzelm@18966
   946
  | is_equal _ = false;
wenzelm@18966
   947
wenzelm@4445
   948
fun rev_order LESS = GREATER
wenzelm@4445
   949
  | rev_order EQUAL = EQUAL
wenzelm@4445
   950
  | rev_order GREATER = LESS;
wenzelm@4445
   951
wenzelm@4479
   952
(*assume rel is a linear strict order*)
wenzelm@4445
   953
fun make_ord rel (x, y) =
wenzelm@4445
   954
  if rel (x, y) then LESS
wenzelm@4445
   955
  else if rel (y, x) then GREATER
wenzelm@4445
   956
  else EQUAL;
wenzelm@4445
   957
wenzelm@25224
   958
fun bool_ord (false, true) = LESS
wenzelm@25224
   959
  | bool_ord (true, false) = GREATER
wenzelm@25224
   960
  | bool_ord _ = EQUAL;
wenzelm@25224
   961
wenzelm@15051
   962
val int_ord = Int.compare;
wenzelm@15051
   963
val string_ord = String.compare;
wenzelm@2506
   964
wenzelm@16676
   965
fun fast_string_ord (s1, s2) =
wenzelm@16676
   966
  (case int_ord (size s1, size s2) of EQUAL => string_ord (s1, s2) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@16676
   967
wenzelm@16492
   968
fun option_ord ord (SOME x, SOME y) = ord (x, y)
wenzelm@16492
   969
  | option_ord _ (NONE, NONE) = EQUAL
wenzelm@16492
   970
  | option_ord _ (NONE, SOME _) = LESS
wenzelm@16492
   971
  | option_ord _ (SOME _, NONE) = GREATER;
wenzelm@16492
   972
wenzelm@4343
   973
(*lexicographic product*)
wenzelm@4343
   974
fun prod_ord a_ord b_ord ((x, y), (x', y')) =
wenzelm@4343
   975
  (case a_ord (x, x') of EQUAL => b_ord (y, y') | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
   976
wenzelm@4343
   977
(*dictionary order -- in general NOT well-founded!*)
wenzelm@16984
   978
fun dict_ord elem_ord (x :: xs, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@16984
   979
      (case elem_ord (x, y) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord)
wenzelm@16984
   980
  | dict_ord _ ([], []) = EQUAL
wenzelm@4343
   981
  | dict_ord _ ([], _ :: _) = LESS
wenzelm@16984
   982
  | dict_ord _ (_ :: _, []) = GREATER;
wenzelm@4343
   983
wenzelm@4343
   984
(*lexicographic product of lists*)
wenzelm@4343
   985
fun list_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@16676
   986
  (case int_ord (length xs, length ys) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
   987
wenzelm@2506
   988
wenzelm@4621
   989
(* sorting *)
wenzelm@4621
   990
wenzelm@18427
   991
(*quicksort -- stable, i.e. does not reorder equal elements*)
wenzelm@18427
   992
fun quicksort unique ord =
wenzelm@4621
   993
  let
wenzelm@16878
   994
    fun qsort [] = []
wenzelm@16878
   995
      | qsort (xs as [_]) = xs
wenzelm@18427
   996
      | qsort (xs as [x, y]) =
wenzelm@18427
   997
          (case ord (x, y) of
wenzelm@18427
   998
            LESS => xs
wenzelm@18427
   999
          | EQUAL => if unique then [x] else xs
wenzelm@18427
  1000
          | GREATER => [y, x])
wenzelm@16878
  1001
      | qsort xs =
haftmann@18011
  1002
          let val (lts, eqs, gts) = part (nth xs (length xs div 2)) xs
wenzelm@16878
  1003
          in qsort lts @ eqs @ qsort gts end
wenzelm@4621
  1004
    and part _ [] = ([], [], [])
wenzelm@4621
  1005
      | part pivot (x :: xs) = add (ord (x, pivot)) x (part pivot xs)
wenzelm@4621
  1006
    and add LESS x (lts, eqs, gts) = (x :: lts, eqs, gts)
wenzelm@18427
  1007
      | add EQUAL x (lts, [], gts) = (lts, [x], gts)
wenzelm@18427
  1008
      | add EQUAL x (res as (lts, eqs, gts)) = if unique then res else (lts, x :: eqs, gts)
wenzelm@4621
  1009
      | add GREATER x (lts, eqs, gts) = (lts, eqs, x :: gts);
wenzelm@4621
  1010
  in qsort end;
wenzelm@4621
  1011
wenzelm@18427
  1012
fun sort ord = quicksort false ord;
wenzelm@18427
  1013
fun sort_distinct ord = quicksort true ord;
wenzelm@18427
  1014
wenzelm@4621
  1015
val sort_strings = sort string_ord;
wenzelm@4621
  1016
fun sort_wrt sel xs = sort (string_ord o pairself sel) xs;
wenzelm@4621
  1017
wenzelm@4621
  1018
wenzelm@30558
  1019
(* items tagged by integer index *)
wenzelm@30558
  1020
wenzelm@30558
  1021
(*insert tags*)
wenzelm@30558
  1022
fun tag_list k [] = []
haftmann@30570
  1023
  | tag_list k (x :: xs) = (k:int, x) :: tag_list (k + 1) xs;
wenzelm@30558
  1024
wenzelm@30558
  1025
(*remove tags and suppress duplicates -- list is assumed sorted!*)
wenzelm@30558
  1026
fun untag_list [] = []
wenzelm@30558
  1027
  | untag_list [(k: int, x)] = [x]
wenzelm@30558
  1028
  | untag_list ((k, x) :: (rest as (k', x') :: _)) =
wenzelm@30558
  1029
      if k = k' then untag_list rest
wenzelm@30558
  1030
      else x :: untag_list rest;
wenzelm@30558
  1031
wenzelm@30558
  1032
(*return list elements in original order*)
wenzelm@30558
  1033
fun order_list list = untag_list (sort (int_ord o pairself fst) list);
wenzelm@30558
  1034
wenzelm@30558
  1035
wenzelm@2506
  1036
berghofe@14106
  1037
(** random numbers **)
berghofe@14106
  1038
berghofe@14106
  1039
exception RANDOM;
berghofe@14106
  1040
berghofe@14618
  1041
fun rmod x y = x - y * Real.realFloor (x / y);
berghofe@14106
  1042
berghofe@14106
  1043
local
berghofe@14106
  1044
  val a = 16807.0;
berghofe@14106
  1045
  val m = 2147483647.0;
berghofe@14106
  1046
  val random_seed = ref 1.0;
berghofe@14106
  1047
in
berghofe@14106
  1048
wenzelm@23922
  1049
fun random () = CRITICAL (fn () =>
wenzelm@23922
  1050
  let val r = rmod (a * ! random_seed) m
wenzelm@23922
  1051
  in (random_seed := r; r) end);
berghofe@14106
  1052
berghofe@14106
  1053
end;
berghofe@14106
  1054
berghofe@14106
  1055
fun random_range l h =
berghofe@14106
  1056
  if h < l orelse l < 0 then raise RANDOM
berghofe@14106
  1057
  else l + Real.floor (rmod (random ()) (real (h - l + 1)));
berghofe@14106
  1058
haftmann@18011
  1059
fun one_of xs = nth xs (random_range 0 (length xs - 1));
berghofe@14106
  1060
berghofe@14106
  1061
fun frequency xs =
berghofe@14106
  1062
  let
berghofe@14106
  1063
    val sum = foldl op + (0, map fst xs);
wenzelm@17756
  1064
    fun pick n ((k: int, x) :: xs) =
berghofe@14106
  1065
      if n <= k then x else pick (n - k) xs
berghofe@14106
  1066
  in pick (random_range 1 sum) xs end;
berghofe@14106
  1067
berghofe@14106
  1068
wenzelm@23220
  1069
wenzelm@4621
  1070
(** misc **)
wenzelm@233
  1071
wenzelm@19644
  1072
fun divide_and_conquer decomp x =
wenzelm@19644
  1073
  let val (ys, recomb) = decomp x
wenzelm@19644
  1074
  in recomb (map (divide_and_conquer decomp) ys) end;
wenzelm@19644
  1075
clasohm@0
  1076
wenzelm@233
  1077
(*Partition a list into buckets  [ bi, b(i+1), ..., bj ]
clasohm@0
  1078
   putting x in bk if p(k)(x) holds.  Preserve order of elements if possible.*)
clasohm@0
  1079
fun partition_list p i j =
wenzelm@233
  1080
  let fun part k xs =
wenzelm@233
  1081
            if k>j then
clasohm@0
  1082
              (case xs of [] => []
skalberg@15570
  1083
                         | _ => raise Fail "partition_list")
clasohm@0
  1084
            else
wenzelm@19691
  1085
            let val (ns, rest) = List.partition (p k) xs;
wenzelm@233
  1086
            in  ns :: part(k+1)rest  end
wenzelm@24593
  1087
  in  part (i: int) end;
clasohm@0
  1088
wenzelm@19691
  1089
fun partition_eq (eq:'a * 'a -> bool) =
wenzelm@19691
  1090
  let
wenzelm@19691
  1091
    fun part [] = []
wenzelm@19691
  1092
      | part (x :: ys) =
wenzelm@19691
  1093
          let val (xs, xs') = List.partition (fn y => eq (x, y)) ys
wenzelm@19691
  1094
          in (x::xs)::(part xs') end
wenzelm@19691
  1095
  in part end;
wenzelm@19691
  1096
wenzelm@19691
  1097
clasohm@0
  1098
wenzelm@233
  1099
(* generating identifiers *)
clasohm@0
  1100
paulson@4063
  1101
(** Freshly generated identifiers; supplied prefix MUST start with a letter **)
wenzelm@22369
  1102
local
wenzelm@22369
  1103
(*Maps 0-61 to A-Z, a-z, 0-9; exclude _ or ' to avoid clash with internal/unusual indentifiers*)
wenzelm@22582
  1104
fun gensym_char i =
paulson@22368
  1105
  if i<26 then chr (ord "A" + i)
paulson@22368
  1106
  else if i<52 then chr (ord "a" + i - 26)
wenzelm@22369
  1107
  else chr (ord "0" + i - 52);
paulson@4063
  1108
wenzelm@22369
  1109
val char_vec = Vector.tabulate (62, gensym_char);
wenzelm@22369
  1110
fun newid n = implode (map (fn i => Vector.sub (char_vec, i)) (radixpand (62, n)));
wenzelm@4284
  1111
wenzelm@24593
  1112
val gensym_seed = ref (0: int);
paulson@2003
  1113
wenzelm@22369
  1114
in
wenzelm@24148
  1115
  fun gensym pre = pre ^ newid (NAMED_CRITICAL "gensym" (fn () => inc gensym_seed));
wenzelm@22369
  1116
end;
paulson@4063
  1117
paulson@4063
  1118
wenzelm@16439
  1119
(* stamps and serial numbers *)
wenzelm@16439
  1120
wenzelm@16439
  1121
type stamp = unit ref;
wenzelm@16439
  1122
val stamp: unit -> stamp = ref;
wenzelm@16439
  1123
wenzelm@16439
  1124
type serial = int;
wenzelm@25702
  1125
val serial = Multithreading.serial;
wenzelm@19512
  1126
val serial_string = string_of_int o serial;
wenzelm@19512
  1127
wenzelm@16535
  1128
wenzelm@16535
  1129
(* generic objects *)
wenzelm@16535
  1130
wenzelm@16535
  1131
(*note that the builtin exception datatype may be extended by new
wenzelm@16535
  1132
  constructors at any time*)
wenzelm@16535
  1133
structure Object = struct type T = exn end;
wenzelm@16535
  1134
clasohm@1364
  1135
end;
clasohm@1364
  1136
wenzelm@32188
  1137
structure Basic_Library: BASIC_LIBRARY = Library;
wenzelm@32188
  1138
open Basic_Library;