doc-src/Ref/theories.tex
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\subsection{*Theory inclusion};
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%% $Id$
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\chapter{Theories, Terms and Types} \label{theories}
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\index{theories|(}\index{signatures|bold}
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\index{reading!axioms|see{{\tt assume_ax}}} Theories organize the
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syntax, declarations and axioms of a mathematical development.  They
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are built, starting from the {\Pure} or {\CPure} theory, by extending
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and merging existing theories.  They have the \ML\ type
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\mltydx{theory}.  Theory operations signal errors by raising exception
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\xdx{THEORY}, returning a message and a list of theories.
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Signatures, which contain information about sorts, types, constants and
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syntax, have the \ML\ type~\mltydx{Sign.sg}.  For identification, each
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signature carries a unique list of \bfindex{stamps}, which are \ML\
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references to strings.  The strings serve as human-readable names; the
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references serve as unique identifiers.  Each primitive signature has a
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single stamp.  When two signatures are merged, their lists of stamps are
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also merged.  Every theory carries a unique signature.
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Terms and types are the underlying representation of logical syntax.  Their
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\ML\ definitions are irrelevant to naive Isabelle users.  Programmers who
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wish to extend Isabelle may need to know such details, say to code a tactic
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that looks for subgoals of a particular form.  Terms and types may be
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`certified' to be well-formed with respect to a given signature.
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\section{Defining theories}\label{sec:ref-defining-theories}
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Theories are usually defined using theory definition files (which have a name
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suffix {\tt .thy}).  There is also a low level interface provided by certain
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\ML{} functions (see \S\ref{BuildingATheory}).
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Appendix~\ref{app:TheorySyntax} presents the concrete syntax for theory
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definitions; here is an explanation of the constituent parts:
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\begin{description}
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\item[{\it theoryDef}] is the full definition.  The new theory is
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  called $id$.  It is the union of the named {\bf parent
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    theories}\indexbold{theories!parent}, possibly extended with new
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  components.  \thydx{Pure} and \thydx{CPure} are the basic theories,
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  which contain only the meta-logic.  They differ just in their
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  concrete syntax for function applications.
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  Normally each {\it name\/} is an identifier, the name of the parent theory.
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  Quoted strings can be used to document additional file dependencies; see
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  \S\ref{LoadingTheories} for details.
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\item[$classes$]
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  is a series of class declarations.  Declaring {\tt$id$ < $id@1$ \dots\
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    $id@n$} makes $id$ a subclass of the existing classes $id@1\dots
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  id@n$.  This rules out cyclic class structures.  Isabelle automatically
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  computes the transitive closure of subclass hierarchies; it is not
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  necessary to declare {\tt c < e} in addition to {\tt c < d} and {\tt d <
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    e}.
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\item[$default$]
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  introduces $sort$ as the new default sort for type variables.  This applies
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  to unconstrained type variables in an input string but not to type
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  variables created internally.  If omitted, the default sort is the listwise
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  union of the default sorts of the parent theories (i.e.\ their logical
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  intersection).
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\item[$sort$] is a finite set of classes.  A single class $id$
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  abbreviates the sort $\ttlbrace id\ttrbrace$.
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\item[$types$]
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  is a series of type declarations.  Each declares a new type constructor
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  or type synonym.  An $n$-place type constructor is specified by
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  $(\alpha@1,\dots,\alpha@n)name$, where the type variables serve only to
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  indicate the number~$n$.
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  A {\bf type synonym}\indexbold{type synonyms} is an abbreviation
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  $(\alpha@1,\dots,\alpha@n)name = \tau$, where $name$ and $\tau$ can
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  be strings.
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\item[$infix$]
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  declares a type or constant to be an infix operator of priority $nat$
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  associating to the left ({\tt infixl}) or right ({\tt infixr}).  Only
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  2-place type constructors can have infix status; an example is {\tt
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  ('a,'b)~"*"~(infixr~20)}, which may express binary product types.
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\item[$arities$] is a series of type arity declarations.  Each assigns
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  arities to type constructors.  The $name$ must be an existing type
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  constructor, which is given the additional arity $arity$.
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\item[$consts$] is a series of constant declarations.  Each new
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  constant $name$ is given the specified type.  The optional $mixfix$
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  annotations may attach concrete syntax to the constant.
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\item[$syntax$] \index{*syntax section}\index{print mode} is a variant
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  of $consts$ which adds just syntax without actually declaring
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  logical constants.  This gives full control over a theory's context
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  free grammar.  The optional $mode$ specifies the print mode where the
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  mixfix productions should be added.  If there is no \texttt{output}
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  option given, all productions are also added to the input syntax
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  (regardless of the print mode).
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\item[$mixfix$] \index{mixfix declarations}
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  annotations can take three forms:
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  \begin{itemize}
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  \item A mixfix template given as a $string$ of the form
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    {\tt"}\dots{\tt\_}\dots{\tt\_}\dots{\tt"} where the $i$-th underscore
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    indicates the position where the $i$-th argument should go.  The list
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    of numbers gives the priority of each argument.  The final number gives
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    the priority of the whole construct.
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  \item A constant $f$ of type $\tau@1\To(\tau@2\To\tau)$ can be given {\bf
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    infix} status.
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  \item A constant $f$ of type $(\tau@1\To\tau@2)\To\tau$ can be given {\bf
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    binder} status.  The declaration {\tt binder} $\cal Q$ $p$ causes
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  ${\cal Q}\,x.F(x)$ to be treated
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  like $f(F)$, where $p$ is the priority.
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  \end{itemize}
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\item[$trans$]
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  specifies syntactic translation rules (macros).  There are three forms:
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  parse rules ({\tt =>}), print rules ({\tt <=}), and parse/print rules ({\tt
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  ==}).
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\item[$rules$]
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  is a series of rule declarations.  Each has a name $id$ and the formula is
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  given by the $string$.  Rule names must be distinct within any single
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  theory.
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\item[$defs$] is a series of definitions.  They are just like $rules$, except
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  that every $string$ must be a definition (see below for details).
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\item[$constdefs$] combines the declaration of constants and their
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  definition.  The first $string$ is the type, the second the definition.
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\item[$axclass$] \index{*axclass section} defines an
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  \rmindex{axiomatic type class} as the intersection of existing
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  classes, with additional axioms holding.  Class axioms may not
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  contain more than one type variable.  The class axioms (with implicit
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  sort constraints added) are bound to the given names.  Furthermore a
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  class introduction rule is generated, which is automatically
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  employed by $instance$ to prove instantiations of this class.
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\item[$instance$] \index{*instance section} proves class inclusions or
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  type arities at the logical level and then transfers these to the
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  type signature.  The instantiation is proven and checked properly.
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  The user has to supply sufficient witness information: theorems
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  ($longident$), axioms ($string$), or even arbitrary \ML{} tactic
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  code $verbatim$.
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\item[$oracle$] links the theory to a trusted external reasoner.  It is
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  allowed to create theorems, but each theorem carries a proof object
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  describing the oracle invocation.  See \S\ref{sec:oracles} for details.
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\item[$ml$] \index{*ML section}
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  consists of \ML\ code, typically for parse and print translation functions.
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\end{description}
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%
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Chapters~\ref{Defining-Logics} and \ref{chap:syntax} explain mixfix
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declarations, translation rules and the {\tt ML} section in more detail.
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\subsection{Definitions}\indexbold{definitions}
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{\bf Definitions} are intended to express abbreviations.  The simplest
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form of a definition is $f \equiv t$, where $f$ is a constant.
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Isabelle also allows a derived forms where the arguments of~$f$ appear
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on the left, abbreviating a string of $\lambda$-abstractions.
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Isabelle makes the following checks on definitions:
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\begin{itemize}
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\item Arguments (on the left-hand side) must be distinct variables.
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\item All variables on the right-hand side must also appear on the left-hand
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  side. 
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\item All type variables on the right-hand side must also appear on
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  the left-hand side; this prohibits definitions such as {\tt
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    (zero::nat) == length ([]::'a list)}.
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\item The definition must not be recursive.  Most object-logics provide
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  definitional principles that can be used to express recursion safely.
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\end{itemize}
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These checks are intended to catch the sort of errors that might be made
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accidentally.  Misspellings, for instance, might result in additional
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variables appearing on the right-hand side.  More elaborate checks could be
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made, but the cost might be overly strict rules on declaration order, etc.
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\subsection{*Classes and arities}
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\index{classes!context conditions}\index{arities!context conditions}
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In order to guarantee principal types~\cite{nipkow-prehofer},
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arity declarations must obey two conditions:
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\begin{itemize}
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\item There must not be any two declarations $ty :: (\vec{r})c$ and
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  $ty :: (\vec{s})c$ with $\vec{r} \neq \vec{s}$.  For example, this
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  excludes the following:
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\begin{ttbox}
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arities
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  foo :: ({\ttlbrace}logic{\ttrbrace}) logic
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  foo :: ({\ttlbrace}{\ttrbrace})logic
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\end{ttbox}
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\item If there are two declarations $ty :: (s@1,\dots,s@n)c$ and $ty ::
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  (s@1',\dots,s@n')c'$ such that $c' < c$ then $s@i' \preceq s@i$ must hold
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  for $i=1,\dots,n$.  The relationship $\preceq$, defined as
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\[ s' \preceq s \iff \forall c\in s. \exists c'\in s'.~ c'\le c, \]
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expresses that the set of types represented by $s'$ is a subset of the
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set of types represented by $s$.  Assuming $term \preceq logic$, the
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following is forbidden:
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\begin{ttbox}
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arities
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  foo :: ({\ttlbrace}logic{\ttrbrace})logic
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  foo :: ({\ttlbrace}{\ttrbrace})term
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\end{ttbox}
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\end{itemize}
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\section{Loading a new theory}\label{LoadingTheories}
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\index{theories!loading}\index{files!reading}
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\begin{ttbox}
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use_thy         : string -> unit
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time_use_thy    : string -> unit
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loadpath        : string list ref \hfill{\bf initially {\tt["."]}}
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delete_tmpfiles : bool ref \hfill{\bf initially true}
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\end{ttbox}
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\begin{ttdescription}
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\item[\ttindexbold{use_thy} $thyname$]
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  reads the theory $thyname$ and creates an \ML{} structure as described below.
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\item[\ttindexbold{time_use_thy} $thyname$]
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  calls {\tt use_thy} $thyname$ and reports the time taken.
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\item[\ttindexbold{loadpath}]
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  contains a list of directories to search when locating the files that
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  define a theory.  This list is only used if the theory name in {\tt
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    use_thy} does not specify the path explicitly.
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\item[reset \ttindexbold{delete_tmpfiles};]
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suppresses the deletion of temporary files.
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\end{ttdescription}
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%
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Each theory definition must reside in a separate file.  Let the file
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{\it T}{\tt.thy} contain the definition of a theory called~$T$, whose
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parent theories are $TB@1$ \dots $TB@n$.  Calling
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\ttindex{use_thy}~{\tt"{\it T\/}"} reads the file {\it T}{\tt.thy},
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writes a temporary \ML{} file {\tt.{\it T}.thy.ML}, and reads the
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latter file.  Recursive {\tt use_thy} calls load those parent theories
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that have not been loaded previously; the recursive calls may continue
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to any depth.  One {\tt use_thy} call can read an entire logic
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provided all theories are linked appropriately.
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The result is an \ML\ structure~$T$ containing at least a component
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{\tt thy} for the new theory and components for each of the rules.
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The structure also contains the definitions of the {\tt ML} section,
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if present.  The file {\tt.{\it T}.thy.ML} is then deleted if {\tt
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  delete_tmpfiles} is set and no errors occurred.
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Finally the file {\it T}{\tt.ML} is read, if it exists.  The structure
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$T$ is automatically open in this context.  Proof scripts typically
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refer to its components by unqualified names.
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Some applications construct theories directly by calling \ML\ functions.  In
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this situation there is no {\tt.thy} file, only an {\tt.ML} file.  The
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{\tt.ML} file must declare an \ML\ structure having the theory's name and a
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component {\tt thy} containing the new theory object.
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Section~\ref{sec:pseudo-theories} below describes a way of linking such
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theories to their parents.
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\begin{warn}
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  Temporary files are written to the current directory, so this must be
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  writable.  Isabelle inherits the current directory from the operating
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  system; you can change it within Isabelle by typing {\tt
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  cd"$dir$"}\index{*cd}.
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\end{warn}
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\section{Reloading modified theories}\label{sec:reloading-theories}
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\indexbold{theories!reloading}
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\begin{ttbox}
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update     : unit -> unit
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unlink_thy : string -> unit
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\end{ttbox}
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Changing a theory on disk often makes it necessary to reload all theories
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descended from it.  However, {\tt use_thy} reads only one theory, even if
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some of the parent theories are out of date.  In this case you should call
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{\tt update()}.
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Isabelle keeps track of all loaded theories and their files.  If
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\ttindex{use_thy} finds that the theory to be loaded has been read before,
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it determines whether to reload the theory as follows.  First it looks for
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the theory's files in their previous location.  If it finds them, it
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compares their modification times to the internal data and stops if they
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are equal.  If the files have been moved, {\tt use_thy} searches for them
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as it would for a new theory.  After {\tt use_thy} reloads a theory, it
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marks the children as out-of-date.
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\begin{ttdescription}
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\item[\ttindexbold{update}()]
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  reloads all modified theories and their descendants in the correct order.
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\item[\ttindexbold{unlink_thy} $thyname$]\indexbold{theories!removing}
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  informs Isabelle that theory $thyname$ no longer exists.  If you delete the
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  theory files for $thyname$ then you must execute {\tt unlink_thy};
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  otherwise {\tt update} will complain about a missing file.
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\end{ttdescription}
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\subsection{*Pseudo theories}\label{sec:pseudo-theories}
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\indexbold{theories!pseudo}%
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Any automatic reloading facility requires complete knowledge of all
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dependencies.  Sometimes theories depend on objects created in \ML{} files
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with no associated theory definition file.  These objects may be theories but
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they could also be theorems, proof procedures, etc.
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Unless such dependencies are documented, {\tt update} fails to reload these
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\ML{} files and the system is left in a state where some objects, such as
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theorems, still refer to old versions of theories.  This may lead to the
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error
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\begin{ttbox}
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Attempt to merge different versions of theories: \dots
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\end{ttbox}
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Therefore there is a way to link theories and {\bf orphaned} \ML{} files ---
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those not associated with a theory definition.
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Let us assume we have an orphaned \ML{} file named {\tt orphan.ML} and a
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theory~$B$ that depends on {\tt orphan.ML} --- for example, {\tt B.ML} uses
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   323
theorems proved in {\tt orphan.ML}.  Then {\tt B.thy} should
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mention this dependency as follows:
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\begin{ttbox}
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B = \(\ldots\) + "orphan" + \(\ldots\)
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   327
\end{ttbox}
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Quoted strings stand for theories which have to be loaded before the
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current theory is read but which are not used in building the base of
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theory~$B$.  Whenever {\tt orphan} changes and is reloaded, Isabelle
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knows that $B$ has to be updated, too.
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Note that it's necessary for {\tt orphan} to declare a special ML
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object of type {\tt theory} which is present in all theories.  This is
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normally achieved by adding the file {\tt orphan.thy} to make {\tt
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orphan} a {\bf pseudo theory}.  A minimum version of {\tt orphan.thy}
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would be
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\begin{ttbox}
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clasohm
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orphan = Pure
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\end{ttbox}
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which uses {\tt Pure} to make a dummy theory.  Normally though the
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orphaned file has its own dependencies.  If {\tt orphan.ML} depends on
b82815e61b30 corrected documentation of pseudo theories;
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theories or files $A@1$, \ldots, $A@n$, record this by creating the
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pseudo theory in the following way:
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\begin{ttbox}
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orphan = \(A@1\) + \(\ldots\) + \(A@n\)
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\end{ttbox}
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The resulting theory ensures that {\tt update} reloads {\tt orphan}
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whenever it reloads one of the $A@i$.
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   353
For an extensive example of how this technique can be used to link
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   354
lots of theory files and load them by just a few {\tt use_thy} calls
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
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   355
see the sources of one of the major object-logics (e.g.\ \ZF).
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   356
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d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
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\section{Basic operations on theories}\label{BasicOperationsOnTheories}
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\subsection{Retrieving axioms and theorems}
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\index{theories!axioms of}\index{axioms!extracting}
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\index{theories!theorems of}\index{theorems!extracting}
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\begin{ttbox}
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get_axiom : theory -> xstring -> thm
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get_thm   : theory -> xstring -> thm
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get_thms  : theory -> xstring -> thm list
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axioms_of : theory -> (string * thm) list
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thms_of   : theory -> (string * thm) list
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   369
assume_ax : theory -> string -> thm
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\end{ttbox}
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\begin{ttdescription}
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\item[\ttindexbold{get_axiom} $thy$ $name$] returns an axiom with the
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   373
  given $name$ from $thy$ or any of its ancestors, raising exception
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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   374
  \xdx{THEORY} if none exists.  Merging theories can cause several
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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   375
  axioms to have the same name; {\tt get_axiom} returns an arbitrary
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   376
  one.  Usually, axioms are also stored as theorems and may be
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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   377
  retrieved via \texttt{get_thm} as well.
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   378
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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   379
\item[\ttindexbold{get_thm} $thy$ $name$] is analogous to {\tt
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   380
    get_axiom}, but looks for a theorem stored in the theory's
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
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   381
  database.  Like {\tt get_axiom} it searches all parents of a theory
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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   382
  if the theorem is not found directly in $thy$.
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   383
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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   384
\item[\ttindexbold{get_thms} $thy$ $name$] is like \texttt{get_thm}
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
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   385
  for retrieving theorem lists stored within the theory.  It returns a
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diff changeset
   386
  singleton list if $name$ actually refers to a theorem rather than a
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   387
  theorem list.
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   388
  
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diff changeset
   389
\item[\ttindexbold{axioms_of} $thy$] returns the axioms of this theory
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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diff changeset
   390
  node, not including the ones of its ancestors.
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   391
  
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diff changeset
   392
\item[\ttindexbold{thms_of} $thy$] returns all theorems stored within
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   393
  the database of this theory node, not including the ones of its
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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diff changeset
   394
  ancestors.
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   395
  
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diff changeset
   396
\item[\ttindexbold{assume_ax} $thy$ $formula$] reads the {\it formula}
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   397
  using the syntax of $thy$, following the same conventions as axioms
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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diff changeset
   398
  in a theory definition.  You can thus pretend that {\it formula} is
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   399
  an axiom and use the resulting theorem like an axiom.  Actually {\tt
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   400
    assume_ax} returns an assumption; \ttindex{qed} and
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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parents: 3485
diff changeset
   401
  \ttindex{result} complain about additional assumptions, but
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
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   402
  \ttindex{uresult} does not.
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   403
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
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parents:
diff changeset
   404
For example, if {\it formula} is
332
01b87a921967 final Springer copy
lcp
parents: 324
diff changeset
   405
\hbox{\tt a=b ==> b=a} then the resulting theorem has the form
01b87a921967 final Springer copy
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parents: 324
diff changeset
   406
\hbox{\verb'?a=?b ==> ?b=?a  [!!a b. a=b ==> b=a]'}
324
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diff changeset
   407
\end{ttdescription}
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parents:
diff changeset
   408
4384
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
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diff changeset
   409
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
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diff changeset
   410
\subsection{*Theory inclusion}
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
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diff changeset
   411
\begin{ttbox}
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
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diff changeset
   412
subthy      : theory * theory -> bool
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   413
eq_thy      : theory * theory -> bool
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
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diff changeset
   414
transfer    : theory -> thm -> thm
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   415
transfer_sg : Sign.sg -> thm -> thm
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
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diff changeset
   416
\end{ttbox}
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   417
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
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diff changeset
   418
Inclusion and equality of theories is determined by unique
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   419
identification stamps that are created when declaring new components.
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   420
Theorems contain a reference to the theory (actually to its signature)
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   421
they have been derived in.  Transferring theorems to super theories
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   422
has no logical significance, but may affect some operations in subtle
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   423
ways (e.g.\ implicit merges of signatures when applying rules, or
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   424
pretty printing of theorems).
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   425
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   426
\begin{ttdescription}
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   427
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   428
\item[\ttindexbold{subthy} ($thy@1$, $thy@2$)] determines if $thy@1$
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
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diff changeset
   429
  is included in $thy@2$ wrt.\ identification stamps.
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   430
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   431
\item[\ttindexbold{eq_thy} ($thy@1$, $thy@2$)] determines if $thy@1$
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   432
  is exactly the same as $thy@2$.
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   433
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   434
\item[\ttindexbold{transfer} $thy$ $thm$] transfers theorem $thm$ to
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   435
  theory $thy$, provided the latter includes the theory of $thm$.
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   436
  
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   437
\item[\ttindexbold{transfer_sg} $sign$ $thm$] is similar to
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   438
  \texttt{transfer}, but identifies the super theory via its
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   439
  signature.
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   440
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   441
\end{ttdescription}
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   442
429cba89b4c8 \subsection{*Theory inclusion};
wenzelm
parents: 4374
diff changeset
   443
3108
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
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diff changeset
   444
\subsection{*Building a theory}
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   445
\label{BuildingATheory}
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   446
\index{theories!constructing|bold}
864
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parents: 478
diff changeset
   447
\begin{ttbox}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
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diff changeset
   448
ProtoPure.thy  : theory
3108
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   449
Pure.thy       : theory
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   450
CPure.thy      : theory
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
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diff changeset
   451
merge_theories : string -> theory * theory -> theory
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   452
\end{ttbox}
3108
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   453
\begin{description}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   454
\item[\ttindexbold{ProtoPure.thy}, \ttindexbold{Pure.thy},
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   455
  \ttindexbold{CPure.thy}] contain the syntax and signature of the
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   456
  meta-logic.  There are basically no axioms: meta-level inferences
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   457
  are carried out by \ML\ functions.  \texttt{Pure} and \texttt{CPure}
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   458
  just differ in their concrete syntax of prefix function application:
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   459
  $t(u@1, \ldots, u@n)$ in \texttt{Pure} vs.\ $t\,u@1,\ldots\,u@n$ in
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   460
  \texttt{CPure}.  \texttt{ProtoPure} is their common parent,
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   461
  containing no syntax for printing prefix applications at all!
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   462
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   463
\item[\ttindexbold{merge_theories} $name$ ($thy@1$, $thy@2$)] merges
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   464
  the two theories $thy@1$ and $thy@2$, creating a new named theory
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   465
  node.  The resulting theory contains all of the syntax, signature
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   466
  and axioms of the constituent theories.  Merging theories that
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   467
  contain different identification stamps of the same name fails with
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   468
  the following message
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   469
\begin{ttbox}
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   470
Attempt to merge different versions of theories: "\(T@1\)", \(\ldots\), "\(T@n\)"
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   471
\end{ttbox}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   472
This error may especially occur when a theory is redeclared --- say to
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   473
change an inappropriate definition --- and bindings to old versions
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   474
persist.  Isabelle ensures that old and new theories of the same name
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   475
are not involved in a proof.
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   476
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   477
%% FIXME
478
838bd766d536 added init_thy_reader and removed extend_theory
nipkow
parents: 332
diff changeset
   478
%\item [\ttindexbold{extend_theory} $thy$ {\tt"}$T${\tt"} $\cdots$] extends
838bd766d536 added init_thy_reader and removed extend_theory
nipkow
parents: 332
diff changeset
   479
%  the theory $thy$ with new types, constants, etc.  $T$ identifies the theory
838bd766d536 added init_thy_reader and removed extend_theory
nipkow
parents: 332
diff changeset
   480
%  internally.  When a theory is redeclared, say to change an incorrect axiom,
838bd766d536 added init_thy_reader and removed extend_theory
nipkow
parents: 332
diff changeset
   481
%  bindings to the old axiom may persist.  Isabelle ensures that the old and
838bd766d536 added init_thy_reader and removed extend_theory
nipkow
parents: 332
diff changeset
   482
%  new theories are not involved in the same proof.  Attempting to combine
838bd766d536 added init_thy_reader and removed extend_theory
nipkow
parents: 332
diff changeset
   483
%  different theories having the same name $T$ yields the fatal error
838bd766d536 added init_thy_reader and removed extend_theory
nipkow
parents: 332
diff changeset
   484
%extend_theory  : theory -> string -> \(\cdots\) -> theory
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   485
%\begin{ttbox}
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   486
%Attempt to merge different versions of theory: \(T\)
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   487
%\end{ttbox}
3108
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   488
\end{description}
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   489
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   490
%% FIXME
275
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nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   491
%\item [\ttindexbold{extend_theory} $thy$ {\tt"}$T${\tt"}
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nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   492
%      ($classes$, $default$, $types$, $arities$, $consts$, $sextopt$) $rules$]
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   493
%\hfill\break   %%% include if line is just too short
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   494
%is the \ML{} equivalent of the following theory definition:
275
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   495
%\begin{ttbox}
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   496
%\(T\) = \(thy\) +
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   497
%classes \(c\) < \(c@1\),\(\dots\),\(c@m\)
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   498
%        \dots
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   499
%default {\(d@1,\dots,d@r\)}
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   500
%types   \(tycon@1\),\dots,\(tycon@i\) \(n\)
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   501
%        \dots
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   502
%arities \(tycon@1'\),\dots,\(tycon@j'\) :: (\(s@1\),\dots,\(s@n\))\(c\)
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   503
%        \dots
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   504
%consts  \(b@1\),\dots,\(b@k\) :: \(\tau\)
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   505
%        \dots
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   506
%rules   \(name\) \(rule\)
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   507
%        \dots
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   508
%end
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   509
%\end{ttbox}
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   510
%where
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   511
%\begin{tabular}[t]{l@{~=~}l}
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   512
%$classes$ & \tt[("$c$",["$c@1$",\dots,"$c@m$"]),\dots] \\
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   513
%$default$ & \tt["$d@1$",\dots,"$d@r$"]\\
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   514
%$types$   & \tt[([$tycon@1$,\dots,$tycon@i$], $n$),\dots] \\
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   515
%$arities$ & \tt[([$tycon'@1$,\dots,$tycon'@j$], ([$s@1$,\dots,$s@n$],$c$)),\dots]
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   516
%\\
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   517
%$consts$  & \tt[([$b@1$,\dots,$b@k$],$\tau$),\dots] \\
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   518
%$rules$   & \tt[("$name$",$rule$),\dots]
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   519
%\end{tabular}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
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parents:
diff changeset
   520
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   521
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   522
\subsection{Inspecting a theory}\label{sec:inspct-thy}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   523
\index{theories!inspecting|bold}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   524
\begin{ttbox}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   525
print_syntax        : theory -> unit
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   526
print_theory        : theory -> unit
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   527
print_data          : theory -> string -> unit
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   528
parents_of          : theory -> theory list
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   529
ancestors_of        : theory -> theory list
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   530
sign_of             : theory -> Sign.sg
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   531
Sign.stamp_names_of : Sign.sg -> string list
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   532
\end{ttbox}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   533
These provide means of viewing a theory's components.
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   534
\begin{ttdescription}
3108
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   535
\item[\ttindexbold{print_syntax} $thy$] prints the syntax of $thy$
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   536
  (grammar, macros, translation functions etc., see
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   537
  page~\pageref{pg:print_syn} for more details).
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   538
  
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   539
\item[\ttindexbold{print_theory} $thy$] prints the logical parts of
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   540
  $thy$, excluding the syntax.
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   541
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   542
\item[\ttindexbold{print_data} $thy$ $kind$] prints generic data of
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   543
  $thy$.  This invokes the print method associated with $kind$.  Refer
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   544
  to the output of \texttt{print_theory} for a list of available data
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   545
  kinds in $thy$.
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   546
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   547
\item[\ttindexbold{parents_of} $thy$] returns the direct ancestors
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   548
  of~$thy$.
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   549
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   550
\item[\ttindexbold{ancestors_of} $thy$] returns all ancestors of~$thy$
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   551
  (not including $thy$ itself).
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   552
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   553
\item[\ttindexbold{sign_of} $thy$] returns the signature associated
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   554
  with~$thy$.  It is useful with functions like {\tt
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   555
    read_instantiate_sg}, which take a signature as an argument.
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   556
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   557
\item[\ttindexbold{Sign.stamp_names_of} $sg$]\index{signatures}
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   558
  returns the names of the identification \rmindex{stamps} of ax
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   559
  signature.  These coincide with the names of its full ancestry
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   560
  including that of $sg$ itself.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   561
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   562
\end{ttdescription}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   563
1369
b82815e61b30 corrected documentation of pseudo theories;
clasohm
parents: 866
diff changeset
   564
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   565
\section{Terms}
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   566
\index{terms|bold}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   567
Terms belong to the \ML\ type \mltydx{term}, which is a concrete datatype
3108
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   568
with six constructors:
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   569
\begin{ttbox}
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   570
type indexname = string * int;
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   571
infix 9 $;
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   572
datatype term = Const of string * typ
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   573
              | Free  of string * typ
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   574
              | Var   of indexname * typ
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   575
              | Bound of int
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   576
              | Abs   of string * typ * term
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   577
              | op $  of term * term;
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   578
\end{ttbox}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   579
\begin{ttdescription}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   580
\item[\ttindexbold{Const} ($a$, $T$)] \index{constants|bold}
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   581
  is the {\bf constant} with name~$a$ and type~$T$.  Constants include
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   582
  connectives like $\land$ and $\forall$ as well as constants like~0
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   583
  and~$Suc$.  Other constants may be required to define a logic's concrete
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   584
  syntax.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   585
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   586
\item[\ttindexbold{Free} ($a$, $T$)] \index{variables!free|bold}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   587
  is the {\bf free variable} with name~$a$ and type~$T$.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   588
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   589
\item[\ttindexbold{Var} ($v$, $T$)] \index{unknowns|bold}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   590
  is the {\bf scheme variable} with indexname~$v$ and type~$T$.  An
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   591
  \mltydx{indexname} is a string paired with a non-negative index, or
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   592
  subscript; a term's scheme variables can be systematically renamed by
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   593
  incrementing their subscripts.  Scheme variables are essentially free
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   594
  variables, but may be instantiated during unification.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   595
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   596
\item[\ttindexbold{Bound} $i$] \index{variables!bound|bold}
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   597
  is the {\bf bound variable} with de Bruijn index~$i$, which counts the
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   598
  number of lambdas, starting from zero, between a variable's occurrence
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   599
  and its binding.  The representation prevents capture of variables.  For
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   600
  more information see de Bruijn \cite{debruijn72} or
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   601
  Paulson~\cite[page~336]{paulson91}.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   602
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   603
\item[\ttindexbold{Abs} ($a$, $T$, $u$)]
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   604
  \index{lambda abs@$\lambda$-abstractions|bold}
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   605
  is the $\lambda$-{\bf abstraction} with body~$u$, and whose bound
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   606
  variable has name~$a$ and type~$T$.  The name is used only for parsing
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   607
  and printing; it has no logical significance.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   608
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   609
\item[$t$ \$ $u$] \index{$@{\tt\$}|bold} \index{function applications|bold}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   610
is the {\bf application} of~$t$ to~$u$.
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   611
\end{ttdescription}
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   612
Application is written as an infix operator to aid readability.
332
01b87a921967 final Springer copy
lcp
parents: 324
diff changeset
   613
Here is an \ML\ pattern to recognize \FOL{} formulae of
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   614
the form~$A\imp B$, binding the subformulae to~$A$ and~$B$:
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   615
\begin{ttbox}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   616
Const("Trueprop",_) $ (Const("op -->",_) $ A $ B)
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   617
\end{ttbox}
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   618
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   619
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   620
\section{*Variable binding}
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   621
\begin{ttbox}
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   622
loose_bnos     : term -> int list
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   623
incr_boundvars : int -> term -> term
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   624
abstract_over  : term*term -> term
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   625
variant_abs    : string * typ * term -> string * term
4374
wenzelm
parents: 4317
diff changeset
   626
aconv          : term * term -> bool\hfill{\bf infix}
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   627
\end{ttbox}
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   628
These functions are all concerned with the de Bruijn representation of
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   629
bound variables.
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   630
\begin{ttdescription}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   631
\item[\ttindexbold{loose_bnos} $t$]
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   632
  returns the list of all dangling bound variable references.  In
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   633
  particular, {\tt Bound~0} is loose unless it is enclosed in an
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   634
  abstraction.  Similarly {\tt Bound~1} is loose unless it is enclosed in
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   635
  at least two abstractions; if enclosed in just one, the list will contain
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   636
  the number 0.  A well-formed term does not contain any loose variables.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   637
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   638
\item[\ttindexbold{incr_boundvars} $j$]
332
01b87a921967 final Springer copy
lcp
parents: 324
diff changeset
   639
  increases a term's dangling bound variables by the offset~$j$.  This is
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   640
  required when moving a subterm into a context where it is enclosed by a
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   641
  different number of abstractions.  Bound variables with a matching
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   642
  abstraction are unaffected.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   643
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   644
\item[\ttindexbold{abstract_over} $(v,t)$]
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   645
  forms the abstraction of~$t$ over~$v$, which may be any well-formed term.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   646
  It replaces every occurrence of \(v\) by a {\tt Bound} variable with the
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   647
  correct index.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   648
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   649
\item[\ttindexbold{variant_abs} $(a,T,u)$]
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   650
  substitutes into $u$, which should be the body of an abstraction.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   651
  It replaces each occurrence of the outermost bound variable by a free
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   652
  variable.  The free variable has type~$T$ and its name is a variant
332
01b87a921967 final Springer copy
lcp
parents: 324
diff changeset
   653
  of~$a$ chosen to be distinct from all constants and from all variables
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   654
  free in~$u$.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   655
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   656
\item[$t$ \ttindexbold{aconv} $u$]
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   657
  tests whether terms~$t$ and~$u$ are \(\alpha\)-convertible: identical up
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   658
  to renaming of bound variables.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   659
\begin{itemize}
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   660
  \item
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   661
    Two constants, {\tt Free}s, or {\tt Var}s are \(\alpha\)-convertible
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   662
    if their names and types are equal.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   663
    (Variables having the same name but different types are thus distinct.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   664
    This confusing situation should be avoided!)
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   665
  \item
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   666
    Two bound variables are \(\alpha\)-convertible
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   667
    if they have the same number.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   668
  \item
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   669
    Two abstractions are \(\alpha\)-convertible
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   670
    if their bodies are, and their bound variables have the same type.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   671
  \item
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   672
    Two applications are \(\alpha\)-convertible
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   673
    if the corresponding subterms are.
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   674
\end{itemize}
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   675
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   676
\end{ttdescription}
286
e7efbf03562b first draft of Springer book
lcp
parents: 275
diff changeset
   677
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   678
\section{Certified terms}\index{terms!certified|bold}\index{signatures}
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   679
A term $t$ can be {\bf certified} under a signature to ensure that every type
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   680
in~$t$ is well-formed and every constant in~$t$ is a type instance of a
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   681
constant declared in the signature.  The term must be well-typed and its use
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   682
of bound variables must be well-formed.  Meta-rules such as {\tt forall_elim}
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   683
take certified terms as arguments.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   684
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   685
Certified terms belong to the abstract type \mltydx{cterm}.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   686
Elements of the type can only be created through the certification process.
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   687
In case of error, Isabelle raises exception~\ttindex{TERM}\@.
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   688
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   689
\subsection{Printing terms}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   690
\index{terms!printing of}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   691
\begin{ttbox}
275
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   692
     string_of_cterm :           cterm -> string
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   693
Sign.string_of_term  : Sign.sg -> term -> string
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   694
\end{ttbox}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   695
\begin{ttdescription}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   696
\item[\ttindexbold{string_of_cterm} $ct$]
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   697
displays $ct$ as a string.
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   698
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   699
\item[\ttindexbold{Sign.string_of_term} $sign$ $t$]
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   700
displays $t$ as a string, using the syntax of~$sign$.
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   701
\end{ttdescription}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   702
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   703
\subsection{Making and inspecting certified terms}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   704
\begin{ttbox}
275
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   705
cterm_of   : Sign.sg -> term -> cterm
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   706
read_cterm : Sign.sg -> string * typ -> cterm
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   707
cert_axm   : Sign.sg -> string * term -> string * term
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   708
read_axm   : Sign.sg -> string * string -> string * term
3108
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   709
rep_cterm  : cterm -> {\ttlbrace}T:typ, t:term, sign:Sign.sg, maxidx:int\ttrbrace
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   710
\end{ttbox}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   711
\begin{ttdescription}
275
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   712
\item[\ttindexbold{cterm_of} $sign$ $t$] \index{signatures}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   713
certifies $t$ with respect to signature~$sign$.
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   714
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   715
\item[\ttindexbold{read_cterm} $sign$ ($s$, $T$)]
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   716
reads the string~$s$ using the syntax of~$sign$, creating a certified term.
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   717
The term is checked to have type~$T$; this type also tells the parser what
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   718
kind of phrase to parse.
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   719
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   720
\item[\ttindexbold{cert_axm} $sign$ ($name$, $t$)]
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   721
certifies $t$ with respect to $sign$ as a meta-proposition and converts all
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   722
exceptions to an error, including the final message
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   723
\begin{ttbox}
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   724
The error(s) above occurred in axiom "\(name\)"
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   725
\end{ttbox}
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   726
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   727
\item[\ttindexbold{read_axm} $sign$ ($name$, $s$)]
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   728
similar to {\tt cert_axm}, but first reads the string $s$ using the syntax of
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   729
$sign$.
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   730
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   731
\item[\ttindexbold{rep_cterm} $ct$]
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   732
decomposes $ct$ as a record containing its type, the term itself, its
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   733
signature, and the maximum subscript of its unknowns.  The type and maximum
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   734
subscript are computed during certification.
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   735
\end{ttdescription}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   736
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   737
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   738
\section{Types}\index{types|bold}
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   739
Types belong to the \ML\ type \mltydx{typ}, which is a concrete datatype with
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   740
three constructor functions.  These correspond to type constructors, free
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   741
type variables and schematic type variables.  Types are classified by sorts,
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   742
which are lists of classes (representing an intersection).  A class is
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   743
represented by a string.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   744
\begin{ttbox}
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   745
type class = string;
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   746
type sort  = class list;
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   747
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   748
datatype typ = Type  of string * typ list
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   749
             | TFree of string * sort
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   750
             | TVar  of indexname * sort;
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   751
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   752
infixr 5 -->;
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   753
fun S --> T = Type ("fun", [S, T]);
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   754
\end{ttbox}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   755
\begin{ttdescription}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   756
\item[\ttindexbold{Type} ($a$, $Ts$)] \index{type constructors|bold}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   757
  applies the {\bf type constructor} named~$a$ to the type operands~$Ts$.
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   758
  Type constructors include~\tydx{fun}, the binary function space
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   759
  constructor, as well as nullary type constructors such as~\tydx{prop}.
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   760
  Other type constructors may be introduced.  In expressions, but not in
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   761
  patterns, \hbox{\tt$S$-->$T$} is a convenient shorthand for function
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   762
  types.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   763
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   764
\item[\ttindexbold{TFree} ($a$, $s$)] \index{type variables|bold}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   765
  is the {\bf type variable} with name~$a$ and sort~$s$.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   766
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   767
\item[\ttindexbold{TVar} ($v$, $s$)] \index{type unknowns|bold}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   768
  is the {\bf type unknown} with indexname~$v$ and sort~$s$.
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   769
  Type unknowns are essentially free type variables, but may be
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   770
  instantiated during unification.
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   771
\end{ttdescription}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   772
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   773
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   774
\section{Certified types}
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   775
\index{types!certified|bold}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   776
Certified types, which are analogous to certified terms, have type
275
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   777
\ttindexbold{ctyp}.
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   778
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   779
\subsection{Printing types}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   780
\index{types!printing of}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   781
\begin{ttbox}
275
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   782
     string_of_ctyp :           ctyp -> string
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   783
Sign.string_of_typ  : Sign.sg -> typ -> string
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   784
\end{ttbox}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   785
\begin{ttdescription}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   786
\item[\ttindexbold{string_of_ctyp} $cT$]
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   787
displays $cT$ as a string.
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   788
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   789
\item[\ttindexbold{Sign.string_of_typ} $sign$ $T$]
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   790
displays $T$ as a string, using the syntax of~$sign$.
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   791
\end{ttdescription}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   792
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   793
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   794
\subsection{Making and inspecting certified types}
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   795
\begin{ttbox}
275
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   796
ctyp_of  : Sign.sg -> typ -> ctyp
3108
335efc3f5632 misc updates, tuning, cleanup;
wenzelm
parents: 1905
diff changeset
   797
rep_ctyp : ctyp -> {\ttlbrace}T: typ, sign: Sign.sg\ttrbrace
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   798
\end{ttbox}
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   799
\begin{ttdescription}
275
933ec96c522e update towards LNCS
nipkow
parents: 273
diff changeset
   800
\item[\ttindexbold{ctyp_of} $sign$ $T$] \index{signatures}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   801
certifies $T$ with respect to signature~$sign$.
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   802
864
d63b111b917a quite a lot of minor and major revisions (inspecting theories, read_axm,
wenzelm
parents: 478
diff changeset
   803
\item[\ttindexbold{rep_ctyp} $cT$]
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   804
decomposes $cT$ as a record containing the type itself and its signature.
324
34bc15b546e6 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 286
diff changeset
   805
\end{ttdescription}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   806
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   807
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   808
\section{Oracles: calling trusted external reasoners}
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   809
\label{sec:oracles}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   810
\index{oracles|(}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   811
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   812
Oracles allow Isabelle to take advantage of external reasoners such as
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   813
arithmetic decision procedures, model checkers, fast tautology checkers or
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   814
computer algebra systems.  Invoked as an oracle, an external reasoner can
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   815
create arbitrary Isabelle theorems.  It is your responsibility to ensure that
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   816
the external reasoner is as trustworthy as your application requires.
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   817
Isabelle's proof objects~(\S\ref{sec:proofObjects}) record how each theorem
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   818
depends upon oracle calls.
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   819
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   820
\begin{ttbox}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   821
invoke_oracle     : theory -> xstring -> Sign.sg * object -> thm
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   822
Theory.add_oracle : bstring * (Sign.sg * object -> term) -> theory -> theory
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   823
\end{ttbox}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   824
\begin{ttdescription}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   825
\item[\ttindexbold{invoke_oracle} $thy$ $name$ ($sign$, $data$)]
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   826
  invokes the oracle $name$ of theory $thy$ passing the information
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   827
  contained in the exception value $data$ and creating a theorem
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   828
  having signature $sign$.  Note that type \ttindex{object} is just an
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   829
  abbreviation for \texttt{exn}.  Errors arise if $thy$ does not have
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   830
  an oracle called $name$, if the oracle rejects its arguments or if
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   831
  its result is ill-typed.
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   832
  
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   833
\item[\ttindexbold{Theory.add_oracle} $name$ $fun$ $thy$] extends
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   834
  $thy$ by oracle $fun$ called $name$.  It is seldom called
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   835
  explicitly, as there is concrete syntax for oracles in theory files.
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   836
\end{ttdescription}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   837
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   838
A curious feature of {\ML} exceptions is that they are ordinary constructors.
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   839
The {\ML} type {\tt exn} is a datatype that can be extended at any time.  (See
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   840
my {\em {ML} for the Working Programmer}~\cite{paulson-ml2}, especially
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   841
page~136.)  The oracle mechanism takes advantage of this to allow an oracle to
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   842
take any information whatever.
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   843
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   844
There must be some way of invoking the external reasoner from \ML, either
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   845
because it is coded in {\ML} or via an operating system interface.  Isabelle
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   846
expects the {\ML} function to take two arguments: a signature and an
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   847
exception object.
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   848
\begin{itemize}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   849
\item The signature will typically be that of a desendant of the theory
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   850
  declaring the oracle.  The oracle will use it to distinguish constants from
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   851
  variables, etc., and it will be attached to the generated theorems.
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   852
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   853
\item The exception is used to pass arbitrary information to the oracle.  This
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   854
  information must contain a full description of the problem to be solved by
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   855
  the external reasoner, including any additional information that might be
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   856
  required.  The oracle may raise the exception to indicate that it cannot
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   857
  solve the specified problem.
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   858
\end{itemize}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   859
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   860
A trivial example is provided in theory {\tt FOL/ex/IffOracle}.  This
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   861
oracle generates tautologies of the form $P\bimp\cdots\bimp P$, with
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   862
an even number of $P$s.
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   863
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   864
The \texttt{ML} section of \texttt{IffOracle.thy} begins by declaring
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   865
a few auxiliary functions (suppressed below) for creating the
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   866
tautologies.  Then it declares a new exception constructor for the
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   867
information required by the oracle: here, just an integer. It finally
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   868
defines the oracle function itself.
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   869
\begin{ttbox}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   870
exception IffOracleExn of int;\medskip
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   871
fun mk_iff_oracle (sign, IffOracleExn n) =
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   872
  if n > 0 andalso n mod 2 = 0
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   873
  then Trueprop $ mk_iff n
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   874
  else raise IffOracleExn n;
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   875
\end{ttbox}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   876
Observe the function's two arguments, the signature {\tt sign} and the
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   877
exception given as a pattern.  The function checks its argument for
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   878
validity.  If $n$ is positive and even then it creates a tautology
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   879
containing $n$ occurrences of~$P$.  Otherwise it signals error by
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   880
raising its own exception (just by happy coincidence).  Errors may be
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   881
signalled by other means, such as returning the theorem {\tt True}.
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   882
Please ensure that the oracle's result is correctly typed; Isabelle
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   883
will reject ill-typed theorems by raising a cryptic exception at top
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   884
level.
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   885
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   886
The \texttt{oracle} section of {\tt IffOracle.thy} installs above
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   887
\texttt{ML} function as follows:
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   888
\begin{ttbox}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   889
IffOracle = FOL +\medskip
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   890
oracle
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   891
  iff = mk_iff_oracle\medskip
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   892
end
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   893
\end{ttbox}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   894
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   895
Now in \texttt{IffOracle.ML} we first define a wrapper for invoking
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   896
the oracle:
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   897
\begin{ttbox}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   898
fun iff_oracle n =
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   899
  invoke_oracle IffOracle.thy "iff" (sign_of IffOracle.thy, IffOracleExn n);
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   900
\end{ttbox}
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   901
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   902
Here are some example applications of the \texttt{iff} oracle.  An
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   903
argument of 10 is allowed, but one of 5 is forbidden:
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   904
\begin{ttbox}
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   905
iff_oracle 10;
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   906
{\out  "P <-> P <-> P <-> P <-> P <-> P <-> P <-> P <-> P <-> P" : thm}
4317
7264fa2ff2ec several minor updates;
wenzelm
parents: 3485
diff changeset
   907
iff_oracle 5;
1846
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   908
{\out Exception- IffOracleExn 5 raised}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   909
\end{ttbox}
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   910
763f08fb194f Documentation of oracles and their syntax
paulson
parents: 1650
diff changeset
   911
\index{oracles|)}
104
d8205bb279a7 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   912
\index{theories|)}