src/FOL/FOL.thy
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(*  Title:      FOL/FOL.thy
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    ID:         $Id$
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson and Markus Wenzel
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*)
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header {* Classical first-order logic *}
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theory FOL
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imports IFOL
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uses
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  ("cladata.ML")
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  ("blastdata.ML")
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  ("simpdata.ML")
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begin
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subsection {* The classical axiom *}
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axioms
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  classical: "(~P ==> P) ==> P"
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subsection {* Lemmas and proof tools *}
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lemma ccontr: "(\<not> P \<Longrightarrow> False) \<Longrightarrow> P"
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  by (erule FalseE [THEN classical])
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(*** Classical introduction rules for | and EX ***)
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lemma disjCI: "(~Q ==> P) ==> P|Q"
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  apply (rule classical)
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  apply (assumption | erule meta_mp | rule disjI1 notI)+
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  apply (erule notE disjI2)+
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  done
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(*introduction rule involving only EX*)
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lemma ex_classical:
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  assumes r: "~(EX x. P(x)) ==> P(a)"
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  shows "EX x. P(x)"
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  apply (rule classical)
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  apply (rule exI, erule r)
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  done
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(*version of above, simplifying ~EX to ALL~ *)
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lemma exCI:
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  assumes r: "ALL x. ~P(x) ==> P(a)"
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  shows "EX x. P(x)"
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  apply (rule ex_classical)
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  apply (rule notI [THEN allI, THEN r])
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  apply (erule notE)
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  apply (erule exI)
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  done
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lemma excluded_middle: "~P | P"
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  apply (rule disjCI)
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  apply assumption
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  done
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(*For disjunctive case analysis*)
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ML {*
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  fun excluded_middle_tac sP =
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    res_inst_tac [("Q",sP)] (@{thm excluded_middle} RS @{thm disjE})
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*}
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lemma case_split_thm:
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  assumes r1: "P ==> Q"
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    and r2: "~P ==> Q"
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  shows Q
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  apply (rule excluded_middle [THEN disjE])
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  apply (erule r2)
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  apply (erule r1)
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  done
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lemmas case_split = case_split_thm [case_names True False, cases type: o]
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(*HOL's more natural case analysis tactic*)
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ML {*
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  fun case_tac a = res_inst_tac [("P",a)] @{thm case_split_thm}
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*}
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(*** Special elimination rules *)
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(*Classical implies (-->) elimination. *)
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lemma impCE:
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  assumes major: "P-->Q"
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    and r1: "~P ==> R"
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    and r2: "Q ==> R"
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  shows R
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  apply (rule excluded_middle [THEN disjE])
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   apply (erule r1)
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  apply (rule r2)
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  apply (erule major [THEN mp])
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  done
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(*This version of --> elimination works on Q before P.  It works best for
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  those cases in which P holds "almost everywhere".  Can't install as
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  default: would break old proofs.*)
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lemma impCE':
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  assumes major: "P-->Q"
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    and r1: "Q ==> R"
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    and r2: "~P ==> R"
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  shows R
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  apply (rule excluded_middle [THEN disjE])
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   apply (erule r2)
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  apply (rule r1)
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  apply (erule major [THEN mp])
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  done
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(*Double negation law*)
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lemma notnotD: "~~P ==> P"
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  apply (rule classical)
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  apply (erule notE)
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  apply assumption
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  done
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lemma contrapos2:  "[| Q; ~ P ==> ~ Q |] ==> P"
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  apply (rule classical)
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  apply (drule (1) meta_mp)
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  apply (erule (1) notE)
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  done
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(*** Tactics for implication and contradiction ***)
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(*Classical <-> elimination.  Proof substitutes P=Q in 
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    ~P ==> ~Q    and    P ==> Q  *)
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lemma iffCE:
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  assumes major: "P<->Q"
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    and r1: "[| P; Q |] ==> R"
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    and r2: "[| ~P; ~Q |] ==> R"
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  shows R
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  apply (rule major [unfolded iff_def, THEN conjE])
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  apply (elim impCE)
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     apply (erule (1) r2)
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    apply (erule (1) notE)+
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  apply (erule (1) r1)
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  done
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(*Better for fast_tac: needs no quantifier duplication!*)
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lemma alt_ex1E:
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  assumes major: "EX! x. P(x)"
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    and r: "!!x. [| P(x);  ALL y y'. P(y) & P(y') --> y=y' |] ==> R"
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  shows R
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  using major
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proof (rule ex1E)
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  fix x
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  assume * : "\<forall>y. P(y) \<longrightarrow> y = x"
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  assume "P(x)"
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  then show R
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  proof (rule r)
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    { fix y y'
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      assume "P(y)" and "P(y')"
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      with * have "x = y" and "x = y'" by - (tactic "IntPr.fast_tac 1")+
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      then have "y = y'" by (rule subst)
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    } note r' = this
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    show "\<forall>y y'. P(y) \<and> P(y') \<longrightarrow> y = y'" by (intro strip, elim conjE) (rule r')
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  qed
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qed
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use "cladata.ML"
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setup Cla.setup
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setup cla_setup
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setup case_setup
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use "blastdata.ML"
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setup Blast.setup
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5a176b8dda84 removal of blast.overloaded
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lemma ex1_functional: "[| EX! z. P(a,z);  P(a,b);  P(a,c) |] ==> b = c"
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  by blast
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(* Elimination of True from asumptions: *)
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lemma True_implies_equals: "(True ==> PROP P) == PROP P"
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proof
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  assume "True \<Longrightarrow> PROP P"
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  from this and TrueI show "PROP P" .
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next
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  assume "PROP P"
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  then show "PROP P" .
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qed
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lemma uncurry: "P --> Q --> R ==> P & Q --> R"
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  by blast
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lemma iff_allI: "(!!x. P(x) <-> Q(x)) ==> (ALL x. P(x)) <-> (ALL x. Q(x))"
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  by blast
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lemma iff_exI: "(!!x. P(x) <-> Q(x)) ==> (EX x. P(x)) <-> (EX x. Q(x))"
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  by blast
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lemma all_comm: "(ALL x y. P(x,y)) <-> (ALL y x. P(x,y))" by blast
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lemma ex_comm: "(EX x y. P(x,y)) <-> (EX y x. P(x,y))" by blast
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use "simpdata.ML"
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setup simpsetup
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setup "Simplifier.method_setup Splitter.split_modifiers"
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setup Splitter.setup
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setup Clasimp.setup
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setup EqSubst.setup
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subsection {* Other simple lemmas *}
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lemma [simp]: "((P-->R) <-> (Q-->R)) <-> ((P<->Q) | R)"
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by blast
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lemma [simp]: "((P-->Q) <-> (P-->R)) <-> (P --> (Q<->R))"
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by blast
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lemma not_disj_iff_imp: "~P | Q <-> (P-->Q)"
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by blast
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(** Monotonicity of implications **)
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lemma conj_mono: "[| P1-->Q1; P2-->Q2 |] ==> (P1&P2) --> (Q1&Q2)"
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by fast (*or (IntPr.fast_tac 1)*)
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lemma disj_mono: "[| P1-->Q1; P2-->Q2 |] ==> (P1|P2) --> (Q1|Q2)"
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by fast (*or (IntPr.fast_tac 1)*)
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lemma imp_mono: "[| Q1-->P1; P2-->Q2 |] ==> (P1-->P2)-->(Q1-->Q2)"
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by fast (*or (IntPr.fast_tac 1)*)
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lemma imp_refl: "P-->P"
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by (rule impI, assumption)
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(*The quantifier monotonicity rules are also intuitionistically valid*)
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lemma ex_mono: "(!!x. P(x) --> Q(x)) ==> (EX x. P(x)) --> (EX x. Q(x))"
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by blast
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lemma all_mono: "(!!x. P(x) --> Q(x)) ==> (ALL x. P(x)) --> (ALL x. Q(x))"
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by blast
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subsection {* Proof by cases and induction *}
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text {* Proper handling of non-atomic rule statements. *}
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constdefs
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  induct_forall where "induct_forall(P) == \<forall>x. P(x)"
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  induct_implies where "induct_implies(A, B) == A \<longrightarrow> B"
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  induct_equal where "induct_equal(x, y) == x = y"
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  induct_conj where "induct_conj(A, B) == A \<and> B"
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lemma induct_forall_eq: "(!!x. P(x)) == Trueprop(induct_forall(\<lambda>x. P(x)))"
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  unfolding atomize_all induct_forall_def .
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lemma induct_implies_eq: "(A ==> B) == Trueprop(induct_implies(A, B))"
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  unfolding atomize_imp induct_implies_def .
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lemma induct_equal_eq: "(x == y) == Trueprop(induct_equal(x, y))"
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  unfolding atomize_eq induct_equal_def .
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lemma induct_conj_eq:
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  includes meta_conjunction_syntax
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  shows "(A && B) == Trueprop(induct_conj(A, B))"
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  unfolding atomize_conj induct_conj_def .
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lemmas induct_atomize = induct_forall_eq induct_implies_eq induct_equal_eq induct_conj_eq
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lemmas induct_rulify [symmetric, standard] = induct_atomize
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lemmas induct_rulify_fallback =
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  induct_forall_def induct_implies_def induct_equal_def induct_conj_def
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hide const induct_forall induct_implies induct_equal induct_conj
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text {* Method setup. *}
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ML {*
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  structure InductMethod = InductMethodFun
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  (struct
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    val cases_default = @{thm case_split}
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    val atomize = @{thms induct_atomize}
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    val rulify = @{thms induct_rulify}
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    val rulify_fallback = @{thms induct_rulify_fallback}
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  end);
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*}
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setup InductMethod.setup
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end