NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Oct 04 16:47:39 2005 +0200 (2005-10-04)
changeset 17754 58a306d9f736
parent 17725 d3f55965bdbf
child 17779 407bea05c2da
permissions -rw-r--r--
* Command 'find_theorems': support * wildcard in name: criterion.
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle release
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Command 'find_theorems': support "*" wildcard in "name:" criterion.
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New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
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----------------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
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  theory <name>
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  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
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  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
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  begin
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where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
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  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
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will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
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existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
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non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
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* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
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relative and absolute paths.
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* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
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list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
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simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
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theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
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match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
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name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
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lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
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all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
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'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
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  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
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prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
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matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
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in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
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* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
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'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
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Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
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formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
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General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
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  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
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  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
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* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
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Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
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faster.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
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of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
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LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
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displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
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and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
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DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
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* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
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notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
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theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
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commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
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"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
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specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
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interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
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preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
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isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
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\isadroptag.
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Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
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usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
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specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
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theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
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proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
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these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
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default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
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specified above.
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* Several new antiquotations:
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  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
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  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
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  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
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  argument is a known logical constant;
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  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
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  theorem applying a "style" to it
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  @{ML text}
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Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
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definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
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conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
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to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
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interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
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document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
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type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
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* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
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and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
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specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
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example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
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* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
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context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
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[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
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* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
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a proof context.
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* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
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proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
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* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
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macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
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* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
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-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
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prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
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*** Pure ***
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* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
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automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
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local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
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isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
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sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
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section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
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all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
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* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
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indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
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application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
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expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
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declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
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number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
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show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
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applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
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* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
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translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
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interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
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* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
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on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
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parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
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* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
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ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
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type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
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is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
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before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
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axclasses vs. locales.
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* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
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instead of base 26 numbers.
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* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
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marks in schematic variable names.
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* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
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\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
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following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
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  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
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    by simp
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* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
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* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
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annotations as "(00...)".
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* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
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may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
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Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
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"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
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use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
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exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
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(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
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* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
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Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
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rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
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specifications.
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* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
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locally fixed variables as well.
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* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
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is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
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Limit.
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* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
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simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
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interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
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recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
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is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
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low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
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allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
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* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
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or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
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the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
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* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
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from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
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theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
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CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
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use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
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* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
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selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
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* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
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wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
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in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
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* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
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* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
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theory development.
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* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
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generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
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for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
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must be quoted when used as identifiers.
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* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
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the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
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quoted when used as identifier.
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*** Locales ***
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* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
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theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
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proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
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obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
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to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
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commands is a follows:
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  (1) interpretation expr inst
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  (2) interpretation target < expr
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  (3) interpret expr inst
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Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
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instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
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specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
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Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
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locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
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that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
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instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
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inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
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see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
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HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
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'interpret' instead.
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* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
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parameters.
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* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
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redeclaration.
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* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
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* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
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facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
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context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
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locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
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to attribute arguments as expected.
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INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
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actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
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embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
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Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
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binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
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Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
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intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
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(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
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on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
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values to argument tokens explicitly.
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* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
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statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
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theorem statement in rare situations.
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* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
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'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
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*** Provers ***
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* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
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single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
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'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
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rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
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still available as 'simplesubst'.
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* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
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and quasi orders.
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* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
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reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
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* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
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limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
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* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
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is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
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initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** HOL ***
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* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
   346
wenzelm@14878
   347
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
   348
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
   349
wenzelm@16234
   350
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
   351
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
   352
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
   353
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
   354
wenzelm@16234
   355
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
   356
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
   357
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
   358
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
   359
wenzelm@16234
   360
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
   361
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
   362
wenzelm@16234
   363
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
   364
wenzelm@16234
   365
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
   366
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
   367
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
   368
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
   369
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
   370
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
   371
wenzelm@16234
   372
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
   373
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
   374
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
   375
nipkow@15046
   376
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
   377
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
   378
wenzelm@17533
   379
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
   380
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
   381
interface.
wenzelm@17389
   382
wenzelm@17389
   383
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
   384
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
   385
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
   386
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
   387
wenzelm@16234
   388
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
   389
wenzelm@16234
   390
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
   391
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
   392
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
   393
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
   394
wenzelm@16234
   395
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
   396
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
   397
wenzelm@16234
   398
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
   399
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
   400
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
   401
wenzelm@16234
   402
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
   403
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
   404
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
   405
webertj@17700
   406
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
   407
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
   408
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
   409
wenzelm@16234
   410
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
   411
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
   412
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
   413
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
   414
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
   415
wenzelm@16234
   416
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
   417
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
   418
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
   419
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
   420
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
   421
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
   422
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
   423
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
   424
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
   425
wenzelm@16234
   426
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
   427
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
   428
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
   429
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
   430
wenzelm@16234
   431
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
   432
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
   433
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
   434
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
   435
wenzelm@17275
   436
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
   437
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
   438
wenzelm@16234
   439
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
   440
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
   441
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
   442
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
   443
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
   444
wenzelm@16234
   445
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
   446
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
   447
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
   448
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
   449
wenzelm@16234
   450
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
   451
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
   452
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
   453
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
   454
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
   455
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
   456
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
   457
paulson@16563
   458
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
   459
paulson@17595
   460
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
   461
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
   462
wenzelm@16891
   463
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
   464
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
   465
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
   466
wenzelm@16891
   467
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
   468
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
   469
avigad@16888
   470
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
   471
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
   472
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
   473
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
   474
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
   475
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
   476
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
   477
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
   478
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
   479
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
   480
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
   481
wenzelm@16891
   482
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
   483
nipkow@17092
   484
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
   485
nipkow@17092
   486
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
   487
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
   488
nipkow@17092
   489
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
   490
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
   491
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
   492
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
   493
wenzelm@16929
   494
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
   495
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
   496
avigad@16888
   497
avigad@16888
   498
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
   499
wenzelm@16891
   500
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
   501
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
   502
wenzelm@16891
   503
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
   504
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
   505
avigad@17016
   506
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
   507
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   508
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   509
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   510
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
   511
wenzelm@16891
   512
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
   513
avigad@16962
   514
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
   515
wenzelm@17423
   516
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
   517
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
   518
wenzelm@17423
   519
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
   520
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
   521
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
   522
wenzelm@17423
   523
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
   524
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
   525
wenzelm@17423
   526
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
   527
wenzelm@17423
   528
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
   529
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
   530
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
   531
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
   532
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
   533
huffman@17442
   534
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
   535
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
   536
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
   537
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
   538
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
   539
wenzelm@17423
   540
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
   541
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
   542
huffman@17442
   543
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
   544
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
   545
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
   546
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
   547
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
   548
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
   549
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
   550
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
   551
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
   552
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
   553
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
   554
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
   555
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
   556
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
   557
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
   558
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
   559
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
   560
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
   561
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
   562
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
   563
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
   564
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
   565
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
   566
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
   567
wenzelm@17423
   568
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
   569
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
   570
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
   571
huffman@17442
   572
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
   573
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
   574
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
   575
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
   576
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
   577
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
   578
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
   579
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
   580
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
   581
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
   582
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
   583
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
   584
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
   585
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
   586
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
   587
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
huffman@17442
   588
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
huffman@17442
   589
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
huffman@17442
   590
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
huffman@17442
   591
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
huffman@17442
   592
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
   593
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
   594
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
huffman@17442
   595
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
   596
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
   597
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
huffman@17442
   598
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
huffman@17442
   599
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
huffman@17442
   600
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
huffman@17442
   601
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
huffman@17442
   602
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
huffman@17442
   603
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
huffman@17442
   604
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
huffman@17442
   605
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
huffman@17442
   606
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
wenzelm@17423
   607
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
huffman@17442
   608
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
huffman@17442
   609
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
wenzelm@17423
   610
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
huffman@17442
   611
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
huffman@17442
   612
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
wenzelm@17423
   613
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
   614
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
   615
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
wenzelm@17423
   616
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
wenzelm@17423
   617
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
huffman@17442
   618
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
huffman@17442
   619
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
   620
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
huffman@17442
   621
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
wenzelm@17423
   622
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
huffman@17442
   623
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
huffman@17442
   624
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
huffman@17442
   625
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
   626
huffman@17442
   627
  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
huffman@17442
   628
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
huffman@17442
   629
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
huffman@17442
   630
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
huffman@17442
   631
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
huffman@17442
   632
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
huffman@17442
   633
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
huffman@17442
   634
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
huffman@17442
   635
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
wenzelm@17423
   636
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
wenzelm@17423
   637
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
wenzelm@17423
   638
huffman@17442
   639
  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
huffman@17442
   640
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
wenzelm@17423
   641
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
huffman@17442
   642
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
huffman@17442
   643
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
huffman@17442
   644
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
huffman@17442
   645
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
huffman@17442
   646
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
huffman@17442
   647
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
huffman@17442
   648
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
huffman@17442
   649
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
huffman@17442
   650
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
huffman@17442
   651
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
huffman@17442
   652
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
wenzelm@17423
   653
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
   654
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
   655
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
   656
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
   657
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
   658
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
wenzelm@17423
   659
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
wenzelm@17423
   660
huffman@17442
   661
* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
huffman@17442
   662
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
huffman@17442
   663
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
huffman@17442
   664
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
huffman@17442
   665
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
huffman@17442
   666
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
huffman@17442
   667
wenzelm@17641
   668
* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
wenzelm@17641
   669
wenzelm@14655
   670
wenzelm@14682
   671
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
   672
wenzelm@17533
   673
* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
wenzelm@17533
   674
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
wenzelm@17533
   675
type-inference.
wenzelm@17533
   676
wenzelm@17533
   677
* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
wenzelm@17533
   678
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
huffman@17442
   679
instead of exponential time).
huffman@17442
   680
wenzelm@17533
   681
* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
huffman@17442
   682
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
huffman@17442
   683
huffman@17442
   684
  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
huffman@17442
   685
wenzelm@17533
   686
* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
wenzelm@17533
   687
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
wenzelm@17533
   688
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
wenzelm@17533
   689
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
wenzelm@17533
   690
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@17533
   691
syntax and examples.
wenzelm@17533
   692
wenzelm@17533
   693
* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
wenzelm@17533
   694
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
wenzelm@17533
   695
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
wenzelm@17533
   696
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
wenzelm@17533
   697
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
huffman@17442
   698
huffman@17584
   699
* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
huffman@17584
   700
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17584
   701
huffman@17584
   702
  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
huffman@17584
   703
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
huffman@17584
   704
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
huffman@17584
   705
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
huffman@17584
   706
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
huffman@17584
   707
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
huffman@17584
   708
wenzelm@14682
   709
paulson@14885
   710
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
   711
wenzelm@16234
   712
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
   713
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
   714
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
   715
wenzelm@15089
   716
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
   717
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
   718
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
   719
wenzelm@15703
   720
wenzelm@17445
   721
*** Cube ***
wenzelm@17445
   722
wenzelm@17445
   723
* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
wenzelm@17445
   724
theories.
wenzelm@17445
   725
wenzelm@17445
   726
wenzelm@15703
   727
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
   728
wenzelm@15973
   729
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
   730
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
   731
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
   732
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
   733
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
   734
wenzelm@16860
   735
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
   736
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
   737
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
   738
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
   739
wenzelm@16860
   740
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
   741
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
   742
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
   743
wenzelm@15973
   744
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
   745
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
   746
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
   747
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
   748
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
   749
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
   750
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
   751
wenzelm@16860
   752
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
   753
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
   754
wenzelm@17371
   755
  x |> f                f #> g
wenzelm@17371
   756
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
   757
haftmann@17495
   758
* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
haftmann@17495
   759
haftmann@17495
   760
  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
haftmann@17495
   761
  infix 2 ?;
haftmann@17495
   762
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
haftmann@17495
   763
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
haftmann@17495
   764
haftmann@17495
   765
Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
haftmann@17495
   766
infix operators.
haftmann@17495
   767
wenzelm@17408
   768
* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
   769
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
   770
example:
wenzelm@16860
   771
wenzelm@16860
   772
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
   773
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
   774
wenzelm@16860
   775
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
   776
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
   777
wenzelm@16860
   778
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
   779
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
   780
wenzelm@16860
   781
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
   782
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
   783
wenzelm@17408
   784
* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
wenzelm@17408
   785
available:
wenzelm@17408
   786
wenzelm@17408
   787
  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
wenzelm@17408
   788
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
haftmann@17402
   789
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
haftmann@17402
   790
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
haftmann@17402
   791
wenzelm@17408
   792
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
wenzelm@17408
   793
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
haftmann@17564
   794
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
haftmann@17495
   795
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
haftmann@17495
   796
The old functions may be expressed as follows:
wenzelm@17408
   797
wenzelm@17408
   798
  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
wenzelm@17408
   799
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
wenzelm@17408
   800
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
wenzelm@17408
   801
haftmann@17564
   802
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
haftmann@17564
   803
haftmann@17564
   804
  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
haftmann@17564
   805
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
haftmann@17564
   806
haftmann@17564
   807
replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
haftmann@17564
   808
Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
   809
haftmann@17564
   810
  make_keylist = AList.make
haftmann@17564
   811
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
haftmann@17564
   812
haftmann@17564
   813
* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
haftmann@17564
   814
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
   815
haftmann@17564
   816
    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
haftmann@17564
   817
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
haftmann@17564
   818
haftmann@17564
   819
* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
haftmann@17564
   820
  Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
   821
haftmann@17564
   822
    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
haftmann@17564
   823
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
haftmann@17564
   824
wenzelm@17408
   825
* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
wenzelm@17408
   826
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
wenzelm@17408
   827
lists.
wenzelm@17408
   828
wenzelm@17408
   829
* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
wenzelm@17408
   830
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
wenzelm@17408
   831
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
wenzelm@17408
   832
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
wenzelm@17408
   833
wenzelm@17408
   834
* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
wenzelm@17408
   835
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
wenzelm@17408
   836
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
wenzelm@17408
   837
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
wenzelm@17408
   838
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
wenzelm@17408
   839
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
wenzelm@17408
   840
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
wenzelm@17408
   841
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
wenzelm@17408
   842
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
wenzelm@17408
   843
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
wenzelm@17408
   844
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
wenzelm@17408
   845
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
wenzelm@17408
   846
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
wenzelm@17408
   847
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
wenzelm@17408
   848
Output.raw have no effect.
wenzelm@17408
   849
wenzelm@17408
   850
* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
wenzelm@17408
   851
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
wenzelm@17408
   852
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@17408
   853
wenzelm@17408
   854
* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
wenzelm@17408
   855
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
wenzelm@17408
   856
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
wenzelm@17408
   857
internal and external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@17408
   858
wenzelm@16689
   859
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
   860
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
   861
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
   862
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
   863
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
   864
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
   865
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
   866
wenzelm@17408
   867
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@17408
   868
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
wenzelm@17408
   869
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
wenzelm@17408
   870
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
   871
wenzelm@16151
   872
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
   873
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
   874
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
   875
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
   876
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
   877
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
   878
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
   879
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
   880
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
   881
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
   882
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
   883
wenzelm@16234
   884
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
   885
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
   886
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
   887
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
   888
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
   889
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
   890
wenzelm@16456
   891
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
   892
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
   893
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
   894
wenzelm@16456
   895
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
   896
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
   897
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
   898
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
   899
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
   900
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
   901
wenzelm@16456
   902
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
   903
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
   904
wenzelm@16456
   905
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
   906
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
   907
wenzelm@16456
   908
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
   909
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
   910
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
   911
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
   912
wenzelm@16456
   913
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
   914
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
   915
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
   916
wenzelm@17193
   917
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
   918
wenzelm@16547
   919
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
   920
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
   921
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
   922
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
   923
wenzelm@16373
   924
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
   925
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
   926
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
   927
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
   928
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
   929
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
   930
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
   931
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
   932
wenzelm@16506
   933
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
   934
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
   935
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
   936
wenzelm@16151
   937
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
   938
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
   939
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
   940
wenzelm@16373
   941
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
   942
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
   943
wenzelm@16373
   944
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
   945
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
   946
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
   947
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
   948
wenzelm@16718
   949
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
   950
wenzelm@17408
   951
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@17408
   952
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@17408
   953
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@17408
   954
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@17408
   955
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@17408
   956
wenzelm@17408
   957
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@17408
   958
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@17408
   959
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@17408
   960
wenzelm@17408
   961
* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
   962
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
   963
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@17720
   964
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
wenzelm@17720
   965
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
wenzelm@17720
   966
for further details.
wenzelm@16234
   967
wenzelm@17166
   968
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
   969
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
   970
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
   971
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
   972
wenzelm@17457
   973
* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
wenzelm@17457
   974
generated HTML files.  For example:
wenzelm@17457
   975
wenzelm@17457
   976
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
wenzelm@17538
   977
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
wenzelm@17457
   978
wenzelm@16234
   979
wenzelm@16234
   980
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
   981
wenzelm@16234
   982
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
   983
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
   984
wenzelm@16234
   985
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
   986
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
   987
wenzelm@16234
   988
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
   989
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
   990
wenzelm@16251
   991
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
   992
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
   993
wenzelm@16251
   994
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
   995
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
   996
theories.
wenzelm@15703
   997
wenzelm@15703
   998
wenzelm@14655
   999
wenzelm@14606
  1000
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
  1001
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
  1002
skalberg@14171
  1003
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
  1004
ballarin@14398
  1005
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
  1006
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
  1007
wenzelm@14606
  1008
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
  1009
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
  1010
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
  1011
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
  1012
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
  1013
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
  1014
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
  1015
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
  1016
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
  1017
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
  1018
paulson@14237
  1019
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
  1020
wenzelm@14731
  1021
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
  1022
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
  1023
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
  1024
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
  1025
kleing@14333
  1026
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
  1027
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
  1028
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
  1029
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
  1030
schirmer@14561
  1031
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
  1032
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
  1033
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
  1034
paulson@14237
  1035
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
  1036
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
  1037
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
  1038
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
  1039
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
  1040
wenzelm@14606
  1041
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
  1042
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
  1043
kleing@14547
  1044
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
  1045
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
  1046
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
  1047
wenzelm@14556
  1048
ballarin@14175
  1049
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
  1050
ballarin@14508
  1051
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
  1052
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
  1053
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
  1054
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
  1055
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
  1056
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
  1057
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
  1058
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
  1059
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
  1060
ballarin@14257
  1061
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
  1062
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
  1063
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
  1064
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
  1065
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
  1066
wenzelm@14556
  1067
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
  1068
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
  1069
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
  1070
ballarin@14211
  1071
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
  1072
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
  1073
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
  1074
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
  1075
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
  1076
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
  1077
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
  1078
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
  1079
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
  1080
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
  1081
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
  1082
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
  1083
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
  1084
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
  1085
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
  1086
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
  1087
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
  1088
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
  1089
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
  1090
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
  1091
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
  1092
ballarin@14175
  1093
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
  1094
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
  1095
wenzelm@14556
  1096
kleing@14136
  1097
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
  1098
kleing@14624
  1099
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
  1100
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
  1101
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
  1102
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
  1103
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
  1104
ballarin@14398
  1105
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
  1106
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
  1107
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
  1108
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
  1109
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
  1110
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
  1111
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
  1112
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
  1113
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
  1114
wenzelm@14731
  1115
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
  1116
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
  1117
paulson@14389
  1118
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
  1119
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
  1120
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
  1121
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
  1122
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
  1123
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
  1124
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
  1125
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
  1126
paulson@14401
  1127
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
  1128
schirmer@14255
  1129
* Records:
schirmer@14255
  1130
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
  1131
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
  1132
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
  1133
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
  1134
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
  1135
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
  1136
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
  1137
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
  1138
kleing@14136
  1139
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
  1140
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
  1141
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
  1142
nipkow@14375
  1143
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
  1144
ballarin@14399
  1145
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
  1146
paulson@14243
  1147
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
  1148
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
  1149
wenzelm@14731
  1150
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
  1151
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136
  1152
nipkow@14380
  1153
* Unions and Intersections:
nipkow@15119
  1154
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
nipkow@15119
  1155
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
nipkow@15119
  1156
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
nipkow@15119
  1157
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
nipkow@14380
  1158
kleing@14418
  1159
* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
wenzelm@14731
  1160
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
wenzelm@14731
  1161
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
kleing@14418
  1162
  like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
kleing@14418
  1163
nipkow@15677
  1164
* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
nipkow@15677
  1165
  lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
nipkow@15677
  1166
paulson@14401
  1167
* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
paulson@14401
  1168
  conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
nipkow@14380
  1169
webertj@14464
  1170
* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
webertj@14464
  1171
  for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
webertj@14464
  1172
  highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
webertj@14464
  1173
berghofe@14602
  1174
* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
berghofe@14602
  1175
  formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
berghofe@14602
  1176
  In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
berghofe@14602
  1177
  but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
berghofe@14602
  1178
  for examples.
webertj@14464
  1179
wenzelm@14606
  1180
oheimb@14536
  1181
*** HOLCF ***
oheimb@14536
  1182
oheimb@14536
  1183
* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
oheimb@14536
  1184
wenzelm@14572
  1185
wenzelm@14572
  1186
kleing@14136
  1187
New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
wenzelm@14606
  1188
------------------------------
kleing@14136
  1189
wenzelm@13280
  1190
*** General ***
wenzelm@13280
  1191
berghofe@13618
  1192
* Provers/simplifier:
berghofe@13618
  1193
nipkow@13781
  1194
  - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
berghofe@13618
  1195
    Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
berghofe@13618
  1196
    not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
berghofe@13618
  1197
    the order of assumptions.
berghofe@13618
  1198
berghofe@13618
  1199
    Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
berghofe@13618
  1200
nipkow@13781
  1201
    -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
nipkow@13781
  1202
       not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
berghofe@13618
  1203
berghofe@13618
  1204
        [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
berghofe@13618
  1205
nipkow@13781
  1206
       now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
nipkow@13781
  1207
nipkow@13781
  1208
        P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
nipkow@13781
  1209
nipkow@13781
  1210
       Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
nipkow@13781
  1211
       kind of problem.
nipkow@13781
  1212
nipkow@13781
  1213
    -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
nipkow@13781
  1214
       are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
nipkow@13781
  1215
       simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
nipkow@13781
  1216
       of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
nipkow@13781
  1217
       in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
nipkow@13781
  1218
       reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
nipkow@13781
  1219
       eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
berghofe@13618
  1220
berghofe@13618
  1221
  - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
berghofe@13618
  1222
nipkow@13829
  1223
  - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
nipkow@13829
  1224
    during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
nipkow@13829
  1225
    conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
nipkow@13829
  1226
    ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
nipkow@13829
  1227
    where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
nipkow@13829
  1228
    the simplifier would diverge.
nipkow@13829
  1229
ballarin@13835
  1230
  - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
nipkow@13829
  1231
ballarin@13938
  1232
  - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
ballarin@13938
  1233
    congruence is ignored.
ballarin@13938
  1234
berghofe@14008
  1235
* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
berghofe@14008
  1236
  proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
berghofe@14008
  1237
  as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
berghofe@14008
  1238
nipkow@13868
  1239
* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
nipkow@13868
  1240
the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
ballarin@13835
  1241
   PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
nipkow@13815
  1242
(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
nipkow@13815
  1243
nipkow@13815
  1244
* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
nipkow@13815
  1245
rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
nipkow@13815
  1246
      PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
nipkow@13815
  1247
The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
nipkow@13815
  1248
In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
nipkow@13815
  1249
(or rather last, the way they are printed).
nipkow@13815
  1250
(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
nipkow@13815
  1251
nipkow@13815
  1252
* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
nipkow@13781
  1253
diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
nipkow@13781
  1254
useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
nipkow@13781
  1255
assumption failed.
nipkow@13781
  1256
nipkow@13815
  1257
* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
wenzelm@13410
  1258
according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
wenzelm@13410
  1259
definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
wenzelm@13410
  1260
while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
wenzelm@13410
  1261
latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
wenzelm@13410
  1262
context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
wenzelm@13410
  1263
on the old view without predicates;
wenzelm@13410
  1264
wenzelm@13459
  1265
* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
wenzelm@13459
  1266
parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
wenzelm@13459
  1267
``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
wenzelm@13459
  1268
wenzelm@13463
  1269
* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
wenzelm@13463
  1270
raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
wenzelm@13463
  1271
include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
wenzelm@13541
  1272
locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
wenzelm@13541
  1273
specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
wenzelm@13541
  1274
be given (the default is 40);
wenzelm@13541
  1275
wenzelm@13541
  1276
* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
wenzelm@13541
  1277
(batch-mode only);
wenzelm@13540
  1278
wenzelm@13463
  1279
* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
wenzelm@13463
  1280
"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
wenzelm@13463
  1281
the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
wenzelm@13463
  1282
paulson@13550
  1283
* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
paulson@13550
  1284
are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
paulson@13550
  1285
for slight decrease in efficiency;
paulson@13550
  1286
nipkow@13781
  1287
* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
nipkow@13781
  1288
linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
nipkow@13781
  1289
wenzelm@13522
  1290
* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
wenzelm@13522
  1291
rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
wenzelm@13522
  1292
wenzelm@13280
  1293
nipkow@13158
  1294
*** HOL ***
nipkow@13158
  1295
nipkow@13899
  1296
* arith(_tac)
nipkow@13899
  1297
nipkow@13899
  1298
 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
nipkow@13899
  1299
   Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
nipkow@13899
  1300
   of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
nipkow@13899
  1301
   In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
nipkow@13899
  1302
nipkow@13899
  1303
 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
nipkow@13899
  1304
nipkow@13899
  1305
 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
nipkow@13899
  1306
   linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
wenzelm@14731
  1307
   Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
nipkow@13899
  1308
nipkow@13899
  1309
* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
nipkow@13899
  1310
takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
nipkow@13899
  1311
nipkow@13899
  1312
* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
nipkow@13899
  1313
are distributed over a sum of terms;
nipkow@13899
  1314
ballarin@13735
  1315
* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
ballarin@13735
  1316
Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
wenzelm@14731
  1317
"<=", "<" and "=").
wenzelm@14731
  1318
wenzelm@14731
  1319
* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
paulson@13587
  1320
HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
paulson@13587
  1321
wenzelm@13443
  1322
* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
wenzelm@13443
  1323
definition;
wenzelm@13443
  1324
wenzelm@13522
  1325
* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
wenzelm@13522
  1326
Finite_Set);
nipkow@13492
  1327
wenzelm@13443
  1328
* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
wenzelm@13443
  1329
(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
wenzelm@13443
  1330
nipkow@13613
  1331
* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
nipkow@13613
  1332
  each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
nipkow@13613
  1333
nipkow@13899
  1334
* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
nipkow@13899
  1335
%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
nipkow@13899
  1336
of the empty set.
nipkow@13899
  1337
ballarin@14018
  1338
* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
ballarin@14018
  1339
any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
ballarin@14018
  1340
(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
ballarin@14018
  1341
Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
paulson@13960
  1342
paulson@13960
  1343
* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
paulson@13960
  1344
wenzelm@14731
  1345
* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
wenzelm@14731
  1346
nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
paulson@13966
  1347
nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
paulson@13966
  1348
paulson@13966
  1349
* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
paulson@13966
  1350
wenzelm@14731
  1351
* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
paulson@13966
  1352
Fleuriot);
paulson@13960
  1353
wenzelm@13549
  1354
* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
wenzelm@13549
  1355
ballarin@13995
  1356
* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
ballarin@13995
  1357
Gray and Kramer);
paulson@13872
  1358
paulson@13872
  1359
* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
paulson@13872
  1360
kleing@14011
  1361
* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
kleing@14011
  1362
as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
kleing@14011
  1363
schirmer@14010
  1364
* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
schirmer@14010
  1365
semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
schirmer@14010
  1366
classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
schirmer@14010
  1367
static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
schirmer@14010
  1368
assignment, exceptions.
wenzelm@13549
  1369
kleing@14011
  1370
wenzelm@13549
  1371
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@13549
  1372
webertj@15154
  1373
* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
wenzelm@13549
  1374
universe, etc.);
wenzelm@13549
  1375
paulson@13872
  1376
* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
nipkow@13518
  1377
wenzelm@13280
  1378
wenzelm@13478
  1379
*** ML ***
wenzelm@13478
  1380
wenzelm@13478
  1381
* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
wenzelm@13478
  1382
omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
wenzelm@13478
  1383
than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
wenzelm@13478
  1384
wenzelm@13478
  1385
* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  1386
wenzelm@13478
  1387
* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
wenzelm@13478
  1388
up simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  1389
wenzelm@13478
  1390
kleing@13953
  1391
*** Document preparation ***
kleing@13953
  1392
kleing@13953
  1393
* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
kleing@13953
  1394
shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
kleing@13953
  1395
use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
kleing@13953
  1396
wenzelm@14731
  1397
* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
kleing@13953
  1398
other packages
kleing@13953
  1399
kleing@13953
  1400
* \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
kleing@13953
  1401
broke \Rightarrow)
kleing@13953
  1402
wenzelm@14731
  1403
* normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
kleing@13954
  1404
textcomp package)
kleing@13953
  1405
wenzelm@13280
  1406
wenzelm@14572
  1407
wenzelm@12984
  1408
New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
wenzelm@12984
  1409
--------------------------------
wenzelm@11474
  1410
wenzelm@11572
  1411
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@11572
  1412
wenzelm@11842
  1413
* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
wenzelm@11842
  1414
graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
wenzelm@11842
  1415
instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
wenzelm@12899
  1416
started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
wenzelm@12899
  1417
users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
wenzelm@12899
  1418
"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
wenzelm@11842
  1419
wenzelm@11842
  1420
* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
wenzelm@11842
  1421
isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
wenzelm@11842
  1422
with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
wenzelm@11842
  1423
wenzelm@11864
  1424
* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
wenzelm@11864
  1425
blocks after section headings;
wenzelm@11864
  1426
wenzelm@11572
  1427
* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
wenzelm@11572
  1428
this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
wenzelm@11572
  1429
wenzelm@11814
  1430
* \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
wenzelm@11572
  1431
better in printed text;
wenzelm@11572
  1432
wenzelm@11712
  1433
* added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
wenzelm@11712
  1434
note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
wenzelm@12769
  1435
X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
wenzelm@12690
  1436
wenzelm@12690
  1437
* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
wenzelm@12690
  1438
isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
wenzelm@12690
  1439
location;
wenzelm@11712
  1440
wenzelm@11572
  1441
wenzelm@11633
  1442
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@11633
  1443
wenzelm@12312
  1444
* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
wenzelm@12280
  1445
  - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
wenzelm@12280
  1446
    "case (Suc n)");
wenzelm@12280
  1447
  - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
wenzelm@12280
  1448
    claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
wenzelm@12280
  1449
    instantiation of cases;
wenzelm@12280
  1450
  - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
wenzelm@12280
  1451
    rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
wenzelm@12280
  1452
    rules without further ado;
wenzelm@12280
  1453
  - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
wenzelm@12280
  1454
    rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
wenzelm@12280
  1455
    atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1456
    statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
wenzelm@12280
  1457
    slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
wenzelm@12280
  1458
  - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
wenzelm@12280
  1459
    facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
wenzelm@12280
  1460
    rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
wenzelm@12280
  1461
    scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1462
    statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
wenzelm@12280
  1463
    the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
wenzelm@12280
  1464
  - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1465
    rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
wenzelm@12280
  1466
    below);
wenzelm@12853
  1467
  - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
wenzelm@12853
  1468
    success (no backtracking);
wenzelm@11995
  1469
  - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
wenzelm@12754
  1470
  - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
wenzelm@12754
  1471
  - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
wenzelm@12754
  1472
    General versions);
wenzelm@11995
  1473
  - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
wenzelm@11995
  1474
  - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
wenzelm@11986
  1475
wenzelm@12163
  1476
* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
wenzelm@12163
  1477
"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
wenzelm@12163
  1478
meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
wenzelm@12163
  1479
been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
wenzelm@12163
  1480
repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
wenzelm@12163
  1481
step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
wenzelm@12163
  1482
fails:
wenzelm@12163
  1483
wenzelm@12163
  1484
  assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
wenzelm@12163
  1485
wenzelm@12163
  1486
better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
wenzelm@12163
  1487
multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
wenzelm@12163
  1488
wenzelm@12078
  1489
* Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
webertj@15154
  1490
version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
wenzelm@12078
  1491
contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
wenzelm@12280
  1492
attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
wenzelm@12964
  1493
rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
wenzelm@12964
  1494
type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
wenzelm@12964
  1495
some examples;
wenzelm@12078
  1496
wenzelm@12707
  1497
* Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
wenzelm@12707
  1498
target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
wenzelm@12707
  1499
'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
wenzelm@12707
  1500
stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
wenzelm@12707
  1501
qualified by the locale name);
wenzelm@12707
  1502
wenzelm@12964
  1503
* Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
wenzelm@12964
  1504
ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
wenzelm@12964
  1505
``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
wenzelm@12964
  1506
definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
wenzelm@12964
  1507
the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
wenzelm@12964
  1508
wenzelm@12964
  1509
* Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
wenzelm@12964
  1510
facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
wenzelm@12964
  1511
'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
wenzelm@12964
  1512
to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
wenzelm@12964
  1513
``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
wenzelm@12078
  1514
wenzelm@11722
  1515
* Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
wenzelm@11722
  1516
wenzelm@12964
  1517
* Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
wenzelm@12964
  1518
object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
wenzelm@12964
  1519
use hard-wired "Trueprop";
wenzelm@12964
  1520
wenzelm@11738
  1521
* Pure: added 'corollary' command;
wenzelm@11738
  1522
wenzelm@11722
  1523
* Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
wenzelm@11722
  1524
wenzelm@11899
  1525
* Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
wenzelm@11899
  1526
wenzelm@11933
  1527
* Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
wenzelm@11933
  1528
bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
wenzelm@11899
  1529
supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
wenzelm@11899
  1530
wenzelm@11952
  1531
* Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
wenzelm@11952
  1532
statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
wenzelm@11952
  1533
rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
wenzelm@11952
  1534
application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
wenzelm@11952
  1535
proof *scripts*;
wenzelm@11952
  1536
wenzelm@12106
  1537
* Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
wenzelm@12106
  1538
now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
wenzelm@12106
  1539
chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
wenzelm@12106
  1540
especially important for locales);
wenzelm@12106
  1541
wenzelm@12312
  1542
* Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
wenzelm@12312
  1543
mode;
wenzelm@12312
  1544
wenzelm@12405
  1545
* Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
wenzelm@12405
  1546
``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
wenzelm@12405
  1547
potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
wenzelm@12405
  1548
situations;
wenzelm@12405
  1549
wenzelm@12405
  1550
* Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
wenzelm@12405
  1551
'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
wenzelm@12405
  1552
wenzelm@12877
  1553
* Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
wenzelm@12877
  1554
text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
wenzelm@12877
  1555
discontinued;
wenzelm@12877
  1556
berghofe@13023
  1557
* Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
berghofe@13023
  1558
search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
berghofe@13023
  1559
but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
berghofe@13023
  1560
wenzelm@12364
  1561
* Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
wenzelm@12364
  1562
attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
wenzelm@12364
  1563
declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
wenzelm@12364
  1564
includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
wenzelm@12364
  1565
longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
wenzelm@12364
  1566
AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
wenzelm@12364
  1567
INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12364
  1568
wenzelm@12405
  1569
* Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
wenzelm@12405
  1570
of introduction rules;
wenzelm@12405
  1571
wenzelm@12364
  1572
* Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
wenzelm@12364
  1573
rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
wenzelm@12364
  1574
conditional rules;
wenzelm@11936
  1575
wenzelm@11745
  1576
* HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
wenzelm@11745
  1577
wenzelm@11690
  1578
* HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
wenzelm@11633
  1579
"(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
wenzelm@11633
  1580
wenzelm@11933
  1581
* HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
wenzelm@11933
  1582
for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
wenzelm@11933
  1583
wenzelm@12405
  1584
* HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
wenzelm@12405
  1585
wf_induct_rule;
wenzelm@12405
  1586
kleing@11788
  1587
wenzelm@11474
  1588
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@11474
  1589
wenzelm@11702
  1590
* HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
wenzelm@11702
  1591
follows:
wenzelm@11702
  1592
wenzelm@11702
  1593
  - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
wenzelm@11702
  1594
  numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
wenzelm@11702
  1595
wenzelm@11702
  1596
  - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
wenzelm@11702
  1597
  binary representation internally;
wenzelm@11702
  1598
wenzelm@11702
  1599
  - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
wenzelm@11702
  1600
  over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
wenzelm@11702
  1601
wenzelm@12364
  1602
This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
wenzelm@12364
  1603
are some hints on converting existing sources:
wenzelm@11702
  1604
wenzelm@11702
  1605
  - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
wenzelm@11702
  1606
  entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
wenzelm@11702
  1607
  to be spaced properly;
wenzelm@11702
  1608
wenzelm@11702
  1609
  - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
wenzelm@11702
  1610
  even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";
wenzelm@11702
  1611
wenzelm@11702
  1612
  - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";
wenzelm@11702
  1613
wenzelm@11702
  1614
  - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;
wenzelm@11702
  1615
wenzelm@13042
  1616
* HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
wenzelm@12837
  1617
representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);
wenzelm@12837
  1618
wenzelm@12736
  1619
* HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);
wenzelm@12736
  1620
wenzelm@12335
  1621
* HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
wenzelm@12335
  1622
"term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
wenzelm@12335
  1623
in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
wenzelm@12335
  1624
in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
wenzelm@12335
  1625
"HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;
wenzelm@12335
  1626
wenzelm@12280
  1627
* HOL/record package improvements:
wenzelm@12280
  1628
  - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
wenzelm@12280
  1629
    "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
wenzelm@12280
  1630
    "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
wenzelm@12280
  1631
    declared as simp by default;
wenzelm@12587
  1632
  - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
wenzelm@12587
  1633
    qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12280
  1634
  - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
wenzelm@12280
  1635
    INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@11937
  1636
  - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12253
  1637
  - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
wenzelm@12253
  1638
    methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
wenzelm@12280
  1639
    parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
wenzelm@11930
  1640
  - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
wenzelm@11930
  1641
    theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;
wenzelm@11930
  1642
berghofe@13023
  1643
* HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
berghofe@13023
  1644
specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
berghofe@13023
  1645
datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
berghofe@13023
  1646
via 'generate_code' theory section;
berghofe@13023
  1647
wenzelm@11933
  1648
* HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);
wenzelm@11933
  1649
paulson@13824
  1650
* HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
wenzelm@14731
  1651
        Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
wenzelm@14731
  1652
        String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy
wenzelm@14731
  1653
wenzelm@11802
  1654
* HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
wenzelm@11802
  1655
(beware of argument permutation!);
wenzelm@11802
  1656
wenzelm@11657
  1657
* HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;
wenzelm@11657
  1658
wenzelm@12917
  1659
* HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";
nipkow@12889
  1660
wenzelm@11633
  1661
* HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
paulson@13824
  1662
to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
paulson@13824
  1663
  - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex
wenzelm@11437
  1664
wenzelm@11572
  1665
* HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
wenzelm@11572
  1666
in this (rare) case use:
wenzelm@11572
  1667
wenzelm@11572
  1668
  delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
wenzelm@11572
  1669
  addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)
wenzelm@11572
  1670
wenzelm@11572
  1671
* HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
wenzelm@11474
  1672
MAY FAIL;
nipkow@11361
  1673
wenzelm@11572
  1674
* HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
wenzelm@11572
  1675
Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
wenzelm@11572
  1676
a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
wenzelm@11572
  1677
necessary to attach explicit type constraints;
nipkow@11307
  1678
wenzelm@12917
  1679
* HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
wenzelm@12917
  1680
"comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
wenzelm@12917
  1681
renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").
nipkow@12489
  1682
wenzelm@11487
  1683
* HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
wenzelm@11487
  1684
expressions;
wenzelm@11474
  1685
wenzelm@12457
  1686
* HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
wenzelm@12457
  1687
of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@11474
  1688
wenzelm@11933
  1689
* HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@11933
  1690
for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
wenzelm@11933
  1691
renamed "Product_Type.unit";
wenzelm@11611
  1692
nipkow@12564
  1693
* HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl
nipkow@12564
  1694
wenzelm@12924
  1695
* HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
wenzelm@12924
  1696
the "cases" method);
wenzelm@12924
  1697
wenzelm@12597
  1698
* HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
webertj@15154
  1699
Florian Kammller);
wenzelm@12597
  1700
wenzelm@12608
  1701
* HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
wenzelm@12608
  1702
parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
wenzelm@12608
  1703
some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);
wenzelm@12597
  1704
wenzelm@12734
  1705
* HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);
wenzelm@12734
  1706
wenzelm@12690
  1707
* HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;
wenzelm@12690
  1708
wenzelm@11611
  1709
wenzelm@12022
  1710
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@12022
  1711
wenzelm@12622
  1712
* Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
wenzelm@12622
  1713
operations;
wenzelm@12622
  1714
wenzelm@12622
  1715
* Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
wenzelm@12622
  1716
HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;
wenzelm@12622
  1717
wenzelm@12622
  1718
* theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
wenzelm@12280
  1719
potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
wenzelm@12280
  1720
lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;
wenzelm@12022
  1721
wenzelm@12597
  1722
* HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;
wenzelm@12597
  1723
wenzelm@12022
  1724
wenzelm@11474
  1725
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@11474
  1726
wenzelm@12622
  1727
* Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
wenzelm@12622
  1728
including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
wenzelm@12622
  1729
'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
wenzelm@12622
  1730
'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');
wenzelm@12622
  1731
wenzelm@12622
  1732
* theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
wenzelm@12622
  1733
your theory on Main_ZFC;
wenzelm@12622
  1734
wenzelm@12622
  1735
* the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
wenzelm@12622
  1736
laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;
paulson@12563
  1737
wenzelm@12280
  1738
* ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
wenzelm@12280
  1739
typeless version of the formalism;
wenzelm@12280
  1740
wenzelm@13025
  1741
* ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
wenzelm@13025
  1742
format;
wenzelm@12608
  1743
wenzelm@12280
  1744
* ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
wenzelm@12608
  1745
including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
wenzelm@12608
  1746
new-style theory format;
wenzelm@12177
  1747
wenzelm@13025
  1748
* ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;
paulson@12850
  1749
wenzelm@11474
  1750
wenzelm@11474
  1751
*** General ***
wenzelm@11474
  1752
wenzelm@12280
  1753
* Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
wenzelm@12280
  1754
variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
wenzelm@12280
  1755
dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
wenzelm@12280
  1756
also ref manual for further ML interfaces;
wenzelm@12280
  1757
wenzelm@12280
  1758
* Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
wenzelm@12280
  1759
goal_subclass/goal_arity;
wenzelm@12280
  1760
wenzelm@12280
  1761
* Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
wenzelm@12280
  1762
of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
wenzelm@12280
  1763
separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
wenzelm@12280
  1764
properly;
wenzelm@12280
  1765
wenzelm@12312
  1766
* Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
wenzelm@12312
  1767
rather than "infixl" or "infixr";
wenzelm@12312
  1768
wenzelm@12312
  1769
* Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
wenzelm@12312
  1770
sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
wenzelm@12312
  1771
ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
wenzelm@12312
  1772
type variable);
wenzelm@12280
  1773
wenzelm@12280
  1774
* Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
wenzelm@12280
  1775
control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
wenzelm@12280
  1776
"type_brackets";
wenzelm@12280
  1777
wenzelm@12280
  1778
* Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
wenzelm@11817
  1779
tokens into AST constants;
wenzelm@11474
  1780
wenzelm@12280
  1781
* Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
wenzelm@12280
  1782
translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
wenzelm@12280
  1783
multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;
wenzelm@12280
  1784
wenzelm@12832
  1785
* Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
wenzelm@12832
  1786
practice);
wenzelm@12832
  1787
wenzelm@12280
  1788
* Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
wenzelm@12280
  1789
addSafter;
wenzelm@12280
  1790
wenzelm@12280
  1791
* Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
wenzelm@12280
  1792
as well;
wenzelm@12253
  1793
wenzelm@12538
  1794
* system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +
wenzelm@12538
  1795
Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML
wenzelm@12538
  1796
(e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone
wenzelm@12538
  1797
(e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol
wenzelm@12538
  1798
support requires further installations, e.g. from
wenzelm@12538
  1799
http://fink.sourceforge.net/);
wenzelm@12538
  1800
wenzelm@12280
  1801
* system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);
wenzelm@11551
  1802
wenzelm@12753
  1803
* system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead
wenzelm@12753
  1804
of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;
wenzelm@12753
  1805
wenzelm@11633
  1806
* system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the
wenzelm@11633
  1807
Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);
wenzelm@11633
  1808
wenzelm@12728
  1809
* system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from
wenzelm@12728
  1810
outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable
wenzelm@12728
  1811
logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';
wenzelm@12597
  1812
wenzelm@11551
  1813
* system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle
wenzelm@11572
  1814
interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may
wenzelm@11572
  1815
run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly
wenzelm@11572
  1816
damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own
wenzelm@11572
  1817
name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";
wenzelm@11551
  1818
wenzelm@12472
  1819
* system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no
wenzelm@12472
  1820
longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper
wenzelm@12472
  1821
iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools
wenzelm@12472
  1822
"symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;
wenzelm@12472
  1823
wenzelm@12472
  1824
* system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and
wenzelm@12472
  1825
"xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable
wenzelm@12472
  1826
terminal);
wenzelm@12472
  1827
paulson@11314
  1828
oheimb@11169
  1829
wenzelm@11062
  1830
New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)
wenzelm@11062
  1831
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@11062
  1832
nipkow@10224
  1833
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
nipkow@10224
  1834
paulson@11241
  1835
* HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the
paulson@11241
  1836
new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must
wenzelm@12622
  1837
bind them to ML identifers by e.g.      val thm_name = thm "thm_name";
paulson@11241
  1838
wenzelm@11043
  1839
* HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,
wenzelm@11043
  1840
but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old
oheimb@11130
  1841
format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute
wenzelm@11043
  1842
'split_rule (complete)';
wenzelm@11043
  1843
wenzelm@10998
  1844
* HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,
wenzelm@10998
  1845
gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;
nipkow@10224
  1846
paulson@10288
  1847
* HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;
paulson@10288
  1848
wenzelm@10858
  1849
* HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a
wenzelm@10858
  1850
relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been
wenzelm@10858
  1851
renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";
nipkow@10793
  1852
wenzelm@10998
  1853
* HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"
wenzelm@10998
  1854
operation;
wenzelm@10998
  1855
nipkow@10868
  1856
* HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;
nipkow@10856
  1857
wenzelm@10391
  1858
* Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;
wenzelm@10391
  1859
wenzelm@10401
  1860
* Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a
wenzelm@10401
  1861
consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context
wenzelm@10401
  1862
(which is now passed through the inductive cases);
wenzelm@10401
  1863
wenzelm@10976
  1864
* Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and
wenzelm@10976
  1865
\<gg> to \<ggreater>;
wenzelm@10976
  1866
nipkow@10224
  1867
wenzelm@10245
  1868
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@10245
  1869
wenzelm@10858
  1870
* \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently
wenzelm@10858
  1871
available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for
wenzelm@10858
  1872
slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no
wenzelm@10858
  1873
\isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted
wenzelm@10858
  1874
type-writer);
wenzelm@10858
  1875
wenzelm@10322
  1876
* support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is
wenzelm@10322
  1877
like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";
wenzelm@10322
  1878
wenzelm@10858
  1879
* some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for
wenzelm@11062
  1880
the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;
wenzelm@10858
  1881
wenzelm@10998
  1882
* improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation
wenzelm@10998
  1883
(should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol
wenzelm@10998
  1884
definitions);
wenzelm@10998
  1885
wenzelm@10634
  1886
* antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals
wenzelm@10634
  1887
state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to
wenzelm@10634
  1888
actual human-readable proof documents.  Please do not include goal
wenzelm@10634
  1889
states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!
wenzelm@10322
  1890
wenzelm@11062
  1891
* proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX
wenzelm@11062
  1892
fonts;
wenzelm@10862
  1893
wenzelm@11050
  1894
* no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document
wenzelm@11050
  1895
generation;
wenzelm@11050
  1896
wenzelm@11062
  1897
* isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;
wenzelm@11062
  1898
wenzelm@10322
  1899
wenzelm@10306
  1900
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@10306
  1901
wenzelm@10547
  1902
* Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound
wenzelm@10547
  1903
schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof
wenzelm@10547
  1904
documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof
wenzelm@10547
  1905
checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals
wenzelm@10547
  1906
for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;
wenzelm@10547
  1907
wenzelm@10391
  1908
* Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual
wenzelm@10391
  1909
rules as well;
wenzelm@10391
  1910
wenzelm@10391
  1911
* Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into
wenzelm@10391
  1912
initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single
wenzelm@10391
  1913
steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit
wenzelm@10391
  1914
finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;
wenzelm@10391
  1915
wenzelm@10391
  1916
* Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial
wenzelm@10391
  1917
instance proofs may be performed by "..";
wenzelm@10391
  1918
wenzelm@10391
  1919
* Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level
wenzelm@10391
  1920
statements as well;
wenzelm@10306
  1921
wenzelm@11097
  1922
* Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;
wenzelm@11097
  1923
wenzelm@10858
  1924
* Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl
wenzelm@10858
  1925
rule (as well as the assumption rule);
wenzelm@10858
  1926
wenzelm@10858
  1927
* Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and
wenzelm@10858
  1928
lemmas, using the graph browser tool;
wenzelm@10858
  1929
wenzelm@10944
  1930
* Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;
wenzelm@10944
  1931
wenzelm@11016
  1932
* Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;
wenzelm@11016
  1933
wenzelm@10401
  1934
* HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals
wenzelm@10401
  1935
(potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;
wenzelm@10401
  1936
wenzelm@10557
  1937
* HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the
wenzelm@10547
  1938
number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);
wenzelm@10547
  1939
any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;
wenzelm@10547
  1940
wenzelm@10858
  1941
* HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as
wenzelm@10858
  1942
well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for
wenzelm@10858
  1943
the result to be shown in each case;
wenzelm@10858
  1944
wenzelm@10770
  1945
* HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;
wenzelm@10770
  1946
wenzelm@11016
  1947
* isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;
wenzelm@11016
  1948
wenzelm@10306
  1949
wenzelm@10245
  1950
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@10245
  1951
wenzelm@10245
  1952
* HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together
wenzelm@10245
  1953
with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory
wenzelm@10245
  1954
by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:
wenzelm@10245
  1955
HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While
wenzelm@10337
  1956
(as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);
wenzelm@10245
  1957
wenzelm@10966
  1958
* HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical
wenzelm@10966
  1959
modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +
wenzelm@10966
  1960
Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).
wenzelm@10966
  1961
wenzelm@11094
  1962
* HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has
wenzelm@11094
  1963
been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like
wenzelm@11094
  1964
'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to
wenzelm@11094
  1965
'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical
wenzelm@11094
  1966
literature;
wenzelm@11094
  1967
wenzelm@10514
  1968
* HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"
wenzelm@10726
  1969
(infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation
wenzelm@11094
  1970
operator \<Sum>;
wenzelm@10452
  1971
wenzelm@10391
  1972
* HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also
wenzelm@10391
  1973
HOL/subset.thy);
wenzelm@10391
  1974
wenzelm@10915
  1975
* HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is
wenzelm@10915
  1976
now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may
wenzelm@10915
  1977
require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);
wenzelm@10915
  1978
wenzelm@10915
  1979
* HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule
wenzelm@10915
  1980
to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);
wenzelm@10915
  1981
wenzelm@10915
  1982
* HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation
wenzelm@10915
  1983
rules with string literals);
wenzelm@10915
  1984
paulson@12245
  1985
* HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals
paulson@12245
  1986
 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental
paulson@12245
  1987
 functions for the reals;
paulson@10756
  1988
wenzelm@11094
  1989
* HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;
wenzelm@10391
  1990
wenzelm@10858
  1991
paulson@10474
  1992
*** CTT ***
paulson@10474
  1993
wenzelm@10547
  1994
* CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that
wenzelm@10547
  1995
"lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols
paulson@10474
  1996
wenzelm@10547
  1997
* CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool
wenzelm@10547
  1998
and Arith);
wenzelm@10547
  1999
paulson@10474
  2000
wenzelm@10391
  2001
*** General ***
wenzelm@10391
  2002
wenzelm@10547
  2003
* Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule
wenzelm@10547
  2004
outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance
wenzelm@10547
  2005
penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of
wenzelm@10547
  2006
the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;
wenzelm@10547
  2007
wenzelm@11112
  2008
* print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>
wenzelm@11112
  2009
(types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";
wenzelm@11112
  2010
wenzelm@10391
  2011
* Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules
wenzelm@10391
  2012
as assumptions as well;
wenzelm@10391
  2013
wenzelm@11124
  2014
* system: support Poly/ML 4.0;
wenzelm@11124
  2015
wenzelm@11124
  2016
* system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;
wenzelm@11124
  2017
wenzelm@10391
  2018
wenzelm@10245
  2019
wenzelm@10103
  2020
New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)
wenzelm@10103
  2021
----------------------------------
wenzelm@8015
  2022
wenzelm@10003
  2023
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
paulson@8014
  2024
wenzelm@8848
  2025
* HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly
wenzelm@8848
  2026
recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)
wenzelm@8848
  2027
issue the following ML commands:
wenzelm@8848
  2028
wenzelm@8848
  2029
  Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;
wenzelm@8848
  2030
  Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];
paulson@8788
  2031
wenzelm@10129
  2032
* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is
wenzelm@10129
  2033
controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;
wenzelm@10003
  2034
wenzelm@10003
  2035
* HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;
wenzelm@10003
  2036
wenzelm@10003
  2037
* HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool
wenzelm@10003
  2038
fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;
paulson@8967
  2039
wenzelm@10003
  2040
  select_equality  -> some_equality
wenzelm@10003
  2041
  select_eq_Ex     -> some_eq_ex
wenzelm@10003
  2042
  selectI2EX       -> someI2_ex
wenzelm@10003
  2043
  selectI2         -> someI2
wenzelm@10003
  2044
  selectI          -> someI
wenzelm@10003
  2045
  select1_equality -> some1_equality
wenzelm@10003
  2046
  Eps_sym_eq       -> some_sym_eq_trivial
wenzelm@10003
  2047
  Eps_eq           -> some_eq_trivial
wenzelm@10003
  2048
wenzelm@10003
  2049
* HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;
wenzelm@10003
  2050
wenzelm@10003
  2051
* HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if
wenzelm@10003
  2052
instead);
wenzelm@10003
  2053
wenzelm@10003
  2054
* HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called
wenzelm@10003
  2055
f.simps instead of f.rules;
wenzelm@10003
  2056
wenzelm@10003
  2057
* HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;
wenzelm@10003
  2058
wenzelm@10003
  2059
* HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may
wenzelm@10003
  2060
sometimes be needed;
wenzelm@10003
  2061
wenzelm@10003
  2062
* HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";
paulson@8014
  2063
paulson@10065
  2064
* HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";
paulson@10065
  2065
wenzelm@9330
  2066
* HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian
wenzelm@9330
  2067
product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is
wenzelm@9330
  2068
now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";
nipkow@8705
  2069
wenzelm@10003
  2070
* HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part
wenzelm@10003
  2071
of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;
paulson@9971
  2072
wenzelm@10137
  2073
* HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;
wenzelm@10137
  2074
the old syntax may be recovered as follows:
wenzelm@10137
  2075
wenzelm@10137
  2076
  syntax (symbols)
wenzelm@10137
  2077
    override  :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"
wenzelm@10137
  2078
      (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)
wenzelm@10137
  2079
wenzelm@8848
  2080
* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;
wenzelm@8848
  2081
wenzelm@8887
  2082
* HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,
wenzelm@8887
  2083
Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names
wenzelm@8887
  2084
internally;
wenzelm@8887
  2085
wenzelm@10003
  2086
* HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation
wenzelm@10003
  2087
changed from A/r to A//r;
wenzelm@9908
  2088
wenzelm@10003
  2089
* ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old
wenzelm@10003
  2090
proofs;
wenzelm@8921
  2091
wenzelm@10003
  2092
* Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,
wenzelm@10003
  2093
rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);
paulson@9542
  2094
wenzelm@9941
  2095
* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
wenzelm@9941
  2096
intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one
wenzelm@9937
  2097
should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by
wenzelm@9937
  2098
"rule del";
wenzelm@9437
  2099
wenzelm@9612
  2100
* Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;
wenzelm@9612
  2101
wenzelm@9437
  2102
* Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;
oheimb@9402
  2103
wenzelm@10003
  2104
* LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see
wenzelm@10003
  2105
lib/texinputs);
wenzelm@8729
  2106
paulson@8014
  2107
wenzelm@8487
  2108
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@8358
  2109
wenzelm@9198
  2110
* formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now
wenzelm@9753
  2111
contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented
wenzelm@9753
  2112
according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:
wenzelm@9753
  2113
@{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};
wenzelm@9198
  2114
wenzelm@8358
  2115
* isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,
wenzelm@8518
  2116
including proper document sources;
wenzelm@8358
  2117
wenzelm@8358
  2118
* generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run
wenzelm@8358
  2119
(isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option
wenzelm@8358
  2120
of isatool usedir;
wenzelm@8358
  2121
wenzelm@8566
  2122
* isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle
wenzelm@10003
  2123
style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying
wenzelm@10003
  2124
LaTeX debugging;
wenzelm@8566
  2125
wenzelm@8518
  2126
* old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;
wenzelm@8358
  2127
wenzelm@9057
  2128
* browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put
wenzelm@9437
  2129
on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed
wenzelm@9437
  2130
graph for 'all sessions';
wenzelm@9057
  2131
wenzelm@10003
  2132
* several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}
wenzelm@10003
  2133
produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by
wenzelm@10003
  2134
default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;
wenzelm@9489
  2135
wenzelm@8358
  2136
wenzelm@8184
  2137
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@8184
  2138
wenzelm@10003
  2139
* Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now
wenzelm@10003
  2140
subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this
wenzelm@10003
  2141
accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;
wenzelm@8283
  2142
wenzelm@10003
  2143
* Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports
wenzelm@10003
  2144
generalized existence reasoning;
wenzelm@8621
  2145
wenzelm@10003
  2146
* Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'
wenzelm@10003
  2147
support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;
wenzelm@10003
  2148
useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name
wenzelm@10003
  2149
references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2
wenzelm@10003
  2150
premises;
wenzelm@8184
  2151
wenzelm@10003
  2152
* Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new
wenzelm@10003
  2153
'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as
wenzelm@10003
  2154
produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached
wenzelm@10003
  2155
to theorems as "tags";
wenzelm@8440
  2156
wenzelm@10003
  2157
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from
wenzelm@9330
  2158
class/type/const name spaces;
wenzelm@9330
  2159
wenzelm@10003
  2160
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to
wenzelm@9330
  2161
indicate potential overloading;
wenzelm@9330
  2162
wenzelm@10003
  2163
* Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };
wenzelm@8621
  2164
wenzelm@10003
  2165
* Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write
wenzelm@10003
  2166
"{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};
wenzelm@9011
  2167
wenzelm@10003
  2168
* Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest
wenzelm@10003
  2169
attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion
wenzelm@10003
  2170
with the version in Provers/classical;
wenzelm@9612
  2171
wenzelm@10003
  2172
* Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via
wenzelm@10003
  2173
case name 'antecedent';
wenzelm@8440
  2174
wenzelm@10003
  2175
* Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms
wenzelm@10003
  2176
to the current context is now done automatically);
wenzelm@9383
  2177
wenzelm@10003
  2178
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface
wenzelm@10003
  2179
for definining proof methods in ML;
wenzelm@9612
  2180
wenzelm@10003
  2181
* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
wenzelm@9941
  2182
intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in
wenzelm@9941
  2183
most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);
wenzelm@9941
  2184
replaced "delrule" by "rule del";
wenzelm@8283
  2185
wenzelm@10003
  2186
* Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and
wenzelm@10003
  2187
'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);
wenzelm@10003
  2188
wenzelm@10003
  2189
* Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'
wenzelm@10003
  2190
method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as
wenzelm@10003
  2191
well (including splits);
wenzelm@10003
  2192
wenzelm@10003
  2193
* Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind
wenzelm@10003
  2194
of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.
wenzelm@10003
  2195
wenzelm@10003
  2196
* Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination
wenzelm@10003
  2197
of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);
wenzelm@10003
  2198
wenzelm@10003
  2199
* Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'
wenzelm@10003
  2200
now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,
wenzelm@10003
  2201
recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;
wenzelm@9612
  2202
wenzelm@10003
  2203
* Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --
wenzelm@10003
  2204
monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of
wenzelm@10003
  2205
calculations;
wenzelm@10003
  2206
wenzelm@10003
  2207
* Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof
wenzelm@10003
  2208
method anyway;
wenzelm@10003
  2209
wenzelm@10003
  2210
* Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =
wenzelm@10003
  2211
split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =
wenzelm@10003
  2212
foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;
wenzelm@10003
  2213
wenzelm@10003
  2214
* Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"
wenzelm@10003
  2215
(potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof
wenzelm@10003
  2216
scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:
wenzelm@10003
  2217
use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);
wenzelm@10003
  2218
wenzelm@10003
  2219
* Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;
wenzelm@10003
  2220
wenzelm@10003
  2221
* Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;
wenzelm@10003
  2222
wenzelm@10003
  2223
* Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and
wenzelm@9724
  2224
ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only
wenzelm@9724
  2225
proof states;
wenzelm@8487
  2226
wenzelm@10003
  2227
* Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit
wenzelm@8518
  2228
additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print
wenzelm@8518
  2229
proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;
wenzelm@8487
  2230
wenzelm@10003
  2231
* Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof
wenzelm@9612
  2232
methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',
wenzelm@9612
  2233
'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'
wenzelm@9612
  2234
(for HOL datatypes);
wenzelm@8534
  2235
wenzelm@10003
  2236
* Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st
wenzelm@10003
  2237
goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus
wenzelm@10003
  2238
'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;
wenzelm@8673
  2239
wenzelm@10003
  2240
* Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';
wenzelm@8729
  2241
wenzelm@10003
  2242
* Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;
wenzelm@10003
  2243
should instead use individual commands for printing items
wenzelm@10003
  2244
(print_commands, print_methods etc.);
wenzelm@9224
  2245
wenzelm@10003
  2246
* Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;
wenzelm@9239
  2247
wenzelm@8184
  2248
paulson@8014
  2249
*** HOL ***
paulson@8014
  2250
wenzelm@10080
  2251
* HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a
wenzelm@10080
  2252
corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode
wenzelm@10080
  2253
verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of
wenzelm@10080
  2254
type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and
wenzelm@10080
  2255
Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at
wenzelm@10080
  2256
http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);
wenzelm@10080
  2257
wenzelm@8518
  2258
* HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by
wenzelm@8518
  2259
Clemens Ballarin;
paulson@8014
  2260
wenzelm@10157
  2261
* HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese
wenzelm@10003
  2262
Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M
wenzelm@10003
  2263
Rasmussen;
wenzelm@8570
  2264
wenzelm@10157
  2265
* HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order
wenzelm@10157
  2266
structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic
wenzelm@10157
  2267
laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski
wenzelm@10157
  2268
Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration
wenzelm@10157
  2269
for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and
wenzelm@10157
  2270
mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;
wenzelm@10157
  2271
wenzelm@10003
  2272
* HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David
wenzelm@10003
  2273
von Oheimb;
paulson@9542
  2274
wenzelm@10164
  2275
* HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually
wenzelm@10164
  2276
recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;
wenzelm@10164
  2277
wenzelm@10003
  2278
* HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;
paulson@9542
  2279
wenzelm@10003
  2280
* HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and
wenzelm@10003
  2281
anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn
wenzelm@10003
  2282
representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;
wenzelm@8848
  2283
wenzelm@9612
  2284
* HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed
wenzelm@9612
  2285
select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as
wenzelm@9612
  2286
well; admit "r" as field name;
paulson@9542
  2287
paulson@8967
  2288
* HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with
paulson@8967
  2289
other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;
paulson@8967
  2290
paulson@8967
  2291
* HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.
paulson@8967
  2292
Types nat and int belong to this axclass;
paulson@8967
  2293
wenzelm@10003
  2294
* HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:
paulson@8788
  2295
   (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to  #7 + (i + j) = k
paulson@8832
  2296
   i*j + k + j*#3*i     simplifies to  #4*(i*j) + k
paulson@8832
  2297
  two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u
paulson@8832
  2298
    (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)
paulson@8832
  2299
  and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y
paulson@8832
  2300
    or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);
paulson@8736
  2301
wenzelm@10003
  2302
* HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a
wenzelm@10003
  2303
powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see
wenzelm@10003
  2304
ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;
paulson@9835
  2305
wenzelm@8848
  2306
* HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and
wenzelm@8440
  2307
"exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer
wenzelm@8518
  2308
exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;
wenzelm@8440
  2309
wenzelm@8848
  2310
* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the
wenzelm@10129
  2311
selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to
wenzelm@10129
  2312
enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may
wenzelm@10129
  2313
remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs
wenzelm@10129
  2314
[thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).
nipkow@8603
  2315
wenzelm@8848
  2316
* HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for
wenzelm@8848
  2317
function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all
wenzelm@8848
  2318
termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification
wenzelm@8848
  2319
rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named
wenzelm@8848
  2320
individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for
wenzelm@8848
  2321
each equation;
wenzelm@8848
  2322
wenzelm@9489
  2323
* HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It
wenzelm@9489
  2324
permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the
wenzelm@9489
  2325
provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the
wenzelm@9489
  2326
invariant proof rule for while is applied.
nipkow@9457
  2327
wenzelm@10003
  2328
* HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above
wenzelm@10003
  2329
some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.
nipkow@8925
  2330
wenzelm@8848
  2331
* HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";
wenzelm@8848
  2332
wenzelm@10003
  2333
* HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic
nipkow@9746
  2334
induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form
nipkow@9746
  2335
P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;
nipkow@9746
  2336
wenzelm@10003
  2337
* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;
nipkow@9737
  2338
wenzelm@10003
  2339
* HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of
wenzelm@10003
  2340
main HOL, but was unused);
nipkow@8626
  2341
wenzelm@10003
  2342
* HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to
wenzelm@10003
  2343
"Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);
wenzelm@8887
  2344
wenzelm@10003
  2345
* HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output
wenzelm@10003
  2346
in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over
wenzelm@10003
  2347
tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still
wenzelm@10003
  2348
bogus);
wenzelm@9349
  2349
nipkow@8412
  2350
paulson@9542
  2351
*** ZF ***
paulson@9542
  2352
wenzelm@10003
  2353
* ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic
wenzelm@10003
  2354
expressions over nat and int;
paulson@9542
  2355
wenzelm@10003
  2356
* ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators
wenzelm@10003
  2357
coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,
wenzelm@10003
  2358
making the algebraic laws unconditional;
paulson@9542
  2359
wenzelm@10003
  2360
* ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer
wenzelm@10003
  2361
using the function intify;
paulson@9542
  2362
wenzelm@10003
  2363
* ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the
wenzelm@10003
  2364
orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;
paulson@9542
  2365
wenzelm@10003
  2366
* ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic
wenzelm@10003
  2367
simplification;
paulson@9388
  2368
wenzelm@10003
  2369
* FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q
wenzelm@10003
  2370
to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;
paulson@9388
  2371
paulson@9388
  2372
wenzelm@8358
  2373
*** General ***
wenzelm@8358
  2374
wenzelm@10003
  2375
* Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as
wenzelm@10003
  2376
assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;
wenzelm@10003
  2377
wenzelm@10003
  2378
* Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning
wenzelm@10003
  2379
outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;
wenzelm@10003
  2380
wenzelm@9941
  2381
* Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need
wenzelm@9941
  2382
explicit make_elim);
wenzelm@9941
  2383
wenzelm@10003
  2384
* Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.
wenzelm@10003
  2385
  [| inj ?f;          ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W
wenzelm@10003
  2386
use instead the strong form,
wenzelm@10003
  2387
  [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W
wenzelm@10003
  2388
in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules
wenzelm@10003
  2389
from destruct-rules;
wenzelm@9489
  2390
wenzelm@9709
  2391
* Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic
wenzelm@9709
  2392
Simplifier setup for new object-logics;
wenzelm@9709
  2393
wenzelm@9709
  2394
* Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;
wenzelm@9349
  2395
wenzelm@9709
  2396
* Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support
wenzelm@9709
  2397
for hiding of names;
wenzelm@8729
  2398
wenzelm@10003
  2399
* system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and
wenzelm@10003
  2400
XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most
wenzelm@10003
  2401
situations;
wenzelm@10003
  2402
wenzelm@9709
  2403
* system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c
wenzelm@9709
  2404
option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by
wenzelm@9709
  2405
Poly/ML);
wenzelm@8358
  2406
wenzelm@9981
  2407
* system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very
wenzelm@9981
  2408
useful for remote X11);
wenzelm@9981
  2409
wenzelm@9709
  2410
* system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;
wenzelm@9052
  2411
wenzelm@9288
  2412
* ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument
wenzelm@9288
  2413
order;
wenzelm@9288
  2414
wenzelm@8994
  2415
* ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global
wenzelm@8994
  2416
timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;
wenzelm@8994
  2417
wenzelm@10003
  2418
* ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations
wenzelm@10003
  2419
with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):
wenzelm@10003
  2420
wenzelm@9330
  2421
* ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential
wenzelm@9330
  2422
overloading (usually false);
wenzelm@9330
  2423
wenzelm@10003
  2424
* ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as
wenzelm@10003
  2425
results;
wenzelm@8440
  2426
wenzelm@8358
  2427
wenzelm@8015
  2428
wenzelm@7986
  2429
New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)
wenzelm@7986
  2430
--------------------------------
oheimb@4649
  2431
paulson@5931
  2432
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***
paulson@5931
  2433
paulson@6922
  2434
* HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)
paulson@6922
  2435
are no longer simplified.  (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive
paulson@6922
  2436
functional programs.)  To restore the old behaviour, declare
wenzelm@7215
  2437
wenzelm@7215
  2438
    Delcongs [if_weak_cong];
paulson@6922
  2439
wenzelm@6269
  2440
* HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set
wenzelm@6269
  2441
complement;
paulson@5931
  2442
wenzelm@6269
  2443
* HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";
paulson@6174
  2444
berghofe@7847
  2445
* HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --
berghofe@7847
  2446
  use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]
berghofe@7847
  2447
wenzelm@6386
  2448
* HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type
wenzelm@6386
  2449
arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;
wenzelm@6386
  2450
wenzelm@6269
  2451
* ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer
wenzelm@6269
  2452
to constants declared in the same theory;
nipkow@6057
  2453
wenzelm@6269
  2454
* HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive
wenzelm@6269
  2455
definition package, has lost an argument.  To simplify its result, it
wenzelm@6269
  2456
uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.
paulson@6141
  2457
wenzelm@7215
  2458
* HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;
wenzelm@7215
  2459
nipkow@7619
  2460
* Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions
wenzelm@8729
  2461
        setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver
nipkow@7619
  2462
is now  simpset * solver -> simpset  where `solver' is a new abstract type
nipkow@7619
  2463
for packaging solvers. A solver is created via
wenzelm@8729
  2464
        mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver
nipkow@7619
  2465
where the string argument is only a comment.
nipkow@6057
  2466
wenzelm@7647
  2467
paulson@6069
  2468
*** Proof tools ***
paulson@6069
  2469
wenzelm@6343
  2470
* Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a
wenzelm@6343
  2471
decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for
wenzelm@7593
  2472
types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and
wenzelm@7593
  2473
will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.
paulson@6069
  2474
nipkow@7324
  2475
* The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg
nipkow@7324
  2476
     hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y
nipkow@7324
  2477
  They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order
nipkow@7324
  2478
  matching.
paulson@6069
  2479
wenzelm@7593
  2480
paulson@6014
  2481
*** General ***
paulson@6014
  2482
wenzelm@7986
  2483
* New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional
wenzelm@7215
  2484
tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user
wenzelm@7215
  2485
interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human
wenzelm@7215
  2486
readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated
wenzelm@7886
  2487
reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,
wenzelm@7986
  2488
src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/
wenzelm@7886
  2489
wenzelm@9612
  2490
* improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup
wenzelm@9612
  2491
(including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now
wenzelm@9612
  2492
provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual
wenzelm@9612
  2493
document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for
wenzelm@9612
  2494
new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;
wenzelm@7215
  2495
wenzelm@7252
  2496
* native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and
wenzelm@7986
  2497
Isabelle/Isar;
wenzelm@7215
  2498
wenzelm@7791
  2499
* ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,
wenzelm@7791
  2500
using the graph browser tool;
wenzelm@7791
  2501
wenzelm@6751
  2502
* Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;
wenzelm@6751
  2503
wenzelm@6449
  2504
* theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully
wenzelm@6449
  2505
bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,
wenzelm@6671
  2506
add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as
wenzelm@7593
  2507
update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also
wenzelm@7593
  2508
isatool doc ref);
wenzelm@6449
  2509
wenzelm@7215
  2510
* improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,
wenzelm@7215
  2511
option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;
wenzelm@7215
  2512
wenzelm@7215
  2513
* added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);
wenzelm@7215
  2514
more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;
wenzelm@7215
  2515
wenzelm@7886
  2516
* the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never
wenzelm@7986
  2517
created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or
wenzelm@7886
  2518
Isabelle;
wenzelm@7886
  2519
wenzelm@7215
  2520
* path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';
wenzelm@7215
  2521
wenzelm@6343
  2522
* in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if
wenzelm@6343
  2523
empty;
wenzelm@5973
  2524
wenzelm@6269
  2525