src/Pure/library.ML
author nipkow
Mon Dec 18 14:57:58 2000 +0100 (2000-12-18)
changeset 10692 6077fd933575
parent 9830 e4ad74159b43
child 10951 ddb9b820d8a5
permissions -rw-r--r--
added rational arithmetic
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(*  Title:      Pure/library.ML
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    ID:         $Id$
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    Author:	Markus Wenzel, TU Munich
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    License:    GPL (GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE)
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Basic library: functions, options, pairs, booleans, lists, integers,
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strings, lists as sets, association lists, generic tables, balanced
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trees, orders, I/O and diagnostics, timing, misc.
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*)
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infix |> |>> |>>> ~~ \ \\ ins ins_string ins_int orf andf prefix upto downto
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  mem mem_int mem_string union union_int union_string inter inter_int
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  inter_string subset subset_int subset_string;
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infix 3 oo ooo oooo;
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signature LIBRARY =
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sig
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  (*functions*)
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  val curry: ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'a -> 'b -> 'c
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  val uncurry: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a * 'b -> 'c
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  val I: 'a -> 'a
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  val K: 'a -> 'b -> 'a
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  val |> : 'a * ('a -> 'b) -> 'b
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  val |>> : ('a * 'b) * ('a -> 'c) -> 'c * 'b
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  val |>>> : ('a * 'b) * ('a -> 'c * 'd) -> 'c * ('b * 'd)
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  val apl: 'a * ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  val apr: ('a * 'b -> 'c) * 'b -> 'a -> 'c
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  val funpow: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  val oo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'b
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  val ooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'b
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  val oooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'b
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  (*stamps*)
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  type stamp
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  val stamp: unit -> stamp
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  (*options*)
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  datatype 'a option = None | Some of 'a
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  exception OPTION
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  val the: 'a option -> 'a
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  val if_none: 'a option -> 'a -> 'a
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  val is_some: 'a option -> bool
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  val is_none: 'a option -> bool
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  val apsome: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a option -> 'b option
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  val try: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b option
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  val can: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> bool
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  (*pairs*)
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  val pair: 'a -> 'b -> 'a * 'b
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  val rpair: 'a -> 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val fst: 'a * 'b -> 'a
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  val snd: 'a * 'b -> 'b
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  val eq_fst: (''a * 'b) * (''a * 'c) -> bool
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  val eq_snd: ('a * ''b) * ('c * ''b) -> bool
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  val swap: 'a * 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val apfst: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apsnd: ('a -> 'b) -> 'c * 'a -> 'c * 'b
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  val pairself: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'a -> 'b * 'b
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  (*booleans*)
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  val equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val not_equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val orf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val andf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val exists: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val forall: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val set: bool ref -> bool
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  val reset: bool ref -> bool
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  val toggle: bool ref -> bool
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  val change: 'a ref -> ('a -> 'a) -> unit
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  val setmp: 'a ref -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  (*lists*)
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  exception LIST of string
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  val null: 'a list -> bool
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  val hd: 'a list -> 'a
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  val tl: 'a list -> 'a list
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  val cons: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val single: 'a -> 'a list
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  val append: 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val apply: ('a -> 'a) list -> 'a -> 'a
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  val foldl: ('a * 'b -> 'a) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a
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  val foldr: ('a * 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list * 'b -> 'b
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  val foldr1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val foldl_map: ('a * 'b -> 'a * 'c) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a * 'c list
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  val length: 'a list -> int
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  val take: int * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val drop: int * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val dropwhile: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_elem: int * 'a list -> 'a
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  val last_elem: 'a list -> 'a
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  val split_last: 'a list -> 'a list * 'a
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  val nth_update: 'a -> int * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val find_index: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> int
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  val find_index_eq: ''a -> ''a list -> int
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  val find_first: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a option
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  val get_first: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b option
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  val flat: 'a list list -> 'a list
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  val seq: ('a -> unit) -> 'a list -> unit
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  val separate: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val replicate: int -> 'a -> 'a list
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  val multiply: 'a list * 'a list list -> 'a list list
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  val filter: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val filter_out: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val mapfilter: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val map2: ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'c list
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  val exists2: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val forall2: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val seq2: ('a * 'b -> unit) -> 'a list * 'b list -> unit
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  val ~~ : 'a list * 'b list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val split_list: ('a * 'b) list -> 'a list * 'b list
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  val equal_lists: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val prefix: ''a list * ''a list -> bool
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  val take_prefix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val take_suffix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  (*integers*)
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  val gcd: int * int -> int
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  val lcm: int * int -> int
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  val inc: int ref -> int
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  val dec: int ref -> int
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  val upto: int * int -> int list
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  val downto: int * int -> int list
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  val downto0: int list * int -> bool
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  val radixpand: int * int -> int list
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  val radixstring: int * string * int -> string
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  val string_of_int: int -> string
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  val string_of_indexname: string * int -> string
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  (*rational numbers*)
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  type rat
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  val rep_rat: rat -> int * int
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  val ratadd: rat * rat -> rat
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  val ratmul: rat * rat -> rat
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  val ratinv: rat -> rat
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  val int_ratdiv: int * int -> rat
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  val ratneg: rat -> rat
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  val rat_of_int: int -> rat
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  (*strings*)
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  val nth_elem_string: int * string -> string
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  val foldl_string: ('a * string -> 'a) -> 'a * string -> 'a
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  val exists_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val enclose: string -> string -> string -> string
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  val unenclose: string -> string
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  val quote: string -> string
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  val space_implode: string -> string list -> string
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  val commas: string list -> string
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  val commas_quote: string list -> string
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  val cat_lines: string list -> string
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  val space_explode: string -> string -> string list
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  val std_output: string -> unit
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  val prefix_lines: string -> string -> string
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  val split_lines: string -> string list
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  val untabify: string list -> string list
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  val suffix: string -> string -> string
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  val unsuffix: string -> string -> string
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  (*lists as sets*)
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  val mem: ''a * ''a list -> bool
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  val mem_int: int * int list -> bool
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  val mem_string: string * string list -> bool
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  val gen_mem: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a * 'b list -> bool
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  val ins: ''a * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val ins_int: int * int list -> int list
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  val ins_string: string * string list -> string list
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  val gen_ins: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val union: ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val union_int: int list * int list -> int list
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  val union_string: string list * string list -> string list
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  val gen_union: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val gen_inter: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'a list
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  val inter: ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val inter_int: int list * int list -> int list
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  val inter_string: string list * string list -> string list
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  val subset: ''a list * ''a list -> bool
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  val subset_int: int list * int list -> bool
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  val subset_string: string list * string list -> bool
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  val eq_set: ''a list * ''a list -> bool
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  val eq_set_string: string list * string list -> bool
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  val gen_subset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val \ : ''a list * ''a -> ''a list
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  val \\ : ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val gen_rem: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b -> 'a list
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  val gen_rems: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'a list
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  val gen_distinct: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val distinct: ''a list -> ''a list
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  val findrep: ''a list -> ''a list
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  val gen_duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val duplicates: ''a list -> ''a list
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  (*association lists*)
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  val assoc: (''a * 'b) list * ''a -> 'b option
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  val assoc_int: (int * 'a) list * int -> 'a option
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  val assoc_string: (string * 'a) list * string -> 'a option
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  val assoc_string_int: ((string * int) * 'a) list * (string * int) -> 'a option
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  val assocs: (''a * 'b list) list -> ''a -> 'b list
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  val assoc2: (''a * (''b * 'c) list) list * (''a * ''b) -> 'c option
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  val gen_assoc: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('b * 'c) list * 'a -> 'c option
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  val overwrite: (''a * 'b) list * (''a * 'b) -> (''a * 'b) list
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  val overwrite_warn: (''a * 'b) list * (''a * 'b) -> string -> (''a * 'b) list
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  val gen_overwrite: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) list * ('a * 'b) -> ('a * 'b) list
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  (*generic tables*)
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  val generic_extend: ('a * 'a -> bool)
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    -> ('b -> 'a list) -> ('a list -> 'b) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'b
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  val generic_merge: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> ('b -> 'a list) -> ('a list -> 'b) -> 'b -> 'b -> 'b
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  val extend_list: ''a list -> ''a list -> ''a list
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  val merge_lists: ''a list -> ''a list -> ''a list
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  val merge_alists: (''a * 'b) list -> (''a * 'b) list -> (''a * 'b) list
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  val merge_rev_lists: ''a list -> ''a list -> ''a list
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  (*balanced trees*)
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  exception Balance
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  val fold_bal: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val access_bal: ('a -> 'a) * ('a -> 'a) * 'a -> int -> int -> 'a
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  val accesses_bal: ('a -> 'a) * ('a -> 'a) * 'a -> int -> 'a list
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  (*orders*)
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  datatype order = LESS | EQUAL | GREATER
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  val rev_order: order -> order
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  val make_ord: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a * 'a -> order
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  val int_ord: int * int -> order
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  val string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val prod_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> ('c * 'd -> order) -> ('a * 'c) * ('b * 'd) -> order
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  val dict_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val list_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val sort: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_strings: string list -> string list
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  val sort_wrt: ('a -> string) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  (*I/O and diagnostics*)
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  val cd: string -> unit
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  val pwd: unit -> string
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  val writeln_fn: (string -> unit) ref
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  val priority_fn: (string -> unit) ref
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  val warning_fn: (string -> unit) ref
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  val error_fn: (string -> unit) ref
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  val writeln: string -> unit
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  val priority: string -> unit
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  val warning: string -> unit
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  exception ERROR
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  val error_msg: string -> unit
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  val error: string -> 'a
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  val sys_error: string -> 'a
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  val assert: bool -> string -> unit
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  val deny: bool -> string -> unit
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  val assert_all: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> ('a -> string) -> unit
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  datatype 'a error = Error of string | OK of 'a
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  val get_error: 'a error -> string option
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  val get_ok: 'a error -> 'a option
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  val handle_error: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b error
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  exception ERROR_MESSAGE of string
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  val transform_error: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val transform_failure: (exn -> exn) -> ('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b
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  (*timing*)
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  val cond_timeit: bool -> (unit -> 'a) -> 'a
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  val timeit: (unit -> 'a) -> 'a
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  val timeap: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val timing: bool ref
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  (*misc*)
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  val make_keylist: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val keyfilter: ('a * ''b) list -> ''b -> 'a list
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  val partition: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val partition_eq: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val partition_list: (int -> 'a -> bool) -> int -> int -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val transitive_closure: (string * string list) list -> (string * string list) list
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  val init_gensym: unit -> unit
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  val gensym: string -> string
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  val bump_int_list: string list -> string list
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  val bump_list: string list * string -> string list
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  val bump_string: string -> string
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  val scanwords: (string -> bool) -> string list -> string list
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  datatype 'a mtree = Join of 'a * 'a mtree list
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end;
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structure Library: LIBRARY =
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struct
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(** functions **)
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(*handy combinators*)
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fun curry f x y = f (x, y);
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fun uncurry f (x, y) = f x y;
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fun I x = x;
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fun K x y = x;
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(*reverse apply*)
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fun (x |> f) = f x;
wenzelm@8418
   295
fun ((x, y) |>> f) = (f x, y);
wenzelm@8418
   296
fun ((x, y) |>>> f) = let val (x', z) = f x in (x', (y, z)) end;
wenzelm@380
   297
wenzelm@233
   298
(*application of (infix) operator to its left or right argument*)
wenzelm@233
   299
fun apl (x, f) y = f (x, y);
wenzelm@233
   300
fun apr (f, y) x = f (x, y);
clasohm@0
   301
wenzelm@233
   302
(*function exponentiation: f(...(f x)...) with n applications of f*)
wenzelm@233
   303
fun funpow n f x =
wenzelm@233
   304
  let fun rep (0, x) = x
wenzelm@233
   305
        | rep (n, x) = rep (n - 1, f x)
wenzelm@233
   306
  in rep (n, x) end;
wenzelm@160
   307
wenzelm@5893
   308
(*concatenation: 2 and 3 args*)
wenzelm@5893
   309
fun (f oo g) x y = f (g x y);
wenzelm@5893
   310
fun (f ooo g) x y z = f (g x y z);
wenzelm@6510
   311
fun (f oooo g) x y z w = f (g x y z w);
wenzelm@6510
   312
wenzelm@160
   313
wenzelm@160
   314
wenzelm@2471
   315
(** stamps **)
wenzelm@2471
   316
wenzelm@2471
   317
type stamp = unit ref;
wenzelm@2471
   318
val stamp: unit -> stamp = ref;
wenzelm@2471
   319
wenzelm@2471
   320
wenzelm@2471
   321
wenzelm@233
   322
(** options **)
clasohm@0
   323
clasohm@0
   324
datatype 'a option = None | Some of 'a;
clasohm@0
   325
wenzelm@4139
   326
exception OPTION;
clasohm@0
   327
clasohm@0
   328
fun the (Some x) = x
wenzelm@4139
   329
  | the None = raise OPTION;
clasohm@0
   330
wenzelm@4212
   331
(*strict!*)
wenzelm@255
   332
fun if_none None y = y
wenzelm@255
   333
  | if_none (Some x) _ = x;
wenzelm@255
   334
clasohm@0
   335
fun is_some (Some _) = true
clasohm@0
   336
  | is_some None = false;
clasohm@0
   337
clasohm@0
   338
fun is_none (Some _) = false
clasohm@0
   339
  | is_none None = true;
clasohm@0
   340
wenzelm@233
   341
fun apsome f (Some x) = Some (f x)
wenzelm@233
   342
  | apsome _ None = None;
clasohm@0
   343
wenzelm@6959
   344
wenzelm@6959
   345
(* exception handling *)
wenzelm@6959
   346
wenzelm@6959
   347
exception ERROR;
wenzelm@6959
   348
wenzelm@6959
   349
fun try f x = Some (f x)
wenzelm@6959
   350
  handle Interrupt => raise Interrupt | ERROR => raise ERROR | _ => None;
wenzelm@6959
   351
wenzelm@6959
   352
fun can f x = is_some (try f x);
wenzelm@4139
   353
wenzelm@4139
   354
wenzelm@4139
   355
wenzelm@233
   356
(** pairs **)
wenzelm@233
   357
wenzelm@233
   358
fun pair x y = (x, y);
wenzelm@233
   359
fun rpair x y = (y, x);
wenzelm@233
   360
wenzelm@233
   361
fun fst (x, y) = x;
wenzelm@233
   362
fun snd (x, y) = y;
wenzelm@233
   363
wenzelm@233
   364
fun eq_fst ((x1, _), (x2, _)) = x1 = x2;
wenzelm@233
   365
fun eq_snd ((_, y1), (_, y2)) = y1 = y2;
wenzelm@233
   366
wenzelm@233
   367
fun swap (x, y) = (y, x);
wenzelm@233
   368
wenzelm@4212
   369
(*apply function to components*)
wenzelm@233
   370
fun apfst f (x, y) = (f x, y);
wenzelm@233
   371
fun apsnd f (x, y) = (x, f y);
wenzelm@4212
   372
fun pairself f (x, y) = (f x, f y);
wenzelm@233
   373
wenzelm@233
   374
wenzelm@233
   375
wenzelm@233
   376
(** booleans **)
wenzelm@233
   377
wenzelm@233
   378
(* equality *)
wenzelm@233
   379
wenzelm@233
   380
fun equal x y = x = y;
wenzelm@233
   381
fun not_equal x y = x <> y;
wenzelm@233
   382
wenzelm@233
   383
wenzelm@233
   384
(* operators for combining predicates *)
wenzelm@233
   385
paulson@2175
   386
fun (p orf q) = fn x => p x orelse q x;
paulson@2175
   387
fun (p andf q) = fn x => p x andalso q x;
wenzelm@233
   388
wenzelm@233
   389
wenzelm@233
   390
(* predicates on lists *)
wenzelm@233
   391
wenzelm@233
   392
(*exists pred [x1, ..., xn] ===> pred x1 orelse ... orelse pred xn*)
wenzelm@233
   393
fun exists (pred: 'a -> bool) : 'a list -> bool =
wenzelm@233
   394
  let fun boolf [] = false
wenzelm@233
   395
        | boolf (x :: xs) = pred x orelse boolf xs
wenzelm@233
   396
  in boolf end;
wenzelm@233
   397
wenzelm@233
   398
(*forall pred [x1, ..., xn] ===> pred x1 andalso ... andalso pred xn*)
wenzelm@233
   399
fun forall (pred: 'a -> bool) : 'a list -> bool =
wenzelm@233
   400
  let fun boolf [] = true
wenzelm@233
   401
        | boolf (x :: xs) = pred x andalso boolf xs
wenzelm@233
   402
  in boolf end;
clasohm@0
   403
wenzelm@233
   404
wenzelm@380
   405
(* flags *)
wenzelm@380
   406
wenzelm@380
   407
fun set flag = (flag := true; true);
wenzelm@380
   408
fun reset flag = (flag := false; false);
wenzelm@380
   409
fun toggle flag = (flag := not (! flag); ! flag);
wenzelm@380
   410
wenzelm@9118
   411
fun change r f = r := f (! r);
wenzelm@9118
   412
wenzelm@4212
   413
(*temporarily set flag, handling errors*)
wenzelm@2978
   414
fun setmp flag value f x =
wenzelm@2958
   415
  let
wenzelm@2958
   416
    val orig_value = ! flag;
wenzelm@2958
   417
    fun return y = (flag := orig_value; y);
wenzelm@2958
   418
  in
wenzelm@2958
   419
    flag := value;
wenzelm@2958
   420
    return (f x handle exn => (return (); raise exn))
wenzelm@2958
   421
  end;
wenzelm@2958
   422
wenzelm@380
   423
wenzelm@233
   424
wenzelm@233
   425
(** lists **)
wenzelm@233
   426
wenzelm@233
   427
exception LIST of string;
wenzelm@233
   428
wenzelm@233
   429
fun null [] = true
wenzelm@233
   430
  | null (_ :: _) = false;
wenzelm@233
   431
wenzelm@233
   432
fun hd [] = raise LIST "hd"
wenzelm@233
   433
  | hd (x :: _) = x;
wenzelm@233
   434
wenzelm@233
   435
fun tl [] = raise LIST "tl"
wenzelm@233
   436
  | tl (_ :: xs) = xs;
wenzelm@233
   437
wenzelm@233
   438
fun cons x xs = x :: xs;
wenzelm@5285
   439
fun single x = [x];
wenzelm@233
   440
wenzelm@4629
   441
fun append xs ys = xs @ ys;
wenzelm@4629
   442
wenzelm@5904
   443
fun apply [] x = x
wenzelm@5904
   444
  | apply (f :: fs) x = apply fs (f x);
wenzelm@5904
   445
wenzelm@233
   446
wenzelm@233
   447
(* fold *)
wenzelm@233
   448
wenzelm@233
   449
(*the following versions of fold are designed to fit nicely with infixes*)
clasohm@0
   450
wenzelm@233
   451
(*  (op @) (e, [x1, ..., xn])  ===>  ((e @ x1) @ x2) ... @ xn
wenzelm@233
   452
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
wenzelm@233
   453
fun foldl (f: 'a * 'b -> 'a) : 'a * 'b list -> 'a =
wenzelm@233
   454
  let fun itl (e, [])  = e
wenzelm@233
   455
        | itl (e, a::l) = itl (f(e, a), l)
wenzelm@233
   456
  in  itl end;
wenzelm@233
   457
wenzelm@233
   458
(*  (op @) ([x1, ..., xn], e)  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (xn @ e))
wenzelm@233
   459
    for operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
wenzelm@233
   460
fun foldr f (l, e) =
wenzelm@233
   461
  let fun itr [] = e
wenzelm@233
   462
        | itr (a::l) = f(a, itr l)
wenzelm@233
   463
  in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   464
wenzelm@233
   465
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (x[n-1] @ xn))
wenzelm@233
   466
    for n > 0, operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
wenzelm@233
   467
fun foldr1 f l =
wenzelm@4181
   468
  let fun itr [x] = x
wenzelm@233
   469
        | itr (x::l) = f(x, itr l)
wenzelm@233
   470
  in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   471
wenzelm@4956
   472
fun foldl_map _ (x, []) = (x, [])
wenzelm@4956
   473
  | foldl_map f (x, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@4956
   474
      let
wenzelm@4956
   475
        val (x', y') = f (x, y);
wenzelm@4956
   476
        val (x'', ys') = foldl_map f (x', ys);
wenzelm@4956
   477
      in (x'', y' :: ys') end;
wenzelm@4956
   478
wenzelm@233
   479
wenzelm@233
   480
(* basic list functions *)
wenzelm@233
   481
wenzelm@233
   482
(*length of a list, should unquestionably be a standard function*)
wenzelm@233
   483
local fun length1 (n, [])  = n   (*TAIL RECURSIVE*)
wenzelm@233
   484
        | length1 (n, x :: xs) = length1 (n + 1, xs)
wenzelm@233
   485
in  fun length l = length1 (0, l) end;
wenzelm@233
   486
wenzelm@233
   487
(*take the first n elements from a list*)
wenzelm@233
   488
fun take (n, []) = []
wenzelm@233
   489
  | take (n, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   490
      if n > 0 then x :: take (n - 1, xs) else [];
wenzelm@233
   491
wenzelm@233
   492
(*drop the first n elements from a list*)
wenzelm@233
   493
fun drop (n, []) = []
wenzelm@233
   494
  | drop (n, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   495
      if n > 0 then drop (n - 1, xs) else x :: xs;
clasohm@0
   496
nipkow@4713
   497
fun dropwhile P [] = []
nipkow@4713
   498
  | dropwhile P (ys as x::xs) = if P x then dropwhile P xs else ys;
nipkow@4713
   499
wenzelm@233
   500
(*return nth element of a list, where 0 designates the first element;
wenzelm@233
   501
  raise EXCEPTION if list too short*)
wenzelm@233
   502
fun nth_elem NL =
wenzelm@233
   503
  (case drop NL of
wenzelm@233
   504
    [] => raise LIST "nth_elem"
wenzelm@233
   505
  | x :: _ => x);
wenzelm@233
   506
wenzelm@233
   507
(*last element of a list*)
wenzelm@233
   508
fun last_elem [] = raise LIST "last_elem"
wenzelm@233
   509
  | last_elem [x] = x
wenzelm@233
   510
  | last_elem (_ :: xs) = last_elem xs;
wenzelm@233
   511
wenzelm@3762
   512
(*rear decomposition*)
wenzelm@3762
   513
fun split_last [] = raise LIST "split_last"
wenzelm@3762
   514
  | split_last [x] = ([], x)
wenzelm@3762
   515
  | split_last (x :: xs) = apfst (cons x) (split_last xs);
wenzelm@3762
   516
wenzelm@4893
   517
(*update nth element*)
wenzelm@4893
   518
fun nth_update x (n, xs) =
wenzelm@4893
   519
  let
wenzelm@4893
   520
    val prfx = take (n, xs);
wenzelm@4893
   521
    val sffx = drop (n, xs);
wenzelm@4893
   522
  in
wenzelm@4893
   523
    (case sffx of
wenzelm@4893
   524
      [] => raise LIST "nth_update"
wenzelm@4893
   525
    | _ :: sffx' => prfx @ (x :: sffx'))
wenzelm@4893
   526
  end;
wenzelm@4893
   527
wenzelm@4212
   528
(*find the position of an element in a list*)
wenzelm@4212
   529
fun find_index pred =
wenzelm@4212
   530
  let fun find _ [] = ~1
wenzelm@4212
   531
        | find n (x :: xs) = if pred x then n else find (n + 1) xs;
wenzelm@4212
   532
  in find 0 end;
wenzelm@3762
   533
wenzelm@4224
   534
fun find_index_eq x = find_index (equal x);
wenzelm@4212
   535
wenzelm@4212
   536
(*find first element satisfying predicate*)
wenzelm@4212
   537
fun find_first _ [] = None
wenzelm@4212
   538
  | find_first pred (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@4212
   539
      if pred x then Some x else find_first pred xs;
wenzelm@233
   540
wenzelm@4916
   541
(*get first element by lookup function*)
wenzelm@4916
   542
fun get_first _ [] = None
wenzelm@4916
   543
  | get_first f (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@4916
   544
      (case f x of
wenzelm@4916
   545
        None => get_first f xs
wenzelm@4916
   546
      | some => some);
wenzelm@4916
   547
wenzelm@233
   548
(*flatten a list of lists to a list*)
wenzelm@233
   549
fun flat (ls: 'c list list) : 'c list = foldr (op @) (ls, []);
wenzelm@233
   550
wenzelm@233
   551
(*like Lisp's MAPC -- seq proc [x1, ..., xn] evaluates
wenzelm@233
   552
  (proc x1; ...; proc xn) for side effects*)
wenzelm@233
   553
fun seq (proc: 'a -> unit) : 'a list -> unit =
wenzelm@233
   554
  let fun seqf [] = ()
wenzelm@233
   555
        | seqf (x :: xs) = (proc x; seqf xs)
wenzelm@233
   556
  in seqf end;
wenzelm@233
   557
wenzelm@233
   558
(*separate s [x1, x2, ..., xn]  ===>  [x1, s, x2, s, ..., s, xn]*)
wenzelm@233
   559
fun separate s (x :: (xs as _ :: _)) = x :: s :: separate s xs
wenzelm@233
   560
  | separate _ xs = xs;
wenzelm@233
   561
wenzelm@233
   562
(*make the list [x, x, ..., x] of length n*)
wenzelm@233
   563
fun replicate n (x: 'a) : 'a list =
wenzelm@233
   564
  let fun rep (0, xs) = xs
wenzelm@233
   565
        | rep (n, xs) = rep (n - 1, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   566
  in
wenzelm@233
   567
    if n < 0 then raise LIST "replicate"
wenzelm@233
   568
    else rep (n, [])
wenzelm@233
   569
  end;
wenzelm@233
   570
wenzelm@4248
   571
(*multiply [a, b, c, ...] * [xs, ys, zs, ...]*)
wenzelm@4248
   572
fun multiply ([], _) = []
wenzelm@4248
   573
  | multiply (x :: xs, yss) = map (cons x) yss @ multiply (xs, yss);
wenzelm@4248
   574
wenzelm@233
   575
wenzelm@233
   576
(* filter *)
wenzelm@233
   577
wenzelm@233
   578
(*copy the list preserving elements that satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   579
fun filter (pred: 'a->bool) : 'a list -> 'a list =
clasohm@0
   580
  let fun filt [] = []
wenzelm@233
   581
        | filt (x :: xs) = if pred x then x :: filt xs else filt xs
wenzelm@233
   582
  in filt end;
clasohm@0
   583
clasohm@0
   584
fun filter_out f = filter (not o f);
clasohm@0
   585
wenzelm@233
   586
fun mapfilter (f: 'a -> 'b option) ([]: 'a list) = [] : 'b list
wenzelm@233
   587
  | mapfilter f (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   588
      (case f x of
wenzelm@233
   589
        None => mapfilter f xs
wenzelm@233
   590
      | Some y => y :: mapfilter f xs);
wenzelm@233
   591
wenzelm@233
   592
wenzelm@233
   593
(* lists of pairs *)
wenzelm@233
   594
wenzelm@380
   595
fun map2 _ ([], []) = []
wenzelm@380
   596
  | map2 f (x :: xs, y :: ys) = (f (x, y) :: map2 f (xs, ys))
wenzelm@380
   597
  | map2 _ _ = raise LIST "map2";
wenzelm@380
   598
wenzelm@380
   599
fun exists2 _ ([], []) = false
wenzelm@380
   600
  | exists2 pred (x :: xs, y :: ys) = pred (x, y) orelse exists2 pred (xs, ys)
wenzelm@380
   601
  | exists2 _ _ = raise LIST "exists2";
wenzelm@380
   602
wenzelm@380
   603
fun forall2 _ ([], []) = true
wenzelm@380
   604
  | forall2 pred (x :: xs, y :: ys) = pred (x, y) andalso forall2 pred (xs, ys)
wenzelm@380
   605
  | forall2 _ _ = raise LIST "forall2";
wenzelm@380
   606
wenzelm@4956
   607
fun seq2 _ ([], []) = ()
wenzelm@4956
   608
  | seq2 f (x :: xs, y :: ys) = (f (x, y); seq2 f (xs, ys))
wenzelm@4956
   609
  | seq2 _ _ = raise LIST "seq2";
wenzelm@4956
   610
wenzelm@233
   611
(*combine two lists forming a list of pairs:
wenzelm@233
   612
  [x1, ..., xn] ~~ [y1, ..., yn]  ===>  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]*)
wenzelm@233
   613
fun [] ~~ [] = []
wenzelm@233
   614
  | (x :: xs) ~~ (y :: ys) = (x, y) :: (xs ~~ ys)
wenzelm@233
   615
  | _ ~~ _ = raise LIST "~~";
wenzelm@233
   616
wenzelm@233
   617
(*inverse of ~~; the old 'split':
wenzelm@233
   618
  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]  ===>  ([x1, ..., xn], [y1, ..., yn])*)
wenzelm@233
   619
fun split_list (l: ('a * 'b) list) = (map #1 l, map #2 l);
wenzelm@233
   620
wenzelm@7468
   621
fun equal_lists eq (xs, ys) = length xs = length ys andalso forall2 eq (xs, ys);
wenzelm@7468
   622
wenzelm@233
   623
wenzelm@233
   624
(* prefixes, suffixes *)
wenzelm@233
   625
wenzelm@233
   626
fun [] prefix _ = true
wenzelm@233
   627
  | (x :: xs) prefix (y :: ys) = x = y andalso (xs prefix ys)
wenzelm@233
   628
  | _ prefix _ = false;
wenzelm@233
   629
wenzelm@233
   630
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., x(i-1)], [xi, ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   631
   where xi is the first element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   632
fun take_prefix (pred : 'a -> bool)  (xs: 'a list) : 'a list * 'a list =
wenzelm@233
   633
  let fun take (rxs, []) = (rev rxs, [])
wenzelm@255
   634
        | take (rxs, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@255
   635
            if  pred x  then  take(x :: rxs, xs)  else  (rev rxs, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   636
  in  take([], xs)  end;
wenzelm@233
   637
wenzelm@233
   638
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., xi], [x(i+1), ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   639
   where xi is the last element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   640
fun take_suffix _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@233
   641
  | take_suffix pred (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   642
      (case take_suffix pred xs of
wenzelm@233
   643
        ([], sffx) => if pred x then ([], x :: sffx) else ([x], sffx)
wenzelm@233
   644
      | (prfx, sffx) => (x :: prfx, sffx));
wenzelm@233
   645
wenzelm@233
   646
wenzelm@233
   647
wenzelm@233
   648
(** integers **)
wenzelm@233
   649
nipkow@10692
   650
fun gcd(x,y) =
nipkow@10692
   651
  let fun gxd x y =
nipkow@10692
   652
    if y = 0 then x else gxd y (x mod y)
nipkow@10692
   653
  in if x < y then gxd y x else gxd x y end;
nipkow@10692
   654
nipkow@10692
   655
fun lcm(x,y) = (x * y) div gcd(x,y);
nipkow@10692
   656
wenzelm@2958
   657
fun inc i = (i := ! i + 1; ! i);
wenzelm@2958
   658
fun dec i = (i := ! i - 1; ! i);
wenzelm@233
   659
wenzelm@233
   660
wenzelm@233
   661
(* lists of integers *)
wenzelm@233
   662
wenzelm@233
   663
(*make the list [from, from + 1, ..., to]*)
paulson@2175
   664
fun (from upto to) =
wenzelm@233
   665
  if from > to then [] else from :: ((from + 1) upto to);
wenzelm@233
   666
wenzelm@233
   667
(*make the list [from, from - 1, ..., to]*)
paulson@2175
   668
fun (from downto to) =
wenzelm@233
   669
  if from < to then [] else from :: ((from - 1) downto to);
wenzelm@233
   670
wenzelm@233
   671
(*predicate: downto0 (is, n) <=> is = [n, n - 1, ..., 0]*)
wenzelm@233
   672
fun downto0 (i :: is, n) = i = n andalso downto0 (is, n - 1)
wenzelm@233
   673
  | downto0 ([], n) = n = ~1;
wenzelm@233
   674
wenzelm@233
   675
wenzelm@233
   676
(* convert integers to strings *)
wenzelm@233
   677
wenzelm@233
   678
(*expand the number in the given base;
wenzelm@233
   679
  example: radixpand (2, 8) gives [1, 0, 0, 0]*)
wenzelm@233
   680
fun radixpand (base, num) : int list =
wenzelm@233
   681
  let
wenzelm@233
   682
    fun radix (n, tail) =
wenzelm@233
   683
      if n < base then n :: tail
wenzelm@233
   684
      else radix (n div base, (n mod base) :: tail)
wenzelm@233
   685
  in radix (num, []) end;
wenzelm@233
   686
wenzelm@233
   687
(*expands a number into a string of characters starting from "zerochar";
wenzelm@233
   688
  example: radixstring (2, "0", 8) gives "1000"*)
wenzelm@233
   689
fun radixstring (base, zerochar, num) =
wenzelm@233
   690
  let val offset = ord zerochar;
wenzelm@233
   691
      fun chrof n = chr (offset + n)
wenzelm@233
   692
  in implode (map chrof (radixpand (base, num))) end;
wenzelm@233
   693
wenzelm@233
   694
paulson@3407
   695
val string_of_int = Int.toString;
wenzelm@233
   696
paulson@3407
   697
fun string_of_indexname (a,0) = a
paulson@3407
   698
  | string_of_indexname (a,i) = a ^ "_" ^ Int.toString i;
wenzelm@233
   699
wenzelm@233
   700
wenzelm@233
   701
(** strings **)
wenzelm@233
   702
wenzelm@6312
   703
(*functions tuned for strings, avoiding explode*)
wenzelm@6312
   704
wenzelm@6312
   705
fun nth_elem_string (i, str) =
wenzelm@6959
   706
  (case try String.substring (str, i, 1) of
wenzelm@6959
   707
    Some s => s
wenzelm@6959
   708
  | None => raise LIST "nth_elem_string");
wenzelm@6312
   709
wenzelm@6282
   710
fun foldl_string f (x0, str) =
wenzelm@6282
   711
  let
wenzelm@6282
   712
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@6282
   713
    fun fold (x, i) = if i < n then fold (f (x, String.substring (str, i, 1)), i + 1) else x
wenzelm@6282
   714
  in fold (x0, 0) end;
wenzelm@6282
   715
wenzelm@6312
   716
fun exists_string pred str = foldl_string (fn (b, s) => b orelse pred s) (false, str);
wenzelm@6312
   717
lcp@512
   718
(*enclose in brackets*)
lcp@512
   719
fun enclose lpar rpar str = lpar ^ str ^ rpar;
wenzelm@6642
   720
fun unenclose str = String.substring (str, 1, size str - 2);
wenzelm@255
   721
wenzelm@233
   722
(*simple quoting (does not escape special chars)*)
lcp@512
   723
val quote = enclose "\"" "\"";
wenzelm@233
   724
wenzelm@4212
   725
(*space_implode "..." (explode "hello") = "h...e...l...l...o"*)
wenzelm@233
   726
fun space_implode a bs = implode (separate a bs);
wenzelm@233
   727
wenzelm@255
   728
val commas = space_implode ", ";
wenzelm@380
   729
val commas_quote = commas o map quote;
wenzelm@255
   730
wenzelm@233
   731
(*concatenate messages, one per line, into a string*)
wenzelm@255
   732
val cat_lines = space_implode "\n";
wenzelm@233
   733
wenzelm@4212
   734
(*space_explode "." "h.e..l.lo" = ["h", "e", "", "l", "lo"]*)
wenzelm@3832
   735
fun space_explode _ "" = []
wenzelm@3832
   736
  | space_explode sep str =
wenzelm@3832
   737
      let
wenzelm@3832
   738
        fun expl chs =
wenzelm@3832
   739
          (case take_prefix (not_equal sep) chs of
wenzelm@3832
   740
            (cs, []) => [implode cs]
wenzelm@3832
   741
          | (cs, _ :: cs') => implode cs :: expl cs');
wenzelm@3832
   742
      in expl (explode str) end;
wenzelm@3832
   743
wenzelm@3832
   744
val split_lines = space_explode "\n";
wenzelm@3832
   745
wenzelm@7712
   746
(*untabify*)
wenzelm@7712
   747
fun untabify chs =
wenzelm@7712
   748
  let
wenzelm@7712
   749
    val tab_width = 8;
wenzelm@7712
   750
wenzelm@7712
   751
    fun untab (_, "\n") = (0, ["\n"])
wenzelm@9118
   752
      | untab (pos, "\t") =
wenzelm@9118
   753
          let val d = tab_width - (pos mod tab_width) in (pos + d, replicate d " ") end
wenzelm@7712
   754
      | untab (pos, c) = (pos + 1, [c]);
wenzelm@7712
   755
  in
wenzelm@7712
   756
    if not (exists (equal "\t") chs) then chs
wenzelm@7712
   757
    else flat (#2 (foldl_map untab (0, chs)))
wenzelm@7712
   758
  end;
wenzelm@7712
   759
wenzelm@5285
   760
(*append suffix*)
wenzelm@5285
   761
fun suffix sfx s = s ^ sfx;
wenzelm@5285
   762
wenzelm@5285
   763
(*remove suffix*)
wenzelm@5285
   764
fun unsuffix sfx s =
wenzelm@5285
   765
  let
wenzelm@5285
   766
    val cs = explode s;
wenzelm@5285
   767
    val prfx_len = size s - size sfx;
wenzelm@5285
   768
  in
wenzelm@5285
   769
    if prfx_len >= 0 andalso implode (drop (prfx_len, cs)) = sfx then
wenzelm@5285
   770
      implode (take (prfx_len, cs))
wenzelm@5285
   771
    else raise LIST "unsuffix"
wenzelm@5285
   772
  end;
wenzelm@5285
   773
wenzelm@3832
   774
wenzelm@233
   775
wenzelm@233
   776
(** lists as sets **)
wenzelm@233
   777
wenzelm@233
   778
(*membership in a list*)
wenzelm@233
   779
fun x mem [] = false
wenzelm@233
   780
  | x mem (y :: ys) = x = y orelse x mem ys;
clasohm@0
   781
paulson@2175
   782
(*membership in a list, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   783
fun (x:int) mem_int [] = false
berghofe@1576
   784
  | x mem_int (y :: ys) = x = y orelse x mem_int ys;
berghofe@1576
   785
paulson@2175
   786
(*membership in a list, optimized version for strings*)
berghofe@1576
   787
fun (x:string) mem_string [] = false
berghofe@1576
   788
  | x mem_string (y :: ys) = x = y orelse x mem_string ys;
berghofe@1576
   789
clasohm@0
   790
(*generalized membership test*)
wenzelm@233
   791
fun gen_mem eq (x, []) = false
wenzelm@233
   792
  | gen_mem eq (x, y :: ys) = eq (x, y) orelse gen_mem eq (x, ys);
wenzelm@233
   793
wenzelm@233
   794
wenzelm@233
   795
(*insertion into list if not already there*)
paulson@2175
   796
fun (x ins xs) = if x mem xs then xs else x :: xs;
clasohm@0
   797
paulson@2175
   798
(*insertion into list, optimized version for ints*)
paulson@2175
   799
fun (x ins_int xs) = if x mem_int xs then xs else x :: xs;
berghofe@1576
   800
paulson@2175
   801
(*insertion into list, optimized version for strings*)
paulson@2175
   802
fun (x ins_string xs) = if x mem_string xs then xs else x :: xs;
berghofe@1576
   803
clasohm@0
   804
(*generalized insertion*)
wenzelm@233
   805
fun gen_ins eq (x, xs) = if gen_mem eq (x, xs) then xs else x :: xs;
wenzelm@233
   806
wenzelm@233
   807
wenzelm@233
   808
(*union of sets represented as lists: no repetitions*)
wenzelm@233
   809
fun xs union [] = xs
wenzelm@233
   810
  | [] union ys = ys
wenzelm@233
   811
  | (x :: xs) union ys = xs union (x ins ys);
clasohm@0
   812
paulson@2175
   813
(*union of sets, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   814
fun (xs:int list) union_int [] = xs
berghofe@1576
   815
  | [] union_int ys = ys
berghofe@1576
   816
  | (x :: xs) union_int ys = xs union_int (x ins_int ys);
berghofe@1576
   817
paulson@2175
   818
(*union of sets, optimized version for strings*)
berghofe@1576
   819
fun (xs:string list) union_string [] = xs
berghofe@1576
   820
  | [] union_string ys = ys
berghofe@1576
   821
  | (x :: xs) union_string ys = xs union_string (x ins_string ys);
berghofe@1576
   822
clasohm@0
   823
(*generalized union*)
wenzelm@233
   824
fun gen_union eq (xs, []) = xs
wenzelm@233
   825
  | gen_union eq ([], ys) = ys
wenzelm@233
   826
  | gen_union eq (x :: xs, ys) = gen_union eq (xs, gen_ins eq (x, ys));
wenzelm@233
   827
wenzelm@233
   828
wenzelm@233
   829
(*intersection*)
wenzelm@233
   830
fun [] inter ys = []
wenzelm@233
   831
  | (x :: xs) inter ys =
wenzelm@233
   832
      if x mem ys then x :: (xs inter ys) else xs inter ys;
wenzelm@233
   833
paulson@2175
   834
(*intersection, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   835
fun ([]:int list) inter_int ys = []
berghofe@1576
   836
  | (x :: xs) inter_int ys =
berghofe@1576
   837
      if x mem_int ys then x :: (xs inter_int ys) else xs inter_int ys;
berghofe@1576
   838
paulson@2175
   839
(*intersection, optimized version for strings *)
berghofe@1576
   840
fun ([]:string list) inter_string ys = []
berghofe@1576
   841
  | (x :: xs) inter_string ys =
berghofe@1576
   842
      if x mem_string ys then x :: (xs inter_string ys) else xs inter_string ys;
berghofe@1576
   843
paulson@7090
   844
(*generalized intersection*)
paulson@7090
   845
fun gen_inter eq ([], ys) = []
paulson@7090
   846
  | gen_inter eq (x::xs, ys) = 
paulson@7090
   847
      if gen_mem eq (x,ys) then x :: gen_inter eq (xs, ys)
paulson@7090
   848
	                   else      gen_inter eq (xs, ys);
paulson@7090
   849
wenzelm@233
   850
wenzelm@233
   851
(*subset*)
wenzelm@233
   852
fun [] subset ys = true
wenzelm@233
   853
  | (x :: xs) subset ys = x mem ys andalso xs subset ys;
wenzelm@233
   854
paulson@2175
   855
(*subset, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   856
fun ([]:int list) subset_int ys = true
berghofe@1576
   857
  | (x :: xs) subset_int ys = x mem_int ys andalso xs subset_int ys;
berghofe@1576
   858
paulson@2175
   859
(*subset, optimized version for strings*)
berghofe@1576
   860
fun ([]:string list) subset_string ys = true
berghofe@1576
   861
  | (x :: xs) subset_string ys = x mem_string ys andalso xs subset_string ys;
berghofe@1576
   862
wenzelm@4363
   863
(*set equality*)
wenzelm@4363
   864
fun eq_set (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@4363
   865
  xs = ys orelse (xs subset ys andalso ys subset xs);
wenzelm@4363
   866
paulson@2182
   867
(*set equality for strings*)
berghofe@1576
   868
fun eq_set_string ((xs:string list), ys) =
berghofe@1576
   869
  xs = ys orelse (xs subset_string ys andalso ys subset_string xs);
berghofe@1576
   870
paulson@2182
   871
fun gen_subset eq (xs, ys) = forall (fn x => gen_mem eq (x, ys)) xs;
paulson@2182
   872
wenzelm@265
   873
wenzelm@233
   874
(*removing an element from a list WITHOUT duplicates*)
wenzelm@233
   875
fun (y :: ys) \ x = if x = y then ys else y :: (ys \ x)
wenzelm@233
   876
  | [] \ x = [];
wenzelm@233
   877
paulson@2243
   878
fun ys \\ xs = foldl (op \) (ys,xs);
clasohm@0
   879
wenzelm@233
   880
(*removing an element from a list -- possibly WITH duplicates*)
wenzelm@233
   881
fun gen_rem eq (xs, y) = filter_out (fn x => eq (x, y)) xs;
wenzelm@233
   882
paulson@2243
   883
fun gen_rems eq = foldl (gen_rem eq);
wenzelm@233
   884
wenzelm@233
   885
wenzelm@233
   886
(*makes a list of the distinct members of the input; preserves order, takes
wenzelm@233
   887
  first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@233
   888
fun gen_distinct eq lst =
wenzelm@233
   889
  let
wenzelm@233
   890
    val memb = gen_mem eq;
clasohm@0
   891
wenzelm@233
   892
    fun dist (rev_seen, []) = rev rev_seen
wenzelm@233
   893
      | dist (rev_seen, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   894
          if memb (x, rev_seen) then dist (rev_seen, xs)
wenzelm@233
   895
          else dist (x :: rev_seen, xs);
wenzelm@233
   896
  in
wenzelm@233
   897
    dist ([], lst)
wenzelm@233
   898
  end;
wenzelm@233
   899
paulson@2243
   900
fun distinct l = gen_distinct (op =) l;
wenzelm@233
   901
wenzelm@233
   902
wenzelm@233
   903
(*returns the tail beginning with the first repeated element, or []*)
wenzelm@233
   904
fun findrep [] = []
wenzelm@233
   905
  | findrep (x :: xs) = if x mem xs then x :: xs else findrep xs;
wenzelm@233
   906
wenzelm@233
   907
wenzelm@255
   908
(*returns a list containing all repeated elements exactly once; preserves
wenzelm@255
   909
  order, takes first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@255
   910
fun gen_duplicates eq lst =
wenzelm@255
   911
  let
wenzelm@255
   912
    val memb = gen_mem eq;
wenzelm@255
   913
wenzelm@255
   914
    fun dups (rev_dups, []) = rev rev_dups
wenzelm@255
   915
      | dups (rev_dups, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@255
   916
          if memb (x, rev_dups) orelse not (memb (x, xs)) then
wenzelm@255
   917
            dups (rev_dups, xs)
wenzelm@255
   918
          else dups (x :: rev_dups, xs);
wenzelm@255
   919
  in
wenzelm@255
   920
    dups ([], lst)
wenzelm@255
   921
  end;
wenzelm@255
   922
paulson@2243
   923
fun duplicates l = gen_duplicates (op =) l;
wenzelm@255
   924
wenzelm@255
   925
wenzelm@233
   926
wenzelm@233
   927
(** association lists **)
clasohm@0
   928
wenzelm@233
   929
(*association list lookup*)
wenzelm@233
   930
fun assoc ([], key) = None
wenzelm@233
   931
  | assoc ((keyi, xi) :: pairs, key) =
wenzelm@233
   932
      if key = keyi then Some xi else assoc (pairs, key);
wenzelm@233
   933
paulson@2175
   934
(*association list lookup, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   935
fun assoc_int ([], (key:int)) = None
berghofe@1576
   936
  | assoc_int ((keyi, xi) :: pairs, key) =
berghofe@1576
   937
      if key = keyi then Some xi else assoc_int (pairs, key);
berghofe@1576
   938
paulson@2175
   939
(*association list lookup, optimized version for strings*)
berghofe@1576
   940
fun assoc_string ([], (key:string)) = None
berghofe@1576
   941
  | assoc_string ((keyi, xi) :: pairs, key) =
berghofe@1576
   942
      if key = keyi then Some xi else assoc_string (pairs, key);
berghofe@1576
   943
paulson@2175
   944
(*association list lookup, optimized version for string*ints*)
berghofe@1576
   945
fun assoc_string_int ([], (key:string*int)) = None
berghofe@1576
   946
  | assoc_string_int ((keyi, xi) :: pairs, key) =
berghofe@1576
   947
      if key = keyi then Some xi else assoc_string_int (pairs, key);
berghofe@1576
   948
wenzelm@233
   949
fun assocs ps x =
wenzelm@233
   950
  (case assoc (ps, x) of
wenzelm@233
   951
    None => []
wenzelm@233
   952
  | Some ys => ys);
wenzelm@233
   953
wenzelm@255
   954
(*two-fold association list lookup*)
wenzelm@255
   955
fun assoc2 (aal, (key1, key2)) =
wenzelm@255
   956
  (case assoc (aal, key1) of
wenzelm@255
   957
    Some al => assoc (al, key2)
wenzelm@255
   958
  | None => None);
wenzelm@255
   959
wenzelm@233
   960
(*generalized association list lookup*)
wenzelm@233
   961
fun gen_assoc eq ([], key) = None
wenzelm@233
   962
  | gen_assoc eq ((keyi, xi) :: pairs, key) =
wenzelm@233
   963
      if eq (key, keyi) then Some xi else gen_assoc eq (pairs, key);
wenzelm@233
   964
wenzelm@233
   965
(*association list update*)
wenzelm@233
   966
fun overwrite (al, p as (key, _)) =
wenzelm@233
   967
  let fun over ((q as (keyi, _)) :: pairs) =
wenzelm@233
   968
            if keyi = key then p :: pairs else q :: (over pairs)
wenzelm@233
   969
        | over [] = [p]
wenzelm@233
   970
  in over al end;
wenzelm@233
   971
wenzelm@2522
   972
fun gen_overwrite eq (al, p as (key, _)) =
wenzelm@2522
   973
  let fun over ((q as (keyi, _)) :: pairs) =
wenzelm@2522
   974
            if eq (keyi, key) then p :: pairs else q :: (over pairs)
wenzelm@2522
   975
        | over [] = [p]
wenzelm@2522
   976
  in over al end;
wenzelm@2522
   977
wenzelm@233
   978
wenzelm@233
   979
wenzelm@233
   980
(** generic tables **)
clasohm@0
   981
wenzelm@233
   982
(*Tables are supposed to be 'efficient' encodings of lists of elements distinct
wenzelm@233
   983
  wrt. an equality "eq". The extend and merge operations below are optimized
wenzelm@233
   984
  for long-term space efficiency.*)
wenzelm@233
   985
wenzelm@233
   986
(*append (new) elements to a table*)
wenzelm@233
   987
fun generic_extend _ _ _ tab [] = tab
wenzelm@233
   988
  | generic_extend eq dest_tab mk_tab tab1 lst2 =
wenzelm@233
   989
      let
wenzelm@233
   990
        val lst1 = dest_tab tab1;
wenzelm@233
   991
        val new_lst2 = gen_rems eq (lst2, lst1);
wenzelm@233
   992
      in
wenzelm@233
   993
        if null new_lst2 then tab1
wenzelm@233
   994
        else mk_tab (lst1 @ new_lst2)
wenzelm@233
   995
      end;
clasohm@0
   996
wenzelm@233
   997
(*append (new) elements of 2nd table to 1st table*)
wenzelm@233
   998
fun generic_merge eq dest_tab mk_tab tab1 tab2 =
wenzelm@233
   999
  let
wenzelm@233
  1000
    val lst1 = dest_tab tab1;
wenzelm@233
  1001
    val lst2 = dest_tab tab2;
wenzelm@233
  1002
    val new_lst2 = gen_rems eq (lst2, lst1);
wenzelm@233
  1003
  in
wenzelm@233
  1004
    if null new_lst2 then tab1
wenzelm@233
  1005
    else if gen_subset eq (lst1, lst2) then tab2
wenzelm@233
  1006
    else mk_tab (lst1 @ new_lst2)
wenzelm@233
  1007
  end;
clasohm@0
  1008
wenzelm@233
  1009
wenzelm@233
  1010
(*lists as tables*)
paulson@2243
  1011
fun extend_list tab = generic_extend (op =) I I tab;
paulson@2243
  1012
fun merge_lists tab = generic_merge (op =) I I tab;
wenzelm@4692
  1013
fun merge_alists tab = generic_merge eq_fst I I tab;
wenzelm@233
  1014
wenzelm@380
  1015
fun merge_rev_lists xs [] = xs
wenzelm@380
  1016
  | merge_rev_lists [] ys = ys
wenzelm@380
  1017
  | merge_rev_lists xs (y :: ys) =
wenzelm@380
  1018
      (if y mem xs then I else cons y) (merge_rev_lists xs ys);
wenzelm@380
  1019
clasohm@0
  1020
clasohm@0
  1021
wenzelm@233
  1022
(** balanced trees **)
wenzelm@233
  1023
wenzelm@233
  1024
exception Balance;      (*indicates non-positive argument to balancing fun*)
wenzelm@233
  1025
wenzelm@233
  1026
(*balanced folding; avoids deep nesting*)
wenzelm@233
  1027
fun fold_bal f [x] = x
wenzelm@233
  1028
  | fold_bal f [] = raise Balance
wenzelm@233
  1029
  | fold_bal f xs =
wenzelm@233
  1030
      let val k = length xs div 2
wenzelm@233
  1031
      in  f (fold_bal f (take(k, xs)),
wenzelm@233
  1032
             fold_bal f (drop(k, xs)))
wenzelm@233
  1033
      end;
wenzelm@233
  1034
wenzelm@233
  1035
(*construct something of the form f(...g(...(x)...)) for balanced access*)
wenzelm@233
  1036
fun access_bal (f, g, x) n i =
wenzelm@233
  1037
  let fun acc n i =     (*1<=i<=n*)
wenzelm@233
  1038
          if n=1 then x else
wenzelm@233
  1039
          let val n2 = n div 2
wenzelm@233
  1040
          in  if i<=n2 then f (acc n2 i)
wenzelm@233
  1041
                       else g (acc (n-n2) (i-n2))
wenzelm@233
  1042
          end
wenzelm@233
  1043
  in  if 1<=i andalso i<=n then acc n i else raise Balance  end;
wenzelm@233
  1044
wenzelm@233
  1045
(*construct ALL such accesses; could try harder to share recursive calls!*)
wenzelm@233
  1046
fun accesses_bal (f, g, x) n =
wenzelm@233
  1047
  let fun acc n =
wenzelm@233
  1048
          if n=1 then [x] else
wenzelm@233
  1049
          let val n2 = n div 2
wenzelm@233
  1050
              val acc2 = acc n2
wenzelm@233
  1051
          in  if n-n2=n2 then map f acc2 @ map g acc2
wenzelm@233
  1052
                         else map f acc2 @ map g (acc (n-n2)) end
wenzelm@233
  1053
  in  if 1<=n then acc n else raise Balance  end;
wenzelm@233
  1054
wenzelm@233
  1055
wenzelm@233
  1056
wenzelm@2506
  1057
(** orders **)
wenzelm@2506
  1058
wenzelm@2506
  1059
datatype order = LESS | EQUAL | GREATER;
wenzelm@2506
  1060
wenzelm@4445
  1061
fun rev_order LESS = GREATER
wenzelm@4445
  1062
  | rev_order EQUAL = EQUAL
wenzelm@4445
  1063
  | rev_order GREATER = LESS;
wenzelm@4445
  1064
wenzelm@4479
  1065
(*assume rel is a linear strict order*)
wenzelm@4445
  1066
fun make_ord rel (x, y) =
wenzelm@4445
  1067
  if rel (x, y) then LESS
wenzelm@4445
  1068
  else if rel (y, x) then GREATER
wenzelm@4445
  1069
  else EQUAL;
wenzelm@4445
  1070
wenzelm@4343
  1071
fun int_ord (i, j: int) =
wenzelm@2506
  1072
  if i < j then LESS
wenzelm@2506
  1073
  else if i = j then EQUAL
wenzelm@2506
  1074
  else GREATER;
wenzelm@2506
  1075
wenzelm@4343
  1076
fun string_ord (a, b: string) =
wenzelm@2506
  1077
  if a < b then LESS
wenzelm@2506
  1078
  else if a = b then EQUAL
wenzelm@2506
  1079
  else GREATER;
wenzelm@2506
  1080
wenzelm@4343
  1081
(*lexicographic product*)
wenzelm@4343
  1082
fun prod_ord a_ord b_ord ((x, y), (x', y')) =
wenzelm@4343
  1083
  (case a_ord (x, x') of EQUAL => b_ord (y, y') | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
  1084
wenzelm@4343
  1085
(*dictionary order -- in general NOT well-founded!*)
wenzelm@4343
  1086
fun dict_ord _ ([], []) = EQUAL
wenzelm@4343
  1087
  | dict_ord _ ([], _ :: _) = LESS
wenzelm@4343
  1088
  | dict_ord _ (_ :: _, []) = GREATER
wenzelm@4343
  1089
  | dict_ord elem_ord (x :: xs, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@4343
  1090
      (case elem_ord (x, y) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
  1091
wenzelm@4343
  1092
(*lexicographic product of lists*)
wenzelm@4343
  1093
fun list_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@4343
  1094
  prod_ord int_ord (dict_ord elem_ord) ((length xs, xs), (length ys, ys));
wenzelm@4343
  1095
wenzelm@2506
  1096
wenzelm@4621
  1097
(* sorting *)
wenzelm@4621
  1098
wenzelm@4621
  1099
(*quicksort (stable, i.e. does not reorder equal elements)*)
wenzelm@4621
  1100
fun sort ord =
wenzelm@4621
  1101
  let
wenzelm@4621
  1102
    fun qsort xs =
wenzelm@4621
  1103
      let val len = length xs in
wenzelm@4621
  1104
        if len <= 1 then xs
wenzelm@4621
  1105
        else
wenzelm@4621
  1106
          let val (lts, eqs, gts) = part (nth_elem (len div 2, xs)) xs in
wenzelm@4621
  1107
            qsort lts @ eqs @ qsort gts
wenzelm@4621
  1108
          end
wenzelm@4621
  1109
      end
wenzelm@4621
  1110
    and part _ [] = ([], [], [])
wenzelm@4621
  1111
      | part pivot (x :: xs) = add (ord (x, pivot)) x (part pivot xs)
wenzelm@4621
  1112
    and add LESS x (lts, eqs, gts) = (x :: lts, eqs, gts)
wenzelm@4621
  1113
      | add EQUAL x (lts, eqs, gts) = (lts, x :: eqs, gts)
wenzelm@4621
  1114
      | add GREATER x (lts, eqs, gts) = (lts, eqs, x :: gts);
wenzelm@4621
  1115
  in qsort end;
wenzelm@4621
  1116
wenzelm@4621
  1117
(*sort strings*)
wenzelm@4621
  1118
val sort_strings = sort string_ord;
wenzelm@4621
  1119
fun sort_wrt sel xs = sort (string_ord o pairself sel) xs;
wenzelm@4621
  1120
wenzelm@4621
  1121
wenzelm@2506
  1122
wenzelm@3525
  1123
(** input / output and diagnostics **)
wenzelm@233
  1124
paulson@2243
  1125
val cd = OS.FileSys.chDir;
wenzelm@2317
  1126
val pwd = OS.FileSys.getDir;
paulson@2243
  1127
wenzelm@5942
  1128
fun std_output s =
wenzelm@5942
  1129
  (TextIO.output (TextIO.stdOut, s); TextIO.flushOut TextIO.stdOut);
wenzelm@3525
  1130
wenzelm@5942
  1131
fun prefix_lines prfx txt =
wenzelm@5949
  1132
  txt |> split_lines |> map (fn s => prfx ^ s) |> cat_lines;
wenzelm@3525
  1133
wenzelm@3525
  1134
(*hooks for output channels: normal, warning, error*)
wenzelm@5966
  1135
val writeln_fn = ref (std_output o suffix "\n");
wenzelm@9774
  1136
val priority_fn = ref (fn s => ! writeln_fn s);
wenzelm@5949
  1137
val warning_fn = ref (std_output o suffix "\n" o prefix_lines "### ");
wenzelm@5949
  1138
val error_fn = ref (std_output o suffix "\n" o prefix_lines "*** ");
berghofe@1580
  1139
wenzelm@5966
  1140
fun writeln s = ! writeln_fn s;
wenzelm@9774
  1141
fun priority s = ! priority_fn s;
wenzelm@5942
  1142
fun warning s = ! warning_fn s;
wenzelm@233
  1143
wenzelm@233
  1144
(*print error message and abort to top level*)
wenzelm@6959
  1145
wenzelm@5949
  1146
fun error_msg s = ! error_fn s;
wenzelm@3553
  1147
fun error s = (error_msg s; raise ERROR);
wenzelm@4849
  1148
fun sys_error msg = error ("## SYSTEM ERROR ##\n" ^ msg);
wenzelm@233
  1149
wenzelm@233
  1150
fun assert p msg = if p then () else error msg;
wenzelm@233
  1151
fun deny p msg = if p then error msg else ();
wenzelm@233
  1152
lcp@544
  1153
(*Assert pred for every member of l, generating a message if pred fails*)
wenzelm@4212
  1154
fun assert_all pred l msg_fn =
lcp@544
  1155
  let fun asl [] = ()
wenzelm@4212
  1156
        | asl (x::xs) = if pred x then asl xs else error (msg_fn x)
wenzelm@4212
  1157
  in asl l end;
wenzelm@233
  1158
wenzelm@3624
  1159
wenzelm@4212
  1160
(* handle errors capturing messages *)
wenzelm@3699
  1161
wenzelm@3699
  1162
datatype 'a error =
wenzelm@3699
  1163
  Error of string |
wenzelm@3699
  1164
  OK of 'a;
wenzelm@3699
  1165
wenzelm@4248
  1166
fun get_error (Error msg) = Some msg
wenzelm@4248
  1167
  | get_error _ = None;
wenzelm@4248
  1168
wenzelm@4248
  1169
fun get_ok (OK x) = Some x
wenzelm@4248
  1170
  | get_ok _ = None;
wenzelm@4248
  1171
wenzelm@5037
  1172
datatype 'a result =
wenzelm@5037
  1173
  Result of 'a |
wenzelm@5037
  1174
  Exn of exn;
wenzelm@5037
  1175
wenzelm@3699
  1176
fun handle_error f x =
wenzelm@3699
  1177
  let
wenzelm@4945
  1178
    val buffer = ref ([]: string list);
wenzelm@4945
  1179
    fun capture s = buffer := ! buffer @ [s];
wenzelm@5037
  1180
    fun err_msg () = if not (null (! buffer)) then error_msg (cat_lines (! buffer)) else ();
wenzelm@3699
  1181
  in
wenzelm@5037
  1182
    (case Result (setmp error_fn capture f x) handle exn => Exn exn of
wenzelm@5037
  1183
      Result y => (err_msg (); OK y)
wenzelm@5037
  1184
    | Exn ERROR => Error (cat_lines (! buffer))
wenzelm@5037
  1185
    | Exn exn => (err_msg (); raise exn))
wenzelm@3624
  1186
  end;
wenzelm@3624
  1187
wenzelm@3624
  1188
wenzelm@5037
  1189
(* transform ERROR into ERROR_MESSAGE *)
wenzelm@4923
  1190
wenzelm@4923
  1191
exception ERROR_MESSAGE of string;
wenzelm@4923
  1192
wenzelm@4923
  1193
fun transform_error f x =
wenzelm@4923
  1194
  (case handle_error f x of
wenzelm@4923
  1195
    OK y => y
wenzelm@4923
  1196
  | Error msg => raise ERROR_MESSAGE msg);
wenzelm@4923
  1197
wenzelm@4923
  1198
wenzelm@5904
  1199
(* transform any exception, including ERROR *)
wenzelm@5904
  1200
wenzelm@5904
  1201
fun transform_failure exn f x =
wenzelm@5904
  1202
  transform_error f x handle e => raise exn e;
wenzelm@5904
  1203
wenzelm@5904
  1204
wenzelm@233
  1205
wenzelm@233
  1206
(** timing **)
wenzelm@233
  1207
paulson@4326
  1208
(*a conditional timing function: applies f to () and, if the flag is true,
wenzelm@8999
  1209
  prints its runtime on warning channel*)
paulson@4326
  1210
fun cond_timeit flag f =
paulson@4326
  1211
  if flag then
paulson@4326
  1212
    let val start = startTiming()
paulson@4326
  1213
        val result = f ()
wenzelm@8999
  1214
    in warning (endTiming start);  result end
paulson@4326
  1215
  else f ();
paulson@4326
  1216
wenzelm@233
  1217
(*unconditional timing function*)
paulson@2243
  1218
fun timeit x = cond_timeit true x;
wenzelm@233
  1219
wenzelm@233
  1220
(*timed application function*)
wenzelm@233
  1221
fun timeap f x = timeit (fn () => f x);
wenzelm@233
  1222
wenzelm@8999
  1223
(*global timing mode*)
wenzelm@8999
  1224
val timing = ref false;
wenzelm@8999
  1225
berghofe@3606
  1226
wenzelm@233
  1227
nipkow@10692
  1228
(** rational numbers **)
nipkow@10692
  1229
nipkow@10692
  1230
datatype rat = Rat of bool * int * int
nipkow@10692
  1231
nipkow@10692
  1232
fun rep_rat(Rat(a,p,q)) = (if a then p else ~p,q)
nipkow@10692
  1233
nipkow@10692
  1234
fun ratnorm(a,p,q) = if p=0 then Rat(a,0,1) else
nipkow@10692
  1235
  let val absp = abs p
nipkow@10692
  1236
      val m = gcd(absp,q)
nipkow@10692
  1237
  in Rat(a = (0 <= p), absp div m, q div m) end;
nipkow@10692
  1238
nipkow@10692
  1239
fun ratadd(Rat(a,p,q),Rat(b,r,s)) =
nipkow@10692
  1240
  let val den = lcm(q,s)
nipkow@10692
  1241
      val p = p*(den div q) and r = r*(den div s)
nipkow@10692
  1242
      val num = (if a then p else ~p) + (if b then r else ~r)
nipkow@10692
  1243
  in ratnorm(true,num,den) end;
nipkow@10692
  1244
nipkow@10692
  1245
fun ratmul(Rat(a,p,q),Rat(b,r,s)) = ratnorm(a=b,p*r,q*s)
nipkow@10692
  1246
nipkow@10692
  1247
fun ratinv(Rat(a,p,q)) = if p=0 then error("ratinv") else Rat(a,q,p)
nipkow@10692
  1248
nipkow@10692
  1249
fun int_ratdiv(p,q) =
nipkow@10692
  1250
  if q=0 then error("int_ratdiv") else ratnorm(0<=q, p, abs q)
nipkow@10692
  1251
nipkow@10692
  1252
fun ratneg(Rat(b,p,q)) = Rat(not b,p,q);
nipkow@10692
  1253
nipkow@10692
  1254
fun rat_of_int i = if i < 0 then Rat(false,abs i,1) else Rat(true,i,1);
nipkow@10692
  1255
nipkow@10692
  1256
wenzelm@4621
  1257
(** misc **)
wenzelm@233
  1258
wenzelm@9830
  1259
fun overwrite_warn (args as (alist, (a, _))) msg =
wenzelm@9830
  1260
 (if is_none (assoc (alist, a)) then () else warning msg;
wenzelm@9830
  1261
  overwrite args);
nipkow@9721
  1262
wenzelm@233
  1263
(*use the keyfun to make a list of (x, key) pairs*)
clasohm@0
  1264
fun make_keylist (keyfun: 'a->'b) : 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list =
wenzelm@233
  1265
  let fun keypair x = (x, keyfun x)
wenzelm@233
  1266
  in map keypair end;
clasohm@0
  1267
wenzelm@233
  1268
(*given a list of (x, key) pairs and a searchkey
clasohm@0
  1269
  return the list of xs from each pair whose key equals searchkey*)
clasohm@0
  1270
fun keyfilter [] searchkey = []
wenzelm@233
  1271
  | keyfilter ((x, key) :: pairs) searchkey =
wenzelm@233
  1272
      if key = searchkey then x :: keyfilter pairs searchkey
wenzelm@233
  1273
      else keyfilter pairs searchkey;
clasohm@0
  1274
clasohm@0
  1275
clasohm@0
  1276
(*Partition list into elements that satisfy predicate and those that don't.
wenzelm@233
  1277
  Preserves order of elements in both lists.*)
clasohm@0
  1278
fun partition (pred: 'a->bool) (ys: 'a list) : ('a list * 'a list) =
clasohm@0
  1279
    let fun part ([], answer) = answer
wenzelm@233
  1280
          | part (x::xs, (ys, ns)) = if pred(x)
wenzelm@233
  1281
            then  part (xs, (x::ys, ns))
wenzelm@233
  1282
            else  part (xs, (ys, x::ns))
wenzelm@233
  1283
    in  part (rev ys, ([], []))  end;
clasohm@0
  1284
clasohm@0
  1285
clasohm@0
  1286
fun partition_eq (eq:'a * 'a -> bool) =
clasohm@0
  1287
    let fun part [] = []
wenzelm@233
  1288
          | part (x::ys) = let val (xs, xs') = partition (apl(x, eq)) ys
wenzelm@233
  1289
                           in (x::xs)::(part xs') end
clasohm@0
  1290
    in part end;
clasohm@0
  1291
clasohm@0
  1292
wenzelm@233
  1293
(*Partition a list into buckets  [ bi, b(i+1), ..., bj ]
clasohm@0
  1294
   putting x in bk if p(k)(x) holds.  Preserve order of elements if possible.*)
clasohm@0
  1295
fun partition_list p i j =
wenzelm@233
  1296
  let fun part k xs =
wenzelm@233
  1297
            if k>j then
clasohm@0
  1298
              (case xs of [] => []
clasohm@0
  1299
                         | _ => raise LIST "partition_list")
clasohm@0
  1300
            else
wenzelm@233
  1301
            let val (ns, rest) = partition (p k) xs;
wenzelm@233
  1302
            in  ns :: part(k+1)rest  end
clasohm@0
  1303
  in  part i end;
clasohm@0
  1304
clasohm@0
  1305
wenzelm@233
  1306
(* transitive closure (not Warshall's algorithm) *)
clasohm@0
  1307
wenzelm@233
  1308
fun transitive_closure [] = []
wenzelm@233
  1309
  | transitive_closure ((x, ys)::ps) =
wenzelm@233
  1310
      let val qs = transitive_closure ps
paulson@2182
  1311
          val zs = foldl (fn (zs, y) => assocs qs y union_string zs) (ys, ys)
wenzelm@5904
  1312
          fun step(u, us) = (u, if x mem_string us then zs union_string us
paulson@2243
  1313
                                else us)
wenzelm@233
  1314
      in (x, zs) :: map step qs end;
clasohm@0
  1315
clasohm@0
  1316
wenzelm@233
  1317
(* generating identifiers *)
clasohm@0
  1318
paulson@4063
  1319
(** Freshly generated identifiers; supplied prefix MUST start with a letter **)
clasohm@0
  1320
local
paulson@4063
  1321
(*Maps 0-63 to A-Z, a-z, 0-9 or _ or ' for generating random identifiers*)
paulson@4063
  1322
fun char i =      if i<26 then chr (ord "A" + i)
wenzelm@5904
  1323
             else if i<52 then chr (ord "a" + i - 26)
wenzelm@5904
  1324
             else if i<62 then chr (ord"0" + i - 52)
wenzelm@5904
  1325
             else if i=62 then "_"
wenzelm@5904
  1326
             else  (*i=63*)    "'";
paulson@4063
  1327
paulson@4063
  1328
val charVec = Vector.tabulate (64, char);
paulson@4063
  1329
wenzelm@5904
  1330
fun newid n =
wenzelm@5904
  1331
  let
wenzelm@4284
  1332
  in  implode (map (fn i => Vector.sub(charVec,i)) (radixpand (64,n)))  end;
paulson@2003
  1333
wenzelm@4284
  1334
val seedr = ref 0;
clasohm@0
  1335
paulson@4063
  1336
in
wenzelm@4284
  1337
paulson@4063
  1338
fun init_gensym() = (seedr := 0);
paulson@2003
  1339
wenzelm@4284
  1340
fun gensym pre = pre ^ (#1(newid (!seedr), inc seedr));
paulson@4063
  1341
end;
paulson@4063
  1342
paulson@4063
  1343
paulson@4063
  1344
local
paulson@4063
  1345
(*Identifies those character codes legal in identifiers.
paulson@4063
  1346
  chould use Basis Library character functions if Poly/ML provided characters*)
wenzelm@5904
  1347
fun idCode k = (ord "a" <= k andalso k < ord "z") orelse
paulson@4063
  1348
               (ord "A" <= k andalso k < ord "Z") orelse
paulson@4063
  1349
               (ord "0" <= k andalso k < ord "9");
paulson@4063
  1350
paulson@4063
  1351
val idCodeVec = Vector.tabulate (256, idCode);
paulson@4063
  1352
paulson@4063
  1353
in
paulson@2003
  1354
clasohm@0
  1355
(*Increment a list of letters like a reversed base 26 number.
wenzelm@233
  1356
  If head is "z", bumps chars in tail.
clasohm@0
  1357
  Digits are incremented as if they were integers.
clasohm@0
  1358
  "_" and "'" are not changed.
wenzelm@233
  1359
  For making variants of identifiers.*)
clasohm@0
  1360
wenzelm@5904
  1361
fun bump_int_list(c::cs) =
wenzelm@5904
  1362
        if c="9" then "0" :: bump_int_list cs
wenzelm@5904
  1363
        else
paulson@4063
  1364
        if "0" <= c andalso c < "9" then chr(ord(c)+1) :: cs
wenzelm@233
  1365
        else "1" :: c :: cs
clasohm@0
  1366
  | bump_int_list([]) = error("bump_int_list: not an identifier");
clasohm@0
  1367
wenzelm@233
  1368
fun bump_list([], d) = [d]
wenzelm@233
  1369
  | bump_list(["'"], d) = [d, "'"]
wenzelm@233
  1370
  | bump_list("z"::cs, _) = "a" :: bump_list(cs, "a")
wenzelm@233
  1371
  | bump_list("Z"::cs, _) = "A" :: bump_list(cs, "A")
wenzelm@233
  1372
  | bump_list("9"::cs, _) = "0" :: bump_int_list cs
wenzelm@5904
  1373
  | bump_list(c::cs, _) =
paulson@4063
  1374
        let val k = ord(c)
wenzelm@5904
  1375
        in if Vector.sub(idCodeVec,k) then chr(k+1) :: cs
wenzelm@5904
  1376
           else
wenzelm@5904
  1377
           if c="'" orelse c="_" then c :: bump_list(cs, "")
wenzelm@5904
  1378
           else error("bump_list: not legal in identifier: " ^
wenzelm@5904
  1379
                      implode(rev(c::cs)))
wenzelm@233
  1380
        end;
clasohm@0
  1381
clasohm@0
  1382
end;
clasohm@0
  1383
wenzelm@233
  1384
fun bump_string s : string = implode (rev (bump_list(rev(explode s), "")));
wenzelm@41
  1385
wenzelm@41
  1386
wenzelm@233
  1387
(* lexical scanning *)
clasohm@0
  1388
wenzelm@233
  1389
(*scan a list of characters into "words" composed of "letters" (recognized by
wenzelm@233
  1390
  is_let) and separated by any number of non-"letters"*)
wenzelm@233
  1391
fun scanwords is_let cs =
clasohm@0
  1392
  let fun scan1 [] = []
wenzelm@233
  1393
        | scan1 cs =
wenzelm@233
  1394
            let val (lets, rest) = take_prefix is_let cs
wenzelm@233
  1395
            in implode lets :: scanwords is_let rest end;
wenzelm@233
  1396
  in scan1 (#2 (take_prefix (not o is_let) cs)) end;
clasohm@24
  1397
wenzelm@4212
  1398
wenzelm@4212
  1399
wenzelm@4212
  1400
(* Variable-branching trees: for proof terms etc. *)
wenzelm@4212
  1401
datatype 'a mtree = Join of 'a * 'a mtree list;
wenzelm@4212
  1402
wenzelm@4212
  1403
clasohm@1364
  1404
end;
clasohm@1364
  1405
clasohm@1364
  1406
open Library;