src/Pure/Isar/rule_insts.ML
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simplified read_instantiate -- no longer need to assign values, since rule attributes are now static;
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(*  Title:      Pure/Isar/rule_insts.ML
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    Author:     Makarius
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Rule instantiations -- operations within a rule/subgoal context.
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*)
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signature BASIC_RULE_INSTS =
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sig
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  val read_instantiate: Proof.context -> (indexname * string) list -> thm -> thm
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  val instantiate_tac: Proof.context -> (indexname * string) list -> tactic
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  val res_inst_tac: Proof.context -> (indexname * string) list -> thm -> int -> tactic
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  val eres_inst_tac: Proof.context -> (indexname * string) list -> thm -> int -> tactic
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  val cut_inst_tac: Proof.context -> (indexname * string) list -> thm -> int -> tactic
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  val forw_inst_tac: Proof.context -> (indexname * string) list -> thm -> int -> tactic
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  val dres_inst_tac: Proof.context -> (indexname * string) list -> thm -> int -> tactic
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  val thin_tac: Proof.context -> string -> int -> tactic
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  val subgoal_tac: Proof.context -> string -> int -> tactic
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  val subgoals_tac: Proof.context -> string list -> int -> tactic
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  val method: (Proof.context -> (indexname * string) list -> thm -> int -> tactic) ->
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    (Proof.context -> thm list -> int -> tactic) -> (Proof.context -> Proof.method) context_parser
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end;
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signature RULE_INSTS =
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sig
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  include BASIC_RULE_INSTS
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  val make_elim_preserve: thm -> thm
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end;
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structure Rule_Insts: RULE_INSTS =
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struct
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(** reading instantiations **)
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local
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fun error_var msg xi = error (msg ^ quote (Term.string_of_vname xi));
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fun the_sort tvars (xi: indexname) =
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  (case AList.lookup (op =) tvars xi of
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    SOME S => S
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  | NONE => error_var "No such type variable in theorem: " xi);
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fun the_type vars (xi: indexname) =
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  (case AList.lookup (op =) vars xi of
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    SOME T => T
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  | NONE => error_var "No such variable in theorem: " xi);
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fun instantiate inst =
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  Term_Subst.instantiate ([], map (fn (xi, t) => ((xi, Term.fastype_of t), t)) inst) #>
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  Envir.beta_norm;
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fun make_instT f v =
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  let
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    val T = TVar v;
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    val T' = f T;
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  in if T = T' then NONE else SOME (T, T') end;
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fun make_inst f v =
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  let
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    val t = Var v;
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    val t' = f t;
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  in if t aconv t' then NONE else SOME (t, t') end;
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val add_used =
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  (Thm.fold_terms o fold_types o fold_atyps)
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    (fn TFree (a, _) => insert (op =) a
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      | TVar ((a, _), _) => insert (op =) a
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      | _ => I);
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in
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fun read_termTs ctxt schematic ss Ts =
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  let
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    fun parse T = if T = propT then Syntax.parse_prop ctxt else Syntax.parse_term ctxt;
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    val ts = map2 parse Ts ss;
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    val ts' =
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      map2 (Type.constraint o Type_Infer.paramify_vars) Ts ts
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      |> Syntax.check_terms ((schematic ? Proof_Context.set_mode Proof_Context.mode_schematic) ctxt)
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      |> Variable.polymorphic ctxt;
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    val Ts' = map Term.fastype_of ts';
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    val tyenv = fold Type.raw_match (Ts ~~ Ts') Vartab.empty;
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  in (ts', map (apsnd snd) (Vartab.dest tyenv)) end;
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fun read_insts ctxt mixed_insts (tvars, vars) =
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  let
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    val thy = Proof_Context.theory_of ctxt;
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    val cert = Thm.cterm_of thy;
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    val certT = Thm.ctyp_of thy;
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    val (type_insts, term_insts) = List.partition (String.isPrefix "'" o fst o fst) mixed_insts;
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    (* type instantiations *)
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    fun readT (xi, s) =
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      let
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        val S = the_sort tvars xi;
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        val T = Syntax.read_typ ctxt s;
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      in
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        if Sign.of_sort thy (T, S) then ((xi, S), T)
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        else error_var "Incompatible sort for typ instantiation of " xi
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      end;
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    val instT1 = Term_Subst.instantiateT (map readT type_insts);
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    val vars1 = map (apsnd instT1) vars;
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    (* term instantiations *)
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    val (xs, ss) = split_list term_insts;
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    val Ts = map (the_type vars1) xs;
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    val (ts, inferred) = read_termTs ctxt false ss Ts;
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    val instT2 = Term.typ_subst_TVars inferred;
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    val vars2 = map (apsnd instT2) vars1;
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    val inst2 = instantiate (xs ~~ ts);
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    (* result *)
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    val inst_tvars = map_filter (make_instT (instT2 o instT1)) tvars;
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    val inst_vars = map_filter (make_inst inst2) vars2;
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  in
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    (map (pairself certT) inst_tvars, map (pairself cert) inst_vars)
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  end;
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fun read_instantiate_mixed ctxt mixed_insts thm =
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  let
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    val ctxt' = ctxt
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      |> Variable.declare_thm thm
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      |> fold (fn a => Variable.declare_names (Logic.mk_type (TFree (a, dummyS)))) (add_used thm []);  (* FIXME !? *)
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    val tvars = Thm.fold_terms Term.add_tvars thm [];
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    val vars = Thm.fold_terms Term.add_vars thm [];
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    val insts = read_insts ctxt' mixed_insts (tvars, vars);
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  in
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    Drule.instantiate_normalize insts thm
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    |> Rule_Cases.save thm
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  end;
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fun read_instantiate_mixed' ctxt (args, concl_args) thm =
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  let
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    fun zip_vars _ [] = []
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      | zip_vars (_ :: xs) (NONE :: rest) = zip_vars xs rest
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      | zip_vars ((x, _) :: xs) (SOME t :: rest) = (x, t) :: zip_vars xs rest
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      | zip_vars [] _ = error "More instantiations than variables in theorem";
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    val insts =
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      zip_vars (rev (Term.add_vars (Thm.full_prop_of thm) [])) args @
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      zip_vars (rev (Term.add_vars (Thm.concl_of thm) [])) concl_args;
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  in read_instantiate_mixed ctxt insts thm end;
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end;
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(* instantiation of rule or goal state *)
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fun read_instantiate ctxt =
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  read_instantiate_mixed (ctxt |> Proof_Context.set_mode Proof_Context.mode_schematic);  (* FIXME !? *)
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fun instantiate_tac ctxt args = PRIMITIVE (read_instantiate ctxt args);
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(** attributes **)
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(* where: named instantiation *)
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val _ = Context.>> (Context.map_theory
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  (Attrib.setup (Binding.name "where")
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    (Scan.lift (Parse.and_list (Args.var -- (Args.$$$ "=" |-- Args.name_source))) >>
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      (fn args =>
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        Thm.rule_attribute (fn context => read_instantiate_mixed (Context.proof_of context) args)))
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    "named instantiation of theorem"));
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(* of: positional instantiation (terms only) *)
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local
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val inst = Args.maybe Args.name_source;
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val concl = Args.$$$ "concl" -- Args.colon;
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val insts =
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  Scan.repeat (Scan.unless concl inst) --
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  Scan.optional (concl |-- Scan.repeat inst) [];
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in
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val _ = Context.>> (Context.map_theory
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  (Attrib.setup (Binding.name "of")
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    (Scan.lift insts >> (fn args =>
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      Thm.rule_attribute (fn context => read_instantiate_mixed' (Context.proof_of context) args)))
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    "positional instantiation of theorem"));
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end;
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(** tactics **)
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(* resolution after lifting and instantation; may refer to parameters of the subgoal *)
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(* FIXME cleanup this mess!!! *)
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fun bires_inst_tac bires_flag ctxt insts thm =
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  let
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    val thy = Proof_Context.theory_of ctxt;
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    (* Separate type and term insts *)
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    fun has_type_var ((x, _), _) =
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      (case Symbol.explode x of "'" :: _ => true | _ => false);
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    val Tinsts = filter has_type_var insts;
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    val tinsts = filter_out has_type_var insts;
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    (* Tactic *)
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    fun tac i st =
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      let
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        val (_, _, Bi, _) = Thm.dest_state (st, i);
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        val params = Logic.strip_params Bi;  (*params of subgoal i as string typ pairs*)
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        val params = rev (Term.rename_wrt_term Bi params)
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          (*as they are printed: bound variables with*)
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          (*the same name are renamed during printing*)
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        val (param_names, ctxt') = ctxt
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          |> Variable.declare_thm thm
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          |> Thm.fold_terms Variable.declare_constraints st
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          |> Proof_Context.add_fixes (map (fn (x, T) => (Binding.name x, SOME T, NoSyn)) params);
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        (* Process type insts: Tinsts_env *)
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        fun absent xi = error
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              ("No such variable in theorem: " ^ Term.string_of_vname xi);
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        val (rtypes, rsorts) = Drule.types_sorts thm;
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        fun readT (xi, s) =
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            let val S = case rsorts xi of SOME S => S | NONE => absent xi;
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                val T = Syntax.read_typ ctxt' s;
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                val U = TVar (xi, S);
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            in if Sign.typ_instance thy (T, U) then (U, T)
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               else error ("Instantiation of " ^ Term.string_of_vname xi ^ " fails")
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            end;
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        val Tinsts_env = map readT Tinsts;
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        (* Preprocess rule: extract vars and their types, apply Tinsts *)
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        fun get_typ xi =
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          (case rtypes xi of
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               SOME T => typ_subst_atomic Tinsts_env T
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             | NONE => absent xi);
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        val (xis, ss) = Library.split_list tinsts;
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        val Ts = map get_typ xis;
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        val (ts, envT) = read_termTs ctxt' true ss Ts;
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        val envT' = map (fn (ixn, T) =>
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          (TVar (ixn, the (rsorts ixn)), T)) envT @ Tinsts_env;
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        val cenv =
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          map
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            (fn (xi, t) =>
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              pairself (Thm.cterm_of thy) (Var (xi, fastype_of t), t))
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            (distinct
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              (fn ((x1, t1), (x2, t2)) => x1 = x2 andalso t1 aconv t2)
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              (xis ~~ ts));
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        (* Lift and instantiate rule *)
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        val maxidx = Thm.maxidx_of st;
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        val paramTs = map #2 params
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        and inc = maxidx+1
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        fun liftvar (Var ((a,j), T)) =
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              Var((a, j+inc), paramTs ---> Logic.incr_tvar inc T)
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          | liftvar t = raise TERM("Variable expected", [t]);
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        fun liftterm t =
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          fold_rev absfree (param_names ~~ paramTs) (Logic.incr_indexes (paramTs, inc) t);
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        fun liftpair (cv, ct) = (cterm_fun liftvar cv, cterm_fun liftterm ct);
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        val lifttvar = pairself (ctyp_of thy o Logic.incr_tvar inc);
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        val rule = Drule.instantiate_normalize
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              (map lifttvar envT', map liftpair cenv)
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              (Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) thm)
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      in
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        if i > nprems_of st then no_tac st
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        else st |>
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          compose_tac (bires_flag, rule, nprems_of thm) i
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      end
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           handle TERM (msg,_)   => (warning msg; no_tac st)
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                | THM  (msg,_,_) => (warning msg; no_tac st);
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  in tac end;
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val res_inst_tac = bires_inst_tac false;
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val eres_inst_tac = bires_inst_tac true;
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(* forward resolution *)
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fun make_elim_preserve rl =
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  let
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    val cert = Thm.cterm_of (Thm.theory_of_thm rl);
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    val maxidx = Thm.maxidx_of rl;
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    fun cvar xi = cert (Var (xi, propT));
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    val revcut_rl' =
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      Drule.instantiate_normalize ([], [(cvar ("V", 0), cvar ("V", maxidx + 1)),
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        (cvar ("W", 0), cvar ("W", maxidx + 1))]) Drule.revcut_rl;
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  in
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    (case Seq.list_of (Thm.bicompose false (false, rl, Thm.nprems_of rl) 1 revcut_rl') of
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      [th] => th
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    | _ => raise THM ("make_elim_preserve", 1, [rl]))
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  end;
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(*instantiate and cut -- for atomic fact*)
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fun cut_inst_tac ctxt insts rule = res_inst_tac ctxt insts (make_elim_preserve rule);
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(*forward tactic applies a rule to an assumption without deleting it*)
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fun forw_inst_tac ctxt insts rule = cut_inst_tac ctxt insts rule THEN' assume_tac;
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(*dresolve tactic applies a rule to replace an assumption*)
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fun dres_inst_tac ctxt insts rule = eres_inst_tac ctxt insts (make_elim_preserve rule);
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(* derived tactics *)
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(*deletion of an assumption*)
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fun thin_tac ctxt s = eres_inst_tac ctxt [(("V", 0), s)] Drule.thin_rl;
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(*Introduce the given proposition as lemma and subgoal*)
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fun subgoal_tac ctxt A = DETERM o res_inst_tac ctxt [(("psi", 0), A)] cut_rl;
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fun subgoals_tac ctxt As = EVERY' (map (subgoal_tac ctxt) As);
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(** methods **)
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(* rule_tac etc. -- refer to dynamic goal state! *)
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fun method inst_tac tac =
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  Args.goal_spec --
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  Scan.optional (Scan.lift
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    (Parse.and_list1 (Args.var -- (Args.$$$ "=" |-- Parse.!!! Args.name_source)) --|
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      Args.$$$ "in")) [] --
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  Attrib.thms >>
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  (fn ((quant, insts), thms) => fn ctxt => METHOD (fn facts =>
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    if null insts then quant (Method.insert_tac facts THEN' tac ctxt thms)
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    else
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      (case thms of
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        [thm] => quant (Method.insert_tac facts THEN' inst_tac ctxt insts thm)
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      | _ => error "Cannot have instantiations with multiple rules")));
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val res_inst_meth = method res_inst_tac (K Tactic.resolve_tac);
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val eres_inst_meth = method eres_inst_tac (K Tactic.eresolve_tac);
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val cut_inst_meth = method cut_inst_tac (K Tactic.cut_rules_tac);
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val dres_inst_meth = method dres_inst_tac (K Tactic.dresolve_tac);
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val forw_inst_meth = method forw_inst_tac (K Tactic.forward_tac);
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aac494583949 Rule instantiations -- operations within a rule/subgoal context.
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(* setup *)
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9283b4185fdf Context.>> : operate on Context.generic;
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val _ = Context.>> (Context.map_theory
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 (Method.setup (Binding.name "rule_tac") res_inst_meth "apply rule (dynamic instantiation)" #>
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  Method.setup (Binding.name "erule_tac") eres_inst_meth
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    "apply rule in elimination manner (dynamic instantiation)" #>
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  Method.setup (Binding.name "drule_tac") dres_inst_meth
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    "apply rule in destruct manner (dynamic instantiation)" #>
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  Method.setup (Binding.name "frule_tac") forw_inst_meth
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    "apply rule in forward manner (dynamic instantiation)" #>
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  Method.setup (Binding.name "cut_tac") cut_inst_meth "cut rule (dynamic instantiation)" #>
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  Method.setup (Binding.name "subgoal_tac")
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    (Args.goal_spec -- Scan.lift (Scan.repeat1 Args.name_source) >>
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      (fn (quant, props) => fn ctxt => SIMPLE_METHOD'' quant (subgoals_tac ctxt props)))
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    "insert subgoal (dynamic instantiation)" #>
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  Method.setup (Binding.name "thin_tac")
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    (Args.goal_spec -- Scan.lift Args.name_source >>
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      (fn (quant, prop) => fn ctxt => SIMPLE_METHOD'' quant (thin_tac ctxt prop)))
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      "remove premise (dynamic instantiation)"));
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end;
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structure Basic_Rule_Insts: BASIC_RULE_INSTS = Rule_Insts;
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open Basic_Rule_Insts;