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(* Title: HOL/Complex.thy 
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Author: Jacques D. Fleuriot 
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Copyright: 2001 University of Edinburgh 

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Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
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Conversion to Isar and new proofs by Lawrence C Paulson, 2003/4 
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*) 
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header {* Complex Numbers: Rectangular and Polar Representations *} 
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theory Complex 
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imports Transcendental 
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begin 
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datatype complex = Complex real real 
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primrec Re :: "complex \<Rightarrow> real" 
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where Re: "Re (Complex x y) = x" 

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primrec Im :: "complex \<Rightarrow> real" 
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where Im: "Im (Complex x y) = y" 

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lemma complex_surj [simp]: "Complex (Re z) (Im z) = z" 

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by (induct z) simp 

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lemma complex_eqI [intro?]: "\<lbrakk>Re x = Re y; Im x = Im y\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x = y" 
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by (induct x, induct y) simp 
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lemma complex_eq_iff: "x = y \<longleftrightarrow> Re x = Re y \<and> Im x = Im y" 
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subsection {* Addition and Subtraction *} 
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instantiation complex :: ab_group_add 
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begin 
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definition complex_zero_def: 
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"0 = Complex 0 0" 

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definition complex_add_def: 
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"x + y = Complex (Re x + Re y) (Im x + Im y)" 

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definition complex_minus_def: 
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" x = Complex ( Re x) ( Im x)" 

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definition complex_diff_def: 
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"x  (y\<Colon>complex) = x +  y" 

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lemma Complex_eq_0 [simp]: "Complex a b = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> a = 0 \<and> b = 0" 
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by (simp add: complex_zero_def) 

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lemma complex_Re_zero [simp]: "Re 0 = 0" 
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by (simp add: complex_zero_def) 
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lemma complex_Im_zero [simp]: "Im 0 = 0" 

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by (simp add: complex_zero_def) 
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lemma complex_add [simp]: 
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"Complex a b + Complex c d = Complex (a + c) (b + d)" 

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by (simp add: complex_add_def) 

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lemma complex_Re_add [simp]: "Re (x + y) = Re x + Re y" 
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by (simp add: complex_add_def) 

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lemma complex_Im_add [simp]: "Im (x + y) = Im x + Im y" 

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by (simp add: complex_add_def) 

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lemma complex_minus [simp]: 
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" (Complex a b) = Complex ( a) ( b)" 

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by (simp add: complex_minus_def) 
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lemma complex_Re_minus [simp]: "Re ( x) =  Re x" 
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by (simp add: complex_minus_def) 
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lemma complex_Im_minus [simp]: "Im ( x) =  Im x" 
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by (simp add: complex_minus_def) 
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lemma complex_diff [simp]: 
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"Complex a b  Complex c d = Complex (a  c) (b  d)" 
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by (simp add: complex_diff_def) 
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lemma complex_Re_diff [simp]: "Re (x  y) = Re x  Re y" 
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by (simp add: complex_diff_def) 
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lemma complex_Im_diff [simp]: "Im (x  y) = Im x  Im y" 
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by (simp add: complex_diff_def) 
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instance 
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by intro_classes (simp_all add: complex_add_def complex_diff_def) 

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end 

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subsection {* Multiplication and Division *} 
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instantiation complex :: field_inverse_zero 
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begin 
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definition complex_one_def: 
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"1 = Complex 1 0" 

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definition complex_mult_def: 
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"x * y = Complex (Re x * Re y  Im x * Im y) (Re x * Im y + Im x * Re y)" 

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definition complex_inverse_def: 
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"inverse x = 

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Complex (Re x / ((Re x)\<^sup>2 + (Im x)\<^sup>2)) ( Im x / ((Re x)\<^sup>2 + (Im x)\<^sup>2))" 
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definition complex_divide_def: 
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"x / (y\<Colon>complex) = x * inverse y" 

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lemma Complex_eq_1 [simp]: "(Complex a b = 1) = (a = 1 \<and> b = 0)" 
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by (simp add: complex_one_def) 
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lemma complex_Re_one [simp]: "Re 1 = 1" 
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by (simp add: complex_one_def) 
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lemma complex_Im_one [simp]: "Im 1 = 0" 
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by (simp add: complex_one_def) 
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lemma complex_mult [simp]: 
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"Complex a b * Complex c d = Complex (a * c  b * d) (a * d + b * c)" 
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by (simp add: complex_mult_def) 
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lemma complex_Re_mult [simp]: "Re (x * y) = Re x * Re y  Im x * Im y" 
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by (simp add: complex_mult_def) 
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lemma complex_Im_mult [simp]: "Im (x * y) = Re x * Im y + Im x * Re y" 
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by (simp add: complex_mult_def) 
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lemma complex_inverse [simp]: 
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"inverse (Complex a b) = Complex (a / (a\<^sup>2 + b\<^sup>2)) ( b / (a\<^sup>2 + b\<^sup>2))" 
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by (simp add: complex_inverse_def) 
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lemma complex_Re_inverse: 
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"Re (inverse x) = Re x / ((Re x)\<^sup>2 + (Im x)\<^sup>2)" 
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by (simp add: complex_inverse_def) 
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lemma complex_Im_inverse: 
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"Im (inverse x) =  Im x / ((Re x)\<^sup>2 + (Im x)\<^sup>2)" 
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by (simp add: complex_inverse_def) 
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instance 
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by intro_classes (simp_all add: complex_mult_def 

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distrib_left distrib_right right_diff_distrib left_diff_distrib 
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complex_inverse_def complex_divide_def 
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power2_eq_square add_divide_distrib [symmetric] 

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complex_eq_iff) 

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end 
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subsection {* Numerals and Arithmetic *} 
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lemma complex_Re_of_nat [simp]: "Re (of_nat n) = of_nat n" 
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by (induct n) simp_all 
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lemma complex_Im_of_nat [simp]: "Im (of_nat n) = 0" 
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lemma complex_Re_of_int [simp]: "Re (of_int z) = of_int z" 
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lemma complex_Im_of_int [simp]: "Im (of_int z) = 0" 
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lemma complex_Re_numeral [simp]: "Re (numeral v) = numeral v" 
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using complex_Re_of_int [of "numeral v"] by simp 
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lemma complex_Re_neg_numeral [simp]: "Re (neg_numeral v) = neg_numeral v" 
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using complex_Re_of_int [of "neg_numeral v"] by simp 
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lemma complex_Im_numeral [simp]: "Im (numeral v) = 0" 
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using complex_Im_of_int [of "numeral v"] by simp 
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lemma complex_Im_neg_numeral [simp]: "Im (neg_numeral v) = 0" 
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lemma Complex_eq_numeral [simp]: 
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"(Complex a b = numeral w) = (a = numeral w \<and> b = 0)" 
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by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
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lemma Complex_eq_neg_numeral [simp]: 
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"(Complex a b = neg_numeral w) = (a = neg_numeral w \<and> b = 0)" 
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subsection {* Scalar Multiplication *} 
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instantiation complex :: real_field 
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begin 
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definition complex_scaleR_def: 
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"scaleR r x = Complex (r * Re x) (r * Im x)" 

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lemma complex_scaleR [simp]: 
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"scaleR r (Complex a b) = Complex (r * a) (r * b)" 
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lemma complex_Re_scaleR [simp]: "Re (scaleR r x) = r * Re x" 
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lemma complex_Im_scaleR [simp]: "Im (scaleR r x) = r * Im x" 
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instance 
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proof 
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fix a b :: real and x y :: complex 
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show "scaleR a (x + y) = scaleR a x + scaleR a y" 
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by (simp add: complex_eq_iff distrib_left) 
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show "scaleR (a + b) x = scaleR a x + scaleR b x" 
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by (simp add: complex_eq_iff distrib_right) 
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show "scaleR a (scaleR b x) = scaleR (a * b) x" 
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by (simp add: complex_eq_iff mult_assoc) 
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show "scaleR 1 x = x" 
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by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
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216 
show "scaleR a x * y = scaleR a (x * y)" 
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by (simp add: complex_eq_iff algebra_simps) 
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218 
show "x * scaleR a y = scaleR a (x * y)" 
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by (simp add: complex_eq_iff algebra_simps) 
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qed 
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25712  222 
end 
223 

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224 

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subsection{* Properties of Embedding from Reals *} 
14323  226 

44724  227 
abbreviation complex_of_real :: "real \<Rightarrow> complex" 
228 
where "complex_of_real \<equiv> of_real" 

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229 

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lemma complex_of_real_def: "complex_of_real r = Complex r 0" 
44724  231 
by (simp add: of_real_def complex_scaleR_def) 
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232 

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lemma Re_complex_of_real [simp]: "Re (complex_of_real z) = z" 
44724  234 
by (simp add: complex_of_real_def) 
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235 

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lemma Im_complex_of_real [simp]: "Im (complex_of_real z) = 0" 
44724  237 
by (simp add: complex_of_real_def) 
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14377  239 
lemma Complex_add_complex_of_real [simp]: 
44724  240 
shows "Complex x y + complex_of_real r = Complex (x+r) y" 
241 
by (simp add: complex_of_real_def) 

14377  242 

243 
lemma complex_of_real_add_Complex [simp]: 

44724  244 
shows "complex_of_real r + Complex x y = Complex (r+x) y" 
245 
by (simp add: complex_of_real_def) 

14377  246 

247 
lemma Complex_mult_complex_of_real: 

44724  248 
shows "Complex x y * complex_of_real r = Complex (x*r) (y*r)" 
249 
by (simp add: complex_of_real_def) 

14377  250 

251 
lemma complex_of_real_mult_Complex: 

44724  252 
shows "complex_of_real r * Complex x y = Complex (r*x) (r*y)" 
253 
by (simp add: complex_of_real_def) 

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44841  255 
lemma complex_eq_cancel_iff2 [simp]: 
256 
shows "(Complex x y = complex_of_real xa) = (x = xa & y = 0)" 

257 
by (simp add: complex_of_real_def) 

258 

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lemma complex_split_polar: 
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"\<exists>r a. z = complex_of_real r * (Complex (cos a) (sin a))" 
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261 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff polar_Ex) 
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262 

14377  263 

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subsection {* Vector Norm *} 
14323  265 

25712  266 
instantiation complex :: real_normed_field 
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begin 
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268 

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definition complex_norm_def: 
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"norm z = sqrt ((Re z)\<^sup>2 + (Im z)\<^sup>2)" 
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44724  272 
abbreviation cmod :: "complex \<Rightarrow> real" 
273 
where "cmod \<equiv> norm" 

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definition complex_sgn_def: 
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"sgn x = x /\<^sub>R cmod x" 
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definition dist_complex_def: 
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"dist x y = cmod (x  y)" 
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37767  281 
definition open_complex_def: 
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"open (S :: complex set) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>S. \<exists>e>0. \<forall>y. dist y x < e \<longrightarrow> y \<in> S)" 
31292  283 

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lemmas cmod_def = complex_norm_def 
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285 

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lemma complex_norm [simp]: "cmod (Complex x y) = sqrt (x\<^sup>2 + y\<^sup>2)" 
25712  287 
by (simp add: complex_norm_def) 
22852  288 

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instance proof 
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fix r :: real and x y :: complex and S :: "complex set" 
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291 
show "(norm x = 0) = (x = 0)" 
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292 
by (induct x) simp 
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293 
show "norm (x + y) \<le> norm x + norm y" 
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294 
by (induct x, induct y) 
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295 
(simp add: real_sqrt_sum_squares_triangle_ineq) 
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296 
show "norm (scaleR r x) = \<bar>r\<bar> * norm x" 
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297 
by (induct x) 
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(simp add: power_mult_distrib distrib_left [symmetric] real_sqrt_mult) 
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299 
show "norm (x * y) = norm x * norm y" 
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300 
by (induct x, induct y) 
29667  301 
(simp add: real_sqrt_mult [symmetric] power2_eq_square algebra_simps) 
31292  302 
show "sgn x = x /\<^sub>R cmod x" 
303 
by (rule complex_sgn_def) 

304 
show "dist x y = cmod (x  y)" 

305 
by (rule dist_complex_def) 

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show "open S \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>S. \<exists>e>0. \<forall>y. dist y x < e \<longrightarrow> y \<in> S)" 
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307 
by (rule open_complex_def) 
24520  308 
qed 
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309 

25712  310 
end 
311 

44761  312 
lemma cmod_unit_one: "cmod (Complex (cos a) (sin a)) = 1" 
44724  313 
by simp 
14323  314 

44761  315 
lemma cmod_complex_polar: 
44724  316 
"cmod (complex_of_real r * Complex (cos a) (sin a)) = abs r" 
317 
by (simp add: norm_mult) 

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318 

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lemma complex_Re_le_cmod: "Re x \<le> cmod x" 
44724  320 
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321 
by (rule real_sqrt_sum_squares_ge1) 

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322 

44761  323 
lemma complex_mod_minus_le_complex_mod: " cmod x \<le> cmod x" 
44724  324 
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325 

44761  326 
lemma complex_mod_triangle_ineq2: "cmod(b + a)  cmod b \<le> cmod a" 
44724  327 
by (rule ord_le_eq_trans [OF norm_triangle_ineq2], simp) 
14323  328 

26117  329 
lemma abs_Re_le_cmod: "\<bar>Re x\<bar> \<le> cmod x" 
44724  330 
by (cases x) simp 
26117  331 

332 
lemma abs_Im_le_cmod: "\<bar>Im x\<bar> \<le> cmod x" 

44724  333 
by (cases x) simp 
334 

44843  335 
text {* Properties of complex signum. *} 
336 

337 
lemma sgn_eq: "sgn z = z / complex_of_real (cmod z)" 

338 
by (simp add: sgn_div_norm divide_inverse scaleR_conv_of_real mult_commute) 

339 

340 
lemma Re_sgn [simp]: "Re(sgn z) = Re(z)/cmod z" 

341 
by (simp add: complex_sgn_def divide_inverse) 

342 

343 
lemma Im_sgn [simp]: "Im(sgn z) = Im(z)/cmod z" 

344 
by (simp add: complex_sgn_def divide_inverse) 

345 

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346 

23123  347 
subsection {* Completeness of the Complexes *} 
348 

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349 
lemma bounded_linear_Re: "bounded_linear Re" 
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350 
by (rule bounded_linear_intro [where K=1], simp_all add: complex_norm_def) 
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351 

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352 
lemma bounded_linear_Im: "bounded_linear Im" 
44127  353 
by (rule bounded_linear_intro [where K=1], simp_all add: complex_norm_def) 
23123  354 

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355 
lemmas tendsto_Re [tendsto_intros] = 
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356 
bounded_linear.tendsto [OF bounded_linear_Re] 
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357 

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358 
lemmas tendsto_Im [tendsto_intros] = 
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359 
bounded_linear.tendsto [OF bounded_linear_Im] 
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360 

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361 
lemmas isCont_Re [simp] = bounded_linear.isCont [OF bounded_linear_Re] 
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362 
lemmas isCont_Im [simp] = bounded_linear.isCont [OF bounded_linear_Im] 
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363 
lemmas Cauchy_Re = bounded_linear.Cauchy [OF bounded_linear_Re] 
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364 
lemmas Cauchy_Im = bounded_linear.Cauchy [OF bounded_linear_Im] 
23123  365 

36825  366 
lemma tendsto_Complex [tendsto_intros]: 
44724  367 
assumes "(f > a) F" and "(g > b) F" 
368 
shows "((\<lambda>x. Complex (f x) (g x)) > Complex a b) F" 

36825  369 
proof (rule tendstoI) 
370 
fix r :: real assume "0 < r" 

371 
hence "0 < r / sqrt 2" by (simp add: divide_pos_pos) 

44724  372 
have "eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (f x) a < r / sqrt 2) F" 
373 
using `(f > a) F` and `0 < r / sqrt 2` by (rule tendstoD) 

36825  374 
moreover 
44724  375 
have "eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (g x) b < r / sqrt 2) F" 
376 
using `(g > b) F` and `0 < r / sqrt 2` by (rule tendstoD) 

36825  377 
ultimately 
44724  378 
show "eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (Complex (f x) (g x)) (Complex a b) < r) F" 
36825  379 
by (rule eventually_elim2) 
380 
(simp add: dist_norm real_sqrt_sum_squares_less) 

381 
qed 

382 

23123  383 
instance complex :: banach 
384 
proof 

385 
fix X :: "nat \<Rightarrow> complex" 

386 
assume X: "Cauchy X" 

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387 
from Cauchy_Re [OF X] have 1: "(\<lambda>n. Re (X n)) > lim (\<lambda>n. Re (X n))" 
23123  388 
by (simp add: Cauchy_convergent_iff convergent_LIMSEQ_iff) 
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389 
from Cauchy_Im [OF X] have 2: "(\<lambda>n. Im (X n)) > lim (\<lambda>n. Im (X n))" 
23123  390 
by (simp add: Cauchy_convergent_iff convergent_LIMSEQ_iff) 
391 
have "X > Complex (lim (\<lambda>n. Re (X n))) (lim (\<lambda>n. Im (X n)))" 

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392 
using tendsto_Complex [OF 1 2] by simp 
23123  393 
thus "convergent X" 
394 
by (rule convergentI) 

395 
qed 

396 

397 

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398 
subsection {* The Complex Number $i$ *} 
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399 

44724  400 
definition "ii" :: complex ("\<i>") 
401 
where i_def: "ii \<equiv> Complex 0 1" 

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402 

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403 
lemma complex_Re_i [simp]: "Re ii = 0" 
44724  404 
by (simp add: i_def) 
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405 

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406 
lemma complex_Im_i [simp]: "Im ii = 1" 
44724  407 
by (simp add: i_def) 
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408 

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409 
lemma Complex_eq_i [simp]: "(Complex x y = ii) = (x = 0 \<and> y = 1)" 
44724  410 
by (simp add: i_def) 
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411 

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412 
lemma norm_ii [simp]: "norm ii = 1" 
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413 
by (simp add: i_def) 
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414 

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415 
lemma complex_i_not_zero [simp]: "ii \<noteq> 0" 
44724  416 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
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417 

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418 
lemma complex_i_not_one [simp]: "ii \<noteq> 1" 
44724  419 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23124  420 

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lemma complex_i_not_numeral [simp]: "ii \<noteq> numeral w" 
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422 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
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423 

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lemma complex_i_not_neg_numeral [simp]: "ii \<noteq> neg_numeral w" 
44724  425 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
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426 

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parents:
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427 
lemma i_mult_Complex [simp]: "ii * Complex a b = Complex ( b) a" 
44724  428 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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429 

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parents:
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430 
lemma Complex_mult_i [simp]: "Complex a b * ii = Complex ( b) a" 
44724  431 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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changeset

432 

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parents:
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433 
lemma i_complex_of_real [simp]: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r" 
44724  434 
by (simp add: i_def complex_of_real_def) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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changeset

435 

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huffman
parents:
23124
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436 
lemma complex_of_real_i [simp]: "complex_of_real r * ii = Complex 0 r" 
44724  437 
by (simp add: i_def complex_of_real_def) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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changeset

438 

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huffman
parents:
23124
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changeset

439 
lemma i_squared [simp]: "ii * ii = 1" 
44724  440 
by (simp add: i_def) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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441 

53015
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parents:
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changeset

442 
lemma power2_i [simp]: "ii\<^sup>2 = 1" 
44724  443 
by (simp add: power2_eq_square) 
23125
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parents:
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444 

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parents:
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changeset

445 
lemma inverse_i [simp]: "inverse ii =  ii" 
44724  446 
by (rule inverse_unique, simp) 
14354
988aa4648597
types complex and hcomplex are now instances of class ringpower:
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parents:
14353
diff
changeset

447 

44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

448 
lemma complex_i_mult_minus [simp]: "ii * (ii * x) =  x" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

449 
by (simp add: mult_assoc [symmetric]) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

450 

14354
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types complex and hcomplex are now instances of class ringpower:
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parents:
14353
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changeset

451 

23125
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parents:
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452 
subsection {* Complex Conjugation *} 
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parents:
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453 

44724  454 
definition cnj :: "complex \<Rightarrow> complex" where 
23125
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455 
"cnj z = Complex (Re z) ( Im z)" 
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456 

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parents:
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changeset

457 
lemma complex_cnj [simp]: "cnj (Complex a b) = Complex a ( b)" 
44724  458 
by (simp add: cnj_def) 
23125
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parents:
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changeset

459 

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parents:
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changeset

460 
lemma complex_Re_cnj [simp]: "Re (cnj x) = Re x" 
44724  461 
by (simp add: cnj_def) 
23125
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huffman
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462 

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parents:
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changeset

463 
lemma complex_Im_cnj [simp]: "Im (cnj x) =  Im x" 
44724  464 
by (simp add: cnj_def) 
23125
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465 

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parents:
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466 
lemma complex_cnj_cancel_iff [simp]: "(cnj x = cnj y) = (x = y)" 
44724  467 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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468 

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parents:
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changeset

469 
lemma complex_cnj_cnj [simp]: "cnj (cnj z) = z" 
44724  470 
by (simp add: cnj_def) 
23125
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parents:
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471 

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parents:
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472 
lemma complex_cnj_zero [simp]: "cnj 0 = 0" 
44724  473 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
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474 

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parents:
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changeset

475 
lemma complex_cnj_zero_iff [iff]: "(cnj z = 0) = (z = 0)" 
44724  476 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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477 

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parents:
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478 
lemma complex_cnj_add: "cnj (x + y) = cnj x + cnj y" 
44724  479 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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480 

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parents:
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481 
lemma complex_cnj_diff: "cnj (x  y) = cnj x  cnj y" 
44724  482 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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changeset

483 

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parents:
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484 
lemma complex_cnj_minus: "cnj ( x) =  cnj x" 
44724  485 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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486 

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parents:
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487 
lemma complex_cnj_one [simp]: "cnj 1 = 1" 
44724  488 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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changeset

489 

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parents:
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changeset

490 
lemma complex_cnj_mult: "cnj (x * y) = cnj x * cnj y" 
44724  491 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
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492 

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parents:
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changeset

493 
lemma complex_cnj_inverse: "cnj (inverse x) = inverse (cnj x)" 
44724  494 
by (simp add: complex_inverse_def) 
14323  495 

23125
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496 
lemma complex_cnj_divide: "cnj (x / y) = cnj x / cnj y" 
44724  497 
by (simp add: complex_divide_def complex_cnj_mult complex_cnj_inverse) 
23125
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parents:
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498 

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parents:
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499 
lemma complex_cnj_power: "cnj (x ^ n) = cnj x ^ n" 
44724  500 
by (induct n, simp_all add: complex_cnj_mult) 
23125
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parents:
23124
diff
changeset

501 

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parents:
23124
diff
changeset

502 
lemma complex_cnj_of_nat [simp]: "cnj (of_nat n) = of_nat n" 
44724  503 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
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huffman
parents:
23124
diff
changeset

504 

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parents:
23124
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505 
lemma complex_cnj_of_int [simp]: "cnj (of_int z) = of_int z" 
44724  506 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
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parents:
23124
diff
changeset

507 

47108
2a1953f0d20d
merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents:
44902
diff
changeset

508 
lemma complex_cnj_numeral [simp]: "cnj (numeral w) = numeral w" 
2a1953f0d20d
merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents:
44902
diff
changeset

509 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
2a1953f0d20d
merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents:
44902
diff
changeset

510 

2a1953f0d20d
merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents:
44902
diff
changeset

511 
lemma complex_cnj_neg_numeral [simp]: "cnj (neg_numeral w) = neg_numeral w" 
44724  512 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
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parents:
23124
diff
changeset

513 

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parents:
23124
diff
changeset

514 
lemma complex_cnj_scaleR: "cnj (scaleR r x) = scaleR r (cnj x)" 
44724  515 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
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huffman
parents:
23124
diff
changeset

516 

6f7b5b96241f
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parents:
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changeset

517 
lemma complex_mod_cnj [simp]: "cmod (cnj z) = cmod z" 
44724  518 
by (simp add: complex_norm_def) 
14323  519 

23125
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huffman
parents:
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changeset

520 
lemma complex_cnj_complex_of_real [simp]: "cnj (of_real x) = of_real x" 
44724  521 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
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huffman
parents:
23124
diff
changeset

522 

6f7b5b96241f
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huffman
parents:
23124
diff
changeset

523 
lemma complex_cnj_i [simp]: "cnj ii =  ii" 
44724  524 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
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huffman
parents:
23124
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525 

6f7b5b96241f
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huffman
parents:
23124
diff
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526 
lemma complex_add_cnj: "z + cnj z = complex_of_real (2 * Re z)" 
44724  527 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
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huffman
parents:
23124
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528 

6f7b5b96241f
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parents:
23124
diff
changeset

529 
lemma complex_diff_cnj: "z  cnj z = complex_of_real (2 * Im z) * ii" 
44724  530 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
14354
988aa4648597
types complex and hcomplex are now instances of class ringpower:
paulson
parents:
14353
diff
changeset

531 

53015
a1119cf551e8
standardized symbols via "isabelle update_sub_sup", excluding src/Pure and src/Tools/WWW_Find;
wenzelm
parents:
51002
diff
changeset

532 
lemma complex_mult_cnj: "z * cnj z = complex_of_real ((Re z)\<^sup>2 + (Im z)\<^sup>2)" 
44724  533 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff power2_eq_square) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
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huffman
parents:
23124
diff
changeset

534 

53015
a1119cf551e8
standardized symbols via "isabelle update_sub_sup", excluding src/Pure and src/Tools/WWW_Find;
wenzelm
parents:
51002
diff
changeset

535 
lemma complex_mod_mult_cnj: "cmod (z * cnj z) = (cmod z)\<^sup>2" 
44724  536 
by (simp add: norm_mult power2_eq_square) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
cleaned up proofs; reorganized sections; removed redundant lemmas
huffman
parents:
23124
diff
changeset

537 

44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

538 
lemma complex_mod_sqrt_Re_mult_cnj: "cmod z = sqrt (Re (z * cnj z))" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

539 
by (simp add: cmod_def power2_eq_square) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

540 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

541 
lemma complex_In_mult_cnj_zero [simp]: "Im (z * cnj z) = 0" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

542 
by simp 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

543 

44290
23a5137162ea
remove more bounded_linear locale interpretations (cf. f0de18b62d63)
huffman
parents:
44127
diff
changeset

544 
lemma bounded_linear_cnj: "bounded_linear cnj" 
44127  545 
using complex_cnj_add complex_cnj_scaleR 
546 
by (rule bounded_linear_intro [where K=1], simp) 

14354
988aa4648597
types complex and hcomplex are now instances of class ringpower:
paulson
parents:
14353
diff
changeset

547 

44290
23a5137162ea
remove more bounded_linear locale interpretations (cf. f0de18b62d63)
huffman
parents:
44127
diff
changeset

548 
lemmas tendsto_cnj [tendsto_intros] = 
23a5137162ea
remove more bounded_linear locale interpretations (cf. f0de18b62d63)
huffman
parents:
44127
diff
changeset

549 
bounded_linear.tendsto [OF bounded_linear_cnj] 
23a5137162ea
remove more bounded_linear locale interpretations (cf. f0de18b62d63)
huffman
parents:
44127
diff
changeset

550 

23a5137162ea
remove more bounded_linear locale interpretations (cf. f0de18b62d63)
huffman
parents:
44127
diff
changeset

551 
lemmas isCont_cnj [simp] = 
23a5137162ea
remove more bounded_linear locale interpretations (cf. f0de18b62d63)
huffman
parents:
44127
diff
changeset

552 
bounded_linear.isCont [OF bounded_linear_cnj] 
23a5137162ea
remove more bounded_linear locale interpretations (cf. f0de18b62d63)
huffman
parents:
44127
diff
changeset

553 

14354
988aa4648597
types complex and hcomplex are now instances of class ringpower:
paulson
parents:
14353
diff
changeset

554 

14323  555 
subsection{*Finally! Polar Form for Complex Numbers*} 
556 

44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

557 
subsubsection {* $\cos \theta + i \sin \theta$ *} 
20557
81dd3679f92c
complex_of_real abbreviates of_real::real=>complex;
huffman
parents:
20556
diff
changeset

558 

44715  559 
definition cis :: "real \<Rightarrow> complex" where 
20557
81dd3679f92c
complex_of_real abbreviates of_real::real=>complex;
huffman
parents:
20556
diff
changeset

560 
"cis a = Complex (cos a) (sin a)" 
81dd3679f92c
complex_of_real abbreviates of_real::real=>complex;
huffman
parents:
20556
diff
changeset

561 

44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

562 
lemma Re_cis [simp]: "Re (cis a) = cos a" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

563 
by (simp add: cis_def) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

564 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

565 
lemma Im_cis [simp]: "Im (cis a) = sin a" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

566 
by (simp add: cis_def) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

567 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

568 
lemma cis_zero [simp]: "cis 0 = 1" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

569 
by (simp add: cis_def) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

570 

44828  571 
lemma norm_cis [simp]: "norm (cis a) = 1" 
572 
by (simp add: cis_def) 

573 

574 
lemma sgn_cis [simp]: "sgn (cis a) = cis a" 

575 
by (simp add: sgn_div_norm) 

576 

577 
lemma cis_neq_zero [simp]: "cis a \<noteq> 0" 

578 
by (metis norm_cis norm_zero zero_neq_one) 

579 

44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

580 
lemma cis_mult: "cis a * cis b = cis (a + b)" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

581 
by (simp add: cis_def cos_add sin_add) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

582 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

583 
lemma DeMoivre: "(cis a) ^ n = cis (real n * a)" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

584 
by (induct n, simp_all add: real_of_nat_Suc algebra_simps cis_mult) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

585 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

586 
lemma cis_inverse [simp]: "inverse(cis a) = cis (a)" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

587 
by (simp add: cis_def) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

588 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

589 
lemma cis_divide: "cis a / cis b = cis (a  b)" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

590 
by (simp add: complex_divide_def cis_mult diff_minus) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

591 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

592 
lemma cos_n_Re_cis_pow_n: "cos (real n * a) = Re(cis a ^ n)" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

593 
by (auto simp add: DeMoivre) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

594 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

595 
lemma sin_n_Im_cis_pow_n: "sin (real n * a) = Im(cis a ^ n)" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

596 
by (auto simp add: DeMoivre) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

597 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

598 
subsubsection {* $r(\cos \theta + i \sin \theta)$ *} 
44715  599 

600 
definition rcis :: "[real, real] \<Rightarrow> complex" where 

20557
81dd3679f92c
complex_of_real abbreviates of_real::real=>complex;
huffman
parents:
20556
diff
changeset

601 
"rcis r a = complex_of_real r * cis a" 
81dd3679f92c
complex_of_real abbreviates of_real::real=>complex;
huffman
parents:
20556
diff
changeset

602 

44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

603 
lemma Re_rcis [simp]: "Re(rcis r a) = r * cos a" 
44828  604 
by (simp add: rcis_def) 
44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

605 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

606 
lemma Im_rcis [simp]: "Im(rcis r a) = r * sin a" 
44828  607 
by (simp add: rcis_def) 
44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

608 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

609 
lemma rcis_Ex: "\<exists>r a. z = rcis r a" 
44828  610 
by (simp add: complex_eq_iff polar_Ex) 
44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

611 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

612 
lemma complex_mod_rcis [simp]: "cmod(rcis r a) = abs r" 
44828  613 
by (simp add: rcis_def norm_mult) 
44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

614 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

615 
lemma cis_rcis_eq: "cis a = rcis 1 a" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

616 
by (simp add: rcis_def) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

617 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

618 
lemma rcis_mult: "rcis r1 a * rcis r2 b = rcis (r1*r2) (a + b)" 
44828  619 
by (simp add: rcis_def cis_mult) 
44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

620 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

621 
lemma rcis_zero_mod [simp]: "rcis 0 a = 0" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

622 
by (simp add: rcis_def) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

623 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

624 
lemma rcis_zero_arg [simp]: "rcis r 0 = complex_of_real r" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

625 
by (simp add: rcis_def) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

626 

44828  627 
lemma rcis_eq_zero_iff [simp]: "rcis r a = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> r = 0" 
628 
by (simp add: rcis_def) 

629 

44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

630 
lemma DeMoivre2: "(rcis r a) ^ n = rcis (r ^ n) (real n * a)" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

631 
by (simp add: rcis_def power_mult_distrib DeMoivre) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

632 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

633 
lemma rcis_inverse: "inverse(rcis r a) = rcis (1/r) (a)" 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

634 
by (simp add: divide_inverse rcis_def) 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

635 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

636 
lemma rcis_divide: "rcis r1 a / rcis r2 b = rcis (r1/r2) (a  b)" 
44828  637 
by (simp add: rcis_def cis_divide [symmetric]) 
44827
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

638 

4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

639 
subsubsection {* Complex exponential *} 
4d1384a1fc82
Complex.thy: move theorems into appropriate subsections
huffman
parents:
44825
diff
changeset

640 

44291
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

641 
abbreviation expi :: "complex \<Rightarrow> complex" 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

642 
where "expi \<equiv> exp" 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

643 

44712
1e490e891c88
replace lemma expi_imaginary with reoriented lemma cis_conv_exp
huffman
parents:
44711
diff
changeset

644 
lemma cis_conv_exp: "cis b = exp (Complex 0 b)" 
44291
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

645 
proof (rule complex_eqI) 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

646 
{ fix n have "Complex 0 b ^ n = 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

647 
real (fact n) *\<^sub>R Complex (cos_coeff n * b ^ n) (sin_coeff n * b ^ n)" 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

648 
apply (induct n) 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

649 
apply (simp add: cos_coeff_def sin_coeff_def) 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

650 
apply (simp add: sin_coeff_Suc cos_coeff_Suc del: mult_Suc) 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

651 
done } note * = this 
44712
1e490e891c88
replace lemma expi_imaginary with reoriented lemma cis_conv_exp
huffman
parents:
44711
diff
changeset

652 
show "Re (cis b) = Re (exp (Complex 0 b))" 
44291
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

653 
unfolding exp_def cis_def cos_def 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

654 
by (subst bounded_linear.suminf[OF bounded_linear_Re summable_exp_generic], 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

655 
simp add: * mult_assoc [symmetric]) 
44712
1e490e891c88
replace lemma expi_imaginary with reoriented lemma cis_conv_exp
huffman
parents:
44711
diff
changeset

656 
show "Im (cis b) = Im (exp (Complex 0 b))" 
44291
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

657 
unfolding exp_def cis_def sin_def 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

658 
by (subst bounded_linear.suminf[OF bounded_linear_Im summable_exp_generic], 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

659 
simp add: * mult_assoc [symmetric]) 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

660 
qed 
dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

661 

dbd9965745fd
define complex exponential 'expi' as abbreviation for 'exp'
huffman
parents:
44290
diff
changeset

662 
lemma expi_def: "expi z = complex_of_real (exp (Re z)) * cis (Im z)" 
44712
1e490e891c88
replace lemma expi_imaginary with reoriented lemma cis_conv_exp
huffman
parents:
44711
diff
changeset

663 
unfolding cis_conv_exp exp_of_real [symmetric] mult_exp_exp by simp 
20557
81dd3679f92c
complex_of_real abbreviates of_real::real=>complex;
huffman
parents:
20556
diff
changeset

664 

44828  665 
lemma Re_exp: "Re (exp z) = exp (Re z) * cos (Im z)" 
666 
unfolding expi_def by simp 

667 

668 
lemma Im_exp: "Im (exp z) = exp (Re z) * sin (Im z)" 

669 
unfolding expi_def by simp 

670 

14374  671 
lemma complex_expi_Ex: "\<exists>a r. z = complex_of_real r * expi a" 
14373  672 
apply (insert rcis_Ex [of z]) 
23125
6f7b5b96241f
cleaned up proofs; reorganized sections; removed redundant lemmas
huffman
parents:
23124
diff
changeset

673 
apply (auto simp add: expi_def rcis_def mult_assoc [symmetric]) 
14334  674 
apply (rule_tac x = "ii * complex_of_real a" in exI, auto) 
14323  675 
done 
676 

14387
e96d5c42c4b0
Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents:
14377
diff
changeset

677 
lemma expi_two_pi_i [simp]: "expi((2::complex) * complex_of_real pi * ii) = 1" 
44724  678 
by (simp add: expi_def cis_def) 
14387
e96d5c42c4b0
Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents:
14377
diff
changeset

679 

44844
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

680 
subsubsection {* Complex argument *} 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

681 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

682 
definition arg :: "complex \<Rightarrow> real" where 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

683 
"arg z = (if z = 0 then 0 else (SOME a. sgn z = cis a \<and> pi < a \<and> a \<le> pi))" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

684 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

685 
lemma arg_zero: "arg 0 = 0" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

686 
by (simp add: arg_def) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

687 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

688 
lemma of_nat_less_of_int_iff: (* TODO: move *) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

689 
"(of_nat n :: 'a::linordered_idom) < of_int x \<longleftrightarrow> int n < x" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

690 
by (metis of_int_of_nat_eq of_int_less_iff) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

691 

47108
2a1953f0d20d
merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents:
44902
diff
changeset

692 
lemma real_of_nat_less_numeral_iff [simp]: (* TODO: move *) 
2a1953f0d20d
merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents:
44902
diff
changeset

693 
"real (n::nat) < numeral w \<longleftrightarrow> n < numeral w" 
2a1953f0d20d
merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents:
44902
diff
changeset

694 
using of_nat_less_of_int_iff [of n "numeral w", where 'a=real] 
2a1953f0d20d
merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents:
44902
diff
changeset

695 
by (simp add: real_of_nat_def zless_nat_eq_int_zless [symmetric]) 
44844
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

696 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

697 
lemma arg_unique: 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

698 
assumes "sgn z = cis x" and "pi < x" and "x \<le> pi" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

699 
shows "arg z = x" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

700 
proof  
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

701 
from assms have "z \<noteq> 0" by auto 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

702 
have "(SOME a. sgn z = cis a \<and> pi < a \<and> a \<le> pi) = x" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

703 
proof 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

704 
fix a def d \<equiv> "a  x" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

705 
assume a: "sgn z = cis a \<and>  pi < a \<and> a \<le> pi" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

706 
from a assms have " (2*pi) < d \<and> d < 2*pi" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

707 
unfolding d_def by simp 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

708 
moreover from a assms have "cos a = cos x" and "sin a = sin x" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

709 
by (simp_all add: complex_eq_iff) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

710 
hence "cos d = 1" unfolding d_def cos_diff by simp 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

711 
moreover hence "sin d = 0" by (rule cos_one_sin_zero) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

712 
ultimately have "d = 0" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

713 
unfolding sin_zero_iff even_mult_two_ex 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

714 
by (safe, auto simp add: numeral_2_eq_2 less_Suc_eq) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

715 
thus "a = x" unfolding d_def by simp 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

716 
qed (simp add: assms del: Re_sgn Im_sgn) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

717 
with `z \<noteq> 0` show "arg z = x" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

718 
unfolding arg_def by simp 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

719 
qed 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

720 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

721 
lemma arg_correct: 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

722 
assumes "z \<noteq> 0" shows "sgn z = cis (arg z) \<and> pi < arg z \<and> arg z \<le> pi" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

723 
proof (simp add: arg_def assms, rule someI_ex) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

724 
obtain r a where z: "z = rcis r a" using rcis_Ex by fast 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

725 
with assms have "r \<noteq> 0" by auto 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

726 
def b \<equiv> "if 0 < r then a else a + pi" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

727 
have b: "sgn z = cis b" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

728 
unfolding z b_def rcis_def using `r \<noteq> 0` 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

729 
by (simp add: of_real_def sgn_scaleR sgn_if, simp add: cis_def) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

730 
have cis_2pi_nat: "\<And>n. cis (2 * pi * real_of_nat n) = 1" 
49962
a8cc904a6820
Renamed {left,right}_distrib to distrib_{right,left}.
webertj
parents:
47108
diff
changeset

731 
by (induct_tac n, simp_all add: distrib_left cis_mult [symmetric], 
44844
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

732 
simp add: cis_def) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

733 
have cis_2pi_int: "\<And>x. cis (2 * pi * real_of_int x) = 1" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

734 
by (case_tac x rule: int_diff_cases, 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

735 
simp add: right_diff_distrib cis_divide [symmetric] cis_2pi_nat) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

736 
def c \<equiv> "b  2*pi * of_int \<lceil>(b  pi) / (2*pi)\<rceil>" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

737 
have "sgn z = cis c" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

738 
unfolding b c_def 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

739 
by (simp add: cis_divide [symmetric] cis_2pi_int) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

740 
moreover have " pi < c \<and> c \<le> pi" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

741 
using ceiling_correct [of "(b  pi) / (2*pi)"] 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

742 
by (simp add: c_def less_divide_eq divide_le_eq algebra_simps) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

743 
ultimately show "\<exists>a. sgn z = cis a \<and> pi < a \<and> a \<le> pi" by fast 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

744 
qed 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

745 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

746 
lemma arg_bounded: " pi < arg z \<and> arg z \<le> pi" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

747 
by (cases "z = 0", simp_all add: arg_zero arg_correct) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

748 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

749 
lemma cis_arg: "z \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> cis (arg z) = sgn z" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

750 
by (simp add: arg_correct) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

751 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

752 
lemma rcis_cmod_arg: "rcis (cmod z) (arg z) = z" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

753 
by (cases "z = 0", simp_all add: rcis_def cis_arg sgn_div_norm of_real_def) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

754 

f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

755 
lemma cos_arg_i_mult_zero [simp]: 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

756 
"y \<noteq> 0 ==> cos (arg(Complex 0 y)) = 0" 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

757 
using cis_arg [of "Complex 0 y"] by (simp add: complex_eq_iff) 
f74a4175a3a8
prove existence, uniqueness, and other properties of complex arg function
huffman
parents:
44843
diff
changeset

758 

44065
eb64ffccfc75
standard theorem naming scheme: complex_eqI, complex_eq_iff
huffman
parents:
41959
diff
changeset

759 
text {* Legacy theorem names *} 
eb64ffccfc75
standard theorem naming scheme: complex_eqI, complex_eq_iff
huffman
parents:
41959
diff
changeset

760 

eb64ffccfc75
standard theorem naming scheme: complex_eqI, complex_eq_iff
huffman
parents:
41959
diff
changeset

761 
lemmas expand_complex_eq = complex_eq_iff 
eb64ffccfc75
standard theorem naming scheme: complex_eqI, complex_eq_iff
huffman
parents:
41959
diff
changeset

762 
lemmas complex_Re_Im_cancel_iff = complex_eq_iff 
eb64ffccfc75
standard theorem naming scheme: complex_eqI, complex_eq_iff
huffman
parents:
41959
diff
changeset

763 
lemmas complex_equality = complex_eqI 
eb64ffccfc75
standard theorem naming scheme: complex_eqI, complex_eq_iff
huffman
parents:
41959
diff
changeset

764 

13957  765 
end 